Comparative Studies in Society and History

Published by Cambridge University Press (CUP)
Online ISSN: 1475-2999
Publications
Article
The history of collective attitudes about death, a branch of the newhistory of mentalités, was until recently considered a speciality, or even acuriosity that was peculiarly French, or so at least, E. Le Roy Laduriewrote with reference to the work of Philippe Aries, Francois Lebrun and myself in his Territory of the Historian.
 
Article
L'A. propose une approche comparative de l'utilisation politique et ideologique de l'anthropologie criminelle initiee par Cesare Lombroso et ses acolytes, en Italie et aux Etats-Unis, mettant en evidence les differences de contextes historiques, et les prolongements de l'anthropologie lombrosienne dans la pensee raciale de l'Amerique du Nord. En Italie, l'anthropologie criminelle lombrosienne fut associee a la critique de la pensee sociale du liberalisme et du catholicisme par la gauche et a la question du retard socioeconomique du Sud. Aux Etats-Unis, elle fut associee aux debats sur l'identite blanche et la hierarchie raciale. Elle contribua egalement aux debats sur la limitation de l'immigration, utilisant notamment la pensee lombrosienne comme argument scientifique sur la deviance des immigres sud-italiens a partir de la racialisation des nationalites europeennes.
 
Article
In order to become the governing authority of the emerging Puerto Rican nation before the invasion of the United States in 1898, a group of letradosconstructed the phantasm of a coherent and integrated national Self by excluding a phantasmagoric Other (such as the infirm Puerto Rican iíbaro). 1 A close examination of the works by members of this educated elite makes apparent the complexity of the dynamic between discourses of the Self and the Other that sustains this act of empowerment, as well as acts of empowerment similar to this one.
 
Article
A significant paradox of the missionary endeavor in many parts of Africa, as elsewhere, is the preponderance of female adherents to Christianity, despite concerted efforts by most mainstream missionary groups to convert men. 2 notes Adrian Hastings, (Hastings 1993:112). 3 Certainly this has been the case among Maasai in Tanzania, even though Catholic missionaries from the Congregation of the Holy Ghost have spent over forty years trying to evangelize Maasai men. In vain they tried to convert men first through schools, then in their homesteads, and finally in individual instruction classes. Maasai women were restricted from attending school, tolerated but not encouraged to attend homestead instruction and services, and dissuaded from holding formal leadership positions in the church. Despite these gender-based evangelization strategies and objectives, however, significantly more Maasai women than men have sought instruction and baptism in the Catholic church. Conversion to Catholicism was never easy for these women, as they had to overcome not only the reluctance of the missionaries but also the objections of their husbands and fathers. Yet they persevered, and now constitute the majority of practicing Catholics. Intent on creating Christian communities premised on male leadership and patriarchal authority, the men of the church have instead facilitated the creation of a
 
Article
societies today are by and large post-Christian, in the sense that many people do not seriously identify with a religious denomination or sect, major public discoursesare secular, and Christian institutions and values are no longer naturalized in public politics. 1 In the United States, confrontation and competition from a host of born-again contenders can force post-Christian religious indifference into quasi-fundamentalist rivalry for the moral and political high ground, but mainstream academic discourses remain as resolutely secular as they have been at least since World War I. Given that this period has seen the heyday of anthropology's disciplinary professionalization, 2 it is not surprising that its dominant orientations have often been unreflectively sociopolitical, even though its usual proclaimed objects of study were, until relatively recently, putatively with aptly categorized as
 
Article
In March 1534, the residents of Cuzco, the capital and sacred centre of the Inca empire, witnessed the last ceremony of royal inauguration and triumph to be celebrated in their city by an Inca ruler, Manco Inca Yupanqui. 1 Eight months earlier, in July 1533, the Spanish invaders of the Inca empire, led by Francisco Pizarro, had executed Manco's brother, the Inca Atahuallpa. Shortly thereafter, they named Manco as the next ruler, while at the same time occupying the capital. Although, therefore, the victory being celebrated had been won under Spanish tutelage, some part of the traditional ceremonial was performed on this occasion, and affords a glimpse of the functioning of Cuzco as an imperial capital, of political relationships among the Inca elite, and of the vision of the past that gave meaning to these relationships.
 
