Comparative Parasitology

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Between April and October 2012, 20 juvenile and adult green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) were collected by hand or dipnet from 3 counties of Arkansas and examined for coccidial parasites. A single frog (5%) was found to be passing oocysts of a new eimerian species. Oocysts of Eimeria menaensis n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 25.4 × 15.6 (23-27 × 13-17) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle was absent but an oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Sporocysts were spheroidal to subspheroidal and measured 5.0 × 5.0 (4-6) µm with L/W of 1.1. An indistinct Stieda body was present, but sub-and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate and attenuated at both ends with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the second report of coccidia from L. clamitans and the first time a coccidian has been reported from a green frog from Arkansas.
Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of actins from Heterodera glycines and other nematodes. Amino acid matches to the derived consensus sequence are represented by dots (.). Actins signature 1, actins and actin-related proteins signature, and actins signature 2 are underlined; the residues diagnostic for plant nematodes are shaded.  
Amino acid (aa) and nucleotide (nt) homology of actin from Heterodera glycines and other nematodes.
Phylogenetic relationships between nematodes as inferred from partial nucleotide sequences of actin gene using maximum parsimony. Bootstrap supports more than 50% are given in appropriate clades.  
The relative synonymous condon usage (RCSU) for several amino acids in actins from Hetero- dera glycines and 2 filarial nematodes.
Diagram of exon composition of nematode actin genes. Axis numbers correspond to coding sequence nucleotides. Actin genes are schematically shown as combinations of exons of proper length. Intron locations are illustrated by shifts between exons.  
Actin is an abundant, highly expressed, and much conserved protein belonging to the actin-heat shock protein70-sugarkinase superfamily. The full-length messenger RNAs encoding actin were cloned and characterized from the plant-parasitic cyst nematodes Heterodera glycines and Globodera rostochiensis and from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus. The actins from the plant-parasitic nematodes showed highest amino acid sequence identity to filarial nematode homologues, whereas nucleotide sequence identity was much lower than that for many actins from very distant organisms, such as vertebrates, plants, or fungi. Analysis of base composition revealed a striking difference between the H. glycines actin gene and those of filarial nematodes in (G + C) content and usage of particular codons. Analysis of genomic DNA revealed the presence of 7 introns in the H. glycines actin gene. The first was atypically long and started with a GC dinucleotide, and the fifth intron occupied a novel site in the catalogue of intron positions known thus far for actin genes. Analysis of the partial genomic DNA sequences obtained from 6 other Heterodera spp. suggested that features shown for the H. glycines actin gene are characteristic for a wide range of cyst nematodes.
Nematodes of the tribe Cyathostominea are important parasites of horses. They live in large numbers in the large intestine and include over 50 species worldwide. This report describes an enumeration study of species found in a small population of horses in western Scotland. As found previously in a wide range of geographic regions, the 7 most abundant species of Cyathostominea, of the 18 recorded in this study, accounted for over 94% of the total population. One major exception to the results of previous studies was the presence of the most common species in this population, Cylicocyclus ashworthi. This species has not been recorded in the U.K. since its original description in 1924 and is morphologically very similar to another member of the same genus, Cylicocyclus nassatus, from which it has not been distinguished in previous studies in this geographical region. A rare species, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, was found in low numbers in 3 of 4 horses.
We examined the anurans Dendropsophus nanus, Hypsiboas raniceps, Phyllomedusa azurea, Pseudis limellum, Pseudis paradoxa, Scinax nasicus, Trachycephalus typhonius, Leptodactylus chaquensis, Leptodactylus fuscus, Leptodactylus podicipinus, and Physalaemus albonotatus from southeastern Pantanal, Brazil, for helminth parasites. These 11 anuran species were associated with 35 helminth taxa: 1 undetermined acanthocephalan, 28 nematodes, and 6 digenetic trematodes. Helminth species richness varied from 2 in the hylids D. nanus and P. limellum to 18 species in L. chaquensis. Cosmocercids, such as Aplectana hylambatis, C. podicipinus, and Parapharygodon were the most prevalent and abundant nematodes. Trematodes only reached high prevalence and abundance in the aquatic frog P. paradoxa, where Catadiscus sp. and Glypthelmins palmipens were considered central species. Most helminth species were common among different host species. We report a total of 48 new host records and provide remarks on the life cycle of most of the these helminth parasites.
