Consulting Psychology Journal Practice and Research

Published by American Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 1939-0149
Publications
Article
This case study involves application of program-centered and consultee-centered administrative consultation as an emergency mental health intervention to enhance the response of an eastern seaboard university to the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. The university had provisions for many forms of emergency in its action plan, but not for the provision of psychological first aid in response to wide spread trauma. Key components of the administrative consultation were the need to rapidly scan the organization, to engage key personnel as consultees, and to support the creation of an effective action plan. Major problems encountered in the consultation included resistance through psychological reactance, and managing differences in expectation and coping needs between students, faculty, and administrators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Arguably, the Division of Consulting Psychology (Division 13) holds seniority status among the growing numbers of American Psychological Association (APA) divisions. Moreover Division 13 inherits a specific challenge from APA founders: to identify and ascertain which psychologists are qualified to perform as consulting psychologists. APA's 1915 Whiple Resolution first called attention to the need to differentiate professionally qualified psychological examiners and experts from consultants without scientific psychological knowledge and experience who were offering services and opinions for public consumption. The process involved identifying salient knowledge and literature, conducting demographic surveys, determining important training experiences and career settings, and cataloging types of clients and services. Interest in working as a consulting psychologist intensified division efforts to complete and disseminate guidelines for doctoral programs in consulting psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The use of multisource feedback as a management development tool is examined by integrating the empirical and theoretical literature on individual change from the fields of industrial/organizational psychology and clinical/counseling psychology. The assumptions underlying 360-degree feedback as a sufficient process of producing managerial change are questioned in terms of the theoretical and metaanalytic literature regarding the causes of personal change. It is argued that 360-degree feedback is best used as a springboard for management development. Lasting change is best achieved through an interdisciplinary coaching strategy involving what we know about adult development and change from industrial and clinical literature and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A Society of Consulting Psychology (SCP), survey, The Best of the Century (BoC) found Freud, Lewin, Maslow, and Argyris to have the "strongest influence on consulting psychology" in the 20th century. Lewin, Kelly, and Levinson were identified as having the "most influence on my practice." Organizational Diagnosis (Levinson, 1972) was considered the most significant contribution to consulting psychology literature. Modeled on the critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1954), the BoC survey asked about: (1) influences on the practice of consulting psychology (CP); (2) influences on the respondent's consulting practice; (3) books and articles that influenced CP; (4) unfinished business that will impact the future; and, (5) notable achievements or blunders of the 20th century. Personality theories and intervention methods were considered the greatest achievement. "Overestimating, overselling, overemphasizing, and overdoing of behaviorism" received resounding endorsement as the blunder of the century. The pressing future need was seen as an identity issue: What differentiates consulting psychologists from other types of consultants? How can psychologists influence public perceptions of what consulting psychologists do, and can do? The caveat for the future: avoiding cookie-cutter approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Extends an earlier history of the Division of Consulting Psychology (CP [Division 13]) completed by W. K. Rigby (see record 1993-07900-001) with a focus on the events of 1972–1992. The goals of the Division, restated in its by-laws in the early to mid 1970s, are to (1) encourage high standards of CP, (2) promote scientific research on psychological problems, especially in the area of CP, (3) facilitate professional fellowship, and (4) support the American Psychological Association in the advance of psychology. The Division emphasizes education, research, and training roles and promotes professional networking. The need for revitalization and change in membership profiles are noted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews G. Caplan's historical and contemporary impact with respect to consulting with public mental health agencies. These organizations are experiencing challenging times in the 1990s, and Caplan's approaches may be most relevant for interventions that address these challenges in very practical ways. One such approach, termed "survival mode innovation," is examined, with applications in a federally funded project that uses technical assistance consultation and other methods to help 6 state public mental health systems respond positively to innovation and change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Distinctions in appointed and elected government positions are additions to H. S. Leonard (see record 1999-10840-001). Clarifications give tribute to two mentoring psychologists who died in February and March, 1999, respectively: Lyman V. Ginger, educational psychologist and elected official in Kentucky, and Arthur W. Combs, humanistic psychologist and perceptual/person-centered theorist in Colorado. