To compare the diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of travoprost 0.004% and tafluprost 0.0015% administered to patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
This was a randomized, double-masked, active-controlled, crossover design trial, in which patients were randomized to either travoprost or tafluprost monotherapy administered once daily in the evening for six weeks and then crossed over to the alternative treatment for another six weeks. Diurnal IOP was measured (8 am to 8 pm, every two hours) and a solicited symptom survey was administered at the end of both six-week periods, as was conjunctival hyperemia and visual acuity assessment, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and adverse event solicitation.
Fifty-one patients were randomized and 48 patients completed the study. The 12-hour mean diurnal IOP was significantly lower with travoprost therapy than with tafluprost therapy (P = 0.01), and a significantly lower IOP was also reported for travoprost at five of the seven individual time points (P < 0.05). Neither therapy produced a significant increase from baseline in any of the individual patient-reported symptom scores, except for hyperemia (P ≤ 0.01), which was increased with both treatments. Investigator-observed hyperemia was also increased from baseline with both therapies (P < 0.01), although the increase with travoprost therapy was significantly smaller than with tafluprost (P < 0.01). No additional safety concerns were noted from slit-lamp biomicroscopy or visual acuity results, and no difference was noted in patient-reported tolerability of the two medications.
Travoprost 0.004% monotherapy produced lower diurnal IOP than tafluprost 0.0015% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and exhibited a similar safety profile.
We compared the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of tafluprost 0.0015% once daily with travoprost 0.004% once daily in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG).
One hundred sixteen patients with NTG were randomized to use tafluprost 0.0015% or travoprost 0.004% once daily for 12 weeks, followed by a washout period of 4 weeks between switching medications. IOP was measured at baseline and 4, 8, and 12 weeks of each treatment period.
Ninety patients completed both treatment periods and had IOP data available for evaluation. In both groups, a significant decrease in IOP was observed for all measurement points compared with baseline values (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in IOP at each time point between the two groups. Both drugs were effective (defined as more than 10% IOP reduction) in 39 (43%) of 90 patients; only tafluprost was effective in 26 (29%) patients, and only travoprost was effective in 17 (19%) patients. Eight (9%) patients were nonresponders to both drugs.
Tafluprost and travoprost were equally effective in lowering IOP in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. However, patients with normal-tension glaucoma may vary in response to each medication.
To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% in fixed combination with the unfixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5% in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension patients with IOP levels below 18 mmHg on the unfixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5%.
Following a 30-day open-label run-in with latanoprost QD PM and timolol QD AM, subjects with intraocular pressure below 18 mmHg were randomized to continue concomitant latanoprost QD PM and timolol QD AM or switch to travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% QD AM and vehicle QD PM in masked fashion and were followed for 3 months. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean IOP reduction from baseline.
There were no clinically relevant or statistically significant differences in mean IOP, mean IOP change from baseline, or percentage IOP change from baseline between the two treatment groups. Between-group differences in mean IOP were within +/-0.3 mmHg at all time points (p >/= 0.384), and between-group differences in mean IOP change from baseline were within +/-0.4 mmHg at all time points. Overall, 88% of patients whose IOP was less than 18 mmHg on the unfixed combination of latanoprost and timolol remained well controlled on the same regimen in the masked portion of the study, compared with 92% who remained well controlled after switching to travoprost/timolol.
Travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% administered once daily and concomitant administration of timolol 0.5% and latanoprost 0.005% produce similar maintenance of IOP-lowering effect in patients who were previously well controlled on concomitant administration of latanoprost and timolol. Patients who are well controlled on latanoprost and timolol concomitant therapy can be switched to once-daily therapy with travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% with no expected compromise in the safety and efficacy of their treatment.
To assess the safety and efficacy of transitioning patients whose intraocular pressure (IOP) had been insufficiently controlled on prostaglandin analog (PGA) monotherapy to treatment with travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination with benzalkonium chloride (TTFC).
This prospective, multicenter, open-label, historical controlled, single-arm study transitioned patients who had primary open-angle glaucoma, pigment dispersion glaucoma, or ocular hypertension and who required further IOP reduction from PGA monotherapy to once-daily treatment with TTFC for 12 weeks. IOP and safety (adverse events, corrected distance visual acuity, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy) were assessed at baseline, week 4, and week 12. A solicited ocular symptom survey was administered at baseline and at week 12. Patients and investigators reported their medication preference at week 12.
Of 65 patients enrolled, 43 had received prior travoprost therapy and 22 had received prior nontravoprost therapy (n = 18, bimatoprost; n = 4, latanoprost). In the total population, mean IOP was significantly reduced from baseline (P = 0.000009), showing a 16.8% reduction after 12 weeks of TTFC therapy. In the study subgroups, mean IOP was significantly reduced from baseline to week 12 (P = 0.0001) in the prior travoprost cohort (19.0% reduction) and in the prior nontravoprost cohort (13.1% reduction). Seven mild, ocular, treatment-related adverse events were reported. Of the ten ocular symptom questions, eight had numerically lower percentages with TTFC compared with prior PGA monotherapy and two had numerically higher percentages with TTFC (dry eye symptoms and ocular stinging/burning). At week 12, TTFC was preferred over prior therapy for 84.2% of patients (48 of 57) by the patients themselves, and for 94.7% of patients (54 of 57) by their physicians.
When TTFC replaced PGA monotherapy in patients whose IOP had been uncontrolled, the outcome was a significant reduction in IOP and an acceptable safety and tolerability profile. Most patients and investigators preferred TTFC to prior PGA monotherapy.
Travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops are available in Japan. We prospectively investigated the intraocular pressure (IOP)-decreasing effect of travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops and the adherence of patients to the administration protocol.
We studied 43 eyes from 43 patients diagnosed with primary open- angle glaucoma, who were using prostaglandin analogs and β-blockers. The prostaglandin analogs and β-blockers were discontinued, and the treatment regimen was changed to travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops without any washout period. IOP before and at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after the treatment change was evaluated and compared. A questionnaire about protocol adherence was administered 1 month after the treatment change.
IOP was 15.7 ± 2.9 mmHg before the change, 15.5 ± 2.7 mmHg at 1 month after the change, 15.3 ± 3.6 mmHg at 3 months after the change, and 15.8 ± 3.2 mmHg at 6 months after the change, and none of the differences were significant (P = 0.191). The responses to the questionnaire showed that cases where eye drop administration was forgotten decreased after the treatment change. Moreover, because of changes in eye drops, 19.0% of patients had irritation. More than half (54.8%) of the patients preferred travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops. Seven patients (16.3%) discontinued eye drop use because of adverse reactions within 6 months after the change.
