Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety

Published by Wiley
Publications
  The Vibrionaceae are environmentally ubiquitous to estuarine waters. Two species in particular, V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus, are important human pathogens that are transmitted by the consumption of contaminated molluscan shellfish. This document provides a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge about these important foodborne disease agents. Topics include the epidemiology of human disease; biotypes and virulence factors; cultural and molecular-based detection methods; phenotyping and genotyping approaches; microbial ecology; and candidate control strategies. Recent international risk assessment efforts are also described. The reader will gain an understanding of why these organisms pose a public health risk and how improving our understanding of their behavior in the environment and the host can aid in reducing that risk in the future.
 
Contemporary consumers have become accustomed to nutrition labels in the 20 y since they were federally mandated. However, “health claim” labels that link nutrients to disease prevention have a contentious history involving regulators, corporations, and the public. The “oat bran craze” of the late 1980s demonstrated these claims’ enormous profit potential, but also the need for more rigorous regulation. In response, the 1990 Nutrition Labeling Education Act created quantitative nutrition labels and qualitative “health claims” to summarize medical knowledge about specific foods. Quaker Oats was granted the first food-specific health claim in January 1997 when the Food and Drug Administration determined that consumption of soluble fiber from oats lowered risk of heart disease. The company subsequently made the oat health claim a central part of its strategy and has served as a model for other manufacturers seeking health claims. This article examines the institutional interactions and underlying values that made health claims desirable, legally possible, and profitable from the 1980s onward.
 
  Antioxidants delay or inhibit lipid oxidation at low concentration. Tocopherols, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, flavonoids, amino acids, phospholipids, and sterols are natural antioxidants in foods. Antioxidants inhibit the oxidation of foods by scavenging free radicals, chelating prooxidative metals, quenching singlet oxygen and photosensitizers, and inactivating lipoxygenase. Antioxidants show interactions, such as synergism (tocopherols and ascorbic acids), antagonism (α-tocopherol and caffeic acid), and simple addition. Synergism occurs when one antioxidant is regenerated by others, when one antioxidant protects another antioxidant by its sacrificial oxidation, and when 2 or more antioxidants show different antioxidant mechanisms.
 
  Microalgae have the potential to become a novel source of bioactive molecules, especially for those who might wish to enhance the nutritional and functional quality of foods. Spirulina, one of the most popular microalgae, has been described by the World Health Organization as one of the greatest superfoods on earth serving as an example of the potential of microalgae. This review provides background on current and future uses of microalgae in the human diet, lists the most common species of microalgae used to this end, and describes some production methods used in research and industrial production and recovery. The review also discusses some of the difficulties so far encountered such as low productivities and recovery rates, as well as challenges in the production of compounds of interest. Many scientists and engineers in research centers around the globe are currently dedicated to solve these problems as the various capabilities of microalgae have caught the attention of the energy, environmental, and agricultural industries, we propose that the food industry should as well evaluate the potential of microalgae as a novel source of “health promoting” compounds.
 
Hydrogenated vegetable oils contain of trans fatty acids. Because of the increased health concern about trans fatty acids, new hydrogenations have been studied to seek ways for substantial reduction of the trans fatty acids in the hydrogenated vegetable oils. This paper reviews new hydrogenation processes such as electrocatalytic hydrogenation, precious catalyst hydrogenation, and supercritical fluid state hydrogen, which have shown promising results for the reduction of trans fatty acids below the level of 8%. This paper also reviews the recently introduced hydeogenation technique for high accumulation of conjugated linoleic acids, beneficiary functional components. The hydrogenated vegetable oils with high quantity conjugated linoleic acid might provide the possibility for the utilization of hydrogenated oils as health-prompting food ingredients.
 
  Hippocrates, a philosopher who lived from 460 to 359 BC is often quoted as saying, “Let your food be thy medicine and your medicine be thy food.” Having lived just shy of a century at a time when life expectancies were much less, he must have understood the importance of a healthy diet. A diet high in fruit and vegetables has been linked to optimal health in a variety of studies. One vegetable that has gained popularity is the carrot due in part to the introduction of “cut & peel” convenience packages. Although most people in the United States know carrots as an orange vegetable that can be eaten raw or in a variety of cooked dishes, original carrots were yellow and purple. These carrot varieties are currently undergoing phenotypic recurrent selection to improve the profile of compounds considered to be beneficial. This process is called biofortification, which has increased provitamin A content by >40% since 1970. The most novel carrot produced to date is an orange–purple–red variety that not only contains provitamin A activity as α- and β-carotene, but also contains anthocyanins and the nonprovitamin A carotenoid lycopene, of which both are potent antioxidants. A functional food is one that provides benefit beyond basic nutrition. Biofortified carrots of many colors not only provide vitamin A, but may contribute to optimal health. Because supplements have not been shown to be overly beneficial, except for correcting deficiencies, whole food-based approaches to enhance health by utilizing functional foods such as biofortified carrots should be considered.
 