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In response to R. Perloff's comments (see record 1999-11964-005) regarding "Becoming a Consultant: The Real Stories," the author highlights the Catch-22 dilemma facing younger or new consulting psychologists. Both the need for and the progress with training and experience in consultation are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article, stimulated by H. Skipton Leonard's (1999) "Becoming a Consultant: The Real Stories," extends Leonard's coverage of what consultants do by depicting the roles of consultants beyond the clinician, encompassing industrial organizational consultants, consumer psychologists, human factors specialists, and social psychological consultants. The activities of part-time consultants, those engaged in the public sector and those who offer consultant services pro bono are also covered, all of which is intended to broaden and deepen Leonard's useful but somewhat limited presentation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Today, corporate clients appear much less convinced of the efficacy and predictive value of psychological assessment methods than they were a decade ago. They point to a number of candidates for executive positions who were assessed to have superior knowledge, technical abilities, and skills but did not live up to promise after being hired. They need to know if specific candidates will be a good fit with the corporation, if their work performance will be consistent over time, and if they will demonstrate sound judgment when threatened or tempted or when doing the right thing may not be in their best interest. In other words, corporate clients want and need to know about basic character dynamics of executives. This article describes the relationship of character to personality and the process of assessing the character dimension as it complements traditional personality assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Managing diversity effectively is the most complex human resource challenge of the next century, permeating every aspect of an organization's internal functioning and external marketplace. As organizations continue to contract for diversity consultation and training, expectations for what these programs can offer increase. This article explores the areas that diversity consultation training can successfully address as an intention to meet the organizational challenges to be faced in the next century. A comprehensive model for diversity consultation is proposed to address the multifaceted aspects necessary to build inclusive organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This review offers reflections on the article "Coaching at the Top: Assisting a Chief Executive and His Team" (M. M. Kralj, 2001 see record 2001-01213-005), pointing out particular strengths of the case study as well as specific areas in which more detailed information would enhance the author's presentation of the study and findings. These areas are suggested for further discussion and exploration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In this address delivered at the 112th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, the author provides a historical perspective on the Society of Consulting Psychology (Division 13) and recounts accomplishments achieved in the recent past. Furthermore, reflections are offered regarding the contemporary landscape in which consulting psychologists work and concomitant opportunities and challenges. Finally, 8 general actions are suggested for psychologists to maximize their impact and responsibility to serve their clients well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article summarizes a review of the careers of 50 executives who have been outstanding in traversing the careers of their professional lives. In a world of short job tenure-elongated middle age, most executives will have to simultaneously manage two separate careers. One career is called full-time assignment work and is the traditional "job." The other career is called project assignment work, also known as interim or consulting work. Many think these two careers will occur sequentially. This typical framework sets leaders up for perceived failure because this sequential model is no longer realistic. Leaders will be traversing between full time and project based work through their professional lives. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The research evidence addressing practical issues faced when implementing a 360-degree feedback system are reviewed. Notwithstanding the popularity and apparent utility of 360-degree feedback programs, there is a need for clearer translations of research-based knowledge into recommendations for practically applying such programs. This article uses the published research studies that have been conducted on 360-degree feedback programs to address 27 specific questions that often arise in the development, implementation, administration, and interpretation of multisource feedback programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Empirical research on the structure of 360-degree feedback ratings indicates that the source of the ratings (e.g., superiors, peers, subordinates) explains more variance than do the performance dimensions or competencies being measured. One alarming implication of this finding from studies of the internal validity of 360 ratings is that there appears to be little evidence to support the common practice of interpreting 360s in terms of dimension scores. To address whether rater-source factors are so pronounced that they should preclude the use of dimension scores, we considered the question from an external validity perspective and developed and tested a personality-based nomological network around both dimension and rater-source factors in a 360 data set. Using a sample of 825 managers and their feedback providers (3,300 participants overall), we found that ratee personality correlated more strongly with dimension scores than with source factors. This provides evidence to support the common practice of interpreting 360-degree feedback in terms of scores for separate dimensions and competencies, despite most of the variance in observed ratings being due to rater-source factors rather than dimensions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Curvilinear relationship between syntax and interrater reliability of subordinate ratings. ICC intraclass correlation coefficient.