When the treatment regimen was changed from prostaglandin analogs and β-blockers to travoprost 0.004%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eye drops, administration protocol adherence increased and IOP was preserved; however, adverse reactions appeared in about 16% of the cases.
To determine the short-term comfort after a single dose of travoprost BAK-free compared to latanoprost in primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertensive patients.
Prospective, double-masked, randomized comparison of two separate active agents dosed once in opposite eyes.
At Visit 1, qualified patients began a glaucoma medicine-free period for three days. At Visit 2, patients were randomly assigned to travoprost BAK-free or latanoprost in opposite eyes. Following dosing in each eye, patients completed a visual analog scale (VAS score, 0-100 mm) at specified time intervals and a comfort survey.
In 54 completed subjects, no difference existed five seconds after dosing, in comfort on the VAS between latanoprost (7.1 +/- 16.2 mm) and travoprost BAK-free (7.8 +/- 16.1 mm, P = 0.53). Also no differences existed between treatments following dosing for discomfort at individual timepoints past five seconds, peak discomfort or the time required to return to baseline comfort (P > 0.05). In addition, the comfort survey demonstrated no difference between products for burning, stinging, foreign body sensation, overall comfort and general acceptance between the products, both for absolute levels and changes from baseline (P > 0.05).
Following a single instillation, both latanoprost and travoprost BAK-free exhibit similar comfort scores.
To examine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of travoprost 0.004% benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-free compared with previous use of latanoprost 0.005% in Japanese patients living in the US who had primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
This was an open-label, multicenter, bilateral, intraindividual, and active-controlled study in which 20 Japanese American patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who had been on latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy were changed to monotherapy with travoprost 0.004% BAK-free daily for 12 weeks. Patients were administered the same series of tests to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of latanoprost at the baseline visit and of travoprost BAK-free at the week 12 visit.
No significant difference in mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was observed between latanoprost monotherapy at baseline and travoprost BAK-free monotherapy after 12 weeks (P = 0.76), nor were significant differences noted in mean ocular hyperemia, visual acuity, corneal fluorescein staining, or overall scores from the Ocular Surface Disease Index. Patients had a significantly shorter mean tear breakup time while on latanoprost compared with travoprost BAK-free (P = 0.0094). Significantly more patients preferred travoprost BAK-free monotherapy over latanoprost monotherapy (14 versus 6; P = 0.011).
The results of this study suggest that Japanese American patients transitioned from latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy to travoprost 0.004% BAK-free can expect similar IOP control and some improvement in anterior segment signs. This transition study showed a strong patient preference for travoprost BAK-free over latanoprost, at a ratio of more than 2:1.
Benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-free travoprost 0.004% (Travatan Z(®), Alcon Laboratories, Inc, Fort Worth, TX) is a new formulation that was developed with the aim of creating a formulation of travoprost that would maintain the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and have an improved overall safety profile, particularly improved ocular surface tolerability.
Thirty newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients were treated with BAK-free travoprost 0.004%. IOP readings were recorded at baseline before initiating treatment, at 4-6 weeks, and after 12 weeks of starting treatment. In addition, patient demographics, subjective symptoms (ie, burning, foreign-body sensation, itching, and stinging), and objective clinical signs such as conjunctival hyperemia were collected. Subjective symptoms were evaluated using a four-point scale ranging from "no symptoms," "mild symptoms," "moderate symptoms" to "severe symptoms." As for clinical signs, severity of conjunctival hyperemia was evaluated. All other adverse events were collected.
BAK-free travoprost 0.004% provided an IOP decrease in all patients, with an overall mean of 28.3 ± 2.1 mmHg at baseline to a mean of 18.7 ± 1.6 mmHg at 4-6 weeks, and a mean of 18.4 ± 1.4 mmHg after 12 weeks. Both subjective symptoms and objective clinical signs were very few after treatment.
The results demonstrate that BAK-free travoprost 0.004% is an effective, well tolerated, and safe medication in POAG patients.
The purpose of this study was to characterize intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction throughout the day with travoprost ophthalmic solution 0.004% dosed once daily in the evening.
The results of seven published, randomized clinical trials including at least one arm in which travoprost 0.004% was dosed once daily in the evening were integrated. Means (and standard deviations) of mean baseline and on-treatment IOP, as well as mean IOP reduction and mean percent IOP reduction at 0800, 1000, and 1600 hours at weeks 2 and 12 were calculated.
From a mean baseline IOP ranging from 25.0 to 27.2 mmHg, mean IOP on treatment ranged from 17.4 to 18.8 mmHg across all visits and time points. Mean IOP reductions from baseline ranged from 7.6 to 8.4 mmHg across visits and time points, representing a mean IOP reduction of 30%. Results of the safety analysis were consistent with the results from the individual studies for travoprost ophthalmic solution 0.004%, with ocular hyperemia being the most common side effect.
Travoprost 0.004% dosed once daily in the evening provides sustained IOP reduction throughout the 24-hour dosing interval in subjects with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. No reduction of IOP-lowering efficacy was observed at the 1600-hour time point which approached the end of the dosing interval.
To compare the IOP-lowering efficacy of the fixed combination of travoprost 0.004%/timolol 0.5% dosed once daily in the morning with the concomitant administration of travoprost 0.004% dosed once daily in the evening and timolol 0.5% dosed once daily in the morning.
This was an analysis of pooled data from two similarly designed prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing the fixed combination and concomitant therapy.
Mean IOP ranged from 15.7 to 16.8 mmHg for the fixed combination group, and from 15.1 to 16.4 mmHg for the concomitant group. Mean IOP reductions were up to 9.0 mmHg in the fixed combination group, and up to 8.8 mmHg in the concomitant group. The differences in mean IOP change between treatment groups ranged from -0.2 to +0.9 mmHg across visits and time points. The safety profile was generally similar between groups. An exception was the incidence of ocular hyperemia, which was 13.7% with the fixed combination and 20.8% with concomitant therapy (p = 0.02).
The fixed combination of travoprost 0.004% and timolol 0.5% provides IOP-lowering efficacy that is similar to concomitant administration of travoprost 0.004% dosed once daily in the evening and timolol 0.5% dosed once daily in the morning.
