College Student Journal

Online ISSN: 0146-3934
Publications
Article
8% of all individuals residing in the US have tested positive for infection with HIV. This study reports the use of condoms and others forms of contraception in two samples of students from East Carolina University. 234 students in 1982 taking a course in marriage and family responded to a 32-item questionnaire distributed in five classes on whether they had used contraception during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse and which method they used. 96% of the respondents were never married, 83% white, and 82% middle class. 7% were engaged to be married and 3% were cohabiting. 53.4% were women and in their junior or senior year (52.5%) of undergraduate education. While the sample was not random, it closely approximated the demographic characteristics of the university from which it was drawn. 79.1% reported using some form of contraception, with 61.8% using the pill and 15.3% using the condom. Of those who used a form of contraception, 8.1% reported using withdrawal and 1.5% rhythm. Fifty university students were again sampled in 1992 in a marriage and family class to find 76% reporting use of contraception during their last episode of sexual intercourse. The percentage of students which reported using a condom, however, increased to 39%. These findings add to the body of research literature which suggests that condom use has increased over the past decade. Further research is, however, warranted to determine whether these data reflect an actual increase in condom use or are simply the result of students providing socially desirable answers.
 
Article
The attitudes toward homosexuality, abortion, and sexual variance were measured in 45 Louisiana undergraduate students before and after a course on human sexuality. The 1-semester course involved lectures and group discussion. The students overwhelmingly identified themselves as heterosexual in orientation. Post-test scores indicated that the course had not significantly changed attitudes toward heterosexuality, homophobia, sexual variance, and legal abortion. On the other hand, there was a significant change of attitudes toward homosexuality, with post-test scores suggesting more permissive, positive attitudes. The reason is unclear why attitudes toward homophobia did not change in tandem with attitudes toward homosexuality. Although attitudes toward abortion did not change significantly as a result of the course, the scores in this category (30 pre-test, 34 post-test) revealed an unexpected liberalism and were twice as high as those recorded for Right-to-Life members in other surveys.
 
Article
Facebook use is nearly ubiquitous among college students. Studies have shown links between Facebook displays of depression or problem drinking and risk of these problems. This project aimed to determine whether Facebook could be used to help Resident Advisors (RAs) identify college students at risk for depression or problem drinking. Interviews were conducted with college freshmen to investigate whether they were Facebook "friends" with their RA. Focus groups were conducted with RAs to determine their views on Facebook friending their dormitory residents and using Facebook to help identify at-risk students. 72 freshmen were interviewed and 25 RAs participated in focus groups; both agreed it is common for RAs and residents to be Facebook friends. RAs commonly noted references to depression and problem drinking on residents' Facebook pages, which often led to in-person discussions with the resident. This study provides support that RAs use Facebook to identify issues that may impact their student residents. RAs emphasized benefits of in-person interactions in order to provide support and obtain additional details about the situation. Universities could consider whether providing RA education about Facebook interactions with residents merits encouragement within their existing RA training programs.
 
Article
A survey was conducted in 1969 among undergraduate students, (ages 16-26) at Bennett College for women in North Carolina to determine the relationship between socio-economic status and the use of the pill. 143 responses were useable. 17% of the women used the pill and 83% did not. There was no significant effect of parental home influence on pill use. Students whose family incomes were above $7000. were more likely to use the pill than the other students. There was no significant difference between users and nonusers in attitudes towards sex. 72% of the nonusers approved of but did not use the pill, and only 18% used another methed of contraception.
 
Article
403 male and 420 female Michigan State University undergraduate students responded to survey questions on their willingness to terminate a pregnancy. The number of students willing to terminate a pregnancy changed according to situational scenarios and general questions presented. While 96% opted to terminate a life-threatening tubal pregnancy, only 3% would do so in the case of a fetus of unwanted gender. Except for cases of incest and rape, respondents were 2.3 times more likely to terminate for biomedical than for psychosocial reasons. 89% were willing to terminate for incest and 82% for rape. The 75% who considered the fetus to be a child were less inclined to terminate than those who perceived otherwise. These findings paralleled those of other studies which found that attitudes toward abortion are not strongly linked to gender. Most respondents were able to weigh moral convictions against taxing situations when considering pregnancy termination.
 
Article
Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Midwestern University. Social drinking motives were significantly associated with drinking behaviors; however, drinking behaviors were not associated with the number of new casual or close friends students made at college. Consistent with previous research, social motives predicted drinking behaviors; however drinking behaviors were unrelated to friendship outcomes. Drinking prevention campaigns might incorporate these findings in an effort to alter college freshmen's social alcohol expectancies.