While use of synthetic antioxidants (such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole) to maintain the quality of ready-to-eat food products has become commonplace, consumer concern regarding their safety has motivated the food industry to seek natural alternatives. Phenolic antioxidants can inhibit free radical formation and/or interrupt propagation of autoxidation. Fat-soluble vitamin E (-tocopherol) and water-soluble vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) are both effective in the appropriate matrix. Plant extracts, generally used for their flavoring characteristics, often have strong H-donating activity thus making them extremely effective antioxidants. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids (gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic, and rosmarinic acids), phenolic diterpenes (carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmanol, and rosmadial), flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, naringenin, and kaempferol), and volatile oils (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, and menthol). Some plant pigments (anthocyanin and anthocyanidin) can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals thus slowing oxidation via 2 mechanisms. Tea and extracts of grape seeds and skins contain catechins, epicatechins, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins, and resveratrol, all of which contribute to their antioxidative activity. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of natural antioxidants, their mechanisms of action, and potential applications.
 
Rhodiola rosea (rose root) belonging to the family Crassulaceae is a popular medicinal plant in Russia, Scandinavia, and many other countries. Extracts of the roots of this plant have been found to favorably affect a number of physiological functions including neurotransmitter levels, central nervous system activity, and cardiovascular function. It is being used to stimulate the nervous system, decrease depression, enhance work performance, eliminate fatigue, and prevent high-altitude sickness. Most of these effects have been ascribed to constituents such as salidroside (rhodioloside), rosavins, and p-tyrosol. It has also been found to be a strong antioxidant and anticarcinogen due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. Adaptogens are plant extracts that allow an organism to counteract adverse physical, chemical, and biological stressors by generating nonspecific resistance. Adaptogens are known to increase the availability of energy during the day, reduce stressed feelings, increase endurance, and increase mental alertness. This multipurpose medicinal plant (R. rosea), with adaptogenic properties that increase the body's nonspecific resistance and normalize functions, has been traditionally grown and used in Russia and Mongolia. Due to increasing consumer demands toward natural health products and the growing interests in the secondary metabolites of plants and their application in biotechnology and therapy, much focus has been put on the rose root and its medical properties. The rose root imparts normalizing influences on adverse physical, chemical, and biological disturbances but is otherwise innocuous. In India, the plant has been growing wild in the high altitudes of the Himalayas. The Defence Research and Development Organization in India has taken on the responsibilities of its conservation, as well as the development of multiple management practices and the development of health foods, supplements, and nutraceuticals in India.
 
  Science and expert judgment are the foundation for safety assessments of chemicals added to food to ensure their use is safe. Hazard characterization is the first step in a safety assessment. Advances in science and technology pose challenges to the regulatory system and raise questions about whether the current hazard identification and characterization process is able to systematically and transparently encompass such advances while remaining defensible. An April 2011 workshop sponsored by The Pew Charitable Trusts, the Institute of Food Technologists, and the journal Nature brought together over 80 experts in science and food policy from government, industry, academia, and public interest organizations to examine the principles underlying the development and use of scientific evidence needed for chemical hazard characterization. Participants discussed challenges of identifying adverse health effects, advances in science, uses of new screening technologies and human biomonitoring data, updating of study designs, and development and review of toxicity test guidelines. Brainstorming sessions allowed participants to propose alternatives to enhance FDA's evaluation of science for safety assessment. Although there was no intention to reach a consensus, several themes emerged including the need for clear procedures to develop validated toxicity tests; importance of regularly updating guidance documents relied upon by regulators and industry; benefits of transparency and public access to information; potential for greater interagency collaboration; opportunities to improve hypothesis-based research to make it more useful to regulatory decision making; and importance of staying abreast of scientific developments to ensure that safety assessments are made using sensitive and relevant methods.
 
A) Relative contribution to the total estimated number of current affirmative safety decisions for substances in human food grouped by organization making the final decision. (B) Relative contribution to the total estimated number of current affirmative safety decisions for substances in human food grouped by organization making the final decision and showing the relative contribution of the specific categories and subcategories in the “federal agency reviewed or approved” slice with significant dates along the axis with 1958 in the center and 2011 at the outer perimeter.
Trends in filings (petitions and notifications) for food additives and GRAS substances directly added to human food submitted to FDA from 1990 to 2010.
  The Food Additives Amendment of 1958 is the foundation for the U.S. food additive regulatory program, which oversees most substances added to food. This article is a comprehensive review of the program, including original analysis of pre- and postmarket safety standards for various categories and subcategories of substances and their uses; assigning the more than 10000 substances currently allowed in human food to those categories; and analyzing the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) review of more than 1900 petitions and notifications received from 1990 to 2010. Overall, federal agencies made approximately 40% of the 6000 safety decisions allowing substances in human food. These decisions allowed an estimated 66% of the substances currently believed to be used in food. Manufacturers and a trade association made the remaining decisions without FDA review by concluding that the substances were generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Robust premarket safety decisions are critical since FDA has limited resources to monitor potentially significant scientific developments and changing uses of a substance after it enters commerce and only has access to published data or data submitted to it. In the late 1990s, FDA moved from promulgating rules for its decisions for food contact and GRAS substances to reviewing manufacturer safety decisions and posting the results of the review on the agency's website. This shift appears to have encouraged manufacturers to submit their decisions to FDA for review but has limited public opportunity to provide input.
 
