College Student Journal

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Contraception and condom use among two samples of university students: 1982 and 1992
  • Article

April 1993


73 Reads

D Knox


B Brigman
8% of all individuals residing in the US have tested positive for infection with HIV. This study reports the use of condoms and others forms of contraception in two samples of students from East Carolina University. 234 students in 1982 taking a course in marriage and family responded to a 32-item questionnaire distributed in five classes on whether they had used contraception during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse and which method they used. 96% of the respondents were never married, 83% white, and 82% middle class. 7% were engaged to be married and 3% were cohabiting. 53.4% were women and in their junior or senior year (52.5%) of undergraduate education. While the sample was not random, it closely approximated the demographic characteristics of the university from which it was drawn. 79.1% reported using some form of contraception, with 61.8% using the pill and 15.3% using the condom. Of those who used a form of contraception, 8.1% reported using withdrawal and 1.5% rhythm. Fifty university students were again sampled in 1992 in a marriage and family class to find 76% reporting use of contraception during their last episode of sexual intercourse. The percentage of students which reported using a condom, however, increased to 39%. These findings add to the body of research literature which suggests that condom use has increased over the past decade. Further research is, however, warranted to determine whether these data reflect an actual increase in condom use or are simply the result of students providing socially desirable answers.

Attitudes of a southern university human sexuality class toward sexual variance, abortion and homosexuality

February 1986


47 Reads

The attitudes toward homosexuality, abortion, and sexual variance were measured in 45 Louisiana undergraduate students before and after a course on human sexuality. The 1-semester course involved lectures and group discussion. The students overwhelmingly identified themselves as heterosexual in orientation. Post-test scores indicated that the course had not significantly changed attitudes toward heterosexuality, homophobia, sexual variance, and legal abortion. On the other hand, there was a significant change of attitudes toward homosexuality, with post-test scores suggesting more permissive, positive attitudes. The reason is unclear why attitudes toward homophobia did not change in tandem with attitudes toward homosexuality. Although attitudes toward abortion did not change significantly as a result of the course, the scores in this category (30 pre-test, 34 post-test) revealed an unexpected liberalism and were twice as high as those recorded for Right-to-Life members in other surveys.

Facebook Use between College Resident Advisors' and Their Residents: A Mixed Methods Approach

November 2014


82 Reads

Facebook use is nearly ubiquitous among college students. Studies have shown links between Facebook displays of depression or problem drinking and risk of these problems. This project aimed to determine whether Facebook could be used to help Resident Advisors (RAs) identify college students at risk for depression or problem drinking. Interviews were conducted with college freshmen to investigate whether they were Facebook "friends" with their RA. Focus groups were conducted with RAs to determine their views on Facebook friending their dormitory residents and using Facebook to help identify at-risk students. 72 freshmen were interviewed and 25 RAs participated in focus groups; both agreed it is common for RAs and residents to be Facebook friends. RAs commonly noted references to depression and problem drinking on residents' Facebook pages, which often led to in-person discussions with the resident. This study provides support that RAs use Facebook to identify issues that may impact their student residents. RAs emphasized benefits of in-person interactions in order to provide support and obtain additional details about the situation. Universities could consider whether providing RA education about Facebook interactions with residents merits encouragement within their existing RA training programs.

Social status and the pill at a black woman's college

January 1972


26 Reads

A survey was conducted in 1969 among undergraduate students, (ages 16-26) at Bennett College for women in North Carolina to determine the relationship between socio-economic status and the use of the pill. 143 responses were useable. 17% of the women used the pill and 83% did not. There was no significant effect of parental home influence on pill use. Students whose family incomes were above $7000. were more likely to use the pill than the other students. There was no significant difference between users and nonusers in attitudes towards sex. 72% of the nonusers approved of but did not use the pill, and only 18% used another methed of contraception.