To compare the safety and effectiveness of fixed-combination regimes (latanoprost- timolol and brinzolamide 1% compared to dorzolamide 1%/timolol and latanoprost) in open-angle glaucoma patients after switching from a combination of three topical antiglaucoma eye drops.
We conducted an open, randomized 12-week multicenter prospective study. We randomly allocated 39 patients who had been treated with three antiglaucoma eye drops (prostaglandin F(2α) analogues plus beta-blockers and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors) into two groups. Group A (n = 20) were treated with latanoprost-timolol and brinzolamide 1% therapy and Group B (n = 16) were treated with dorzolamide 1%/timolol and latanoprost. Thirty-six patients completed all 12 weeks of this study. The major clinical parameters measured were intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctive hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy and hyperpigmentation of eyelid at baseline, 4, and 12 weeks. Additionally noted were adverse events and patient preferences, measured using a questionnaire at study initiation and at 12 weeks.
AT BASELINE, IOPS WERE (GROUP A: 14.1 ± 2.9 mmHg, B: 14.5 ± 2.9 mmHg; P = 0.658), (Group A: 13.8 ± 2.6 mmHg, B: 14.3 ± 2.8 mmHg; P = 0.715) at 4 weeks, and (Group A: 14.1 ± 2.7 mmHg, B: 14.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P = 0.538) at 12 weeks. Among the groups, there was no significant difference at any time point after baseline (P = 0.923, 0.951, respectively). All adverse events were not remarkably different after therapy. In regards to patient preference before and after switching therapy, 10 patients (50%) in Group A and 10 patients (63%) in Group B preferred using fixed-combination eye drop therapy.
Effectiveness and safety were maintained in both groups after switching therapy. Overall, patients generally preferred using a fixed-combination therapy.
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect and safety of latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eyedrops, now available in Japan.
Thirty-one patients diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma who had an insufficient intraocular pressure (IOP) decrease with latanoprost 0.005% eyedrop monotherapy were enrolled. The latanoprost 0.005% eyedrops were discontinued, and administration of latanoprost 0.005%/timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eyedrops was initiated without any washout period. IOP was compared before and at months 1, 3, and 6 after the switch. The incidence of adverse reactions was investigated at every follow-up visit.
Mean IOP was 17.3 ± 2.7 mmHg before the switch, 15.5 ± 2.6 mmHg one month after the switch, 14.9 ± 2.4 mmHg 3 months after the switch, and 15.1 ± 2.2 mmHg 6 months after the switch, indicating that IOP decreased significantly after the change. The IOP reduction rate was 9.9% ± 11.5% after one month, 13.1% ± 10.9% after 3 months, and 11.2% ± 11.8% after 6 months. Two patients (6.5%) discontinued therapy due to adverse reactions (one case each of itchiness and bradycardia).
When latanoprost 0.005% eyedrop monotherapy was replaced by latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination eyedrops, IOP decreased significantly without increasing the frequency of administration, and safety was satisfactory.
To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) reducing effect of a fixed combination of 0.005% latanoprost and 0.5% timolol in patients with an IOP of 30 mmHg or higher.
Prospective, randomized clinical trial.
Patients had received no prior medical glaucoma treatment. Routine ophthalmic examinations and visual field tests were performed before and after treatment for each patient.
Mean IOP was 32.28 +/- 0.92 mmHg before treatment. Mean IOP levels were 18.75 +/- 0.68 for the first day, 17.96 +/- 0.90 for the first week and 17.64 +/- 0.66 for the first month after treatment.
A fixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5% is effective in significantly reducing IOP in glaucoma patients with an IOP greater than 30 mmHg.
Latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% combined eyedrops were recently made available in Japan. We prospectively investigated the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect, visual preservation effect, and adverse reactions of a one-year administration of this fixed combination.
The subjects included 162 eyes from 162 patients diagnosed with either primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and using an unfixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5%. The unfixed combination was discontinued and replaced with the latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5% fixed combination with no washout period. IOP was measured before (baseline) and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the change. The mean deviation value of Humphrey field analysis was compared. Adverse reactions were examined at every follow-up.
No significant differences were found between mean IOP values obtained at baseline (mean ± standard deviation, 15.2 ± 3.3 mmHg) 3 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg), 6 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg), 9 months (15.3 ± 3.1 mmHg), and 12 months (15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg) after the change from the unfixed to the fixed combination of eyedrops (P = 0.212). In addition, no significant differences were observed between mean deviation values obtained at baseline (-9.11 ± 6.94 dB) and 12 months (-10.08 ± 7.24 dB) after the change (P = 0.114). Thirty-one patients discontinued the fixed combination within 12 months of replacement, due to an insufficient IOP decrease (20 patients, 12.3%) and adverse reactions (11 patients, 6.8%).
Following replacement of two eyedrop medications (latanoprost 0.005% and timolol maleate 0.5%) by one fixed combination (latanoprost 0.005% + timolol maleate 0.5%), IOP and visual field were preserved. However, 20% of the patients discontinued the new treatment because of an insufficient IOP decrease and complaints of adverse reactions.
Bimatoprost 0.01% was developed for improved tolerability over bimatoprost 0.03%, while maintaining efficacy in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP). This multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study was designed to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in routine clinical practice.
Data were collected from 10,337 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension attending 1334 centers in Germany. The primary efficacy outcome was mean change in IOP in each eye from baseline to 10-14 weeks after initiation of bimatoprost 0.01%. Target IOP, prior therapies, additional treatments, and adverse events were also assessed. All treatment decisions were at the physicians' discretion.
Bimatoprost 0.01% significantly lowered mean IOP from baseline by -4.1 mmHg (P < 0.0001) in all patients after a mean of 10.45 weeks. In patients without previous treatment, bimatoprost 0.01% reduced mean IOP from baseline by -6.5 mmHg (P < 0.0001). Bimatoprost 0.01% also significantly reduced IOP in patients previously treated with monotherapy of β-blockers, prostaglandin analogs, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or bimatoprost 0.03%. No adverse events were reported by 93.9% of patients during treatment with bimatoprost 0.01%; the most commonly reported adverse events were eye irritation (2.0%), ocular hyperemia (1.4%), and conjunctival hyperemia (1.2%). Physicians and patients rated tolerability and adherence as high, and most patients said they would continue with bimatoprost 0.01% treatment.