Four hundred twenty-six specimens representing 13 species of Anolis, A. auratus, A. biporcatus, A. capito, A. frenatus, A. humilis, A. limifrons, A. lionotus, A. pachypus, A. pentaprion, A. poecilopus, A. townsendi, A. tropidogaster, and A. woodi, from Central America were examined for metazoan endoparasites. Five species of Digenea (Brachycoelium salamandrae, Mesocoelium monas, Parallopharynx arctus, Parallopharynx gonzalezi, and Urotrema shirleyae), 2 species of Cestoda (Mathevotaenia panamaensis and tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp.), 18 species of Nematoda (mature individuals of Africana telfordi, Cosmocercoides variabilis, Cyrtosomum penneri, Entomelas duellmani, Falcaustra costaricae, Hedruris heyeri, Oswaldocruzia nicaraguensis, Oswaldofilaria brevicaudata, Parapharyngodon cubensis, Physaloptera retusa, Piratuba digiticauda, Rhabdias anolis, Rhabdias nicaraguensis, Skrjabinelazia galliardi, Skrjabinelazia intermedia, Spauligodon anolis, Strongyluris panamaensis, and ascaridid larvae), 3 species of Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus saurius and centrorhynchid and oligacanthorhynchid cystacanths), and 1 species of Pentastomida (nymphs of Kiricephalus sp.) were found. Fifty-five new host records and 3 new locality records are reported. Central American anoles harbor generalist helminths that infect a broad spectrum of amphibian and reptilian hosts. The component helminth community of Central American anoles is distinct from the component helminth community reported for Caribbean, Mexican, North American, and South American anole populations.
Specimens of Laudakia caucasia with multiple nematodes.
ABSTRACT: Twenty-two Laudakia caucasia (Agamidae) from Iran were examined for helminths and found to harbor 3 species of Nematoda: Skrjabinodon pigmentatus, Spauligodon lacertae, and Thelandros baylisi. Laudakia caucasia represents a new host record for Sk. pigmentatus and Sp. lacertae; Iran is a new locality record for all 3 nematode species. Thelandros baylisi had the highest prevalence of infection (91%) followed by Sk. pigmentatus (45%) and Sp. lacertae (36%). KEY WORDS: Nematode, Skrjabinodon pigmentatus, Spauligodon lacertae, Thelandros baylisi, prevalence, Laudakia caucasia, Agamidae, Iran.
This note describes the first occurrence of Hapalotrema postorchis Rao, 1976 in the heart of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus, 1758, from Espirito Santo State, Brazil. This parasite has previously been reported only in Chelonia mydas from India, Australia, the United States, Costa Rica, and Taiwan. The note constitutes the first documented occurrence of this parasite in sea turtles from the western South Atlantic Ocean.
In the present study, the zoonotic tapeworms Dibothriocephalus latus and Dibothriocephalus dendriticus were identified for the first time, using morphological and molecular procedures, in a population of introduced Chinook salmon in Chile. The morphological differences observed between plerocercoids of D. latus and D. dendriticus were, respectively, a retracted and obscured scolex versus one that is always visible and only partially retracted after cold fixation; extension of frontal glands; size, types of, density of, and distribution of microtriches; and number of parenchymal longitudinal muscle bundles within 50-m spaces. With scanning electronic microscopy, both species presented 3 types of microtriches: coniform and uncinated spinitriches, and capilliform filitriches. In the body region, D. latus presents all types of microtriches, but D. dendriticus only possessed capilliform filitriches. Multiplex PCR targeting cox1 of Diphyllobothriidae and subsequent sequence analysis allowed for confirmation of species identity. All adult Chinook salmon examined (3260 cm total length) were infected by Dibothriocephalus spp. with a range of 15192 plerocercoids. Plerocercoids were found in the stomach, intestine, liver, spleen, gonads, swim bladder, peritoneum, heart, and muscles. The prevalence of infected salmon, the percentage of plerocercoids, and the mean intensity of D. latus in the muscles were 3, 4, and 2 times greater than that of D. dendriticus. Histological examination of the stomach, liver, spleen, gonads, and muscle revealed the presence of 1 or more encysted or free plerocercoids. In most cases, varying degrees of chronic inflammation and low presence of neutrophils were observed. The prey consumed by Chinook salmon included the native fish, Galaxias maculatus, and unidentified fish and amphipods. Other identified endohelminths were Derogenes lacustris Tsuchida, Flores, Viozzi, Rauque, and Urabe, 2021 in the stomach, Camallanus corderoi Torres, Teuber and Miranda, 1990 in the intestine, larvae of Contracaecum sp. in the intestinal wall, and Acanthocephalus tumescens (von Linstow, 1896) in the intestine. All identified parasites are reported for the first time in Chinook salmon from Chile.
Oocysts of a coccidium found in the small intestine of a road-killed opossum, Didelphis marsupialis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae), are described and identified as Eimeria marmosopos. Sporulated oocysts (n = 57) were subspherical to spherical and measured 21.9 × 22.1 (20–25 × 20–25); oocyst wall rough and striated, yellowish and bilayered; micropyle, polar body, and oocyst residuum all absent, but some oocysts have a polar granule. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 9.8 × 8.7 (8–13 × 7–12), with both a conspicuous Stieda body and sub-Stieda body, but para-Stieda body was absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of 2–5 globules (1–4 wide) and several smaller ones. Sporozoites (n = 10) were comma-shaped, ~7 × 2.7 and had 1 refractile body at their wider end and a centrally located nucleus. These morphological characters were compared with other Eimeria species found in related genera of New World marsupials; based on oocyst morphology, we identified this species as Eimeria marmosopos Heckscher, Wickesberg, Duszynski, and Gardner 1999. This finding constitutes both a new host genus and new geographical record for this species.
