Comparative biochemistry and physiology. B, Comparative biochemistry

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1. Assay of the activity of alpha-1,2-glucosidase was completed within 10 min using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and purified dansylated glucosyl galactosyl hydroxylysine as the substrate. 2. A comparative study was made on the enzyme activity of liver homogenate from eight animal species, mouse, frog, chicken, rabbit, pig, rat, human, bovine and that of a spinach leaf homogenate. alpha-1,2-glucosidase activity in human and bovine liver was very low, and that of alpha-1,2-glucosidase could not be detected in the spinach homogenate as expected. 3. 1-deoxynojirimycin, a well known potent inhibitor of alpha-1,2-glucosidases which act on the N-glycosidic type carbohydrate chain, also inhibited alpha-1,2-glucosidase acting specificity on glucosyl galactosyl hydroxylysine derived from the collagen molecule.
1.1. Long chain 1,2-diolas were found in preen glands of the following birds: i.e. Passeriformes, meadow bunting, masked hawfinch, masked bunting; Piciformes, Japanese green woodpecker; Gruiformes, eastern common crane, ruddy crake, eastern water rail.2.2. Main glyceryl ethers found in preen gland of plumed egret belonging to Ciconiiformes were chimyl and batyl alchols.3.3. These compounds were isolated in a pure form by column and thin-layer chromatographies and were characterized by thin-layer chromatographic mobilities and mass spectra obtained by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on their isopropylidene derivaties.
1.1. Ether washings of egg-rafts of the mosquitoes Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and C. p. pipiens which attracted ovipositing females of these species were prepared.2.2. The largest fraction from each of these extracts consisted of a mixture of estrolide 1,3-diglycerides and could not be distinguished by spectrometric or thin-layer chromatographic methods from the analogous fraction from C. tarsalis. However, on further investigation, differences were found in the monohydroxy fatty acid composition of the 1,3-diglycerides.
1. The Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) independent activity of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) 3-kinase in macrophages could be separated from the dependent activity by serial column chromatography, gel filtration, Orange A and DEAE-5PW. 2. An InsP3 analog which has an aminobenzoyl group on the 2nd carbon of the inositol ring inhibited the conversion of [3H]InsP3 to [3H]InsP4 (inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate) in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration required for half-maximal inhibition (IC50) with the Ca2+/CaM independent enzyme activity was also dependent on the free Ca2+ concentration, as with the dependent activity. 3. These results suggest that a conformational change in the enzyme occurs in response to a change in free Ca2+ concentration, and thus the potency to recognize the InsP3 analog would change, even when the Ca2+/CaM independent enzyme activity was used.
1. The metabolism of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate was studied in the taste organ (barbel) of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. 2. Homogenates of epithelial barbel scrapings were incubated with [3H]-1,4,5-IP3, whose dephosphorylation or phosphorylation was assayed under first-order conditions by measuring the production of either [3H]-1,4-IP2 (representing the activity of IP3-5-phosphatase) or [3H]-1,3,4,5-IP4 (representing the activity of IP3-3-kinase). 3. Both enzymes were predominantly cytosolic, magnesium-dependent and maximally active at pH 6.4. For IP3-phosphatase, Km = 6 microM and Vmax = 10.5 nmol/min/mg. For IP3-kinase, Km = 0.23 microM and Vmax = 0.05 nmol/min/mg. 4. Neither enzyme was significantly affected by the presence of taste stimuli (amino acids), GTP gamma S, cAMP or phorbol esters. 5. In the presence of physiological levels of free calcium (0.05-12 microM) IP3-phosphatase was moderately activated whereas IP3-kinase was moderately inhibited. 6. IP3-phosphatase was moderately activated by Mn2+, unaffected by LiCl, and strongly inhibited by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, Na-pyrophosphate, CdCl2, HgCl2, CuCl2, FeCl3 and ZnSO4 7. IP3-kinase was strongly activated by 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, Na-pyrophosphate, CdCl2, HgCl2, FeCl3 and LiCl and inhibited by ZnSO4 and Mn2+. 8. IP3-kinase was significantly activated in a calcium-dependent manner by exogenously-added phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, and to a lesser extent by diacylglycerol. IP3-phosphatase was unaffected by exogenously-added lipids. 9. IP3-phosphatase may participate in taste transduction since calculations based on the first-order rate constant (6.9 sec-1) indicate that it is capable of dephosphorylating basal levels of IP3 with a half-life of 0.1 sec.