College students' willingness to terminate a pregnancy

April 1996


20 Reads

403 male and 420 female Michigan State University undergraduate students responded to survey questions on their willingness to terminate a pregnancy. The number of students willing to terminate a pregnancy changed according to situational scenarios and general questions presented. While 96% opted to terminate a life-threatening tubal pregnancy, only 3% would do so in the case of a fetus of unwanted gender. Except for cases of incest and rape, respondents were 2.3 times more likely to terminate for biomedical than for psychosocial reasons. 89% were willing to terminate for incest and 82% for rape. The 75% who considered the fetus to be a child were less inclined to terminate than those who perceived otherwise. These findings paralleled those of other studies which found that attitudes toward abortion are not strongly linked to gender. Most respondents were able to weigh moral convictions against taxing situations when considering pregnancy termination.

Male college students and family planning use in Zambia

January 1994


17 Reads

The success of family planning depends on attitudes and knowledge about contraception. In this study, the correlation between ever use of contraception and health attitudes among men was assessed. 65 male participants were randomly selected from residence halls on the University of Lusaka campus in Lusaka, Zambia. Students reflected a diverse ethnic mix. The findings indicated that only 37.5% had approval from ethnic traditions for contraceptive use. Chi square tests rejected the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between the variables "ever use" and "ethnic orientation." 52.5% who reported ever use of contraception were juniors or seniors, which indicated little difference by level of education and ever use. Family planning ever use due to health reasons was reported by 70% of participants. These findings support the research of Manda on noncollege populations about use of condoms. College students do have favorable attitudes toward contraception and toward health. This research supports the public education campaign of the Ministry of Health to promote the practice of safe sex for health reasons and the prevention of AIDS, a widespread problem in Zambia.

The Disparity between Social Drinking Motives and Social Outcomes: A New Perspective on College Student Drinking

April 2013


75 Reads

Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Midwestern University. Social drinking motives were significantly associated with drinking behaviors; however, drinking behaviors were not associated with the number of new casual or close friends students made at college. Consistent with previous research, social motives predicted drinking behaviors; however drinking behaviors were unrelated to friendship outcomes. Drinking prevention campaigns might incorporate these findings in an effort to alter college freshmen's social alcohol expectancies.

It's not all moonlight and roses: Dating violence at the University of Maine, 1982-1992

March 1994


25 Reads

Compared surveys conducted in 1982 and 1987 at the University of Maine with regard to the types of dating violence reported and the overall current rates of dating violence. 160 students were surveyed. Gender differences in reporting specific types of violence were also compared. The overall rate of dating violence has more than doubled since 1982 and suggests that 1 in 5 college students has experienced some form of dating violence within their more recent dating relationship. Explanations for the significant differences in reported rates by gender are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Drinking in stressful situations: College men under pressure (1990 and 1994).

March 1996


44 Reads

To understand the relationship between gender and alcohol use, this study assessed the views of 163 college men and women on drinking in 9 stressful situations, including those concerning academic performance, financial stability and personal relationships. Results are compared with those of a similar study conducted at this same university in 1990. A disturbing finding is the increased percentage of students advocating drinking when under stress (from 23% to 36%). Results of testing gender differences suggest that the increased drinking among college women noted in the research literature reflects more of an acceptance to drink at parties and when dating. They also suggest that increased drinking among college men may be related to their inability to cope with stressful situations involving family problems, peer pressure and academic pressure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

How do students choose a particular college? A survey of admitted students: 1990.

December 1991


43 Reads

Examined the factors important to choosing a college by conducting a telephone survey of 122 White, 132 Black, 144 Hispanic, and 146 Other qualified students. The availability of financial aid was more important to Blacks and Hispanics than to Whites and Others. Blacks considered the handling of the admissions applications and the advice of friends to be more important than did Whites, Hispanics, and Others. Whites considered the advice of teachers or counselors less important than did minority students, and Whites and Others considered publications and letters more important. Ss judged as most important the prospect of landing a job after college, opportunity to pursue an advanced degree, academic reputation, and reasonable costs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Attitudes toward abortion in female undergraduates

March 1992


70 Reads

Measured abortion attitudes among 299 female undergraduates (aged 17–24 yrs) to gauge change in public opinion since the Webster vs Reproductive Health Services decision. Ss were given questionnaires that included 1 of 4 hypothetical situations involving abortion and asked to rate their opinion of right to abortion. Questions involving church affiliation and previous experience with abortion were also included. Across situations, Ss were overall pro-choice, with those having had previous experience with abortion being stronger in their stance, and those associated with churches having strong anti-abortion attitudes being more conservative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

The impact of study abroad on university students' self-esteem and self-efficacy.