The occurrence of one specimen of Amphiorchis solus (Simha & Chattopadhyaya, 1970) found in the heart of a green sea turtle Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 from Ceara state, Brazil, is reported. A comparison of the morphology of Amphorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu, 1976 and A. solus also is presented. A new geographical distribution of A. solus is reported.
Four species of Dactylogyrus were found on gills of goldfish (Carassius auratus) in Cuba. The collected monogeneans were fixed in ammonium picrate and glycerin solution and mounted in glycerin gelatin. The species were identified based on morphological characteristics and measurements, and the 4 dactylogyrids were identified as D. dulkeiti Bychowsky, 1936; D. baueri Gussev, 1955; D. formosus Kulwiec, 1927; and D. intermedius Weger, 1910, which are new records from goldfish in Cuba.
Eighty-two green lizards, Lacerta viridis (Laurenti, 1768), from different locations of Bursa, Turkey, were examined for helminths. Two species of Cestoda, Mesocestoides sp. (as tetrathyridium) and Oochoristica tuberculata, and 4 species of Nematoda, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni, Skrjabinelazia taurica, and Skrjabinodon medinae, were found. Lacerta viridis is parasitized by generalist helminths that also infect other lizards. Parasite lists for other Turkish lacertid lizards are given.
Forty-five ocellated bronze skinks, Chalcides ocellatus (17 males, 26 females, and 2 juveniles), from eight localities in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey were examined for helminths. Forty-four hosts were infected with 1 or more species of helminth. One species of Digenea, Brachylaima sp. (metacercaria), 1 species of Cestoda, Oochoristica tuberculata, and 6 species of Nematoda, Parapharyngodon bulbosus, Pharyngodon inermicauda, Pharyngodon mamillatus, Skrjabinodon aegyptiacus, Spinicauda sonsinoi, and Moaciria icosiensis, were found. Chalcides ocellatus represents a new host record for Brachylaima sp. and Turkey is a new locality record for P. bulbosus, Ph. inermicauda, Ph. mamillatus, S. aegyptiacus, Sp. sonsinoi, and M. icosiensis.
Map of Mongolia with localities indicated from which individuals of Pygeretmus pumilio (Kerr, 1792) were collected during the years of expeditionary field work by the Mongolian Vertebrate Parasite Project (1999-2012). 
Phylogenetic relationships of Catenotaenia spp. in the Palearctic region estimated by TNT software (Goloboff et al., 2008) for ca. 1.5 kb of 28S rRNA using maximum parsimony. Catenotaenia dendritica (a parasite of sciurids in Eurasia) is the sister taxon of Catenotaenia tuyae n. sp. Node values reported include standard bootstrap values (top number) and symmetric resampling value (bottom number). Arrow indicates C. tuyae n. sp. described from Pygeretmus pumilio (Kerr, 1792). 
, 3. Photographs of host and tapeworm. 2. Image of Pygeretmus pumilio (Kerr, 1792) from southwestern Mongolia. 3. Scolex of Catenotaenia tuyae n. sp. showing suckers and well developed apical organ. 
Line drawings of Catenotaenia tuyae n. sp. 4. Mature proglottid, dorsal view. 5. Details of the genital pore, dorsal view. 6. Gravid proglottid, dorsal view. 
From 1999 through 2012, a total of 541 individual rodents (jerboas of the family Dipodidae) were collected from several habitat types, primarily from the Gobi region of Mongolia, and were examined for helminth and protistan parasites. Of those rodents, 25 were identified as Pygeretmus pumilio Kerr, 1792 (Rodentia: Dipodidae), whereas 516 were other species of jerboa from the provinces of Dornogobi, Dundgobi, Omnogobi, Ovorhangai, Bayanhongor, Gobi Altai, and Hovd. During our field work, we collected several cestodes; some of which represented undescribed species, and these new species occurred in 40% of P. pumilio from four separate collecting localities. We designate this new species as Catenotaenia tuyae n. sp. (Cyclophyllidea: Catenotaeniidae), which is characterized by having relatively long and narrow gravid proglottids and an ovary in mature segments that is located antiporally in the anterior portion of the mature proglottids. In addition, the position and the ratio of the genital pore toward the anterior end of the proglottids are unique and the ovary is elongate, being confined to the antiporal part of the mature proglottid. These morphological features serve to differentiate Catenotaenia tuyae from all other species in the genus included in the phylogenetic analysis and are supported by molecular phylogenetic evidence using the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. The intensity of C. tuyae infection in Pygeretmus ranged from 1 to 3 individual cestodes per infected host.