1. The concentration of glycogen, glucose 1,6-P2, fructose 2,6-P2 and the content of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, 6-phosphofructo 2-kinase and glucose 1,6-P2 phosphatase activity, have been determined in rat muscles which differ in their fiber composition: extensor digitorum longus, gastrocnemius, diaphragm and soleus. 2. Glucose 1,6-P2 concentration seems to be related to the glycolytic capacity of the muscle, while fructose 2,6-P2 concentration does not. 3. No significant relationship exists between the fiber type and the content in glucose 1,6-P2 phosphatase and 6-phosphofructo 2-kinase activities.
1. Kinetic and regulatory properties of pyruvate kinase have been studied in haemolysates of erythrocytic populations from blood and bone marrow of rats. 2. Pyruvate kinase from normal rat erythrocytes showed sigmoidal kinetics vs phosphoenolpyruvate. In contrast, the enzyme from reticulocytes and erythroid-rich bone marrow cells behaved as hyperbolic. 3. The enzyme activities were always inhibited by ATP. Activation by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate was only observed in erythrocytes. 4. These kinetic differences suggest changes in pyruvate kinase isozymes in cells of the erythrocytic line of rats.
Glucose 1,6-biphosphate (G1,6P2) was measured in human, pig, cow, rabbit, rat and sheep red blood cells. Mean values are variable among the species and range from 33 to 122 nmol/ml RBC for pig and rabbit erythrocytes, respectively. The activities of G1,6P2 synthase, phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphoribomutase (PRM) have also been assayed in red cell haemolysates of the same species. The correlations between the biphosphate content and the occurrence of the three enzymatic activities have been studied in order to gain an insight into the regulation of the G1,6P2 turnover in mammalian erythrocytes.
Pig tissues show four enzymatic activities of glucose 1,6-P2 synthesis: (A) 2 [glucose 1-P]----glucose 1,6-P2 + glucose; (B) glucose 1-P + ATP----glucose 1,6-P2 + ADP; (C) glucose 1-P + fructose 1,6-P2----glucose 1,6-P2 + fructose 6-P; (D) glucose 1-P + glycerate 1,3-P2----glucose 1,6-P2 + glycerate 3-P. Brain is the tissue with highest capability of glucose 1,6-P2 synthesis. With the exception of skeletal muscle, activity "D" represents the highest activity of glucose 1,6-P2 synthesis. In muscle, activity "B" is the major activity. The existence of a specific glucose 1,6-P2 synthase which catalyzes reaction "D" is confirmed. Two peaks of such an enzyme are isolated by ion-exchange chromatography. There is an enzyme which specifically catalyzes reaction "C", not previously described. There is a glucose 1-P kinase not identical to phosphofructokinase.
1. Glycerate 1,3-P2-dependent glucose, 1,6-P2 synthase has been purified 2000-fold from pig skeletal muscle, with a yield of 75%. 2. The enzyme possesses fructose 1,6-P2-dependent glucose 1,6-P2 synthase and phosphoglucomutase activities, which represent 0.1 and 60% of the main activity, respectively. 3. Both glucose 1-P and glucose 6-P can act as acceptors of the phosphoryl group from glycerate 1,3-P2. 4. The Km values are 19 microM and 67 nM for glucose 1-P and glycerate 1,3-P2, respectively. 5. The enzyme is inhibited by glycerate 2,3-P2, fructose 1,6-P2, glycerate 3-P, phosphoenolpyruvate and lithium, the inhibition pattern varying with the compound.
1.1. The presence of FDP-ase activity in mammary glands of virgin and pregnant rats was established.2.2. Some of the fundamental properties of the enzyme, such as apparent , pH activity curve, substrate dependency, metal ion dependency, heat stability and the effect of 5′AMP were investigated.3.3. Possible physiological roles for the enzyme are discussed.
1. To compare glucose 1,6-bisphosphate synthesis in different types of cells, we partially purified (2000-fold) a glycerate 1,3 P2-dependent glucose 1,6-bisphosphate synthase from rabbit skeletal muscle. 2. In agreement with the results reported by others for mouse brain and pig skeletal muscle, the enzyme can be separated from bulk phosphoglucomutase (PGM) activity by DEAE-cellulose chromatography of crude cellular extract. This cannot be achieved on human hemolysates where glycerate 1,3-P2-dependent glucose 1,2-bisphosphate synthesis is displayed only by multifunctional PGM2 isoenzymes. 3. The Km values for glycerate 1,3-P2 (0.50 microM), glucose 1-phosphate (90 microM), Mg2+ (0.22 mM), and also pH optimum (7.8) and mol. wt (70,000) of the rabbit skeletal muscle enzyme are similar to those of the enzymes from mouse brain and human red blood cells, but they differ from those reported for the pig skeletal muscle enzyme.