Polyfunctional amines are a group of substances commonly used as additives or monomers in food-contact materials. These substances can migrate into foodstuffs and, consequently, may be potentially dangerous for human health. Due to their different chemical structures and physicochemical properties there does not exist a standard method to analyze polyfunctional amines. This review aims to provide an update on the chromatographic methods used for the determination of polyfunctional amines that are commonly used in the manufacture of food packaging materials. Detailed information regarding chromatographic conditions (mobile phases, chromatographic columns, detection systems, and so on) is provided. Moreover, chemical structures and physicochemical properties of the substances studied are also presented.
 
  Kjeldahl and combustion (Dumas) methods are widely accepted for total protein determination but lack analytical selectivity for protein because they measure protein on the basis of sample nitrogen content. Adulteration incidents exploiting this analytical vulnerability (for example, melamine) demonstrate that these methods are no longer sufficient to protect the public health. This article explores the challenges and opportunities to move beyond total nitrogen based methods for total protein measurement. First, it explores the early history of protein measurement science, complexities of current global protein measurement activities, and ideal analytical performance characteristics for new methods. Second, it comprehensively reviews the pros and cons of current and emerging approaches for protein measurement, including their selectivity for protein, ability to detect adulteration, and practicality for routine use throughout the supply chain. It concludes that some existing highly selective methods for food protein measurement have potential for routine quality control. It also concludes that their successful implementation will require matrix-specific validation and the use of supporting reference materials. These methods may be suitable only for food ingredients that have a low degree of compositional variability and are not complex finished food products.
 
  Cassava is a drought-tolerant, staple food crop grown in tropical and subtropical areas where many people are afflicted with undernutrition, making it a potentially valuable food source for developing countries. Cassava roots are a good source of energy while the leaves provide protein, vitamins, and minerals. However, cassava roots and leaves are deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine) and some nutrients are not optimally distributed within the plant. Cassava also contains antinutrients that can have either positive or adverse effects on health depending upon the amount ingested. Although some of these compounds act as antioxidants and anticarcinogens, they can interfere with nutrient absorption and utilization and may have toxic side effects. Efforts to add nutritional value to cassava (biofortification) by increasing the contents of protein, minerals, starch, and β-carotene are underway. The transfer of a 284 bp synthetic gene coding for a storage protein rich in essential amino acids and the crossbreeding of wild-type cassava varieties with Manihot dichotoma or Manihot oligantha have shown promising results regarding cassava protein content. Enhancing ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase activity in cassava roots or adding amylase to cassava gruels increases cassava energy density. Moreover, carotenoid-rich yellow and orange cassava may be a foodstuff for delivering provitamin A to vitamin A–depleted populations. Researchers are currently investigating the effects of cassava processing techniques on carotenoid stability and isomerization, as well as the vitamin A value of different varieties of cassava. Biofortified cassava could alleviate some aspects of food insecurity in developing countries if widely adopted.
 
  The recovery of proteins from fish by-products for their utilization as food ingredients is becoming of increasing interest in the food industry as they may possess good functional and nutritional properties. This article reviews the main processing methods, such as enzymatic hydrolysis, pH shifting, membrane filtration, and some emerging technologies, used for the recovery of proteins from fish processing by-products. The impact of these methods on the yield and, especially, on the functionality of the recovered proteins is discussed in detail. Considering that there is a huge amount of fish by-products destined for nonfood use, one of the current challenges of the food industry is the development of technologies that allow the recovery of ingredients from the fish processing by-products with potential to provide new and natural sources of high-value functional ingredients for human consumption. In this sense, this review explores the potential use of the glycation reaction to increase the yield of proteins extracted from fish by-products, as well as the effect of this reaction on their functional and biological properties.
 
  This review compiles the contents of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) in foods and beverages, collected from literature data along the period from 1992 up to 2009. Also, it describes the factors that affect the formation of HAAs in foods, such as the cooking method, including temperature, time, and frequency of turning of meat, during cooking. Other factors depending on the type of food and the recipe followed are pH, amounts of HAA precursors, types of amino acids, presence of certain divalent ions, and content of substances with enhancing or inhibiting effects on the formation of HAAs. In addition, there are other factors, which depend on the type of food, such as muscle tissue and the presence of certain genes, since the RN− allele in pigs increases the glycogen content of muscle. The dispersion of the bibliographic data is evident, and there are scarce data, even no data, referred to individual HAAs. Considering that the diverging results can be due to several causes, possible recommendations are given in order to prevent the dispersion of the results and to achieve more valuable information, applied to determine the HAAs exposure. Although there are not direct indications that HAAs represent a serious health risk to the population, and common cancers are produced by many factors including xenobiotics, all measures to minimize the formation of HAAs should be foreseen, some of which are indicated.
 