Article
The authors investigated whether the low level of convergence commonly found in assessments made by multiple raters of the same target manager is partly a function of the linguistic properties of the rating items. They found a relationship between how items are written and the interrater reliability of peer and subordinate evaluations. Their results suggest that the clarity and consistency of 360-degree feedback can be enhanced by ensuring that items are behaviorally specific, put in context, and narrowly focused. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article complements previous practice-oriented reviews of the 360-degree assessment literature by focusing on recent (2000 and later) research bearing on three questions of interest to practitioners. First, can 360-degree ratings can be meaningfully compared across groups? Research suggests that ratings from different sources and administration methods are generally comparable, but comparing ratings from different cultures or languages may be problematic. Second, what does self-other agreement tell us? Research results suggest that there is a complex interplay wherein different patterns of self-other agreement predict different outcomes following feedback. Third, should 360-degree assessment be used for administrative decision-making in organizations? Despite logical arguments against such a practice, preliminary evidence suggests there may be little advantage to separating developmental from administrative functions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 60(4) of Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research (see record 2008-17523-003). The title of the journal was printed incorrectly on page 257 as " Counseling Psychology Journal: Practice and Research." The correct title of the journal is Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research.] A content analysis of articles published in Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research was performed from 1992 (Vol. 44) through 2007 (Vol. 59). A total of 342 articles were categorized into 21 derived content categories and an "Other" category. Results show that the leading categories for publication were Coaching, Development and Training, and History of Consulting. The content was fairly stable over time. The journal does appear to be meeting its primary mission of disseminating information pertinent to the field of consulting psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Briefly discusses the upcoming convention in Toronto, and reviews manuscript submission to the Consulting Psychology Journal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Comparison of mean absenteeism rates for those who used employee assistance program (EAP) services versus those who did not use EAP services.
Utilization Rates by Gender Category Across 3 Years
EAP Utilization Rates by Age for 3 Years of Study
Summary of Means, Standard Deviations, and Intercorrelations for Yearly Hours of Absenteeism
Article
Despite the increasing need for employee assistance program (EAP) providers and human resources (HR) departments to demonstrate outcomes resulting from the availability and use of EAP services, few empirical studies have examined the relationship between EAP utilization and objective organizational outcome measures. This study made use of a unique longitudinal archival data set to examine EAP utilization, the problems for which help was sought, and the relationship of EAP utilization to absenteeism over 3 consecutive years among all EAP-eligible (N = 3,448) employees in all locations of a large national Canadian retail store. Patterns of usage were examined by gender and age with a clearly defined EAP utilization statistic. Most frequently, the reasons for help seeking were personal issues, marital/family problems, and (a distant third) work-related issues. Longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine the differences in yearly absentee hours between EAP users versus non-EAP users. The results showed that EAP users generally had higher rates of absenteeism than nonusers during the year in which EAP was used but (with some exceptions) did not differ from the non-EAP user groups in the year(s) before and after treatment. Implications for consulting psychology are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Mobbing, bullying, and other abusive behaviors are workplace circumstances that consulting psychologists and other organizational consultants may be asked to address. This article argues that effective consultation requires a comprehensive understanding of how individual, work group, and organizational dynamics influence such workplace abusiveness. A 3-level model (individual, group, and organizational) is presented that provides a framework for assessing, conceptualizing, and planning effective consultation interventions when dealing with workplace abusiveness. A case example illustrates the application of the model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article represents a conceptual analysis of the proposed training principles for consulting psychology (CP) as approved and forwarded by the Society of Consulting Psychology (R. L. Lowman et al; see record 2003-04049-003). Strengths and weaknesses of the document are identified and briefly analyzed from the perspective of academic programs and faculty. The major topics addressed include the role of the scientist-practitioner model, research and evaluation skills, ethical matters, training level, multidisciplinary opportunities, and the focus on competencies. Persistent questions about what CP is and perhaps about what it should be arise very naturally from a careful consideration of training practices. Persistent questions and issues also arise regarding the basic operational