1.1. The kinetics of pyruvate kinase in the absence and presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate was investigated in preparations from white muscle of Boops boops (L.), Coryphaena hippurus (L.) and Mugil cephalus (L.).2.2. Mugil cephalus pyruvate kinase showed sigmoidal kinetics which changed to hyperbolic in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate with increase in substrate affinity and maximum velocity.3.3. Coryphaena hippurus and Boops boops pyruvate kinase showed hyperbolic kinetics with increase in substrate affinity and maximum velocity in the presence of fructose 1,6-diphosphate, but the Boops boops enzyme was inhibited in the presence of the effector at phosphoenolpyruvate concentrations above 0.375 mM.
1.1. Significant diurnal variations in hepatic fructose 1,6-diphosphatase were demonstrated in partially inbred populations of albino rats and in outbred populations of the vole, Microtus montanus fed ad lib. and maintained under 12 hr of alternating artificial illumination.2.2. Synchrony in the time of enzymic peaks and troughs was obtained for the partially inbred rats, but not for the outbred voles. It is suggested that preferred feeding patterns of the two differing populations are responsible for these results.
1. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase from the white muscle tissue of the carp, Cyprinus carpio L. was purified. 2. The mol. wt of the enzyme was 145,000. Its subunit mol. wt was ca. 35,000. 3. The enzyme exhibited neutral pH optimum, activation by monovalent cations, and temperature-dependent allosteric AMP inhibition. 4. Carp muscle fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase was 10- to 30-fold more sensitive to AMP inhibition than the carp liver enzyme. 5. The carp muscle enzyme was less sensitive to AMP inhibition than the muscle enzyme from a homeothermic mammal. These results are interpreted as an example of temperature-adaptation of an enzyme regulatory property.
Most of the glucose 1,6-P2 phosphatase activity of pig skeletal muscle is present in the cytosolic fraction. Four peaks of glucose 1,6-P2 phosphatase activity are obtained when the cytosolic fraction from pig muscle is subjected to DE-cellulose chromatography. All the peaks hydrolyze other phosphocompounds in addition to glucose 1,6-P2. The glucose 1,6-P2 phosphatase activity of the main peak shows an optimal neutral pH. It is activated by divalent cations, Mg2+ being more effective than Mn2+. The addition of Ca2+ or EGTA does not affect the enzymatic activity. IMP does not possess any effect. It is concluded that this enzyme is different from the glucose 1,6-P2 phosphatases found in mouse brain cytosol and rat skeletal muscle.
1.1. Liver PK activity which shows sigmoidal kinetics with changing PEP concentration is stimulated by FDP and inhibited by l-alanine and lvaline.2.2. Heart PK activity which shows hyperbolic kinetics with changing PEP concentrations is not affected by FDP and l-valine, but is inhibited ny l-alanine.3.3. Amino acid inhibition og PK's from both turtle organs is reversible by the addition of FDP.
1. Kinetic parameters of human and rabbit liver D-fructose 1,6-diphosphate 1-phosphohydrolase (EC (FDP-ase) at 25 and 37 degrees C have been determined. 2. Km determined at 25 degrees C were 1.4 microM for human and 1.6 microM for rabbit enzyme; at 37 degrees C, corresponding values were 1.7 and 1.8 microM. 3. Both enzymes are allosterically inhibited by AMP. Respective values of I0.5 were 7.2 microM for human and 13.2 microM for rabbit at 25 degrees C, and 16.6 microM for human and 27.3 microM for rabbit at 37 degrees C. 4. Fructose 2,6-diphosphate, a potent regulator of gluconeogenesis, is more effective at 25 than at 37 degrees C. Ki determined at 25 degrees C was 0.07 microM for human and 0.035 microM for rabbit in comparison with 0.17 microM for human and 0.09 microM for rabbit at 37 degrees C. 5. Affinity of FDP-ase for magnesium is also dependent on temperature. For the human enzyme, Km at 25 degrees C was 226 microM and at 37 degrees C, 176 microM. For the rabbit enzyme, corresponding values were 256 and 240 microM. 6. Both enzymes are activated by KCl. Determined values of A0.5 were 91 mM for human, and 50 mM for rabbit enzyme at 25 degrees C, and 129 mM for human and 100 mM for rabbit enzyme at 37 degrees C.