Bimatoprost 0.01% can produce additional IOP-lowering effects when used in routine clinical practice in patients who have received prior therapy, in addition to lowering IOP in previously untreated patients. A high rate of continuation of therapy with bimatoprost 0.01% was observed in patients who switched from a variety of different medications. The results suggest that bimatoprost 0.01% is a suitable first-choice therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
This study was designed to evaluate the occurrence and severity of ocular hyperemia in subjects with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) due to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) following treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% in a real-world clinical setting.
This was an open-label, observational study conducted at 67 centers in Canada. Subjects with elevated IOP due to POAG or OHT instilled bimatoprost 0.01% topically as monotherapy once daily. Ocular hyperemia was graded by the investigator at baseline and weeks 6 and 12 using a photographic five-point grading scale. Change in IOP from baseline was also evaluated at these time points. This analysis includes only the subgroup of 522 subjects who were naïve to IOP-lowering medication prior to the study.
After 12 weeks of treatment with bimatoprost 0.01%, hyperemia was graded as none-to-mild (grades 0, +0.5, or +1) for 93.3% of subjects and as moderate-to-severe (grades +2 or +3) for 6.7%. At weeks 6 and 12, most subjects (93.2% and 93.5%) had no change in hyperemia grade from baseline. IOP was reduced by 7.4 mmHg (29.8%) at week 6 and 7.7 mmHg (30.9%) at week 12 from baseline.
This real-world, observational study found that bimatoprost 0.01% instilled once daily reduced IOP by a mean of 30% from baseline without moderate or severe ocular hyperemia in 93% of treatment-naïve subjects with POAG or OHT.
The objective of this in vivo study was to compare the incidence of vasodilation in guinea pigs following topical administration of bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions 0.01% and 0.03%.
The study comprised 20 guinea pigs assigned to 2 treatment groups (10 per treatment group) to receive either bimatoprost 0.01% or bimatoprost 0.03%. Animals were hand-held under 2.75 x magnification to score ocular vasodilation (a measure of hyperemia), using a scoring system developed at Alcon Research, Ltd. Following baseline ocular scoring, each animal received a 30 muL dose to the left eye of either bimatoprost 0.01% (3 mug) or bimatoprost 0.03% (9 mug). Vasodilation was again scored at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after dosing. Incidence of vasodilation was calculated as the percent of total eyes in each 2-hour time interval with scores >/=2.
The incidence of vasodilation was higher in the bimatoprost 0.01% treatment group (range, 45.0% to 60.0%) than the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment group (range, 30.0% to 52.2%) at all post-dosing time points.
The 2 bimatoprost formulations elicited ocular vasodilation of long duration (>6 hours) in the guinea pig model, with the bimatoprost 0.01% treatment group showing a higher incidence of ocular vasodilation than the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment group. Further clinical studies would be needed to determine whether the higher incidence of vasodilation may also be attributed to the increased BAK concentration in the bimatoprost 0.01% formulation.
The purpose of this study was to compare the aqueous humor concentrations of bimatoprost acid after topical instillation in rabbits of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.01% and bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03%, two commercially available intraocular pressure-lowering medications.
Male Dutch Belted rabbits were divided into two teratment groups (four rabbits/eight eyes per group): bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03%. Thirty microliters (μL) of study medication was to pically instilled into both eyes of each animal. Thirty minutes and 90 minutes after instillation, aqueous humor samples were collected. These samples were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for bimatoprost acid concentration.
Following a single topical ocular instillation, the bimatoprost 0.01% formulation had a lower mean aqueous humor concentration of bimatoprost acid than the bimatoprost 0.03% formulation at both 30 minutes (11.5 ± 2.1 ng/mL versus 37.8 ± 28.8 ng/mL; P = 0.17) and 90 minutes (20.8 ± 5.7 ng/mL versus 45.8 ± 14.3 ng/mL; P = 0.03) after topical instillation.
Topical ocular instillation of bimatoprost 0.01% produced significantly lower bimatoprost acid concentration in the aqueous humor of rabbits than bimatoprost 0.03%, despite the 4-fold increase of benzalkonium chloride contained in bimatoprost 0.01%.
Joan-En Chang-Lin, Amy L Batoosingh, David A Hollander, Rhett M Schiffman, Diane D-S Tang-LiuAllergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USAWe read with great interest the recent article by Ogundele and Jasek,1 in which the authors concluded that bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.01% (Lumigan®; Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA) produced lower bimatoprost acid concentration than bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% (Lumigan; Allergan, Inc) in the aqueous humor of rabbits. This conclusion was made based on two treatment time points (30 and 90 minutes) with a small sample size (n = 4) at each time point and with large variability.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy and safety of bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03% as monotherapy in patients treated with latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy who require additional IOP lowering for their ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.
Two prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, parallel-group, multicenter studies enrolled patients with baseline IOP ≥20 mmHg after ≥30 days of latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy. Patients were randomized to 12 weeks of study treatment (study 1, bimatoprost 0.01% once daily or bimatoprost 0.01% once daily plus brimonidine 0.1% three times daily; study 2, bimatoprost 0.03% once daily or bimatoprost 0.03% once daily plus fixed-combination brimonidine 0.2%/timolol 0.5% twice daily). Patient evaluations at weeks 4 and 12 included IOP at 8 am, 10 am, and 4 pm and safety assessments. Results in the monotherapy study arms (bimatoprost 0.01% or 0.03%) are presented.
Latanoprost-treated baseline mean diurnal IOP (± standard error of the mean) was 22.2±0.3 mmHg and 22.1±0.4 mmHg in the bimatoprost 0.01% and bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arms, respectively (P=0.957). In both treatment arms, mean (± standard error of the mean) reduction in IOP from latanoprost-treated baseline was statistically significant at each time point at both follow-up visits (P<0.001), ranging from 3.7±0.4 (17.0%) mmHg to 4.4±0.4 (19.9%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.01% and from 2.8±0.5 (12.8%) mmHg to 3.9±0.5 (16.7%) mmHg with bimatoprost 0.03%. Mean percentage IOP reduction from latanoprost-treated baseline was numerically greater with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03% throughout follow-up. The incidence of conjunctival hyperemia of mild or greater severity increased from latanoprost baseline after 12 weeks of treatment only in the bimatoprost 0.03% treatment arm.
Many patients who do not reach their target IOP on latanoprost can achieve additional IOP lowering and maintain monotherapy by replacing latanoprost with bimatoprost. Reductions in IOP from latanoprost baseline were larger with bimatoprost 0.01% than with bimatoprost 0.03%, and bimatoprost 0.01% had a more favorable tolerability profile.