January 1988


447 Reads

Studied changes in self-esteem and self-efficacy for 70 undergraduates participating in a study abroad program for a semester or a year compared with 19 counterparts who remained at the American-based university. Pre- and posttests were administered to both groups. American-based Ss had higher levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy than Ss who lived abroad. While this might appear to reflect negatively on the foreign study experience, it was, in fact, a positive indication of growth and maturity. The ability to profit from varied unique experiences and consequently to perceive the self more objectively was considered a major step to maturity for the study abroad Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

College students' perceptions of spouse abuse and conjugal power.

14 Reads

366 college students were asked for childhood recollections of instances of spouse abuse and about how family decisions were made. Findings indicate that one-third of the Ss indicated that their mothers had been abused during a typical year while they were growing up. While the abuse-free families were described as being egalitarian, the abusive homes were portrayed as relatively mother centered. The latter finding supports T. Davidson's (1978) finding that fathers in abusive homes were relatively low in power. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

The prediction of freshmen attrition: An examination of the importance of certain demographic, academic, financial and social factors.

September 1997


179 Reads

Sought to identify the predictors of attrition among college freshmen who voluntarily withdrew by studying the relationship between attrition and certain demographic, academic, financial, and social factors. Excluded from the work are individuals who were suspended or dismissed for academic reasons. 353 students volunteered to participate. Measures used included the College Student Inventory (M. Stratil, 1988). The statistical analysis indicates that the variables seeming to have the greatest influence on voluntary persistence behavior are students' 1st semester GPAs and a scale variable representing students' impressions of other students. Taking only these 2 factors into account, the model is able to make accurate predictions about the retention of individual students in approximately 80% of the cases. Further research is being undertaken to learn more about the process underlying retention behavior, as well as to increase the accuracy of the predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Self-reports of academic listening activities by traditional and nontraditional college students.

March 1991


45 Reads

169 undergraduates (aged 16–54 yrs) offered self-reports of their typical listening demeanors in college classrooms, the difficulties they experienced as listeners, and the solutions they adopted to overcome these difficulties. Nontraditional Ss (aged 25+ yrs) more often reported engaging in positive listening actions than did traditional Ss (aged

An examination of the relationship between selected personality factors and academic achievement in an undergraduate instructional television course.

November 1973


9 Reads

225 education undergraduates were tested by the TAT, scored for achievement motivation (n Ach), by the Taylor Manifest Anxiety scale, Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale, and Gulo's Effective Professor Scale. The factors being scored identified (a) teaching dynamism, (b) acceptance of change, (c) action freedom, (d) intellectual approach, and (e) intellective change. Analysis of variance treated 3 variables: n Ach, anxiety, and acceptance of dogmatism. Ss with a high n Ach had significantly higher grades than those with a low n Ach. Ss low in anxiety were inferior to Ss high in that quality. Among secondary majors, Ss high in dogmatism received higher grades than those low in the acceptance of dogma. It was predicted that Ss with high GPAs would have a higher n Ach than Ss with low GPAs. It is concluded that personality variables have an important effect on the academic performance of students. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Comparison of academic performances, graduation rates, and timing of drop out for LD and nonLD college students.

June 1993


11 Reads

Academic performances, graduation rates, and the timing of drop out were compared for matched samples of 114 learning disabled (LD) and nonlearning disabled (nonLD) college students. All academic performance indicators were lower for LD than for nonLD Ss. For Ss who graduated from the university, the mean cumulative GPAs were significantly lower for the LD sample. Although withdrawal rates did not differ significantly for the 2 groups, nonLD Ss tended to drop out of college early in their careers; LD Ss in this sample had a high risk of drop out late in their academic careers. Implications for support services providers in college and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

The relationship of cognitive style to academic achievement of university art appreciation students