We have recently established from sequence analysis that rat liver fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contains a 24-26 residue extension beyond the COOH-terminal amino acid of other mammalian fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases that results in an increased subunit molecular weight (Rittenhouse et al. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 7648-7652). In the present work the distribution of the COOH-terminal extension of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases was tested by subunit molecular weight analysis of the enzyme immunoprecipitated from liver extracts. Of all rodent species tested, including several Muridae other than Rattus; only the enzyme from animals of the genus Rattus was found to have the extension. Further studies on the distribution of the enzyme extension could provide a simple tool to study the phylogeny of the genus Rattus.
1. Using the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) isolation procedure described by Baltz et al. ([1976] Ann. Immunol. (Inst. Pasteur) 127 C, 761-774) which involves suspension of the trypanosomes in a pH 5.5 buffer, the Antwerpen trypanozoon antigenic type (AnTat) 1.1 VSG is mainly obtained as a disulfide linked dimeric form with a trace amount of a monomeric form. 2. The use of a parasite suspension buffer at pH 7.0 results in a slight decrease of the VSG dimer/monomer ratio. 3. pH 5.5 and 7.0 supernatants of centrifuged parasite suspensions were submitted to kinetic incubations at different temperatures and pH, and we found conditions involving transformation of the AnTat 1.1 VSG dimer into the AnTat 1.1 VSG monomer (shifting the pH 5.5 supernatant to pH 7.0 and incubation at room temperature). 4. This transformation of the AnTat 1.1 VSG dimer into the AnTat 1.1 VSG monomer is activated by the addition of 1 mM reduced glutathione, and is inhibited by the addition of 1 mM oxidized glutathione or 0.1 mM N-ethylmaleimide or cadmium acetate.
The isoenzymes of LDH (EC were studied in Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica by horizontal electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Six isoenzymes in D. dendriticum and four in F. hepatica were detected. Densitometric scans demonstrated that the enzyme pattern of LDH in D. dendriticum parasitizing hepatic tissue of Capra hircus was clearly different from the one obtained when the trematode parasitized other hosts such as Bos taurus or Ovis aries.
1.1. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) activity and electrophoretic mobility were investigated in red cells of fourteen mammalian species.2.2. The comparative antigenic structure of 6PGD of various species was investigated by immunodiffusion with antisera prepared against non-hemoglobin protein fraction of human and bovine erythrocytes, coupled with a specific chromogenic reaction.3.3. Two common antigenic determinants were detected in 6PGD of representatives of primates, Bovidae and Equidae families.4.4. Only one of these determinants was found in the enzymes of members of Canidae and Caviidae families.5.5. The anti-human serum revealed also an antigenic determinant specific to 6PGD of man and Cercopithecidae, while the anti-bovine serum revealed an antigenic determinant specific to the Bovidae family.6.6. Two variants of human 6PGD (PDGA/PGDC and PGDC/PGDC) produced on immunodiffusion reactions of complete identity with the usual phenotype (PGDA/PGDA).
The ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (bc1 complex, EC has been isolated from the heart mitochondria of beef, chicken, turkey, duck and tuna with an identical procedure. The polypeptide composition of the different complexes, compared using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, shows that the three subunits carrying the prosthetic groups of the enzyme are highly conserved in all species. Also the large subunits I and II (core proteins) and band VI appear to be conserved in structure, while subunits VII and VIIa show a most remarkable structural variation in the various complexes. The steady-state ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase analysis of the active enzymes indicates that all the bc1 complexes follow essentially a ping-pong mechanism, with the cytochrome c substrate displaying a partial competitive inhibition vs the ubiquinol substrate. The cytochrome c specificity of the reductase activity clearly is different in the various bc1 complexes, whereas the quinol specificity appears to be identical in all the enzymes.
The mean Km and Vmax values for G3PDH isolated from the lateral muscle of cold-adapted (5 degrees C) rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, were twice those of enzyme from warm-adapted (15 degrees C) trout when assayed at 7 degrees C but not at any other temperature. The entropy of activation of warm enzyme was about 3 times that of cold enzyme. However, enthalpy or free energy of activation among acclimation groups differed less or not at all. Individual G3PDH isolates within either adaptation group differed in kinetic characteristics.