 
Article
The success of family planning depends on attitudes and knowledge about contraception. In this study, the correlation between ever use of contraception and health attitudes among men was assessed. 65 male participants were randomly selected from residence halls on the University of Lusaka campus in Lusaka, Zambia. Students reflected a diverse ethnic mix. The findings indicated that only 37.5% had approval from ethnic traditions for contraceptive use. Chi square tests rejected the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between the variables "ever use" and "ethnic orientation." 52.5% who reported ever use of contraception were juniors or seniors, which indicated little difference by level of education and ever use. Family planning ever use due to health reasons was reported by 70% of participants. These findings support the research of Manda on noncollege populations about use of condoms. College students do have favorable attitudes toward contraception and toward health. This research supports the public education campaign of the Ministry of Health to promote the practice of safe sex for health reasons and the prevention of AIDS, a widespread problem in Zambia.
 
Article
Compared surveys conducted in 1982 and 1987 at the University of Maine with regard to the types of dating violence reported and the overall current rates of dating violence. 160 students were surveyed. Gender differences in reporting specific types of violence were also compared. The overall rate of dating violence has more than doubled since 1982 and suggests that 1 in 5 college students has experienced some form of dating violence within their more recent dating relationship. Explanations for the significant differences in reported rates by gender are suggested. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
To understand the relationship between gender and alcohol use, this study assessed the views of 163 college men and women on drinking in 9 stressful situations, including those concerning academic performance, financial stability and personal relationships. Results are compared with those of a similar study conducted at this same university in 1990. A disturbing finding is the increased percentage of students advocating drinking when under stress (from 23% to 36%). Results of testing gender differences suggest that the increased drinking among college women noted in the research literature reflects more of an acceptance to drink at parties and when dating. They also suggest that increased drinking among college men may be related to their inability to cope with stressful situations involving family problems, peer pressure and academic pressure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the factors important to choosing a college by conducting a telephone survey of 122 White, 132 Black, 144 Hispanic, and 146 Other qualified students. The availability of financial aid was more important to Blacks and Hispanics than to Whites and Others. Blacks considered the handling of the admissions applications and the advice of friends to be more important than did Whites, Hispanics, and Others. Whites considered the advice of teachers or counselors less important than did minority students, and Whites and Others considered publications and letters more important. Ss judged as most important the prospect of landing a job after college, opportunity to pursue an advanced degree, academic reputation, and reasonable costs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Measured abortion attitudes among 299 female undergraduates (aged 17–24 yrs) to gauge change in public opinion since the Webster vs Reproductive Health Services decision. Ss were given questionnaires that included 1 of 4 hypothetical situations involving abortion and asked to rate their opinion of right to abortion. Questions involving church affiliation and previous experience with abortion were also included. Across situations, Ss were overall pro-choice, with those having had previous experience with abortion being stronger in their stance, and those associated with churches having strong anti-abortion attitudes being more conservative. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied changes in self-esteem and self-efficacy for 70 undergraduates participating in a study abroad program for a semester or a year compared with 19 counterparts who remained at the American-based university. Pre- and posttests were administered to both groups. American-based Ss had higher levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy than Ss who lived abroad. While this might appear to reflect negatively on the foreign study experience, it was, in fact, a positive indication of growth and maturity. The ability to profit from varied unique experiences and consequently to perceive the self more objectively was considered a major step to maturity for the study abroad Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
366 college students were asked for childhood recollections of instances of spouse abuse and about how family decisions were made. Findings indicate that one-third of the Ss indicated that their mothers had been abused during a typical year while they were growing up. While the abuse-free families were described as being egalitarian, the abusive homes were portrayed as relatively mother centered. The latter finding supports T. Davidson's (1978) finding that fathers in abusive homes were relatively low in power. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A survey of international students (mean age 28 yrs) who had successfully completed at least 2 terms of coursework at the University of Georgia showed that they generally were not performing at their optimum scholastic level. There were 7 general clusters of impediments. Those with the highest level of impingement were verbal study techniques, English usage, test taking, and classroom instruction. Academic success was somewhat less affected or influenced by quantitative factors. Findings should be considered in terms of cross-cultural adjustments and personal adaptive patterns that foreign students often encounter if the academic success of these students in American higher education settings is to be enhanced. The academic impediments to scholastic success of foreign students may have greatest impact during their initial terms of academic coursework. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