Article
Here, then, I would like to highlight the institutional and ideological continuities between the two cases, especially regarding Van den Bosch's administrative solution to the alleviation of pauperism, the reform of the marke through agricultural colonies, and what he interpreted as the cultural obstacles to those reforms. Crucial to this analysis is Van den Bosch's comparison of the Japanese village to the Dutch marke, He remarked on what he understood to be a similarity of inherited land rights enjoyed by members of a village corporation, who worked their farm land communally with the help of a dependent class of dispossessed laborers. Van den Bosch argued that just as it had proven extremely difficult to transform the marke, it would be similarly difficult to reform the Javanese village. In other words, Van den Bosch anticipated that culture would prove a stumbling block to the intensification of agricultural production.
 
Article
In correlation to the expansion and intensification of capitalist forms of agricultural production in the Malay states during the end of the nineteenth century, the British Colonial administration articulated the need to systematize the policing of agricultural production with increasing strength. The economic prospects of feeding the world market's increasing demand for natural rubber, combined with the objective of decreasing the Malay states' dependence on import of basic staples (notably rice), were taken by the Colonial administration as indicators of an urgent need to spur on the progress of agricultural production. A revolution of agricultural practices, which would transform what was seen as the backward and inefficient techniques of the into modern and progressive production forms based on scientific knowledge, could only take place, it was argued, by resorting to systematic government intervention.
 
Article
Accounts of late-twentieth-century capitalist restructuring have emphasized the decline of work contracts and the growth of more ways of employing labor. Most of these accounts have argued that, under conditions of global competition, firms seek to reduce the cost of wages and benefits by hiring more temporary workers. Such accounts assume permanent labor contracts to be a norm that is violated only when economic systems come under pressure. This essay adopts a different perspective, suggesting that, in fact, permanent labor contracts have been normative only in certain historical situations (such as the twentieth century United States). In a global and trans-historical context, these contracts have been introduced under specific conditions to solve particular kinds of problems. Thus, this study attempts to shift the question from to
 
Article
In looking at the production of pottery and cheese in the southwest of France, we want to suggest that over the long term the region had a much more complicated history of production than its present, predominantly rural economy might suggest. The manufacturing processes were linked symbiotically with other local activities, and were often carried out by working in agriculture for a good part of the year.
 
Article
Most of the literature concerning traditional African medical practice has dealt with aspects often deemed ‘irrational,’ such as the role of priests, shrines, magic and religious ritual. M. J. Field's work demonstrates convincingly that these aspects of medical treatment in Ghana are essential in mitigating and curing psychosomatic illnesses as well as controlling neuroses. The emphasis on religious and psychological methods of treatment, however, can often lead to less perceptive conclusions, such as those of U.S. doctors visiting Ghana in 1960 who stated flatly that traditional medical practices there consist solely of ‘ignorance and superstition’ and that ‘witchdoctor … medicine man and native doctor are synonymous terms.
 
Article
Little is known of the private worlds of working people in the growing cities of nineteenth-century India, still less of the space women occupied in them. Historical documentation is almost silent on information about their everyday lives. An exception perhaps are certain legal records, such as the proceedings on petitions of insolvents. From the early nineteenth century onwards, many humble citizens of metropolitan cities were able to petition the courts for protection from their creditors. It is here that we find the striking record of the personality and concerns of Ayesha, mother of an insolvent butcher in nineteenth-century Bombay. This article draws upon the documentation generated by the hearings on Ismail Sobhan's petition to the High Court of Bombay for protection.
 