G3PDH was isolated from the lateral muscle of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) acclimated at 5 degrees C (cold) and 15 degrees C (warm). No differences were found in muscle concentration, molecular weights, isoelectric focusing patterns, amino acid compositions or peptide maps between cold and warm isolates. Cold and warm G3PDH contained mannose in variable concentration but no other prosthetic groups.
1. Subcellular fractionation of rat, guinea pig and human livers showed that aldehyde dehydrogenase metabolizing gamma-aminobutyraldehyde was exclusively localized in the cytoplasmic fraction in all three mammalian species. 2. Total gamma-aminobutyraldehyde activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase was found to be ca 0.41, 0.3 and 0.24 mumol NADH min-1 g-1 tissue, respectively in rat, guinea pig and human liver, with more than 95% of activity in the cytoplasm. 3. Partially purified cytoplasmic isozyme from rat liver showed similar chromatographic behavior and kinetic properties to the E3 isozyme isolated from human liver. 4. The rat isozyme was insensitive to disulfiram (40 microM) and to magnesium (160 microM) and had Km values of 5 microM (pH 7.4) for gamma-aminobutyraldehyde, 7.5 microM (pH 9.0) for propionaldehyde and 4 microM (pH 7.4) for NAD.
A purified beta-lactamase from Streptomyces UCSM-104 shows the presence of three subforms when stained for protein and/or for activity after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or after electrofocusing. The pI values of the three subforms were 5.45, 5.30 and 5.10, respectively. The respective electrophoretic mobilities were 4.6 X 10(-5), 5.2 X 10(-5) and 5.9 X 10(-5)m2/sV. Relative molecular mass of 14,900 was determined. The amino acid composition was established. Cysteine was not detected. A fairly high proline content (8.3%) differentiates this enzyme from other beta-lactamases. Lysine was the only N-terminal amino acid detected after dansylation. The possible origin of the subforms is discussed.
1. Nucleolar phosphoprotein pp 105 was determined in various mouse cell and tissue extracts using a highly sensitive ELISA. The results indicate that the highest relative amounts of pp 105 correlate with cells and tissues of high growth rate such as tumor cell lines, solid tumors and embryonic tissues. 2. The specific phosphorylation of pp 105 was compared in a 1 min endogenous phosphorylation assay with native cell and tissue extracts. 3. The mitogenic activity of highly purified pp 105 was demonstrated in cultures of resting mouse embryonic cells and mouse thymocytes.
1.1. A testicular homogenate of adult black mollies was incubated with androstenedione-1,2-3H.2.2. The homogenate is able to synthesize steroids with functional groups in the 11-position, e.g. 11-ketotestosterone, 11β-hydroxytestosterone, 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione and adrenosterone.
Highly specific antisera for 11-keto- and 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone have been raised in sheep. Assay systems for the simultaneous measurement of 11-ketotestosterone, 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17 beta were validated for Ictalurus nebulosus plasma and Carassius auratus serum. In males of both species 11-ketotestosterone and testosterone were the major steroids detected. In females, testosterone and estradiol-17 beta were the predominant steroids measured. Data from samples taken at different stages of the annual cycle suggest that seasonal fluctuations in gonadal steroid secretion occur in I. nebulosus and C. auratus.
1. An extract from the livers of both normal chickens (N) and chickens infected with avian erythroblastosis virus (Eb) contains a small molecular weight protein (SMWP, mol. wt 11,000). 2. Double immunodiffusion studies with rabbit antiserum against fowl serum proteins shows a precipitin arc for SMWP in N and Eb extracts, which is continuous with one from one of the normal chicken serum proteins. 3. When treated with 60% saturated ammonium sulphate the SMWP in the liver extracts divides between the precipitate and the supernatant although the specific serological activity of Eb extracts (gag--or COFAL--determined antigenic activity) is restricted to the precipitated SMWP fraction. 4. The COFAL activity of Eb liver extracts could be associated with SMWP by its attachment to this protein, or this phenomenon of "association" could represent the result of changes in synthesis of SMWP or post-synthetic changes.