To evaluate conjunctival hyperemia associated with bimatoprost 0.01% treatment in patients who replace latanoprost 0.005% with bimatoprost 0.01%.
Randomized, double-masked, vehicle-controlled, multicenter study of patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma whose intraocular pressure (IOP) was adequately controlled on latanoprost monotherapy. At baseline, patients discontinued latanoprost and were randomized to treatment with once-daily bimatoprost 0.01% (n = 151) or vehicle (n = 71). The primary endpoint was the peak change in macroscopic hyperemia (conjunctival hyperemia evaluated by gross visual inspection) from baseline to month 1.
Bimatoprost 0.01% was noninferior to vehicle in the mean [standard deviation] peak change from baseline macroscopic hyperemia at month 1 (0.18 [0.46] in the bimatoprost 0.01% group vs 0.02 [0.32] in the vehicle group, P = 0.009). The between-group difference was 0.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04, 0.26), which was within the predefined margin for noninferiority of 0.5 on a hyperemia grading scale of 0 to +3. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the percentage of patients with a ≥1-grade increase in macroscopic hyperemia from baseline. Mean IOP was decreased from baseline (-0.7 to -1.3 mm Hg) in the bimatoprost 0.01% group (P ≤ 0.002) and was increased from baseline (+3.3 to +3.6 mm Hg) in the vehicle group (P < 0.001) at month 1. There were no statistically significant between-group differences in adverse events.
Bimatoprost 0.01% was noninferior to vehicle with respect to conjunctival hyperemia in this study population. Replacement of latanoprost with bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma can result in additional IOP reduction without clinically important hyperemia.
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the conjunctival irritation (congestion, swelling, and discharge) of topical bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.01% and bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% in rabbits.
Six healthy New Zealand White rabbits were treated with either bimatoprost 0.01% or bimatoprost 0.03% (3 animals/group). One dose (2 drops/dose) of study medication was administered to the right eye of each animal every 30 minutes for 4.5 hours. Approximately 1 hour after the last dose, conjunctival irritation was assessed using a slit-lamp biomicroscope to individually evaluate conjunctival congestion, swelling, and discharge.
The mean conjunctival congestion, swelling and discharge scores for bimatoprost 0.03% were 1.67, 0.33 and 0.33, respectively, and for bimatoprost 0.01% were 2.00, 0.33 and 1.33, respectively.
Despite the lower drug concentration of the 0.01% formulation, bimatoprost 0.01% does not reduce conjunctival irritation, including conjunctival congestion, swelling, and discharge, in rabbits compared to bimatoprost 0.03%. Further studies would be needed to determine whether the increase in the mean conjunctival congestion and discharge scores may be attributed to the increased BAK concentration in the bimatoprost 0.01% formulation.
Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% was approved in the US for reducing intraoccular pressure (IOP) based on two double-masked, active-controlled clinical trials. Four additional long-term studies (≥12 months) were conducted; however, the aggregate safety profile of the six studies has not been reported.
Adverse events (AEs) were pooled from six double-masked, active-controlled, long-term clinical trials in which subjects received bimatoprost 0.03% once daily (QD) or twice daily (BID) as an eyedrop. AE terms were converted to MedDRA (V.11.0) Preferred Terms and analyzed.
In total, 1409 patients received more than one dose of bimatoprost 0.03% QD or BID. Most AEs were mild in severity and reported by 86.7% (QD) and 94.8% (BID) of subjects (≤12 months of treatment). AEs reported through month 12 (aggregate incidence of ≥5%) were conjunctival hyperemia, increased eyelash growth, eye pruritus, periocular skin hyperpigmentation, eye irritation, dry eye, and hypertrichosis. AE onset was generally reported within four months of treatment. The cumulative incidence of common AEs in the QD treatment group at 24-48 months was similar to that measured at 12 months of treatment.
Bimatoprost 0.03% has a favorable safety and tolerability profile as characterized by six long-term studies. Common AEs were due to the known pharmacological activity of bimatoprost and reversible with treatment cessation.
Glaucoma is a chronic progressive optic neuropathy characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells, which manifests clinically with loss of optic disc neuroretinal rim tissue, defects in the retinal nerve fiber layer, and deficits on functional visual field testing. The goal of glaucoma treatment is to reduce the intraocular pressure to a level that prevents or minimizes the progressive loss of vision. The current standard of management for the newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (PAOG) patient is to start topical medication. Available topical medications include: beta-adrenergic antagonists, alpha-adrenergic agonists, carbonic anhydraze inhibitors, prostaglandin analogues and miotics. In some patients, IOP is not adequately controlled by monotherapy. In those refractory patients, where more efficacy is required, shifting to another medication or adding a second medication is indicated. The complimentary action between two drugs serves as the basis for combination medications. One avenue of delivering a second medication is through a fixed combination medication that has the advantage of providing two medicines within one drop. Bimatoprost/timolol represents a new fixed combination which is clinically and statistically more effective than either of its active constituents for patients with refractory glaucoma. As regard the safety of the combination, there were no signs or symptoms of intolerance and the incidence of conjunctival hyperemia was clinically and statistically significantly less than each of the two components separately. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination offers cost and time savings, which may enhance compliance; also reducing the amount of preservative applied to the eye, will improve tolerability and may also favorably improve eventual surgical outcomes in patients who might require filtering procedures.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% (bimatoprost) in Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients with an intraocular pressure (IOP) of 18 mmHg or less.
Bimatoprost was instilled into the unilateral conjunctival sac of Japanese NTG patients with a baseline IOP of 18 mmHg or less. The time courses of IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratitis, and adverse events were examined at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post bimatoprost instillation.
Thirty-two of the 38 enrolled NTG patients (mean age, 64.1 ± 12.6 years; 19 males and 19 females) completed the study, with six patients unable to complete the study (two patients discontinued because of side effects and four patients withdrew). The levels of IOP in the treated eyes were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) from the baseline IOP levels. No significant change in IOP was observed in the fellow eyes. There were significant increases in conjunctival hyperemia. No significant superficial punctate keratitis scores were noted between the baseline and each point examined. Eyelash disorder, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus were observed in 28, six, and three eyes, respectively.
Bimatoprost effectively lowered the IOP. It was well tolerated in Japanese NTG patients, with few patients having to discontinue because of adverse events.