Pharyngodon frenatusi (Nematoda: Pharyngodonidae) is reported from Brooks’ house gecko, Hemidactylus brookii, and flat-tailed house gecko, Hemidactylus platyurus, from Kirtipur, Nepal. Fifteen samples of H. brookii and 10 H. platyurus were collected in 2014 and examined for helminth parasites. Pharyngodon frenatusi was found in great numbers in the intestines of both hosts. The prevalence of P. frenatusi in H. brookii was 73%, and in H. platyurus, it was 80%. This is the first report, to our knowledge of P. frenatusi reported in house geckoes of Nepal. Hemidactylus platyurus represents a new host record for P. frenatusi. Keywords: Pharyngodon frenatusi, Nematoda, Hemidactylus brookii, Hemidactylus platyurus, Kirtipur, Nepal
The site specificity and developmental morphology of Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus was studied in its definitive host the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). Opossums were infected with cystacanths removed from the hemocoels of the millipede Narceus americanus, the intermediate host of O. microcephalus. At 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk postinfection (PI), an opossum was killed and the small intestine was removed and divided into 20 equal sections. The locations of all worms were recorded and worms present used to describe morphology at each time interval PI. Collectively, worms occurred in intestinal segments 2-15. No worm occurred in the first intestinal segment or in the last five segments of the intestine. Worms demonstrated a moderate degree of site specificity, with the majority of worms aggregating between intestinal segments 9 and 13, accounting for 69% of the total worm burden. Commencing at 2 wk PI, growth rates of females were almost twice those of males. Although the growth rate of both sexes slowed over time, both sexes continued to grow after achieving sexual maturity. Cement caps were found on females collected at 4 wk PI, 6 wk PI, and in adult worms, indicating that copulation commences between 2 and 4 wk PI. Proboscis length and width did not change throughout development. In males, testes increased in size and became separated by progressively increasing distances throughout development, although they remained within the posterior third of the trunk.
We examined 122 specimens of Chrysomus ruficapillus (Vieillot, 1819) from southern Brazil for nasal mites. The mites, Sternostoma strandtmanni Furman, 1957; Ptilonyssus sairae (Castro, 1948); Ptilonyssus icteridius (Strandtmann and Furman, 1956); and Ptilonyssus sp. were identified. Ptilonyssus sairae was the most prevalent (14.8%), and S. strandtmanni had the highest mean infection intensity (5.53). Co-infections occurred in 15 hosts, and P. sairae and P. icteridius were simultaneously present in 11 birds. This is the first record of S. strandtmanni and P. sairae in C. ruficapillus and the southernmost record of P. icteridius in the Americas.
Distribution of Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus. States in the United States and Mexico, and countries in South America from which O. microcephalus is being, or has been, reported are shown in gray. Question mark indicates unconfirmed distribution record for Pennsylvania. 
Drawings of 68-d-old specimens of Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus from laboratory-infected Virginia opossums, Didelphis virginiana fed cystacanths taken from the hemocoels of millipedes (Narceus americanus) collected from Honey Island Swamp on the Pearl River, east of Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana. 1. Eggs from YPM68467. 2. Adult male (YPM68468). 3. Adult female (YPM68466). 4. Proboscis of YMP68174. 5. Female reproductive system (YPM68466). 
Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus (Rudolphi, 1819) Schmidt, 1972 was originally described from the philander opossum Caluromys philander from Brazil. Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa (Leidy, 1850) Schmidt, 1972 was originally described from the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in North America. Six years after describing O. tortuosa, Leidy indicated the synonomy of O. tortuosa with O. microcephalus. This taxonomic view persisted for decades until Van Cleave, in 1924, recognized the validity of O. tortuosa, apparently without examining the type material of O. microcephalus. Subsequent workers have recognized two species of Oligacanthorhynchus from New World opossums: O. microcephalus from South American opossums and O. tortuosa from North American opossums. In this study, comparison of individuals of O. tortuosa from D. virginiana from the United States with the type specimen of O. microcephalus revealed the worms to be conspecific. It was thus determined that O. tortuosa is a junior synonym of O. microcephalus and O. microcephalus is redescribed on the basis of both laboratory-reared material and the type specimen. Additionally, comparison of the type material of Oligacanthorhyncus tumida (Van Cleave, 1947) Schmidt, 1972 revealed these specimens to be conspecific with O. microcephalus; thus, O. tumida (Van Cleave, 1947) Schmidt, 1972 is considered a junior synonym of O. microcephalus. Analysis of the literature and museum specimens reveals that O. microcephalus exhibits a broad distribution throughout much of the New World, utilizing an array of hosts with substantially overlapping ranges.
Anenterotrema is a genus of digeneans lacking digestive systems and parasitic in Neotropical bats. We have found a new species of Anenterotrema in silky short-tailed bats (Carollia brevicauda) from Peru. The new Anenterotrema species can be readily differentiated from previously described congeners by a combination of morphological characters. It differs from its morphologically closest cogener, Anenterotrema mesolecitha, in having smaller eggs, a much larger cirrus sac, and in the position of ovary. This is the sixth species of this genus and first to be described from Peru and C. brevicauda.
Four cercopitheciid primate species at an academic institution research facility within the United States were found infected with an Enterobius species that was morphologically and genetically distinct from all currently known species of pinworms and is herein described as Enterobius shriveri n. sp. Phylogenetic analysis is provided for E. shriveri based on analysis of a partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and a partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (Cox1) gene. Three of the 15 infected hosts were also co-infected with Enterobius macaci Yen, 1973. Electron microscopy and light microscopy images of both male and female E. shriveri and E. macaci specimens are provided, as are additional morphologic and morphometric data for E. macaci, both of which indicate differences between Asiatic mainland and Japanese island isolate forms.