 Brassicaceae vegetables are considered to be a staple food in many areas all over the world. Brassica species are not only known for their high fat and protein contents for human and animal consumption, but Brassicaceae vegetables are recognized as a rich source of nutrients such as vitamins (carotenoids, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, folic acid), minerals (Cu, Zn, P, Mg, among others), carbohydrates (sucrose and glucose), amino acids (for example, L-alanine, L-aspartic acid, L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine, L-histidine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-threonine, L-tryptophan, and L-valine), and different groups of phytochemicals such as indole phytoalexins (brassinin, spirobrassinin, brassilexin, camalexin, 1-methoxyspirobrassinin, 1-methoxyspirobrassinol, and methoxyspirobrassinol methyl ether), phenolics (such as feruloyl and isoferuloylcholine, hydroxybenzoic, neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, and sinapic acids, anthocyanins, quercetin, and kaempferol), and glucosinolates (mainly glucoiberin, glucoraphanin, glucoalyssin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, glucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin). All of these phytochemicals contribute to the reported antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, and cardiovascular protective activities of Brassica vegetables. However, not all members of this family are equal from a nutritional viewpoint, since significant qualitative variations in the phytochemical profiles of Brassica species and varieties suggest differences in the health-promoting properties among these vegetables. In this article, Brassica phytochemicals with their nutritional value and health-promoting activities are discussed to give an overview of the literature for Brassica as a staple crop.
 
Blueberry is one of the most popular fruits in North America and rich in anthocyanins. Its content in anthocyanins contributes to the health-beneficial effects of blueberry against several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer. This paper summarizes various facts presenting blueberry as a fruit with huge potential for increased future consumption as a health-enhancing food. Factors affecting the biosynthesis of the various anthocyanins in blueberries, including agronomic and genetic factors, and the possible pathways of biosynthesis of the major anthocyanins present in this plant are discussed. The important health-beneficial effects associated with blueberry anthocyanins, properties of these anthocyanins leading to the beneficial effects, and food processing parameters leading to the depletion of the amounts of anthocyanins present in the final processed products are also briefly discussed. Furthermore, the general methods of extraction and analyses that have been reported for being successfully applied to blueberry anthocyanins are also reviewed. Practical Application: Blueberries are well known for their nutritional and beneficial health effects, however, information concerning the physiology behind the blueberry beneficial effects is still lacking. There is little or no information on the characterization of growing conditions on anthocyanins in blueberries and research is lagging behind on advanced methods of extracting blueberry anthocyanins.
 
Plants with potential therapeutic value have been used from time immemorial to cure various ailments and infectious diseases. Secondary metabolites or the bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) present in plants have been reported to be accountable for various observed biological activities. Consumer awareness of the possible side effects of using chemical-based antimicrobial agents has forced researchers to identify and explore natural plant-based antimicrobial agents (or preservatives) that are toxicologically safe, especially when used in food applications. Of late, scientific evidence has been provided on the potential antimicrobial activities exhibited by certain traditionally used flower extracts or their essential oils (edible and wild). This review focuses on providing and updating available information on the antimicrobial activities exhibited by flowers, which are envisaged to find potential applications as natural preservatives for foods or applications in the pharmaceutical industries to develop new and economical herbal-based products for treating various diseases.
 
The important roles of reactive oxygen species in diseases related to aging and the necessity and benefits of antioxidative nutraceuticals in the prevention of diseases and promotion of healthy aging have been extensively reported in recent years. Oxygen is an essential component of living organisms. The generation of reactive oxygen species such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen is inevitable in aerobic metabolism of the body. Reactive oxygen species cause lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, DNA strand break and base modification, and modulation of gene expression. In the past several years, unprecedented progress has been made in the recognition and understanding of roles of reactive oxygen species in many diseases. These include atherosclerosis, vasospasms, cancers, trauma, stroke, asthma, hyperoxia, arthritis, heart attack, age pigments, dermatitis, cataractogenesis, retinal damage, hepatitis, liver injury, and periodontis, which are age-related. The body protects itself from the potential damages of reactive oxygen species. Its first line of defense is superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidases, and catalase. Scientists have indicated that antioxidant nutraceuticals supplied from daily diets quench the reactive oxygen species or are required as cofactors for antioxidant enzymes. Nutraceuticals play significant roles in the prevention of a number of age-related diseases and are essential for healthy aging. Epidemiological studies also reported the relevance of antioxidative nutraceuticals to health issues and the prevention of age-related diseases. Health-conscious consumers have made antioxidative nutraceuticals the leading trend in the food industry worldwide in recent years.
 
In the first part of this contribution, an overview is given of some of the main developments in food process engineering in the last 25 years of the 20th century. This overview is, of course, colored by the personal experience of the authors, but a sincere effort was made to maintain a general perspective. Topics that will be briefly discussed are: progress in understanding how to control food microstructure formation during processing, separation processes, conversion processes and stabilization processes, progress in flavor technology and understanding of flavor retention during processing and release. In the 2nd part, in our view, the most exiting future developments are briefly discussed. The major items here are: processing requirements for functional foods, integrated process design approaches, application of novel‘fields’in food processes,‘precision’processing, supply chain approaches to food manufacturing, and more.
 
The 1st 4 steps in initiating a peanut allergic reaction (Benjamini and Leskowitz 1991; Kay 2001; Lehrer and others 2002; Merz 2003; Bohle 2004)
---Peanut allergens
---Noncommercial assays for the detection of peanuts
  Attention to peanut allergy has been rising rapidly for the last 5 y, because it accounts for the majority of severe food-related anaphylaxis, it tends to appear early in life, and it usually is not resolved. Low milligram amounts of peanut allergens can induce severe allergic reactions in highly sensitized individuals, and no cure is available for peanut allergy. This review presents updated information on peanut allergy, peanut allergens (Ara h1 to h8), and available methods for detecting peanuts in foods. These methods are based on the detection of either peanut proteins or a specific DNA fragment of peanut allergens. A summary of published methods for detecting peanut in foods is given with a comparison of assay formats, target analyte, and assay sensitivity. Moreover, a summary of the current availability of commercial peanut allergen kits is presented with information about assay format, target analyte, sensitivity, testing time, company/kit name, and AOAC validation.
 