Article
Jerrold E. Levy's comments on my article on the Sanni Demons in the April 1969 issue of this journal betrays serious misconceptions regarding the nature of Ayurvedic medicine. Levy says that Ayurveda makes no distinction between mental and physical illnesses, that it has little preoccupation with symptoms, and that it has little actual efficacy. The first is concerned with the doctrine of Ayurveda; the second with its practice; and the third with its effects. I shall demonstrate that these three views of Ayurveda are false.
 
Article
wrote D. Carleton Gajdusek in 1957. 2 A young medical scientist, Gajdusek was writing from his bush laboratory in the eastern highlands of New Guinea, and he had in mind the competition among pathologists in Melbourne, Australia, and Bethesda, Maryland, for the valuable specimens. But he may also have considered his own recent transactions with the Fore people, afflicted with what he thought was the disease of kuru, and on whose hospitality he was then relying. Blood and brains, the germinal objects of his field research, were richly entangled in local community relations and global scientific networks; they could convey one meaning to the Fore, another to Gajdusek, and yet another to laboratory workers in Australia and the United States. These objects could be exchanged as gifts or commodities in different circumstances, or on the same occasion the different parties might confuse gift exchange with commodity transaction. At times, the scientist would try to obtain goods through barter, or even to appropriate them; and, then again, he might find that what he wanted was out of circulation altogether. In the field, Gajdusek had become enmeshed in a complex and fragile web of relationships with the Fore in order to acquire specimens that, through further exchanges with senior colleagues, might yet make his scientific reputation.
 
Article
A host of social movements which had as their goal the improvement of the living conditions of the working classes emerged in England in the 1820s and 1830 s. Owenism and Chartism come first to mind, but historians have recently acknowledged the social significance of a number of less well-known groups that proclaimed the benefits of temperance or mechanics' institutes or phrenology or infidel missions. The birth control movement in its early years has as yet received little attention from the historians of the English working classes. A possible reason is that the opposition of the 'pauper press' to the movement has led later observers to adopt the view that it was simply a middle-class Malthusian crusade which set out to convince the poor that the only escape from poverty lay in individual self-help. In what follows I shall sketch out the general lines of argument advanced by the advocates of birth control and their antagonists in the working-class movement. The purpose of the paper is not to provide yet another history of the first neo-Malthusians, but to use the arguments their activities elicited to gain a better understanding of nineteenth-century working-class culture.
 
Article
In his recent study, The Decline of Fertility in Germany, 1871-1939, John Knodel shows that in about two generations the 'overall fertility declined by 60 percent, marital fertility by 65 percent, and illegitimate fertility by 54 percent.'l Given the facts that a greater percentage of women of childbearing ages than ever before were married during this period, and that illegitimate births never counted for more than 10 percent of the total births, Knodel concludes that the decline was mainly due to a reduction of marital fertility. This decline became apparent in the 1870s and was already pronounced enough to be a matter of concern for a variety of sociologists, demographers, and physicians in the decades immediately before the First World War. One of the reasons for this contemporary concern sprang from the belief that the secular decline in fertility indicated that birth control, hitherto presumably limited to the effete French and to rather small numbers of German middle class and professional families, was now being practiced with a marked degree of success by large numbers of German working class families. In the minds of many nationalistic demographers, what had been the private vice of the publicly virtuous
 
Article
This essay is about the caste-wise enumeration of households taken in the major kasbah towns of the western Rajasthani kingdom of Marwar between 1658 and 1664 under the direction of the kingdom's Munhata Nainsi, for inclusion in his mammoth survey of kingdom entitled MarvarraParganamriVigat (AnAccountoftheDistrictsofMarwar). This essay also explores how Nainsi's early enumeration of caste data, and other precolonial human inventories that followed upon it, helped shape the first known colonial census of western Rajasthan, undertaken by Alexander Boileau in 1835 in Marwar and the adjacent kingdoms of Bahawalpur, Bikaner, and Jaisalmer. One goal will be to redirect scholarly attention to some native agenda that may have been institutionalized and advanced by this nominal way of ‘knowing the country' both during the late precolonial and early colonial eras. Without positing an easy continuity from the precolonial to the colonial in terms of forms of knowledge and attendant institutions, this essay will suggest that colonial discourses often built upon indigenous ones in ways that inflected local politics about which the British initially were only dimly aware and indirectly concerned, but which later had a major impact on the constitution of colonial rule.
 