One Xenodon merremii specimen was reported with a high number of a rhabdiasid nematodes in the lungs. The snake died shortly after its arrival in our laboratory after capture in the municipality of Saõ Manuel, Saõ Paulo State, Brazil. Necropsy revealed the presence of 13,526 nematodes, which we identified as Serpentirhabdias cf. vellardi, infecting the snake's lungs. A detailed morphological characterization of this nematode species and a discussion of the known cases of infection with Serpentirhabdias spp. are presented.
We examined 31 specimens of Rhinella granulosa from the semiarid Caatinga region of northeastern Brazil for the presence of gastrointestinal nematodes. We found 7 nematode taxa: Rhabdias androgyna, Raillietnema spectans, Aplectana membranosa, Oswaldocruzia sp., Physaloptera sp., Raillietnema sp., and cosmocercidae larvae. The total prevalence was 25.8% and by mean intensity of infection (± SD) was 50 ± 7.36. The prevalence in males was 10% with an intensity of 4 while in females it was 42.85% with a mean intensity of 42 ± 8.55. The juveniles presented a prevalence of 14.28% and an intensity of 4. Rhinella granulosa represents a new host for the following nematodes: Rhabdias androgyna, Raillietnema spectans, and Raillietnema sp.
This is the first record of Cosmocephalus obvelatus (Creplin, 1825) Seurat, 1919 (Nematoda: Acuariidae), from Argentina (Valdés Peninsula, province of Chubut) and from the Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Spheniscidae). The prevalence of this parasite was 31.3% and the mean intensity was 5.4. Despite the wide geographic distribution and the great variety of hosts parasitized by C. obvelatus (14 families belonging to 8 orders), there were no significant differences in morphological characteristics and measurements from previous records. Both the wide distribution and the morphometrical stability of C. obvelatus may be explained by its ecology and mode of transmission.
The prevalences of 2 species of isosporid coccidia are reported from 3 of 6 steppe polecats, Mustela eversmanii Lesson, 1827, trapped in an alpine meadow of the Haibei area, Qinghai Province, China, during the summer of 2010. The structures of the sporulated oocysts allowed us to determine that they represented 2 forms not reported since their original description in Kazakhstan by Svanbaev (1956) as Isospora eversmanni and Isospora pavlovskyi. However, the evidence continues to accumulate that Isospora species infecting mammals that have thick walls and do not have a Stieda body on their sporocysts should be transferred to Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977; thus, we have emended the names to reflect that transfer. In addition, we provide detailed mensural data and photomicrographs of sporulated oocysts, both lacking in their modest original descriptions, to help illustrate the differences seen between these species. We also submitted phototypes of a sporulated oocyst of each species to the United States National Parasite Collection (USNPC), and deposited a symbiotype host in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau Museum.
Here we present the occurrence of Pyelosomum cochlear Looss 1899 in the urinary bladder of an olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) from Brazil. This parasite species has previously been reported only from Chelonia mydas from Egypt, the United States (including Puerto Rico), Panama, and Costa Rica. This paper reports the first occurrence of P. cochlear parasitizing L. olivacea and the first occurrence of this parasite in the western South Atlantic.
Atriaster heterodus Lebedev and Paruchin, 1969, and Polylabris tubicirrus Paperna and Kohn, 1964, are reported from a new host Diplodus argenteus (Val., 1830) (Sparidae) from the Rio de Janeiro coast, Brazil, with new morphological data on A. heterodus using scanning electron microscopy. The holotype of P. tubicirrus is redescribed, and Polylabris diplodi is considered its new synonym.
River cooters (Pseudemys concinna Le Conte, 1830) from the Pascagoula River (30°37′07.67″N; 88°36′44.53″W; Mississippi, U.S.A.) were infected by Spirorchis scripta Stunkard, 1923, and Spirorchis testiplexus n. sp. The new species resembles Spirorchis artericola (Ward, 1921) Stunkard, 1921, and Spirorchis innominatus Ward, 1921 (type species), by having a median esophageal diverticulum, ceca that extend slightly posterior to the genitalia, 10 testes, and a testicular column that extends anteriad to near the cecal bifurcation. Based on a comparative morphological study of existing type materials, vouchers, and published descriptions of similar congeners, S. testiplexus is unique by the combination of having a proportionally wider body, laterally directed cecal diverticula, deeply lobed testes, a testicular column that fills the intercecal space, and an external seminal vesicle that occupies the space between the posterior-most testis and the ovary and that passes dorsal or dorsolateral to the ovary. The large-subunit rDNA (28S) Bayesian inference phylogenetic analysis (including 16 turtle blood fluke species of 7 genera) showed a strongly supported monophyletic Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918, grouping sister to Spirhapalum siamensis Tkach, Snyder, and Vaughn, 2009.