1. In the process of obtaining the degradation enzymes of mucus glycoprotein, porcine gastric mucus glycoprotein (PGM), added as the only source of carbon, was removed from the culture medium of Streptomyces sp. OH-11242 [Iwase et al. (1988) Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun. 151, 422-428] and analysed. 2. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of porcine gastric mucus glycoprotein (PGM-m) recovered from a culture medium were similar to those of original PGM. 3. However, the elution profile of PGM-m on Sephacryl S-400 differed from that of PGM and closely resembled that of performic acid-treated PGM or protease-treated PGM. 4. Either of these corresponded to the so-called subunit of approximately 550,000 in mol. wt, as reported by Scawen and Allen [(1977) Biochem. J. 163, 363-368]. 5. Performic acid treatment of PGM-m led to the production of a smaller unit (unit m) having a mol. wt of about 72,000. Separate treatment of different sized components prepared from PGM-m showed the above unit m to be produced from each molecule. 6. Thus, PGM-m is a molecule partly modified by various glycosidases including endo-alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase and exposure of the modified part to performic acid results in oxidation. 7. Production of unit m from both larger and smaller molecules indicates the part susceptible to performic acid to exist at regular intervals on the mucus glycoprotein molecule.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
1. Complexing proteins isolated from the soluble and particulate fractions of rabbit kidney homogenates are structurally similar to complexing protein from human kidney. 2. The distribution of soluble and particulate complexing protein in other rabbit tissues is also similar to humans. 3. As in human kidney, complexing protein is localized in the glomeruli and proximal tubules of rabbit kidney. 4. The rabbit appears to be an appropriate animal model for the study of the adenosine deaminase complexing proteins in humans.
Chicken leg gracilis muscle contained only alpha-connectin (ca 3000 kDa) without beta-connectin. When myofibrils were kept standing for 20 hr at 4 degrees C, alpha-connectin was degraded to beta-connectin (ca 2000 kDa) and 1200 kDa peptide. The latter was prepared from myofibrils and purified by gel filtration in the presence of SDS. A monoclonal antibody, alpha 7, to this 1200 kDa fragment was prepared. The antibody reacted with the 1200 kDa fragment and its mother molecule alpha-connectin, but not with beta-connectin. Immunoelectron microscopy using alpha 7, as well as other antibodies to chicken breast muscle beta-connectin, revealed that the 1200 kDa peptide covered the portion of alpha-connectin from the Z line to the N2 line region in the I band of chicken leg gracilis muscle sarcomeres. The results were in good agreement with those observed in rabbit skeletal muscle.
1. Total lipids and the lipid fractions cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol, free cholesterol, free fatty acids and phospholipids, as well as the fatty acid patterns of total lipids, were measured in liver homogenates of female and male rats (Wistar SPF, strain Hannover) aged 37-1213 days. 2. The same parameters were measured in the apex of the heart in female and male rats aged 331-1213 days. 3. All parameters were monitored every 49th day. Five female and five male animals were used in each experiment. 4. The lipid fractions in liver showed a positive linear regression vs age, whereas all lipids in rat heart showed a negative regression vs age in both sexes. 5. The significance of regression vs age of fatty acids was much less than that in the lipid fractions of liver and heart of these animals.
1.1. Proteins in the inner surface of the intracellular perfused squid giant axon membrane were analysed by using an enzymatic iodination procedure.2.2. Iodination analysis of the membrane protein by means of SDS-gel electrophoresis yielded a major peak of 12,000 daltons. The amount of these proteins decreased after repetitive stimulation.3.3. Perfusate of the axon was collected drop by drop and each drop was analysed by SDS-gel electrophoresis.4.4. The iodinated proteins obtained from the perfusate had apparent molecular weights of 20,000 and 90,000 daltons peak.5.5. Potassium depolarization of the axon produces in a perfusate a new 12,000 daltons peak in the SDS-gel electrophoretogram.
1. 1. The ratios of stable carbon isotopes 13C/12C in milk constituents of Holstein dairy cattle were investigated by mass spectrometry. 2. 2. Under physiological feeding conditions the natural abundance of 13C in lactose was greater than in milk fat. 3. 3. Reduction of energy intake diminished the abundance of 13C in lactose resulting in values similar to those of fat. 4. 4. It is suggested that by comparing the 13C/12C ratios in milk fat and lactose the metabolic energy state of cows may be rated.