To compare the aqueous humor (AH) and iris-ciliary body (ICB) concentration of bimatoprost in rabbit eyes treated with ISV-215 (0.03% bimatoprost formulated in DuraSite) with the marketed product bimatoprost 0.03% ophthalmic solution.
The left eye of rabbits received a single topical instillation of either ISV-215 (n = 32 eyes) or bimatoprost 0.03% (n = 32 eyes). At predetermined time points, levels of bimatoprost and bimatoprost acid in the AH and the ICB were quantified by HPLC-MS/MS.
Both bimatoprost and bimatoprost acid were detected in the AH and the ICB within 15 minutes of dosing. Bimatoprost acid concentrations in both compartments were markedly higher than bimatoprost. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) increase in the concentration of the prodrug in the AH and its acid form in the ICB in animals treated with ISV-215 compared to bimatoprost 0.03%. In the ISV-215-treated rabbit eyes, the highest concentrations of bimatoprost and bimatoprost acid were in the ICB and AH, respectively, while in the bimatoprost 0.03%-treated eyes, no differences in the drug content of the selected ocular tissues were observed.
Bimatoprost 0.03% formulated in DuraSite has superior ocular distribution and area under the curve compared to bimatoprost 0.03% in rabbit eyes. This improvement in the pharmacokinetic parameters of ISV-215 may provide us with a better platform to optimize a bimatoprost formulation that offers the same degree of efficacy in lowering intraocular pressure and improved therapeutic index in glaucomatous patients by lessening the ocular side effects associated with long-term use of topical prostaglandin F2α analogs.
Chronic dry eye disease often requires long-term therapy. Tear film alterations in the setting of dry eye may include reduced tear volume as well as an increase in inflammatory cytokines and osmolarity. Topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis(®); Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA) is indicated to increase tear production in patients with dry eye and reduced tear production presumed to be due to ocular inflammation. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a second trial of topical cyclosporine in patients with dry eye who were previously considered treatment failures.
This multicenter (three cornea practices) retrospective chart review evaluated clinical outcomes in patients with dry eye who received a second trial of cyclosporine after a prior treatment failure, defined as prior discontinuation of topical cyclosporine after less than 12 weeks.
Thirty-five patients, most of whom were female (71.4%) and Caucasian (62.9%), were identified. Prior discontinuation was most commonly due to burning/stinging (60%). The median duration of second treatment was 10 months (range 1 week to 45 months). Physician education was provided in the second trial in 97.1% of cases. At initiation of the second trial of cyclosporine, 10 (28.6%) patients received courses of topical corticosteroids. Physicians reported on a questionnaire that 80% of patients achieved clinical benefit with a second trial of cyclosporine.
A repeat trial with topical cyclosporine can achieve clinical success. Direct patient education via the physician and staff may be key to success. Proper patient education may overcome adherence issues, particularly with respect to the need for long-term treatment of chronic dry eye. This study has the usual limitations associated with a retrospective chart review, and future prospective studies are warranted.
To compare the dose uniformity of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol(®)) with both branded and generic prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension 1% under different simulated patient usage conditions.
Drug concentrations of difluprednate emulsion, branded prednisolone acetate suspension (Pred Forte(®)) and generic prednisolone acetate suspension following three storage conditions (upright, then shaken; upright, not shaken; inverted, not shaken) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography assay and results were reported as percent of declared concentration. Two drops were dispensed every four hours four times daily.
Regardless of bottle orientation and shaking, all difluprednate emulsion concentrations at each time point analyzed were within 15% of declared concentration. Both branded and generic prednisolone acetate suspension concentrations varied substantially throughout the study. For the bottle stored upright and not shaken, 46% of the branded concentrations were not within 15% of declared concentration; for the bottle stored upright and shaken prior to use, 60% failed to meet this criterion. None of the branded concentrations from the inverted and not shaken bottle was within 15% of declared concentration. Generic prednisolone concentrations demonstrated the poorest dose uniformity, with 96% of the concentrations from the inverted and not shaken bottle not within 15% of declared concentration; 94% of the concentrations from the upright and shaken bottle and 87% from the upright and not shaken bottle similarly failed to meet this criterion.
Dose uniformity of Durezol emulsion was predictable in all simulated patient usage conditions, whereas the drop concentrations of Pred Forte and generic prednisolone acetate suspensions were highly variable throughout the study. Drop concentrations are more predictable with Durezol emulsion than with either prednisolone acetate suspension.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of twice-daily difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Durezol(®)) versus placebo administered before surgery for managing inflammation and pain following cataract extraction.
Eligible subjects (N = 121) were randomized 2:1 to topical treatment with 1 drop difluprednate or placebo administered twice daily for 16 days, followed by a 14-day tapering period. Dosing was initiated 24 hours before unilateral ocular surgery. Clinical signs of inflammation (anterior chamber [AC] cell and flare grade, bulbar conjunctival injection, ciliary injection, corneal edema, and chemosis), ocular pain/discomfort, intraocular pressure (IOP), and adverse events were assessed.
Clearing of inflammation on day 14 (primary endpoint), defined as an AC cell grade of 0 (≤5 cells) and a flare grade of 0 (complete absence), was achieved in a significantly greater percentage of subjects treated with difluprednate, compared with placebo (74.7% vs 42.5%; P = 0.0006). A significantly greater percentage of difluprednate-treated subjects were free of ocular pain/discomfort on day 14 than placebo-treated subjects (64.6% vs 30.0%; P = 0.0004). Three subjects (3.7%) in the difluprednate group had a clinically significant IOP rise (defined as ≥21 mmHg and a change from baseline ≥10 mmHg at same visit).
Difluprednate, administered 2 times daily starting 24 hours before cataract surgery, was highly effective for managing ocular inflammation and relieving pain and discomfort postoperatively. Difluprednate was well tolerated and provides a convenient twice-daily option for managing postoperative ocular inflammation.
Results from 2 patient-reported outcome studies of allergic conjunctivitis sufferers who used olopatadine 0.2% and azelastine 0.05% are analyzed.
The PACE (Pataday Allergic Conjunctivitis Evaluation) multi-center, prospective, open-label study examined patient perceptions of olopatadine 0.2% once daily (qd) and previous twice daily (bid) allergic conjunctivitis medications via questionnaire in allergic conjunctivitis sufferers who had previously used bid medication and then initiated olopatadine. A second conjunctival antigen challenge (CAC) study evaluated comfort of 4 allergic conjunctivitis medications.