We examined 136 specimens of Cichla monoculus Spix, 1831, collected in the Parana River near Porto Rico, State of Parana, Brazil, from July 1996 through October 1997. Of the total number of fish, 133 (97.8%) were infected with at least 1 species of helminth. A total of 8 helminth species was recorded: 3 Digenea, Clinostomum sp., Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum (Lutz, 1928) and Diplostomum sp.; 3 Cestoda, Proteocephalus microscopicus Woodland, 1935, Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and Sciadocephalus megalodiscus Diesing, 1850: 1 Nematoda, Contracaecum sp.; and 1 Acanthocephala, Quadrigyrus machadoi Fabio, 1983, Proteocephalus microscopicus and P. macrophallus showed the highest values of prevalence and intensity of infection, followed by Contracaecum sp. In the endoparasite community of C. monoculus, the cestodes are both dominant and codominant species. The typical pattern of overdispersion or aggregation was observed for P. microscopicus, P. macrophallus, S. megalodiscus, Q. machadoi and Contracaecum sp. Prevalence and total host length were positively correlated in fish parasitized by P. microscopicus, P. macrophallus, and S. megalodiscus. Infection intensity and host length were positively correlated only for P. microscopicus. There were significant differences in the prevalence of P. macrophallus and Q. machadoi in males and females of C. monoculus. Clinostomum sp., Diplostomum sp., D. (A.) compactum and Q. machadoi were found for the first time in C. monoculus.
Helminths of sympatric Bufo marinus (Linnaeus) (N = 49) and Bufo marmoreus Wiegmann (N = 19) from the Pacific coast of Jalisco, Mexico, are reported. Bufo marinus harbored Ochoterenella digiticauda Caballero y Caballero, Rhabdias fuelleborni Travassos, Physaloptera sp. (larvae), an unidentified species of nematode, and cystacanths of Centrorhynchus sp. Bufo marinus is a new host and Jalisco a new locality record for R. fuelleborni and Physaloptera sp. Bufo marmoreus harbored Aplectana incerta Caballero y Caballero, R. fuelleborni, Physocephalus sp, (larvae), and cystacanths of Centrorhynchus sp. Bufo marmoreus is a new host record for each of these helminths.
One hundred slimy sculpins, Cottus cognatus (Cottidae), collected from Six Fathom Bank Lake Trout Refuge in Lake Huron in June 1995 were examined for parasites. A total of 17 parasite species (3 Digenea, 2 Monogenea, 3 Cestoda, 3 Nematoda, 2 Acanthocephala, 2 Ciliophora, 1 Microspora, and 1 Myxosporea) were found to infect sculpins. Tetracotyle sp. had the highest prevalence, mean intensity, and mean abundance, followed by Diplostomum sp. The most common gastrointestinal helminth species was Echinorhynchus salmonis. Epistylis sp. occurred on the gills of 79 sculpins. The mean parasite species richness ± SD and mean helminth abundance ± SD were 5.4 ± 1.6 and 242.6 ± 264.5, respectively. The mean Brillouin's diversity and evenness values were 0.5773 ± 0.1915 and 0.5248 ± 0.1892, respectively. Although the helminth community of slimy sculpins is dominated by larval trematodes that mature in piscivorous birds, it is believed that few slimy sculpins are eaten by birds at this location.
During a study of the parasitofauna of Galaxias maculatus from Patagonia, Argentina, specimens with melanosis on the caudal peduncle were found. The melanosis was caused by encapsulation of an Eustrongylides sp. larva. By experimentation using chicks, a subadult with a poorly developed posterior end and a cephalic end similar to E. tubifex was obtained. This is the first report of Eustrongylides in fishes from Argentina and in G. maculatus from South America, including a new location and type of reaction.
Specimens of the tipulid (cranefly) larvae Tipula (Pterelachisas) sp. Rondani (n = 118) were recovered from rotting logs in 2 forests of central Ohio from 2011 to 2016. Examination of the posterior intestine revealed the presence of the thelastomatid nematode Cephalobellus brevicaudatus (Leidy, 1851) Christie, 1933. This finding constitutes the first North American record for the parasite in a dipteran larva and the first Nearctic report of this species since 1851. First morphological data for the males from North America are provided, and voucher ribosomal DNA sequences for C. brevicaudatus and for the hosts were compiled.
Although there is a large literature base reporting Placobdella ornata utilizing numerous turtle host species, those reports are all based on misidentifications of the leech resulting from taxonomic confusion in the literature and are thus invalid. In the original description of Clepsine phalera (junior synonym of P. ornata), it was suggested that the stinkpot turtle, Sternotherus odoratus, is a host of P. ornata. Nevertheless, no host has been definitively documented for P. ornata. When introduced to S. odoratus in the laboratory, individuals of P. ornata readily attached and fed. Duration of feeding was short, less than 24 hr. Individuals of P. ornata did not feed on various amphibians, fish, or a human.