1. Characterization of fetal, winter-hibernating, winter-active, summer-active and summer-induced hibernating hemoglobins of 13-lined ground squirrels (Citellus tridecemlineatus) by isoelectric focusing (IEF) pH 7.0-9.0 indicated that this molecule is extremely responsive to the various activity states of this hibernator. 2. Major alterations of ground squirrel hemoglobin occur with the varying activity states as evidenced by the distinctive changes in the isoelectric points (pIs) of these protein components. 3. Hemoglobin from winter-hibernating or summer-induced hibernating ground squirrels does not revert to a fetal type of hemoglobin. 4. The presence of an additional hemoglobin peak pI 6.55 in the summer-induced hibernator may serve as a possible assay for hibernation inducing trigger(s) (HIT) molecules under study in our laboratory.
A new allele of esterase-13 was detected in various laboratory inbred strains of Rattus norvegicus and designated Es-13c. The activity of ES-13 towards a range of chromogenic substrates, inhibitor profile, isoelectric points and retardation coefficients on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were determined. The organ specific expression of ES-13 alleles was investigated and it was shown that kidney homogenates contained a factor which modified the liver enzyme banding pattern in vitro. The features of ES-13 from the rat indicated homology between this esterase and ES-3 from the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus.
Metabolic rates and adenine nucleotide content of liver and kidney from hibernating ground squirrels were measured and compared to rats to study the biochemical adaptation to hibernation. High rates of renal and hepatic gluconeogenesis were observed in squirrels, particularly from propionate and glycerol compared to rat. During hibernation and starvation soluble phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity was increased in both liver and kidney. Although metabolic rates are decreased during hibernation the results suggest that the enzymic complement is maintained at high activity even during torpor.
1. Natural abundance carbon-13 nmr spectra of several intact cestodes have been obtained. 2. All spectra show peaks assignable to triglycerides and the N(CH3)3 carbons of the choline moiety. 3. The olefinic region of the 13C nmr spectra indicated that the cestode larvae Mesocestoides corti and Echinococcus multilocularis have a larger concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids than Hymenolepis adults. 4. Mobile fragments of glycogen were detected in all species studied, but its apparent concentration in individual cestodes was highly variable.
1. Tyrosine metabolism during pupation can be followed in living Heliothis virescens larvae using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. 2. Loss of 13C signals from a label at the C-3 position of tyrosine during pupation indicates uptake of tyrosine into solid cuticle. 3. Solids 13C NMR spectroscopy of cuticle formed by insects injected with 3-13C labelled tyrosine indicates that little change in chemical shift occurs during cuticle hardening, indicating that the side chain is probably not involved in protein cross-linking.
1. Isolated perfused livers from mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense formed substantially more [3-13C]-lactate from [3-13C]-alanine than livers from uninfected mice. Quantities formed by infected livers increased as infection progressed. 2. Infected livers produced more 13C-labeled glutamate and glutamine, with label scrambled between C-2 and C-3. Scrambling also produced [2,3-13C]-aspartate, [2-13C]-alanine and [2-13C]-lactate. Delayed appearance of label in C-4 of glutamate/glutamine in infected livers reflects significant endogenous stores of unlabeled acetyl CoA. 3. Although differences do exist in catabolism of [3-13C]-alanine by perfused livers from infected and control mice, trypanosomiasis does not cause permanent breakdown or blockage of hepatic alanine metabolism.
1. Isolated perfused livers from starved mice inoculated with myeloproliferative leukemia virus exhibited similar rates of consumption of [3-13C]alanine and of synthesis of glutamine and glutamate labeled at the C-2 or C-3 positions as livers from uninfected mice. 2. Leukemic livers also formed glutamine and glutamate labeled at the C-4 position. This is related to their lower content of triglyceride as compared to that of control livers which do not produce these isotopomers. 3. The glucose synthesis rate was much lower in livers from leukemic mice. This is explained by the glycolytic properties of the leukemic infiltrating cells.
1. Uniformly labelled stable 13C-glucose was used to study glucose entry in high yielding Holstein cows (n = 8) under normal production conditions. 2. The single injection technique was repeated at three different reproductive phases. A two compartment model was applied to calculate mean entry rates of glucose resulting in: (1) Terminal phase of pregnancy (2 weeks a.p.): 0.41 g/hr/kg0.75; (2) Peak lactation (6 weeks p.p.): 0.97 g/hr/kg0.75; (3) End of lactation (37 weeks p.p.): 0.61 g/hr/kg0.75. 3. Data from studies using radioactively labelled tracers are in good agreement with our results obtained without any restrictions implied by the handling with radioactive substances.
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Walter R. Terra
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