definitions of CP as they relate to current practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The development of leaders is a stated goal of most organizations, yet a validated framework and theory for leader development does not yet fully exist, nor is there a method for determining who is developmentally ready to engage in leader development. The authors of this article provide a framework for examining how one can accelerate leader development. They propose that leader developers first focus on assessing and then building the developmental readiness of individual leaders, as well as the developmental readiness of the organization as prerequisite steps for accelerating positive leader development. They identify and discuss 5 specific constructs comprising their initial modeling of developmental readiness (i.e., learning goal orientation, developmental efficacy, self-concept clarity, self-complexity, and metacognitive ability), as well as suggest methods for assessing and developing these 5 components. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Movement into a new leadership role is often very challenging and stressful. Such transitions are periods of vulnerability and opportunity. Failure to adapt and perform effectively and quickly in the new role can be costly both to the individual and to the organization. As the volume and frequency of executive movement into different roles increase, aiding this role transition process represents a new professional practice opportunity for consulting psychologists. This article describes a structured intervention designed to facilitate and accelerate this transition and assimilation process effectively by proactively addressing common leadership role-related transition issues. The intervention’s business rationale, theoretical foundations, desired outcomes, key design features, and methodology are discussed. In addition, key issues requiring management for successful intervention conduct are examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Research and experience continue to reveal evolving modes of leadership behavior that challenge the practice of consulting psychology. Leadership development that has taken us beyond the notion of born leaders and stable environments has suggested that flexibility is vital. This may be partly because of the constant evolution of the organization and its leadership challenges, from command-and-control to paradigms that are participatory and recognize the importance of interpersonal skills, to an emerging paradigm concerned with organizational learning. Consulting psychologists have identified a wide variety of leadership modes or ideals to fit these newer paradigms. Common to many of these is the need to be comfortable navigating ambiguous situations. One of the metrics that is indicative of this skill is the capacity to effectively process the uncertainty that often accompanies ambiguity. We present preliminary data for a potential tool for assessing this skill. We suggest that measuring an individual's “aptitude for ambiguity” should be considered when identifying high performers for leadership roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Psychology is preeminently the science of the inner and intersubjective spaces. Consulting psychology is the application of this science in helping organizations to identify and solve problems in the workplace. This article addresses the issue of how consultant and client(s) together gain access to and make use of this inner world in their work. The author draws on various art forms to illustrate and to evoke situations and scenarios that arise in organizational consulting. The arts help to create new space both internally and between client and consultant. In this new space, the interior worlds of client and consultant become available for problem identification and problem solving. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In response to the increasing need for more consultation models that take into account culture, this article proposes an integration of Schein's (1999) Process Consultation Model with Leong's Cultural Accommodation Model (Leong & Lee, 2006) to address multicultural issues in consultation. Beginning with a review of each of these 2 models, the manuscript moves on to present the integrated CAM-PC Model. This is followed by an illustration of practical application of the CAM in a consultation case. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the role of psychologists in promoting reasonable workplace accommodations for the mentally handicapped. Historical and current trends in employment-related psychological treatment are reviewed. The relevant provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act are described, including areas of ambiguity. The specific difficulties of integrating the mentally disabled in mental-health and rehabilitation employment settings are considered. The responsibilities of psychologists to the disabled and to employers are assessed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This paper reviews the prevalence of disability in the United States and the discrimination experienced by persons with disabilities. Following this is a brief overview of the purpose and essential provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act and a discussion of the key definitions in the ADA: "disability," "qualified individual with a disability," "reasonable accommodation," "undue hardship," and "readily achievable." The paper then discusses particular provisions of the Act that need clarification, particularly those areas relevant to psychologists, and concludes with a discussion of continuing discrimination against persons with disabilities in the area of insurance coverage, an issue that is not addressed in the ADA.