Article
The history of the professions in the West since the French Revolution is a success story, a triumph, but not always an easy one. From the beginning of the nineteenth century in continental Europe the professions had a great attraction as careers presumably open to talent, but the demand for professional services developed more slowly than interest in professional careers and more slowly than the schools that supplied the market. Lenore O'Boyle has drawn attention to this discrepancy and the revolutionary potential of the frustrated careerists produced by it.
 
Article
The eighteenth-century medical view of the peasantry offers clues to a series of problems. This essay will treat one of them, namely the processes by which the French medical community in the declining years of the ancien régime and the early years of the Revolutionary period came to justify proposals for intervention in a rural society generally hostile to its claims and suspicious of its motives. The theme of the present study is an exploration of how the ideology of rationality and control, which was being developed in the learned world of the eighteenth century, was reinforced by a group within it that was gaining prestige and searching for means to enhance its professional status and power.Since the demands of such an inquiry are rather large, many of the related questions which it raises, such as the nature of medical knowledge, the contemporary disputes in medical philosophy, and the movement of change from one form of medicine to another, will be touched on only insofar as they have direct relevance to the major need to clarify the medical contribution to the development of the new ideology. In my present conceptualization of the problem, I am concerned to show that there was a close interaction between medical knowledge and the social values of the members of the medical trade, even if there existed no conscious direction of the elements connecting the two, and in spite of the difficulties there are in establishing the precise links mediating intellectual products and their social configurations.
 
Article
In 1990, after seventeen years of dictatorial rule in Chile, General Augusto Pinochet ceded power to a democratically elected government. The ensuing transition from authoritarian rule has presented the governing Concertación coalition and Chileans more generally with formidable challenges: checking the power of the military, dealing with the legacy of human rights abuses, democratizing the authoritarian state structures created by Pinochet and confronting the heightened class inequality generated by the military's neoliberal economic policies. In the years following 1990, however, public debate has frequently centered on a distinct, although not unrelated, set of issues: crime, teenage pregnancy, drug use, divorce and abortion. 1
 
Example of a Simple Table: Allotment Rental in Tver' Province 56 
Article
Categorization plays an integral part in how we see and interpret the world. This is especially true when we attempt to comprehend the complexities of human society, where the heterogeneity of human activity across time and space de- mands that some criterion (class, gender, age, profession, etc.) be used to re- duce the number of variables examined. From the mid-nineteenth century—as statistics evolved from the simple "political arithmetic" of tax collectors and army recruiters into a potential science of human behavior—categorizing the population became a contentious issue that reflected the social and political agendas of data collectors. 1 At the same time, when data refused to be molded to researchers' assumptions, the task of putting people and their activities into analytical categories challenged the validity of the categories themselves. In this way, statistical representations and categories became socially constructed knowledge. Attempts by Russia's zemstvo statisticians to discover underlying "universal laws" of peasant society illustrate this tension in the process of collecting data and categorizing it for analysis. 2 These attempts reflected researchers' as- sumptions and necessitated a shift in the way they perceived their subject. What began as investigations of the Russian peasant's repartitional land commune (mir or obshchina) soon shifted focus to individual peasant households. An ex- amination of this process reveals the socially constructed nature of the house- hold model of peasant economy offered in the work of A. V. Chaianov and oth- ers of the so-called Organization and Production School. 3 On one hand, his approach to understanding the dynamics of the peasant economy differed sub-
 