225 education undergraduates were tested by the TAT, scored for achievement motivation (n Ach), by the Taylor Manifest Anxiety scale, Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale, and Gulo's Effective Professor Scale. The factors being scored identified (a) teaching dynamism, (b) acceptance of change, (c) action freedom, (d) intellectual approach, and (e) intellective change. Analysis of variance treated 3 variables: n Ach, anxiety, and acceptance of dogmatism. Ss with a high n Ach had significantly higher grades than those with a low n Ach. Ss low in anxiety were inferior to Ss high in that quality. Among secondary majors, Ss high in dogmatism received higher grades than those low in the acceptance of dogma. It was predicted that Ss with high GPAs would have a higher n Ach than Ss with low GPAs. It is concluded that personality variables have an important effect on the academic performance of students. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared problems for which residence-hall and commuter students and students from different academic classes sought help at a university counseling center. Participants were 345 undergraduates who sought individual counseling during 1 academic year. Reasons for coming to counseling were tabulated from intake cards. Results indicate that residence-hall Ss came for a disproportionate amount of personal counseling, and commuters often came for more than 1 problem. First-year Ss were interested in interest- and study-skills-test results and juniors and seniors in personal counseling. Findings are discussed in terms of developmental theory. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Illustrates the impact of affective variables (as assessed using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) on academic achievement among high-risk students. Three case examples involving high-risk White male undergraduates are presented. It is concluded that (1) traditional predictors, such as high school grade point average (GPA) and standardized test scores, are often not adequate to forecast the individual performance of high-risk students; (2) a counseling component is important in programs for high-risk students; and (3) assessment can promote student self-awareness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Academic performances, graduation rates, and the timing of drop out were compared for matched samples of 114 learning disabled (LD) and nonlearning disabled (nonLD) college students. All academic performance indicators were lower for LD than for nonLD Ss. For Ss who graduated from the university, the mean cumulative GPAs were significantly lower for the LD sample. Although withdrawal rates did not differ significantly for the 2 groups, nonLD Ss tended to drop out of college early in their careers; LD Ss in this sample had a high risk of drop out late in their academic careers. Implications for support services providers in college and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Administered the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) to 129 undergraduates and 2 instructors in university art appreciation courses to determine cognitive style, either field-independence, mid-field-independence, mid-field-dependence, or field-dependence. After the completion of the course, final evaluation grades were compared to cognitive style. Findings support the hypothesis that students with higher GEFT scores would receive higher course grades and students with lower GEFT scores would receive lower course grades. Although there was consistency in instructor style (both were field-independent), results indicate a need for replication of the study using larger class sizes and accounting for such variables as teacher methodology, student attitude, and student–teacher interaction. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Assessed the needs of freshmen in competitive universities and schools for the performing arts. Phase I examined specific needs of the freshmen that could be used to develop academic support programs. 580 freshmen responded to a questionnaire about student expectations. Phase 2 of the study examined what transpired after the freshmen entered the new academic environment. 48 freshmen responded to a study skills inventory to diagnose students' use of learning and study strategies. Results suggest that freshmen in competitive universities encounter traditional academic adjustment problems as well as other problems that are more specific to their reference group. In particular, the student's history of academic success and the academic environment of the campus may significantly impact academic achievement in the freshman year. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents a critical review of the literature on the prediction of academic success in college, as well as a summary of results of an empirical study. 39 articles are summarized with respect to the populations from which they were sampled, the dependent and independent variables, and their estimate of accuracy in predicting college GPA. It is concluded that the ability of any of the predictors to predict college success is disappointingly low. A study done at a midwestern university evaluated admission decisions. The inaccuracy of prediction was obvious, as 30% of the students that were predicted to succeed had failed while 50% of the students predicted to fail had graduated or were in good standing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews over 60 studies that investigated the predictors of college academic achievement. Current research in this area appears to focus on high school performance, college entrance examinations, study behaviors and attitudes, and personality traits. Findings indicate that, in general, successful college students excelled in high school; obtained high scores on college entrance examinations; possess good study habits; and appear to be more introverted, more responsible, more academically motivated, and more achievement oriented than most college students. It is suggested that continued research in this area will strengthen the theoretical base of college admission procedures and policies and will provide insights for the prospective college student into the characteristics of the successful college student. (60 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined level of self-concept and degree of agreement between academic major and personality profile on the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory in 242 junior and senior college students. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the hypotheses that Ss with high self-concepts showed significantly more congruence between their academic major and vocational interest profiles than did Ss with low self-concepts. This relationship was not significantly affected by gender or ethnic origin. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the predictive validity of using the SAT with Hispanic students. A 10-yr study with 156 Hispanic students at a predominantly White university revealed that SAT scores predicted the grades of Hispanic students up to 7 semesters after initial matriculation. However, the SAT did not predict Hispanic student retention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Sought to identify the predictors of attrition among college freshmen who voluntarily withdrew by studying the relationship between attrition and certain demographic, academic, financial, and social factors. Excluded from the work are individuals who were suspended or dismissed for academic reasons. 353 students volunteered to participate. Measures used included the College Student Inventory (M. Stratil, 1988). The statistical analysis indicates that the variables seeming to have the greatest influence on voluntary persistence behavior are students' 1st semester GPAs and a scale variable representing students' impressions of other students. Taking only these 2 factors into account, the model is able to make accurate predictions about the retention of individual students in approximately 80% of the cases. Further research is being undertaken to learn more about the process underlying retention behavior, as well as to increase the accuracy of the predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
169 undergraduates (aged 16–54 yrs) offered self-reports of their typical listening demeanors in college classrooms, the difficulties they experienced as listeners, and the solutions they adopted to overcome these difficulties. Nontraditional Ss (aged 25+ yrs) more often reported engaging in positive listening actions than did traditional Ss (aged
 
Article
Examined 126 female undergraduates' beliefs concerning what types of physical force were acceptable in courtship and which situations justified the use of force. Approximately 70% of those surveyed listed at least one form of violence (e.g., slapping, punching, kicking) as acceptable, and over 80% offered situations in which physical force between partners was warranted. It is concluded that it may be easier to break the pattern of violence while it is developing in dating relationships than to curtail it during marriage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Surveyed 356 male college students (aged 18–48 yrs) to gauge their attitudes toward rape. A pool of 37 items was analyzed using factor and reliability analyses. A 24-item scale is proposed for use with college males, a target population for prevention efforts because of their high incidence of date rape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Surveyed 93 randomly selected community college faculty in 13 community colleges to investigate their comfort with providing a variety of accommodations for learning disabled (LD) students. Overall, Ss seemed comfortable providing a range of accommodations for LD students. Individual item differences were found when comparing Ss on the following variables: experience in teaching students identified as having learning disabilities; experience teaching students the instructor suspected as having a learning disability; whether the instructor knew someone with a learning disability; and whether the community college employing the instructor had a formal support services program for LD students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Conducted more than 500 in-depth interviews over 10 yrs to examine acculturation stress among Black students at a predominantly White university. Data were gathered from diverse subcultures that varied in terms of social class, lifestyles, and attitudes. Counselors concerned with advising ethnic minorities should be aware of the differential needs of the following Black subcultures: international Ss, upper middle-class Ss, athletes, idealists, working-class Ss, and nationalists. Ss in certain subcultures (i.e., international students and athletes) reported experiencing considerable stress, and working-class Ss from inner cities appeared to suffer the greatest acculturation stress. International Ss, upper middle-class Ss, idealists, and Black nationalists had graduation rates significantly higher than the rates of the general student body, whereas athletes and working-class Ss had lower graduation rates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated whether the entering freshman female student arrives at college with conflicting expectations for her: her own, those of her parents, and those of male peers. Data from mailed questionnaires returned by 531 entering freshmen at a southeastern university indicate that there were conflicting expectations for the women studied. Women perceived parental encouragement to attend college but not to achieve in a profession. Entering freshman men considered academic achievement appropriate for women, yet viewed them in traditional roles rather than as professional achievers. Findings provide a basis for speculating that the college woman is influenced by others' expectations for her. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Measured the responses of 71 undergraduate education majors on an instrument on which they were to indicate teaching style characteristics that they thought were important if their individual learning was to be maximized. It was found that learners enter a learning situation with a preconceived notion of what teaching style is best for them. For those Ss perceiving congruency between their preferred style and the teaching style actually received, achievement was greater than for those perceiving incongruency. Implications for teacher effectiveness research and student evaluations of teachers are discussed. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The course notes of 8 undergraduates were quantitatively analyzed for 4 wks to determine the relationship between notetaking over an extended period and actual course performance. The number of recorded points in lecture notes was significantly related to performance on test items that specifically pertained to lecture content and to test items measuring overall course performance. The probability of recalling noted information was more than twice the probability of recalling non-noted information. Ss' notetaking was also consistent over an extended period. (6 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the relationship between role conflict and various other variables assumed to be related to statistics achievement at the graduate level. A questionnaire was administered to 109 graduate students enrolled in 4 sections of an advanced level statistics course during the 1994-1995 academic year to obtain the information related to the variables of interest. There were 70 female and 39 male students who completed the questionnaire. Most were full time students who were enrolled in a Ph.D. program within the College of Education and Allied Professions. Regression analysis revealed that role conflict, the number of college mathematics courses completed, statistics test anxiety, and age of the student were related to student achievement in statistics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the effects on the achievement of 442 beginning calculus students of varying the testing schedules. Ss were divided into 4 groups according to patterns of test frequency: (a) 5-10 min daily quizzes, (b) a 20-30 min quiz every 1/4 or 1/5 meeting, (c) 3 30-50 min quizzes, and (d) a midterm examination. All the sections were subjected to a midterm examination. In the 1st pattern of delay of test results, the papers were returned and discussed the day following the quiz or examination. In the 2nd pattern of delay, all quizzes and examinations were returned and discussed after an interval of at least 3 days. Classes that used quiz-schedule "a" had a significantly higher score at the end of the term than did the "d" classes. The "a" classes performed better than did the "b" and "c" classes. The classes with long delay in the return of papers had a significantly higher achievement than those with a short delay. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Determined the combined predictive effects of 2 independent variables (attitudes toward mathematics and prior math achievement) on 475 college algebra students' performance in college algebra. Instructors in 3 Texas community colleges administered 3 instruments during the 1st 3 wks of the fall semester. These instruments identified students' attitudes toward math, their knowledge of math, and their personal characteristics. Major conclusions were that prior achievement, self-concept in math, perceptions of the math teacher, age, high school grades in trigonometry with elementary analysis, and gender were predictors of success in college algebra. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined whether self concept was significantly related to how individuals perceived their peers to act towards themselves and how they acted towards their peers, and whether individuals' perceptions of their own behaviors were significantly related with how they perceived their peers act towards them. 120 college students completed the Revised Personal Attribute Inventory (R. V. Parish & T. S. Parish, 1994) and the Revised Love/Hate Checklist (T. S. Parish & J. R. Necessary, 1993). Results indicate that self concepts were significantly related with how peers acted towards them, and how they acted toward their peers. Peers' perceived actions toward the Ss were significantly related with the Ss' perceived actions towards their peers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the flexibility of learning styles (LS) adapting to a new learning context. 67 international students, in the Netherlands, completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Learning approaches (LA) and regulations (LR) were analyzed with respect to the considerations of their new learning environments, personological characteristics, and Ss' background factors. LA were more rigid to change than LR. Examination, lecture and culture influenced learning styles the most. Personological characteristics had no significant effects on LS. However, language barriers had negative effects on non-English speaking students. The positive change of LS was highly correlated to grades obtained at the host university. Changing LS according to situational contexts required identification of effective strategies. Early experience of foreign study is not conducive to positive LS. Empirical support for changes in LS for Ss was seen. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reports the findings from a series of 3 studies on cooperative learning at the college level, using the Jigsaw II (R. E. Slavin, 1990) cooperative learning approach in which students read new materials and then individuals take assigned portions of the material to teach their peers in small groups. Cooperative learning methods of instruction are increasingly being used in college classrooms in an attempt to promote academic achievement, increase student participation, and encourage positive attitudes toward learning. From compiling responses to questionnaires administered in each study, data are presented that reveal students' attitudes and opinions about various aspects of cooperative learning. Based on the student responses, a set of guidelines are proposed to apply when using cooperative learning with college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the possibility that early parental attention and orientation toward social inclusion would mediate the relationship between family socioeconomic status (SES) and college living group satisfaction, using 42 undergraduates in living learning groups. Data did not support a mediation effect. A case example of a 4-member group is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The Belief System Analysis Scale (BSAS; D. E. Montgomery et al, 1990) and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ; R. W. Baker and B. Siryk, 1989) were used to assess Afrocentricity and adjustment to college of 67 African American students (aged 18–28 yrs) in a mid-sized, predominantly White university. For this sample of students, significant positive correlations were found between the BSAS total score and the SACQ full scale and all subscale scores. In particular, the strongest correlations were found between the BSAS total score and the SACQ Personal Emotional Adjustment subscale. This finding suggests that an Afrocentric worldview may serve to insulate students from general or minority-status stressors. Implications for college personnel professionals are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