  Alpha-lactalbumin (α-La), a globular protein found in all mammalian milk, has been used as an ingredient in infant formulas. The protein can be isolated from milk using chromatography/gel filtration, membrane separation, enzyme hydrolysis, and precipitation/aggregation technologies. α-La is appreciated as a source of peptides with antitumor and apoptosis, antiulcerative, immune modulating, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, opioid, mineral binding, and antioxidative bioactivities, which may be utilized in the production of functional foods. Nanotubes formed by the protein could find applications in foods and pharmaceuticals, and understanding its amyloid fibrils is important in drawing strategies for controlling amyloidal diseases. Bioactive peptides in α-La are released during the fermentation or ripening of dairy products by starter and nonstarter microorganisms and during digestion by gastric enzymes. Bioactive peptides are also produced by deliberate hydrolysis of α-La using animal, microbial, or plant proteases. The occurrence, structure, and production technologies of α-La and its bioactive peptides are reviewed.
 
  Traditional antimicrobials have been extensively used for many years. However, consumers are currently demanding wholesome, fresh-like, and safe foods without addition of chemically synthesized preservatives. The application of novel natural antimicrobials to assure safety of fresh-cut fruits and unpasteurized juices while preventing quality loss is a promising alternative. The effectiveness of these natural substances added to fruit derivatives has been studied by different researchers. Antimicrobials of animal (lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, and chitosan), plant (essential oils, aldehydes, esters, herbs, and spices), and microbial origin (nisin) can be used to effectively reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in fresh-cut fruits and fruit juices. Nevertheless, the use of these compounds at a commercial level is still limited due to several factors such as impact on sensory attributes or, in some cases, regulatory issues concerning their use. Therefore, extensive research on the effects of each antimicrobial on food sensory characteristics is still needed so that antimicrobial substances of natural origin can be regarded as feasible alternatives to synthetic ones.
 
The links between fish processing and negative environmental impact need to be minimized. The overexploitation of white fish stocks has compromised supply, the use of energy contributes to a high-carbon footprint, and the water resources required are also high. An option is to resort to the use of alternative species and fisheries by-catch, together with the maximum utilization of fish. In addition, edible proteins from a range of sources could be converted into added-value products using surimi-like processes. The surimi industry requires large amounts of freshwater and discharges wastewater with a high organic load. By exploring available options on processing technologies and management of the environmental impact, this review discusses the potential role of surimi and opportunities for sustainable fish processing.
 
Texturized vegetable proteins provide an alternative to meat.
Mycoprotein, the main ingredient in a variety of Quorn products is a high protein, high fiber, low-fat food ingredient (picture is a courtesy of Marlow Food Ltd., United Kingdom).
  The direct consumption of vegetable proteins in food products has been increasing over the years because of animal diseases, global shortage of animal protein, strong demand for wholesome and religious (halal) food, and economic reasons. The increasing importance of legume and oilseed proteins in the manufacturing of various functional food products is due to their high-protein contents. However, the greatest obstacle to utilizing these legumes and oilseeds is the presence of antinutrients; but these antinutrients can be successfully removed or inactivated by employing certain processing methods. In contrast, the potential negative impact of the antinutrients is partially balanced by the fact that they may have a health-promoting role. Legumes and oilseeds provide well-balanced amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. Soybean proteins, wheat gluten, cottonseed proteins, and other plant proteins have been used for texturization. Texturized vegetable proteins can extend meat products while providing an economical, functional, and high-protein food ingredient or can be consumed directly as a meat analog. Meat analogs are successful because of their healthy image (cholesterol free), meat-like texture, and low cost. Mycoprotein is fungal in origin and is used as a high-protein, low-fat, health-promoting food ingredient. Mycoprotein has a good taste and texture. Texturized vegetable proteins and a number of mycoprotein products are accepted as halal foods. This article summarizes information regarding the molecular, nutritional, and functional properties of alternative protein sources to meat and presents current knowledge to encourage further research to optimize the beneficial effects of alternative protein sources.
 
-Basic chemical composition of milk from various animal species.
-The average MFG diameter and the cholesterol concentration in milk from various animal species.
-Concentration of minerals in milk from various animal species.
  The analysis of nutritional value and selected traits of technological suitability of milk was performed on the basis of the available literature. This analysis concerned various animal species used for dairy purposes (cattle, buffalo, goats, sheep, camels, donkeys, and horses). It has been stated that a considerable diversity exists in the analyzed parameters and traits of milk, which results in various directions of milk utilization. Cow milk accounts for more than 80% of world milk production. It is the most universal raw material for processing, which is reflected in the broadest spectrum of manufactured products. Sheep and buffalo milk, regarding their high content of protein, including casein, and fat, make a very good raw material for processing, especially cheesemaking. Donkey and horse milk have the most comparable protein composition to human milk (low content of casein, lack of αs1-casein fraction and β-lactoglobulin, and high content of lysozyme). Donkey milk is additionally characterized by a fatty acid profile distinctive from milk of other analyzed animal species. Camel milk also has valuable nutritional properties as it contains a high proportion of antibacterial substances and 30 times higher concentration of vitamin C in comparison to cow milk. The composition of goat milk allows using it as the raw material for dairy processing and also to some extent as a therapeutical product (low content or lack of αs1-casein).
 