Article
Like women in many parts of the world whose husbands predeceased them, widows in China were free electrons, unbound elements in the social chemistry. Economically vulnerable, ritually superfluous, and at the same time socially destabilizing and sexually threatening, they were archetypal liminal figures-marginalized, caricatured, and feared. This has made the widow a good subject for literary critics, anthropologists, and historians interested in the way that societies treat women and in the way that treatment of widows in particular is intended to ward off or contain potential disturbance to the status quo. For China, examining changing attitudes toward widows can illuminate larger social, political, and economic shifts in the late imperial period, roughly the thirteenth through the early twentieth centuries. By focusing on Manchu widows, the present essay attempts to improve our understanding of widowhood in late imperial China and at the same time shed light on the role of widows, and women generally, in the construction of ethnicity in the Qing period (1644-1911), when the alien Manchu dynasty ruled the country.
 
Article
Ams to bring real data on women's work-"essential but culturally undervalued"-into the analysis of China's economy. Women's labor tends to disappear into kinship relations and to fall beneath the radar of the state, but for recent times it can be retrieved through interviews. Survey research shows differential rates of footbinding in the last century among various regions, giving a common measure against which to compare the intensity and kinds of work that women contributed to the highly gendered political economy of China.
 
Article
The Nordic countries differ from other Western societies in their long histories of premarital sexual permissiveness. Yet, in spite of this general permissiveness, there are enormous variations in the frequency of illegitimacy and in the tolerance of it, both among the five Nordic countries and within each of them. Iceland is an exception; here the rate of illegitimacy is high throughout the country, and so is tolerance of it. Sweden appears to be moving in this direction, but the historical situation is more complex.
 
Article
“Phrenology is of German origin: Vienna was its birthplace, Gall and Spurzheim its progenitors. But it was in France that it acquired its European eclat”, stated George Lewes in 1857. But he went on to declare that it was in America and Britain that the pseudo-science had its widest popularity amongst the “general thinking public”. The writing of the history of phrenology has also broken along national lines. Its impact on America and Britain in the first half of the nineteenth century has attracted the attention of a generation of young social historians, whereas its progress in France has drawn the interest only of historians of medicine.
 
Article
This essay deals mainly with the factors influencing the reception of psychoanalysis in Germany. However, I will preface my discussion with two brief sections describing the events of the reception. Please note that as used here, Germany refers specifically to the state, and not to the German-speaking areas of central Europe.
 
Article
It is clear from the title that this paper has an historiographical emphasis, one which might seem naive to the professional historian, but one which is not at all so naive to the historian of science or medicine. For me, these disciplines should speak to the present; my aim is to direct our attention to the failure of the history of medicine in this respect, and to suggest possible linkages with the human sciences, whose energies are so directed. I do not mean that its subject matter must be drawn from contemporary events—sometimes the very foreignness of the past allows an encapsulation of a situation which gives a clearer view both of the constraints operative within it, and of the unities underlying apparent diversity. This clarity can then encourage a more perceptive reflexion back to the present.
 
Article
Haitian Vodou has long been viewed through a distorted lens by outsiders. In the nineteenth century, as the Republic of Haiti suffered from a unique degree of economic and political isolation implemented and enforced by the powerful slaveholding empires and nations that surrounded it, Vodou was commonly represented as the ultimate antithesis of as a case of African superstition reborn in the Americas. During the U.S. occupation of Haiti from 1915 to 1934, images of Haitian Vodou as a terrain of demonic possession, absurd superstition, and zombis proliferated in the United States. At the same time, the twentieth century has also seen the publication of several careful ethnographic works about Vodou. During the 1930s, Melville Herskovits published his LifeinaHaitianValley, which argued that the Haitian religion had West African roots. During the same period Zora Neale Hurston wrote her less well-known TellMyHorse. Both of these works attentively described aspects of Vodou, as did Alfred Metraux's classic 1959 text VoodooinHaiti. The next year Harold Courlander's DrumandHoe provided detailed examinations of Haitian ritual music. The filmmaker and dancer Maya Deren published her at times experimental DivineHorsemen, which drew on Joseph Campbell's theories in seeking to describe the theological system of the religion. Another dancer, Kathryn Dunham, also described Vodou in her IslandPossessed, published in 1969. The obstinate, broader stereotypes against which these works were articulated influenced the ways in which all these authors wrote about and interpreted the religion. These texts, notably those by Metraux and Deren, fought a battle for Vodou, confronting the idea that was it was little more than a or the expression of with carefully crafted descriptions of the belief systems and ritual of what they showed to be a complex and deeply rooted religion. This work on Vodou developed alongside other works on religions, such as Cuban Santéria, and Brazilian Candomblé, as well as on the African influences on Afro-American Christianity. 1
 