Reptiles often serve as hosts for various endo- and ectoparasites including protozoan blood and intestinal parasites. In this study, we report the occurrence of protozoans belonging to three families: Trichomonadidae, Proteromonadidae, and Lankesterellidae, in lizard blood samples. A total of 738 individuals of 4 lizard species (Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis muralis, and Zootoca vivipara) captured from 4 European countries (Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia) were examined. One blood smear obtained in 2008 from L. agilis (Odolanów, Poland) was found to be infected with trophozoites representing three genera: Karyolysus lacazei, Tritrichomonas sp., and Proteromonas sp. Moreover, Proteromonas sp. were detected by molecular methods in another individual of Lacerta agilis exigua (Romania, Vadu), which revealed 100% similarity with the isolate of Proteromonas lacertae isolated from the American Type Culture Collection (GenBank accession number U37108). Sporozoites of Schellackia sp. were detected in blood smears from 2 individuals of L. viridis from Slovakia. Molecular detection revealed the occurrence of Schellackia sp. in 2 individuals, L. viridis (Slovakia) and Lacerta agilis erythronota (Romania) and showed 99% and 90% similarity, respectively, with isolates of Schellackia-like parasites obtained from Lacerta schreiberi (GenBank acc. no. JX984675, JX984674) and Podarcis hispanica (GenBank acc. no. X984676, JQ762306, KJ18938) from Portugal and Spain. This study represents documentation of multiple infections (trophozoites of Karyolysus sp., Tritrichomonas sp., and Proteromonas sp.) detected in a sand lizard from Poland, and the first report of Schellackia in populations of a green lizards (Slovakia) and sand lizards (Romania), as well as the first evidence of Proteromonas sp. from the Romania population of sand lizards.
Confusion regarding the identification of Placobdella hollensis (Whitman, 1892) (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae) has led to an unclear understanding of the distribution of the species. Two specimens of P. hollensis were collected from Merchants Millpond State Park, Gates County, North Carolina, U.S.A., representing a new geographic distribution record. Specimens were confirmed as P. hollensis by morphological and molecular study. Specimens of P. hollensis from North Carolina, had accessory eyes, 2 thin paramedial dark lines, and 3 pairs of pre-anal papillae. Molecular comparison of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequence data revealed a 99.0 to 99.7% similarity to specimens of P. hollensis collected from its type locality (Barnstable County, Massachusetts, U.S.A.). From confirmed specimens of P. hollensis, this report supports the assertion that P. hollensis has an Atlantic coastal distribution.
Two species of monorchiids are described from marine fishes of the Kuwaiti coast of the Arabian Gulf: Proctotrematoides kutvaiti sp. n. from Synaptura orientalis and Pseudorhombus arsius differs from all others in the genus by the absence of a prepharynx and esophagus and by the arrangement and position of the vitelline follicles. Opisthodiplomonorchis elongatus Madhavi, 1974, is reported from Polydactylus sextarius and Plectorhynchus sp., both new locality records and the latter a new host record. Opisthodiplomonorchis differs from all monorchiid genera with diagonal or tandem testes by the following combination of characteristics: vitellaria in 2 lateral groups of pre- and postovarian follicles, multilobed ovary, tandem testes at the posterior extremity, and unipartite seminal vesicle and terminal organ. Keys to the species of Proctotrematoides and monorchiids with 2 testes are included. Pseudomonorcheides Zhukov, 1983, nee Pseudomonorcheides Wang, 1982, is renamed Zhukovtrema.
Adult of Pseudocorynosoma constrictum.
Phylogenetic tree obtained with maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) analyses (consensus). Numbers near internal nodes show ML/MP bootstrap clade frequencies. Adult (m), Acanthella (&), cystacanth ( N ).
, 2. Amphipod Hyalella azteca harboring the cystacanth (1) and acanthella (2) of Pseudocorynosoma constrictum.
Scanning electron micrographs of adult Pseudocorynosoma constrictum from Anas clypeata. 8. Entire. 9. Anterior region of trunk. 10. Proboscis.
Pseudocorynosoma constrictum Van Cleave, 1918 (Polymorphidae) is an endoparasite that infects a variety species of waterfowl from North America. Specimens of P. constrictum were recovered in central Mexico from 7 species of definitive host as well as from the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca, its intermediate host. In total, 69 amphipods were infected with 15 acanthella and 58 cystacanths. Morphologically, the adults and cystacanths of P. constrictum possess triangular spines covering most of the anterior part of the trunk, they have a slight constriction separating the anterior and posterior regions of the trunk, and they have an ovoid or cylindrical proboscis with a slightly swollen region covered with 16 longitudinal rows of 10 hooks each. Sequences of the mitochondrial coding gene cytochrome c oxidase were generated for 21 samples of P. constrictum (14 adults, 3 acanthella, and 4 cystacanths). The genetic divergence estimated among specimens was very low, ranging from 0 to 3%. All these sequences were aligned with 18 other taxa, representing 6 genera of Polymorphidae, forming a data set of 39 taxa with 655 nucleotides. The maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood trees indicated that the 21 sequences of P. constrictum formed a well-supported clade. The morphological evidence, in combination with the genetic divergence, plus the systematic position in the phylogenetic trees, indicated that all the samples of P. constrictum belong to the same lineage. The presence of P. constrictum in 7 species of waterfowl from central Mexico could be explained as a result of host-sharing, as the result of these hosts occurring in sympatry, and by the fact that they feed on the same species of amphipod known to harbor cystacanths. This study also confirms that a complete life cycle occurs in central Mexico wetlands.