  Lycopene is the principal pigment of the carotenoids naturally found in tomatoes and is important not only because of the color it imparts but also because of the recognized health benefits associated with its presence. Red tomatoes typically contain about 95% of their lycopene as the all-trans isomer, the most stable form. In tangerine tomatoes, on the other hand, the lycopene is present as tetra-cis-lycopene, a geometric isomer of all-trans lycopene. Lycopene is a major component found in blood serum. This carotenoid has been extensively studied for its antioxidant and cancer-preventing properties. Prevention of heart disease has been shown to be another antioxidant role played by lycopene because it reduces the accumulation of platelets that eventually lead to blood clots, heart attacks, and strokes. In contrast to many other food phytonutrients whose effects have only been studied in animals, lycopene from tomatoes has been repeatedly studied in humans and found to be protective against several cancers, which now include colorectal, prostate, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. This review outlines the background information dealing with lycopene and presents the most comprehensive and current understanding of its potential functional role in human health.
 
Intense interest in nutraceuticals and their potential benefits has created the need to review the existing scientific information on their effect in preventing and managing inflammation that accompanies most chronic diseases. This article reviews the basic mechanisms of inflammation and the potential of 9 nutraceuticals to be effective as chronic disease preventive agents. Furthermore, the article emphasizes studies in which nutraceuticals are shown to be effective in preventing inflammation and mentions other molecular targets that can be of use in the future. The effects of the following nutraceuticals: -tocopherol, ascorbic acid, curcumin, resveratrol, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, theaflavin, genistein, omega-3 fatty acids, and lycopene on reactive oxygen species scavenging ability, as well as proinflammatory targets, such as tumor necrosis factor interleukin-1, interleukin-1β, nuclear factor kappa B, cellular and adhesion molecules, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), phospholipase A2, reactive oxygen species generating enzymes are discussed.
 
Cassava is a valuable source of food for developing countries, but it contains highly toxic cyanogen compounds and antinutrients. Cyanogens are found in 3 forms in cassava: cyanogenic glucoside (95% linamarin and 5% lotaustratin), cyanohydrins, and free cyanide. Different processing techniques exist to remove cyanogens and their effectiveness depends on the processing steps and the sequence utilized, and it often is time-dependent. Pounding or crushing is the most effective for cyanogenic glucoside removal because it ruptures cell compartments, thus allowing direct contact between linamarin and the enzyme linamarase that catalyzes the hydrolytic breakdown. Crushing and sun-drying cassava roots made into flour removes 96% to 99% of total cyanogens, whereas soaking and sun-drying into lafun or fufu, or soaking and fermenting and roasting into gari or farina, removes about 98% of cyanogens. For cassava leaves, which have 10 times more cyanogens than roots, pounding and boiling in water is an efficient process to remove about 99% of cyanogens. Other strategies to reduce toxicity include development of low-cyanogen cassava varieties and cassava transgenic lines with accelerated cyanogenesis during processing. Although phytate and polyphenols have antioxidant properties, they interfere with digestion and uptake of nutrients. Fermentation and oven-drying are efficient processing methods to remove phytate (85.6%) and polyphenols (52%), respectively, from cassava roots. Sun-drying the leaves, with or without prior steaming or shredding, removes about 60% phytate. Cassava is a nutritionally strategic famine crop for developing countries and, therefore, reducing its toxicity and improving its nutritional value is crucial.
 
Biosynthesis pathway of flaxseed lignans SDG, SECO, and their corresponding mammalian lignans END and ENL (adapted from Ford and others 2001).
Metabolism of SDG by human fecal bacteria (Muir and Westcott 2003) -OH = dehydroxylation, -Me = demethylation.
  Lignans are compounds found in a variety of plant materials including flaxseed, pumpkin seed, sesame seed, soybean, broccoli, and some berries. The major lignan in flaxseed is called secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Once ingested, SDG is converted in the colon into active mammalian lignans, enterodiol, and entero-lactone, which have shown promise in reducing growth of cancerous tumors, especially hormone-sensitive ones such as those of the breast, endometrium, and prostate. Known for their hydrogen-donating antioxidant activity as well as their ability to complex divalent transition metal cations, lignans are propitious to human health. The extraction methods vary from simple to complex depending on extraction, separation, fractionation, identification, and detection of the analytes. Flax lignan is also a source of useful biologically active components found in plant foods, such as phytochemicals, and it is considered a functional food. The safety issues in flaxseed are also briefly discussed.
 
In recent years, much interest has been observed in the field of phenol-based antioxidants. As a result of this, many analytical methods have been developed for the purpose of the quantification of phenolic and polyphenolic antioxidant capacities in biological materials. Many of these methods have been altered for application toward the in vitro assessment of antioxidant activities in animal and human model systems as well as in vivo. Due to the varied applicability and usage, methods for the assessment of phenol antioxidant capacities have become so widespread that they are often misused. It is the intent of this work to review the chemistry behind the antioxidant activity of phenolics as well as summarize the many methods applicable for the measurement of in vitro phenolic antioxidant capacity.
 