Article
I want to begin this paper with two simple points. One is that nations are established by constructing a core or mainstreamfor they are the means of constituting national majorities or mainstreams. Nations, and nationalisms, are established by defining boundaries. However, these are not alwayssharply or easily defined. Nationalisms have therefore commonly moved along the path of identifying the core or mainstream of the nation. Alongside this emerge notions of minorities, marginal communities, or elements, 2 the fuzzy edges and grey areas around which the question of boundarieswill be negotiated or fought over.
 
Article
The gorgons had thus the same effect as paradoxes. For paralysis means: immobility; and immobility: to be unable to observe (Niklas Luhmann). 1 Recently, the character of sixteenth-century Venetian politics and culture has become the focus of attention among scholars of early modern Venice. In her book on CityCultureandtheMadrigalatVenice, Martha Feldman states that given the of Venetians whose urban culture oscillated to contemporary court culture. 2 Margaret Rosenthal has examined how Veronica Franco, poetess and prostitute in sixteenth-century Venice, portrayed herself as an ingeniously appropriating the oxymoronic Venus-Virgin paradigm in Venetian iconography. 3 According to Edward Muir, the doge's were the complementary features of a 4 I would like to contribute to this debate by analyzing how the social practice of marriage among the patriciate and the language of perfection in sixteenth-century political discourse followed the logic of paradoxical constellations. Rather than arguing for a causal connection between social practice on the one hand and political theory on the other, I propose to apply one analytical framework to investigate the paradoxical qualities of different social, political, economic, and cultural phenomena which were at the center of politics and society in Late Renaissance Venice.
 
Article
In this article I will first investigate the response Freudian psychoanalysis received in the Netherlands from 1905, when the first Dutch analyst began to practice psychoanalysis, until the beginning of World War II. Then I will briefly describe the development of psychoanalysis after the war. In the Netherlands as elsewhere Freudian psychoanalysis was transmitted first to the medical profession, that is to say, to a segment of the Dutch social elite. From there, Freud's ideas spread to other parts of the elite, especially the intellectuals and the religious leaders, after which psychoanalysis was filtered down to the public at large in a form the elite thought appropriate to it.
 
Article
Today cultural thingness is on the agenda. What Appadurai has called “methodological fetishism” has become the byword for a new type of inquiry into the ontology of possession and circulation of things. Of these, the Maussian ’gift' has emerged as an organizing topos for other institutions of exchange not structured by the contractual rationality of commodity.
 
Collective Dose per Unit of Electrical Production  
Friendly Maintenance Supervisor  
Plastics  
Changing Shoes at Area Boundary
Rubber Station  
Article
Radiation is a workplace hazard that eludes the sensing body, or seems to. After Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, Kai Erickson described radiation as “an invisible threat,” “the very embodiment of stealth and treachery.” The first generation of Canadian nuclear power workers, from their four decades of experience around reactors has a different sense of the matter. They describe a physical awareness of the morphology and topography of radiation, a cultivated bodily knowledge that informed their actions as they produced power. They describe a “feel and a touch for the plant,” framed in theoretical studies, made through attentiveness and alert expectation, honed by being out and about in the station, being its intimate, “listening to its very cries.” By their telling, “doesn't feel right” ceased to be a metaphor about their workplace circumstance, and through study and practice, became a bodily effect, a report from the somatic. Key to work safety for Canadian nuclear workers were close study of the theory of ionizing radiation, adeptness with both the instruments which made radiation apparent and the calculations that made the readings on dials into qualitatively and spatially distinctive workplace presences, and skill in choosing, donning, building, and removing physical barriers between their bodies and radiation fields. Through this knowledge and practice, Canadian nuclear workers came to embody the hazards of the job. This working knowledge of the insensible enabled them to be responsible for their own radiation protection and for the safety of those with whom they worked.
 