Forty-nine patients from the PACE study (N = 125) with prior azelastine use were examined. Significantly more patients rated themselves "very satisfied" with current olopatadine use compared with past azelastine use on drop comfort (p < 0.0001), speed of relief (p = 0.0004), and overall satisfaction (70% vs 16%, p < 0.0001). Significantly more patients reported olopatadine "very effective" against swelling compared with azelastine (47% vs 8%, p = 0.0404). In the CAC study (N = 36), data from olopatadine (n = 8), azelastine (n = 9) and placebo (N = 36) groups were reported. Olopatadine was rated significantly more comfortable than azelastine upon instillation (p = 0.0223), at 30 seconds (p = 0.0479), and at 1 minute after instillation (p = 0.0240).
In the reported studies, olopatadine 0.2% qd was more comfortable than azelastine 0.05% and preferred by patients with allergic conjunctivitis by a ratio of 4:1.
To investigate the role of postoperative topical 0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA) eye drops (Restasis(®), Allergan Pharmaceutical) in the prevention of recurrence among patients with primary pterygium treated with bare-sclera technique.
In this prospective randomized controlled study, 36 eyes (34 patients) with primary pterygium were randomized into two groups: Group I comprised 18 eyes (18 patients), and Group II comprised 18 eyes (16 patients). Bare sclera technique was performed in both groups. In Group I, 0.05% CsA was administered postoperatively at 6-hour intervals for 6 months, and Group II did not receive any cyclosporine treatment. The patients were assessed for recurrence, side effects, and complications at postoperative 1 and 7 days as well as each month during the following year. Conjunctival advances which showed a limbus higher than 1 mm were recognized as recurrence.
Recurrence occurred in four patients (22.2%) in Group I and in eight (44.4%) patients in Group II.
Postoperative application of low-dose CsA can be effective for preventing recurrences after primary pterygium surgery.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09% once daily (QD) and nepafenac 0.1% ophthalmic suspension three times daily following cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, specifically looking at any differences in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuities, macular volume, and/or retinal thickness changes.
Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either bromfenac (n = 10) QD or nepafenac (n = 10) three times daily. Dosing began 3 days before cataract surgery, continuing to day 21 postsurgery. In addition to the investigated nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug regimen, all subjects received antiinfective intraoperative and postoperative standard of care. Subjects were followed at 1 day and 1, 3, and 6 weeks postoperatively. Study visit assessments included best-corrected visual acuity, biomicroscopy, summed ocular inflammation score (anterior chamber cells and flare grading), intraocular pressure measurement, adverse event recording, and concomitant medication review. Optical coherence tomography was performed at 1, 3, and 6 weeks.
Both treatment groups had similar baseline measurements. Outcomes for mean letters read (P = 0.318), mean change in macular volume (P = 0.665), and retinal thickness (P = 0.552) were not statistically different between the groups from baseline through week six, although independently only the bromfenac group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in letters gained from baseline to week six (P = 0.040). In the same time period, mean macular volume and retinal thickening worsened in the nepafenac group, demonstrating a statistically significant increase (P = 0.006) at week six for macular volume when compared to baseline. One subject in the nepafenac group experienced recurrent inflammation at week six, was unmasked, and then rescued with bromfenac 0.09% QD and difluprednate 0.05% QD.
Both bromfenac and nepafenac resulted in positive clinical outcomes of Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuities. Postoperative measurements of macular volume and retinal thickness of bromfenac subjects showed a trend toward improved vision, less retinal thickening, and more stable macular volumes overall.
To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution 0.09% compared with ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% in laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) or epithelial keratomileusis (epi-LASEK), sometimes referred to as epi-LASIK.
Eighty eyes (from 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women) undergoing bilateral simultaneous LASEK or epi-LASEK were randomized to receive ketorolac in one eye and bromfenac in the other. Mean age was 33.13 ± 9.34 years. One drop of bromfenac or ketorolac was instilled in each eye 15 minutes and one minute prior to surgery, and two and four hours following surgery. Patients were instructed to instill the medications on-label each day through postoperative day 4. The subjects completed pain and visual blurriness assessments from day of surgery to postoperative day 4. Uncorrected visual acuity was tested on postoperative days 1 and 6.
For each of the five days, pain scores for bromfenac-treated eyes were significantly less than that for ketorolac-treated eyes (P < 0.01). Of the 40 patients, 32 (80%) said bromfenac provided better postoperative analgesia than ketorolac. There was no statistically significant difference in visual blurriness scores between the two groups (P > 0.1). Uncorrected visual acuity did not vary significantly between the treatment groups (P > 0.1). No serious adverse events were noted.
Bromfenac is subjectively superior to ketorolac in reducing postoperative pain following LASEK or epi-LASEK. The subjects tolerated the drugs well with no serious adverse outcomes and no difference in uncorrected visual acuity.
To evaluate the effectiveness of alcaftadine 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.25% ophthalmic solutions in treating the signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis when compared with olopatadine hydrochloride 0.1% and placebo using the conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) model.
One hundred and seventy subjects were randomized and 164 subjects completed all visits. CAC was performed to determine and confirm subjects' eligibility at visits 1 and 2, respectively. The CAC was repeated at visit 3 (day 0 ± 3), 16 hours after study medication instillation, and at visit 4 (day 14 ± 3), 15 minutes after instillation. Ocular itching and conjunctival redness were evaluated after an allergen challenge, along with several secondary endpoints.
Alcaftadine 0.25% and olopatadine 0.1% treatments exhibited significantly lower mean scores compared with placebo for ocular itching and conjunctival redness at visits 3 and 4. Most adverse events were self-limiting and mild in severity. No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred.
Treatment with alcaftadine 0.25% ophthalmic solution resulted in mean differences of >1 unit (ocular itching) and approximately >1 unit (conjunctival redness), which was significant (P < 0.001) compared with placebo treatment. All doses of alcaftadine were safe and well tolerated in the population studied.
To describe the use of nepafenac 0.1% for cystoid macular edema (CME).
This was a multicenter retrospective review of 22 CME cases (20 patients) treated with nepafenac 0.1% (six with concomitant prednisolone acetate 1%) from December 2005 to April 2008: three acute pseudophakic CME cases, 13 chronic/recalcitrant pseudophakic CME cases, and six cases of uveitic CME. Pre- and post-treatment retinal thickness and visual acuity were reported.