January 1983


10 Reads

Administered the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) to 129 undergraduates and 2 instructors in university art appreciation courses to determine cognitive style, either field-independence, mid-field-independence, mid-field-dependence, or field-dependence. After the completion of the course, final evaluation grades were compared to cognitive style. Findings support the hypothesis that students with higher GEFT scores would receive higher course grades and students with lower GEFT scores would receive lower course grades. Although there was consistency in instructor style (both were field-independent), results indicate a need for replication of the study using larger class sizes and accounting for such variables as teacher methodology, student attitude, and student–teacher interaction. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Problems commuters, residence hall students, and students from different academic years bring to counseling.
  • Article
  • Full-text available

January 1984


868 Reads

Compared problems for which residence-hall and commuter students and students from different academic classes sought help at a university counseling center. Participants were 345 undergraduates who sought individual counseling during 1 academic year. Reasons for coming to counseling were tabulated from intake cards. Results indicate that residence-hall Ss came for a disproportionate amount of personal counseling, and commuters often came for more than 1 problem. First-year Ss were interested in interest- and study-skills-test results and juniors and seniors in personal counseling. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental theory. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Factors related to the academic success of high risk freshmen: Three case studies.

December 1990


18 Reads

Illustrates the impact of affective variables (as assessed using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) on academic achievement among high-risk students. Three case examples involving high-risk White male undergraduates are presented. It is concluded that (1) traditional predictors, such as high school grade point average (GPA) and standardized test scores, are often not adequate to forecast the individual performance of high-risk students; (2) a counseling component is important in programs for high-risk students; and (3) assessment can promote student self-awareness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Freshman academic adjustment at a competitive university.

June 1991


35 Reads

Assessed the needs of freshmen in competitive universities and schools for the performing arts. Phase I examined specific needs of the freshmen that could be used to develop academic support programs. 580 freshmen responded to a questionnaire about student expectations. Phase 2 of the study examined what transpired after the freshmen entered the new academic environment. 48 freshmen responded to a study skills inventory to diagnose students' use of learning and study strategies. Results suggest that freshmen in competitive universities encounter traditional academic adjustment problems as well as other problems that are more specific to their reference group. In particular, the student's history of academic success and the academic environment of the campus may significantly impact academic achievement in the freshman year. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Academic factors affecting the scholastic performance of international students

January 1983


42 Reads

A survey of international students (mean age 28 yrs) who had successfully completed at least 2 terms of coursework at the University of Georgia showed that they generally were not performing at their optimum scholastic level. There were 7 general clusters of impediments. Those with the highest level of impingement were verbal study techniques, English usage, test taking, and classroom instruction. Academic success was somewhat less affected or influenced by quantitative factors. Findings should be considered in terms of cross-cultural adjustments and personal adaptive patterns that foreign students often encounter if the academic success of these students in American higher education settings is to be enhanced. The academic impediments to scholastic success of foreign students may have greatest impact during their initial terms of academic coursework. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Prediction of Academic Success: A Review of the Literature and Some Recommendations

September 1993


427 Reads

Presents a critical review of the literature on the prediction of academic success in college, as well as a summary of results of an empirical study. 39 articles are summarized with respect to the populations from which they were sampled, the dependent and independent variables, and their estimate of accuracy in predicting college GPA. It is concluded that the ability of any of the predictors to predict college success is disappointingly low. A study done at a midwestern university evaluated admission decisions. The inaccuracy of prediction was obvious, as 30% of the students that were predicted to succeed had failed while 50% of the students predicted to fail had graduated or were in good standing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Predicting College Academic Achievement: A Research Review

January 1984


84 Reads

Reviews over 60 studies that investigated the predictors of college academic achievement. Current research in this area appears to focus on high school performance, college entrance examinations, study behaviors and attitudes, and personality traits. Findings indicate that, in general, successful college students excelled in high school; obtained high scores on college entrance examinations; possess good study habits; and appear to be more introverted, more responsible, more academically motivated, and more achievement oriented than most college students. It is suggested that continued research in this area will strengthen the theoretical base of college admission procedures and policies and will provide insights for the prospective college student into the characteristics of the successful college student. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

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