Article
My objective is to examine an intriguing and heretofore unrecognized convergence in the history of bookkeeping. The story revolves around an extraordinary parallelism in the evolution of bookkeeping and the philosophical and ethical principles underlying the practice of accounting between southern Europe and Andean South America during the two centuries or so prior to the Spanish invasion of the Inka Empire in 1532. The event of the European invasion of the Andes brought these two similar yet distinct trans-Atlantic traditions of bookkeeping and accounting into violent confrontation. Copyright © Society for the Comparative Study of Society and History 2009.
 
Article
En Egypte, les islamistes et l'Etat constituent des forces politiques assez equilibrees si bien qu'aucun parti n'est assure d'une victoire totale. La revolution islamique en Iran est un peu semblable a celle qui secoua la Russie en 1917. Le regime politique egyptien est reste intact et il a, dans les annees 1990, intensifie la pression sur les islamistes. En fait, l'Egypte a fait l'experience d'un mouvement islamique fort et persistant mais sans revolution tandis que l'Iran a connu une revolution sans un mouvement islamique reellement fort. Dans les annees 1980, l'Iran s'engageait dans une phase post-islamique
 
Article
Michael Scott adopts Marshall Sahlins' view that anthropologists have been the inheritors of a secularized and bourgeoisified Biblical cosmology in which a Hobbsean chaotic atomism gives way to an order of social solidarity, but argues that today the prevailing cosmology is nearly the inverse of that, namely one in which chaos is constantly being shaped into social order through processes of selection and combination, or hybridity. The author proposes to coordinate the cosmology of anthropologists with the chaos models of subjects in lived situations, examining two ethnographic cases, one from the Solomon Islands, involving conflicting matrilineal identities, the other from Africa, involving ethnic violence in Burundi and Rwanda.
 
Article
In this paper, I concentrate on the relevance of the agrarian question for industry in Tiruppur. I show how Gounder toil draws from a specific agrarian labor regime forged in the 1930s, and how Tiruppur became a specialist town through regional processes of agrarian transition and geographical specialization. I then turn to the ways in which Gounder peasant-workers came to the industrial cluster in Tiruppur and remade practices of work while remaking themselves as a fraternity of decentralized capital. I conclude by suggesting how ex-worker Gounder owners enact their propensities to toil in stitching sections at the heart of the division of labor, where they revive an agrarian past to remake the industrial present. My point is not that the subaltern can accumulate capital. Rather, I am concerned with how certain subalterns remake self and circumstances to harness specific cultural-historic resources to the possibilities of capitalist development. In the process, subaltern knowledge and power become a means for provincializing capital within the uneven development of capitalism.
 
Article
While most American academics and policymakers are familiar with the problems facing the growing elderly population in the United States, many are surprised to learn ofthe troubles confronting the aged in Africa. In stark contrast to the mythic image of the tightly-knit extended family, where grandparents are lovingly cared for as a respected and integral part of the family unit, is the unforgiving reality of hunger, ill health, and loneliness that is the daily existence for many elderly Africans. It is critical that the problems of the aged in Africa and other parts of the developing world be examined, but we must recognize that these problems do not signify a simple convergence toward a common social ill across the globe. Rather, the nature of inter-generational solidarity varies, sometimes dramatically, over time and across contexts. This study employs a comparative analysis to reveal important differences in the nature of inter-generational solidarity over time between two similar sub-regions in neighboring Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire in West Africa, and asks what explains those differences.
 