  Although capture fisheries have experienced slow to stagnant growth in recent years, the world population has been increasing, with subsequent rises in demands for marine-based foods. One possibility for alleviating potential food shortages and price increases is through aquaculture, which has experienced rapid worldwide expansion. A major focus of research in the aquaculture industry is on the use of biotechnology to increase food availability and reduce production costs, specifically through the manipulation of the genes and chromosomes of cultivated species. Examples include transgenic fish with properties such as increased growth rates, feed conversion efficiency, disease resistance, cold tolerance, and improved metabolism of land-based plants. However, use of transgenic organisms in aquaculture is a very controversial topic due to a number of environmental and human health concerns such as escapement and introduction of genetically modified organisms into the food chain. In response, some transgenic research has also been focused on inducing sterility to reduce the risk of transgenic organisms breeding with wild species. A method of chromosome manipulation, referred to as polyploidy, provides the option of creating sterile organisms, some of which also exhibit increased growth rates. This review paper will discuss recent advances in biotechnology research, specifically in regards to the manipulation of genes and chromosomes, for enhanced cultivation of fish and invertebrates. Major environmental and human health concerns will also be addressed.
 
Personal dietary choices are largely based on flavor preferences. Thus understanding individual flavor perception and preference is vital to understanding the basis of human diet selection. We have developed novel tools to measure in real time and at an individual level volatile aroma compounds delivered breath-by-breath to the nose while eating and drinking. The same food may deliver different aromas to different people, due the specificities of their in-mouth environment (inter-individual differences). Moreover, a person may eat a given food in a different manner, leading to variations in the aroma profile reaching the nose (intra-individual differences). Understanding the basis of these differences opens the door to an individualized aroma science and the road to delivering nutritional value and health through products consumers prefer. The challenge to the food industry is to align what the consumer wants with what the consumer needs, delivering nutritional value and health through products they prefer.
 
  Yogurt is a basic dairy product that has been consumed for centuries as a part of the diet, even when its beneficial effects were neither fully known nor scientifically proven. With time, yogurt has been continuously modified to obtain a product with better appeal and nutritional effects. The flavor components of yogurt are affected because of these modifications. The present review article is focused on the influence of the different parameters and modifications on aroma and taste components of yogurt. Extensive work has been done to explore the effect of chemical components as well as the microbial, processing, and storage aspects. The popularity of yogurt as a food component depends mainly on its sensory characteristics, of which aroma and taste are most important. This review also outlines the effects of the different modifications attempted in the composition of yogurt.
 
Executive Summary: The Micronutrient Initiative (MI) issued the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) a project to assess the extent to which iodized salt is used in processed foods, as well as food processors level of knowledge on iodine nutrition. Iodine is an essential micronutrient required by the body that is found in a limited number of foods, thus many individuals require additional sources of iodine to meet their daily requirement. Without these additional sources, a range of disorders referred to as iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), including mental impairment, may become present, with over 2 billion people worldwide at risk due to insufficient iodine nutrition. IDD is especially damaging during the early stages of pregnancy and in early childhood. In their most severe form, IDD includes cretinism, stillbirth, and miscarriage, and increased infant mortality.
 
  Process cheese is produced by blending natural cheese in the presence of emulsifying salts and other dairy and nondairy ingredients followed by heating and continuous mixing to form a homogeneous product with an extended shelf life. Extensive research on the important physicochemical and functional properties associated with process cheese and the various physicochemical, technological, and microbiological factors that influence these properties has resulted in process cheese being one of the most versatile dairy products with numerous end-use applications. The present review is an attempt to cover the scientific and technological aspects of process cheese and highlight and critique some of the important research findings associated with them. The 1st objective of this article is to extensively describe the physicochemical properties and microstructure, as well as the functional properties, of process cheese and highlight the various analytical techniques used to evaluate these properties. The 2nd objective is to describe the formulation parameters, ingredients, and various processing conditions that influence the functional properties of process cheese. This review is primarily targeted at process cheese manufacturers as well as students in the field of dairy and food science who may want to learn more about the scientific and technological aspects of process cheese. The review is limited to the relevant research associated with process cheeses as defined by the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations and does not cover imitation and substitute cheeses.
 
The various types of cheese are nutrient-dense foods that are good sources of calcium, phosphorus, and protein. They are also important ingredients in many highly consumed foods such as pizza, cheeseburgers, and sauces. However, they are also perceived as being high in fat and sodium. Consumers have indicated that they would like to continue utilizing cheese in their diet but would prefer to have lower-fat and lower-sodium products. Fat and salt are important elements in the flavor, texture, food safety, and overall acceptability of cheese. Alternatives to fat and salt are being investigated but have not been found to be acceptable, especially in those products that meet the FDA's definition of low-fat and/or low-sodium. This review is primarily a report on the current status of research to develop desirable cheeses with low-fat and/or low-sodium, their regulatory and labeling status, consumer acceptability, and challenges for further efforts.
 