According to the Institute of International Education (IIE), there were 452,635 international students in the United States during the 1994-1995 academic year. Of these, approximately 50% came from South and East Asia. How can we best provide culturally sensitive campus and community programs and services to help Asian international students adapt and achieve academic success? Programs for Asian international students must be provided within a context of cultural sensitivity and understanding. This paper will provide an overview of socio-demographic characteristics of international students and common stressors Asian international students often experience in the United States, which can be used to help develop needed culturally sensitive programs and services. This paper will also offer examples and programming suggestions to help collaborative efforts among the campus and local community serve international students more effectively throughout their Pre-arrival, Initial, On-Going, and Return-Home adjustment stages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compares the ego identity of entering freshman and transfer students at a large northeastern university as indicated by the use of the MMPI clinical scales. Of the 40 t tests between freshman and transfer students, 10 differences were found to be significant (p < .05). Male and female freshman students each scored higher (p < .01) on paranoia, psychasthenia, and schizophrenia scales than did the transfer students. Literature indicated that students who had completed more college experience scored higher on sociability, self-control, independence, and responsibility and lower on dogmatism than students with less completed college experience. Explanations of the differences between the groups are: (a) with age and experience, adolescents tend to increase socially desirable personality responses and (b) the popularity of alienated personality responses (i.e, the development of ego identity) increases between the time when the transfer students were more impressionable and the later time when the freshman students were more impressionable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested the unbiased validity of the use of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) as a predictive measure of college performance for those African-American and European-American students enrolled in 1990 and who graduated from Wake Forest University in 1994, i.e., the strongest predictor(s) of Wake Forest GPA and class rank upon graduation. The scores of the SAT-Total (SAT-T), SAT-Math (SAT-M), and SAT-Verbal (SAT-V), as well as the high school GPA (HSGPA), high school class rank (HSCR), Wake Forest GPA (WFUGPA), and Wake Forest class rank (WFUCR) were obtained from student records. The high school measures and SAT scores served as predictors/correlates of college GPA and class rank. Results show that a high school student's SAT-V was the most powerful correlate of black and white students' WFUGPA and WFUCR. In a multiple regression analysis, the HSGPA significantly strengthened this value for European-American students. Student SAT-M scores were not related to college performance for either white or black students. Black students scored an average of 80 points lower on the SAT-T than did white students, yet the 2 groups' WFUGPA and WFUCR failed to differ. Results suggest that the SAT-T is a biased assessment of student performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the attitudes of 479 college students attending a university located in the heart of tobacco production toward smoking in general and smoking restrictions on campus. A 19-item, closed-ended questionnaire was administered individually. Age significantly affected smoking/nonsmoking behavior (older Ss smoked more frequently). Age also affected the amount of cigarette smoking. Smokers and nonsmokers also differed in their attitudes toward smoking restrictions on campus and the degree to which smoke pollution impaired learning performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated 44 male and 76 female college students' attitudes toward adult material and the legal rental of adult videos, using an author-devised attitude toward adult materials questionnaire, F. H. Fillmore's Shortened F (1950) and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Results indicate 60% of the Ss favored legal rental of adult videos. There was a significant correlation between authoritarianism and rental. A higher percentage of males significantly favored legal rental. Other findings include significant gender differences with regard to adult materials and the First Amendment issue, rape, and a moral breakdown of society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The counselor's role in training programs for disadvantaged adults should be expanded for counselors who have expertise in vocational training and clinical skills in group process and communications. Three issues have implications for changes in both service planning and curriculum design: (1) Identification of 12 barriers faced by disadvantaged adults establishes the need for more elaborate support systems in both training and entry-level placements. (2) Counselors can contribute to creating multi-stage training opportunities to which clients can return. (3) Research suggests needed modifications in traditional goals and methods. The expertise of counselors in group process and communications can facilitate development of instruction related to affective, social, and cognitive goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Describes an intrusive advising system utilizing faculty advisors in working with a large minority population. Results include a sizeable reduction in the attrition of minorities, an increase in the number of minority graduates, an increase in the number of minorities achieving dean's list, and an increase in minority employment after graduation. It is concluded that the intrusive advisement system focuses on individual attention and helps minority students identify and cope with academic and personal problems early so that the problems do not interfere with normal academic progress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
363 undergraduates participated in music appreciation classes using texts that focused on either the development of musical perception or the presentation of factual information about music. The latter text was more effective in developing both musical perception and aesthetic judgment, and these 2 factors appeared to function as an interrelated unit independent of attitudes toward music. (9 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
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