Article
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/50889/1/112.pdf
 
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Like all great cities, Calcutta has its share of catty rumors, many of which are about Calcuttans themselves. One of these runs as follows: Nirad C. Chaudhuri (1897–1999), the noted Bengali Anglophile and man of letters, visited England for the first time sometime in the late 1950s. Out on the streets of London, Niradbabu started navigating his cab like a veteran Londoner. What the driver found incongruous was the fact that Niradbabu mentioned some landmarks which no longer existed. It was explained to him that these had either been demolished or bombed during the War. Now, how did he know about the city so well without ever setting foot in England? By his own admission, he was brought up to consume England as an ever-present entity, “very much like the sky above our head,” in his remote ancestral East Bengal village, largely through books, pictures, and newspapers.Another variant of this story has been corroborated by Chaudhuri himself.
 
Article
In south India's rapidly expanding information technology (IT) industry, the small, traditional elite of Tamil Brahmans is disproportionately well represented. Actually, no figures to confirm this assertion exist, but all the circumstantial evidence suggests that it is true, especially among the IT professionals and software engineers employed by the leading software and services companies in Chennai (Madras).Since the nineteenth century, Tamil Brahmans have successfully entered several new fields of modern professional employment, particularly administration, law, and teaching, but also engineering, banking, and accountancy. Hence the movement into IT, despite some novel features, has clear precedents. All these professional fields require academic qualifications, mostly at a higher level, and the Brahmans' success is seemingly explained by their standards of modern education, which reflect their caste traditions of learning.
 
Article
Markets of Dispossession: NGOs, Economic Development, and the State in Cairo - - Volume 49 Issue 1 - Marina Welker
 
Article
Economists have, in the past generation, become deeply concerned with the problem of economic growth. Of late years, as traditional economic models have demonstrated inadequacies, economists have become increasingly interested in the social and cultural inputs necessary for growth in economic productivity. Human, value-related factors, particularly education, role definition, and the place of science and technology, have taken a place beside the more traditional categories of the economist and economic historian. But these human factors, important though all admit them to be, are, especially in historical contexts, not usually amenable to quantitative methods of datagathering. It is difficult, on the one hand, to evaluate and sample such elusive factors, and on the other hand to define their precise role in social change.
 
Percentage of Total Exports Accounted for by Four Commodities 
Types of Labor Forces Employed in Mining and Forestry 
Article
Why do some states resort to more exclusive top-down management of natural resources, while others tend to be more inclusive and solicit participation from civil society? By rejecting the simple characterization of the state within the narrow spectrum of "weak" and "strong," this article investigates resource-mediated relations in the peripheral social groups that the state has sought to transform as part of the process of modernization. Focusing on Siam and Japan, I highlight alternative explanations based on ethnicity and labor, bureaucratic mindset, and agro-ecological conditions. I argue that the more embedded nature of the labor force in resources sectors made it necessary for the Japanese government to engage with marginal people, whereas the enclave nature of such sectors in Siam allowed elites to establish a distinctively exclusive system. While the Japanese state quickly learned to accommodate people at the fringes through its recognition and acceptance of existing customs in the management of resources, and even facilitated the creation of local organizations such as forest unions, the Siamese were consistently more exclusionary and even oppressed indigenous groups living at the state's territorial periphery. Resource interventions targeted at the fringes of land and society in Japan and Siam produced lasting effects on state-society relations that have extended far beyond their original intention of securing resource procurement. Understanding the historical roots of such relations offers a fresh perspective from which to explain why state inaction prevails in the present debate on state devolution in Thailand.
 
Article
In 1840, the General Committee for Public Instruction in Bengal, presiding over the educational policy enunciated five years earlier, declared, all of which would The Committee observed with satisfaction that English education was proving very popular with the middle classes, but also noted, The Committee clearly hoped that over time education would come to be appreciated for other reasons. In the meantime, its instrumental value constituted a useful and even necessary inducement. A few years later, this same body reported many more students were entering and completing school, thus achieving their goal of attaining But, they continued,
 
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http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/50809/1/24.pdf
 
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