 
Article
Executive coaching has evolved as a practical activity undertaken to develop executive leaders and improve their functioning in highly competitive and challenging organizational environments. R. R. Kilburg (2000) proposed a holistic and integrated model to assist practitioners in their executive coaching engagements. However, further work is needed to operationalize the mediated focus outlined in his model of executive coaching. To address this need, the authors propose action frame theory (AFT) as a practical and sound framework to help guide the application of mediated focus, in addition to integrating the executive and system foci, during executive coaching engagements. AFT was developed from the theories of social action (T. Parsons, 1937) and functional job analysis (S. A. Fine & S. F. Cronshaw, 1999; S. A. Fine & M. Getkate, 1995). An illustrative application of AFT is provided to further clarify and explicate how AFT can assist in executive coaching assignments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Growing concerns with issues such as youth violence and delinquency have led to more investment in schools as points of human service delivery as well as education centers, especially in urban areas (L. Cuban, 1989; W. Damon, 1997; W. E. Davis, 1995a, 1995b). These "full-service schools"--also known as "community schools"-- provide on-site medical, dental, psychological, social, and other services in partnership with community-based organizations (R. F. Kronick, 2000). This article describes an action research approach to a complex case study, demonstrating the application of innovative methods and strategies available to the mental health consultant in full-service school settings. It highlights critical issues such as forming alliances among parents, administrators, teachers, counselors, and other stakeholders and basing behavioral management team decisions on clearly explained data. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Action learning and peer consultation are ways of learning with fellow professionals that are gaining in popularity. In small groups, professionals submit work-related issues for systematic discussion with colleagues. This study examined whether the promise of action learning is indeed realized. The study involved a written questionnaire containing 31 closed questions answered by 126 participants in action-learning groups. In response to the question "How do participants learn?" a picture emerged of a learning group that learns more during than after the action-learning sessions and learns primarily by exploring issues in depth and receiving personal feedback. Divergent or reflective learning seems to reign. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The pressure to do more business development in less available time is familiar to all consultants. Leveraging involves producing more results with fewer actions. Applied to business development, leveraging suggests we focu our practice building efforts on those activities that are most productive. Since no two practices are identical, the most productive activities are likely to vary from practice to practice, and even consultant to consultant. The following article provides a simple tool to identify the most effective activities in your practice. Copyright 1993 by the Educational Publishing Foundation and Division of Consulting Psychology.