  It has been said that the key to making high-quality candy is understanding and controlling the transitions of sugar. Whether found as crystal, glass, or fluid solution, sugars impart the texture necessary to distinguish one confection from another and to provide a unique experience to the consumer. In principle, the phase/state transitions of sugars are best understood through careful application of the phase diagram. However, many, if not all, confections are not at equilibrium, meaning that the phase diagram is simply a starting point for understanding and controlling the state of sugars. An understanding of the thermodynamic driving forces that push a confection towards equilibrium and the kinetic constraints that control the rate of approaching that equilibrium are key elements to creating products with the desired texture, quality, and shelf life. In this review, we summarize the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of controlling phase/state transitions in sweeteners, with particular emphasis on applications to confectionery products.
 
How thermostability and gelation of globular protein are affected by cosolvent systems present in food systems is critical to understanding their functionality. The expression of these functional attributes depends on the molecular structure and thermal-mechanical history of the protein, as well as its chemical environment. To improve the design of processing protein-containing food systems, one must fully understand the thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural impact of cosolvent on globular protein gelation. This review focuses on the impact of weakly interacting neutral cosolvent systems (for example, sugars and polyols) on the gelation of globular proteins. The physicochemical mechanisms by which these cosolvent systems can modulate protein gelation are highlighted from a thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural point of view.
 
  Milk is a biological fluid of exceptional complexity. It contains the nutrients for the growth and development of the newborn. The compositional structure of milk is, however, dependent on the species and tailored to sustain growth and development of its own offspring. Human milk contains specific proteins, lipids, and other components designed to be easily digestible and which have important roles to play in child development. Human infants should ideally be nursed on mother's milk, which constitutes nature's best food. However, in the event of lactation failure, insufficient milk secretion, and where mothers are suffering from transmittable diseases, human milk substitutes serve as savers of precious life during vulnerable stages of infancy. Bovine milk as such or with certain modifications has been widely used for infant feeding. There has been an ever-increasing reliance on formula feeding practices both in developed and developing countries. Bovine milk based dried formulations have become a prominent feature of infantile dietetics. Emphasis has been laid on the manufacture of formulations having compositional and biochemical characteristics similar to human milk. The technological advancement for the production of infant formula has come a long way in the manufacture of a variety of infant formulae for the dietary management of infants. This is a comprehensive review providing insight on the detailed compositional differences of various nutrients present in human milk as compared to bovine milk, their makeup, significance, and recommended levels of intake that are best suited for the growth and development of infants fed on modified/prepared infant formulations.
 
  The consumption of energy drinks is rapidly increasing, as demonstrated by their large market growth. The targeted demographic group is teenagers, young adults, 18 to 34 y old; although expansion into nontraditional markets is also occurring. It is claimed that energy drinks can offer an increased energy boost related to their ingredient profile of caffeine, taurine, herbal extracts, and vitamins. Research suggests that energy drink formulations, in addition to increasing energy utilization, may also improve mood, enhance physical endurance, reduce mental fatigue, and increase reaction time. However, in most cases, the corresponding mechanisms of action are not clear. In addition, concerns have been raised over their safety and with a currently weak regulatory environment, efforts need to be made to ensure consumer safety. The objective of this article is to review the current U.S. energy drink market with emphasis on its market size, target demographic, active ingredients, potential benefits, safety, and regulations.
 
Foodborne diseases constitute a major concern in societies, and their causes are aimed to be identified and minimized. Only in the last few years, this is encouraged by the application of risk assessment, management, and communication. This work presents a probabilistic quantitative microbiological risk assessment and management of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat lettuce salads in Spain. For risk assessment, a guideline provided by Codex Alimentarius was followed. Food chain was modeled from processing of raw material at the factory up to consumption. Different assumptions were made to describe the variables of the model by probability distributions or mathematical models. Monte Carlo simulations of the model were run to estimate the number of cases in low-risk and high-risk populations. Although results deviated from the number of cases observed in Spain, given an ideal situation of 100% compliance of the microbiological criterion ≤100 cfu/g throughout the shelf-life of the product, the resulting number of cases was near the real situation. From the 4 risk management measures simulated, the injection of a mixture of gases into packages at manufacture (CO2 about 5.5%, O2 about 3%, and N2 for the balance) was the most effective in reducing the number of cases, followed by 4 d of storage at home and prevention of high-risk consumers from consumption of ready-to-eat lettuce salads. More research and cooperation between different stakeholder organizations are needed in order to progressively improve the model. With this work, a breakthrough has been made with regards to risk assessment and management procedures and implementation.
 
Scope This chapter addresses the use of modified atmosphere packaging and controlled atmosphere packaging for the preservation of fresh produce. There have been great technological advances in this area of preservation, particularly as it refers to improving the quality and shelf-stability of highly perishable food products, such as produce. However, when using these technologies, careful attention must be paid to the effect on the survival and growth of pathogenic organisms. This chapter focuses on food safety aspects of packaging technologies that are either commercially available or under investigation.
 
Top-cited authors
Rekha Satishchandra Singhal
  • Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai
Francis F Busta
  • University of Minnesota Twin Cities
Linda J Harris
  • University of California, Davis
Mickey Parish
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Jeff Farber
  • University of Guelph