Fifty-six plateau brown frogs, Rana kukunoris Nikolsky, 1918, were collected from June to August 2014, and examined for parasites. Our goal was to survey the parasite species and its prevalence and mean intensity from the plateau brown frog in the Northeast of Qing-Tibetan plateau. Thirty-three of 56 (59%) frogs examined were infected with 1 or more parasites, including 19 (34%) with Dolichosaccus ranae Wang, 1980; 11 (20%) with Nematotaenia dispar (Goeze 1782) Lühe, 1899; 53 (95%) with Aplentana leesi Hristovski and Riggo, 1975; 3 (5%) with Rhabdias sp.; and 8 (14%) with unidentified juvenile nematodes. In addition, 4 (7%) frogs were found to harbor a previously unreported isosporan, which we describe herein. Sporulated oocysts of the new isosporan were ellipsoidal, 14.2 × 10.2 (12-16 × 8-12) μm, with a smooth, thin wall, and a shape index of 1.4 (1.1-1.8). No micropyle or oocyst residuum were present, but the oocysts contained one polar granule composed of 1-2 globules stuck together. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 8.7 × 7.2 (8-10 × 6-9) μm, with a shape index of 1.2 (1.0-1.4), and lacked Stieda, sub-Stieda, and para-Stieda bodies; they possessed a large sporocyst residuum consisting of an aggregate of granules bounded by a limiting membrane. Sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with one end slightly pointed and arranged head-to-tail around the sporocyst residuum; refractile bodies and nuclei were not discernible. These parasite species were recovered from R. kukunoris in China and all represent new host and distribution records.
Mosesia ovalis n. sp. (Digenea: Phaneropsolidae) is described based on one specimen found in the intestine of a green manakin (Pipridae: Xenopipo holochlora Sclater, 1888) collected in the Cordillera Azul National Park, Peru. Mosesia ovalis n. sp. differs from the morphologically similar species Mosesia mosesi (Travassos, 1921) and Mosesia chordeilesia McMullen, 1936 in its body shape and proportions, the shape of its testes, and the extent of its ceca. The morphological description of the new species, and notes clarifying some morphological features of Mosesia mosesi, the type species of Mosesia, are provided.
Abbreviata bancrofti (Irwin-Smith, 1922), (Physalopteridae) is redescribed from specimens recovered from the type host, Phyllurus platurus, and Abbreviata confusa (Johnston and Mawson, 1942) becomes a junior synonym. Adults and a small number of large immature larvae, not identifiable to species, were recovered at low prevalence and intensity from 37 P. platurus, five of which also contained third-stage physalopterid larvae encysted in stomach tissues. Phyllurus platurus is one of the smaller lizards to support adult Abbreviata. More than 60% of dissected stomachs contained from 1 to >100 very small (∼0.9–1.4 mm) third-stage physalopterid larvae in the lumen which could not be identified to species. All were of a similar size and morphology. I report the first record of a Skrjabinodon sp. from this host.
John H. Cross in Fleet Hospital 112 field ambulance, Solomon Islands, ca. 1944. 
A bibliography of 505 publications and 176 presentations authored, coauthored, or edited by the preeminent parasitologist Dr. John H. Cross during the years 1956 through 2007 is presented as a guide to his work and a tribute to his contributions to the science of parasitology. The publications range from original reports of scientific data to books and book chapters providing information on a broad spectrum of parasitological and parasitology-related topics.
Southwellina hispida Van Cleave, 1925 (Polymorphidae) is an endoparasite of fish-eating birds; the taxon exhibits wide intraspecific variability along its distribution area in Mexico. Specimens of S. hispida were recovered from 12 definitive host species (herons, pelicans, cormorants, and anhingas), as well as from paratenic hosts (cichlid fishes), along the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean slopes comprising localities in both the Neartic and Neotropical regions of Mexico. There were no significant differences in trunk length and width of the 40 cystacanths recovered from the mesentery of paratenic hosts. However, a more-detailed principal component analysis of 28 relaxed, mature adult females of S. hispida revealed considerable morphological variation among specimens. Sequences of the mitochondrial coding gene cytochrome c oxidase (cox 1) were generated for 22 samples of S. hispida recovered from 12 localities. The genetic divergence estimated among samples was very low, ranging from 0 to 1. The 22 cox 1 sequences of S. hispida were aligned with 10 other sequences, representing 3 genera of Polymorphidae and forming a data set of 32 taxa with 655 nucleotides. The maximum likelihood tree yielded the 22 sequences of S. hispida plus 1 sample of S. hispida from Hawaii, United States and formed a clade with a high bootstrap support value. The genetic divergence plus the phylogenetic tree indicated that all the samples of S. hispida belong to the same species. The presence of S. hispida in members of 4 families of fish-eating birds (Ardeidae, Anhingidae, Pelecanidae, and Phalacrocoracidae) could be the result of these birds occurring in sympatry and feeding on the same fish species harboring the cystacanths, showing the low host-specificity of this acanthocephalan.
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