 
Article
The demands of work in this current atmosphere of globality, complexity, fierce competition, information technology, and employees' varied responses to it all constitute an unprecedented opportunity for psychologists consulting to business. Ten trends are presented to illustrate the distinctive impact psychology could have in the workplace. Absent reinvention within psychology, the author questions the likelihood of psychology actualizing its full potential in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Sample Demographic Information by Pedorrnance Group 
Article
By all accounts, multirater feedback is one of the most popular industrial organizational psychology, organization development, and human resource development interventions of the decade for initiating and assessing individual and organization change. Despite the significant cost and effort associated with this methodology, relatively little attention is paid to the validation of the tools; themselves. The following study presents an applied example of a multirater feedback validation process based on a sample of 76 senior-level managers from a global health services organization. Results confirmed the relationship between independent appraisal-based measures of managerial performance and higher ratings from direct reports, peers, and supervisors. Work group climate was also significantly better with higher performers. The link between managerial self-awareness and performance was also partially supported. Implications for using multirater feedback systems are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the history of protection against discrimination based on alcohol or drug use, the relevant provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and the changes it brought from prior law with particular emphasis on issues that are of concern to clinicians who provide alcohol and drug (AAD) abuse treatment or psychologists who may be consulted by employees regarding AAD issues in the workplace. It is maintained that, although the new law has expanded protection for individuals who are alcoholics or who have formerly used illegal drugs, civil rights protection have been reduced for individuals who are currently using illegal drugs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) on the personnel selection and hiring process. The relevant provisions of the law are reviewed. The permissible role of psychological assessment and tests in the hiring process is considered. While the legal status of such tests is currently unclear, it is maintained that tests aimed at determining job-related emotional and personality characteristics are probably legal under the act. A case example is given to illustrate how an applicant with a disability might be treated in light of the ADA when being considered for employment in a customer service position at a large financial services corporation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Descriptive Statistics and Distributions of Leadership Scale Scores
Article
It is no secret that today's hyper-competitive, fast-paced, and rapidly changing global economy puts a premium on adaptable organizations and flexible leaders. Even advertising campaigns celebrate the “agile enterprise” and channel the spirit of “constant self-reinvention.” However, what can consulting psychologists do to help managers become more flexible and adaptable leaders? In this introduction to the special issue I provide an overview of the 5 focal articles and the capstone summary article. The articles in this issue are written by respected scholars and experienced practitioners who provide evidence-based guidance to practical questions such as: Why is flexibility so important, especially in tough economic times plagued by crisis and uncertainty?; how can practitioners predict and assess a manager's degree of flexibility?; and, how can leadership training and development interventions promote greater flexibility and adaptability? (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Regulatory focus theory proposes that people engage in goal striving using different behaviors associated with specific motivational states. Although regulatory focus can be influenced by individual predispositions, it is state-like in that it is subject to the influence of needs, values, and situational framing (Higgins, 1997). We suggest that this malleability by environmental influence gives leaders, managers, and other practitioners a useful motivational tool to adjust follower goal striving as demanded by dynamic environmental conditions to optimize performance. Suggestions for a practical implementation of dynamic goal striving are included. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In this article we explain different conceptions of flexible and adaptive leadership and the reasons why such leadership is essential in today's organizations. Then we briefly describe several streams of research that provide useful knowledge about flexible and adaptive leadership. It was not feasible to provide a comprehensive and detailed review for each research stream, but we describe the primary research methods, summarize major findings, and provide some practical guidelines for leaders on how to become more flexible and adaptive. Finally, we point out limitations of the available research and make recommendations for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Although its importance is often recognized, specific details on the process for transforming the culture of an organization are lacking. Culture is composed of behavioral norms that members of an organization follow as they perform their work. These norms are influenced by the behaviors organizational leaders model and reinforce. Consequently, bringing about a cultural transformation requires that leaders are capable of exhibiting and reinforcing behaviors that are essential to the desired culture. A systemic cultural transformation process was conducted at a New York area hospital. The process involved designing, implementing, and evaluating a leadership development intervention targeted at behaviors essential to an innovative and adaptive culture. The development program included a multisource feedback component and was conducted for all managers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The development of adaptability skills is critical for organizational success and survival, yet traditional training interventions are not sufficient to promote adaptive expertise. In this article, we summarize prior research on two training techniques that develop such expertise: experiential variety and strategic information provision in the form of instructions, performance feedback, and cognitive/behavioral guidance. Prior integrative reviews have described how these strategies can promote adaptability by fostering skills in cognitive frame-switching and flexibility. We extend these arguments in the present article by reviewing prior research that supports the use of experiential variety and strategic information provision as elements of an adaptability training strategy. We examine the use of these elements not only in formal training (which was the prime focus of prior reviews), but also in developmental work experiences and in self-development. Additionally, we include a more specific focus on developing cross-cultural adaptability skills through these training techniques. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article explores consultation and outreach within a counseling center setting, analyzing its usefulness for identifying and addressing systemic barriers in college settings to learning and development. An outline for counseling center consultation and a case study are provided, demonstrating how counseling psychologists can help to create a more equitable and comfortable workplace and learning environment for faculty and students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A review of the recent literature demonstrated that there are virtually no articles or research papers on the subject of intervention adherence or compliance in executive coaching. This article begins to address that deficit by presenting an 8-component model of coaching effectiveness that includes such elements as the coach--and client--commitment to the path of progressive development, characteristics of client problems, structure of the coaching containment, quality of coaching interventions, and the intervention adherence protocol the coach develops with the client. These elements of coaching effectiveness are explored in more depth in the context of considering the outcome pathways of coaching assignments. Components of a possible adherence protocol for coaching executives are described along with major client and coach problems that contribute to nonadherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Offers a framework of the characteristics of the responsive organization. A responsive organization is one in which structures and procedures enhance the organization's ability to take advantage of the changes in the environment. Responsiveness, in this case, is more than just being reactive; it means that an organization is able to anticipate change and maintain a proactive orientation to the external environment. Within the framework discussed, the authors also include some of the problems that might be expected in this new organizational form. It is suggested that these tools will allow for the systematic examination of organizational performance and assist change agents in facilitating efforts intended to result in more responsive organizing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This reprinted article originally appeared in Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 1997, Vol 49(1), 25-34. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1997-30041-003.) Offers a framework of the characteristics of the responsive organization. A responsive organization is one in which structures and procedures enhance the organization's ability to take advantage of the changes in the environment. Responsiveness, in this case, is more than just being reactive; it means that an organization is able to anticipate change and maintain a proactive orientation to the external environment. Within the framework discussed, the authors also include some of the problems that might be expected in this new organizational form. It is suggested that these tools will allow for the systematic examination of organizational performance and assist change agents in facilitating efforts intended to result in more responsive organizing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This article describes how principles of adult psychological development can inform executive coaching. An adult developmental perspective is used to identify key transformational tasks of adulthood that help shape executive role functioning. The correlation of psychological competencies with leadership competencies is outlined in more detail for the roles of senior vice president and executive vice president. Coaching case material is used to further illustrate how consultants can use an adult developmental framework to better align organizational life with personal strivings for meaning and growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Evaluated a supervision program that was designed to improve the quality of engagement of activities for adults with severe disabilities who are living in community based apartments. Ss were adults (aged 24–44 yrs) diagnosed with severe mental retardation, autism, childhood schizophrenia, personality disturbance, organic bipolar affective disorder, attention deficit disorder, or recurrent depression. A program involving feedback was implemented in a multiple-baseline design across individuals. Results show that after the supervision program was implemented, adult participation increased across activities related to learning short-term objectives as designated on the person's individualized habilitation plan, scheduled activities, activities promoting independence, and age-appropriate activities. Feedback provided once a week was equally as effective as feedback provided 3 times a week in the community-based settings. Follow-up done 1 yr later revealed maintenance of these gains in the community settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Our turbulent times require organizations that are hardy in the sense of having cultures, climates, structures, and workforces capable of turning potentially disruptive changes into opportunities. At the individual, or workforce, level, hardiness involves the attitudes of commitment, control, and challenge and the complementary skills of coping and social support. At the organizational level, the isomorphic counterparts of hardy attitudes are the cultural values of cooperation, credibility, and creativity. Furthermore, an organization is hardy if these cultural values are indeed expressed on an everyday basis through its climate and if its structure involves the matrix management scheme of semi-autonomous work teams rather than the more traditional hierarchical arrangement. This article also considers the assessment and consulting functions that can increase the hardiness of organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
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