Following treatment for six weeks to six months, six eyes with uveitic CME showed a mean retinal thickness improvement of 227 +/- 168.1 mum; mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improvement was 0.36 +/- 0.20 logMAR. All three cases of acute pseudophakic CME improved after four to 10 weeks of nepafenac, with a mean improvement in retinal thickness of 134 +/- 111.0 mum. BCVA improved in two patients (0.16 and 0.22 logMAR) but not in the third due to underlying retinal pigment epithelium changes. Thirteen eyes with chronic/recalcitrant pseudophakic CME demonstrated a mean improvement in retinal thickness of 178 +/- 128.7 mum after nepafenac and mean BCVA improvement of 0.33 +/- 0.19 logMAR.
The positive outcomes of these 22 eyes strongly suggest that nepafenac 0.1% is a promising drug for the treatment of CME. Additional study under randomized controlled conditions is warranted.
To compare nepafenac 0.1% with placebo and ketorolac 0.5% for prevention and treatment of ocular pain and inflammation after cataract surgery.
In a multi-center, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled, double-masked clinical trial, 227 patients with cataract were randomized to receive nepafenac 0.1%, ketorolac 0.5%, or placebo TID beginning 1 day pre-operatively and continuing for 21 days postoperatively. At each postoperative visit, cure rates and clinical success rates (</=5 aqueous cells and no flare) were calculated, and investigators evaluated patients' pain. On Day 7, patients judged ocular comfort after study drug instillation.
Nepafenac 0.1% produced significantly more cures compared to placebo at Day 14 (76.3% vs 59.2%, p = 0.0241), more clinical successes from Day 7 onward (p < 0.05), and more pain-free patients from Day 3 onward (p < 0.05). Nepafenac 0.1% was superior to ketorolac 0.5% in terms of clinical success at Day 14 (p = 0.0319) and in percentage of pain-free patients at Day 3 (p = 0.0366). Nepafenac 0.1% also demonstrated less discomfort upon instillation than ketorolac 0.5% (p = 0.0158).
The anti-inflammatory efficacy of nepafenac 0.1% is better than that of placebo; it is also more comfortable and at least equal to ketorolac 0.5% in the prevention and treatment of postoperative ocular pain and inflammation.
Glaucoma is a progressive, neurodegenerative optic nerve disease that can cause significant visual morbidity and affects over 60 million people worldwide. The only known modifiable risk factor for glaucoma at this time is elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which may be treated with medications, laser therapy, and/or incisional surgery. Topical ocular medications are commonly used as first-line therapy for glaucoma, although side effects may limit their use. Unoprostone is a novel 22-carbon ocular hypotensive agent that may be advantageous in treating some patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Unlike the 20-carbon prostanoids, such as latanoprost, that lower IOP primarily through an increase in uveoscleral outflow, unoprostone may lower IOP through increased aqueous outflow via the conventional trabecular meshwork pathway. Although not as efficacious as other prostanoids, unoprostone is effective for IOP reduction both as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy with timolol. Unoprostone has decreased affinity for the prostaglandin F2α receptor, which may explain its well tolerated ocular and systemic side effect profile compared with other prostanoids.
Ocular herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection remains a major cause of corneal blindness. Several topical and oral antiviral medications have been used to treat herpetic keratitis. Advances in topical ophthalmic antivirals have been made over the past several decades. The first antivirals that were discovered were cytotoxic, while the antivirals developed more recently, such as acyclovir and ganciclovir, have exceeded these drugs in both efficacy and tolerability. Commercially available outside of the US since 1996, ganciclovir ophthalmic gel, 0.15% (GCV 0.15%, European tradename: Virgan((R))) is sold in more than 30 countries and has become the standard of care in treating acute herpetic keratitis. GCV 0.15% has been studied in animal models of ocular herpes, in healthy volunteers, and in several clinical studies. It has been found to be safe and effective at treating acute superficial herpetic keratitis. Previous preclinical studies of ganciclovir have shown activity against several common adenovirus strains and one recent clinical study demonstrated clinical effect against adenoviral conjunctivitis. This review is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the GCV 0.15%, including a brief summary of the etiology and available treatments for ocular HSV, an explanation of GCV 0.15% mechanism of action, a compendium of preclinical and clinical GCV 0.15% studies, and an introduction into new areas of interest involving this drug.
The objective of this study was to examine the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of a fixed combination of brinzolamide 1% + brimonidine 0.2% (BBFC) after six months of treatment in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
This was a randomized, multicenter, double-masked, three-month, three-arm contribution-of-elements study with a three-month safety extension. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to treatment with BBFC, brinzolamide 1%, or brimonidine 0.2% after a washout period. Patients dosed their study medications three times daily at 8 am, 3 pm, and 10 pm for six months. Patients returned for visits at two weeks, six weeks, three months, and six months. IOP measurements were used to assess efficacy. Safety assessments were adverse events, corrected distance visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, pachymetry, perimetry, fundus parameters, and cardiac parameters.
A total of 690 patients were randomized. Six-month mean IOP values were similar to those at three months, when the mean IOP in patients treated with BBFC was significantly lower than that of either monotherapy group. A total of 175 patients experienced at least one treatment-related adverse event (BBFC, 33.0%; brinzolamide, 18.8%; brimonidine, 24.7%), eight of which were severe, and five resulted in discontinuation. Seventy-seven patients discontinued participation due to treatment-related adverse events (BBFC, 17.2%; brinzolamide, 2.1%; brimonidine, 14.5%). There were 21 serious adverse events (n = 7 in each group), none of which was related to treatment. Resting mean pulse and blood pressure with BBFC were similar to those with brimonidine, demonstrating modest, clinically insignificant decreases. No new or increased risks were identified with use of BBFC relative to either monotherapy.
This study showed that, after six months of treatment, the safety profile of BBFC was similar to that of its individual components and its IOP-lowering activity was similar to its efficacy at three months, when it was superior to both brinzolamide 1% alone and brimonidine 0.2% alone.
Lowering IOP is the most readily modifiable risk factor to delay the development and progression of glaucoma (POAG). The fixed combination of brimonidine tartrate 0.2% and timolol maleate 0.5% (FCBT) combines a highly selective alpha2-adrenergic agonist (brimonidine) with a non-selective beta-blocker (timolol). FCBT reduces aqueous production and enhances uveoscleral outflow. Concomitant brimonidine and timolol have additive effects on reducing intraocular pressure (IOP). Multi-center randomized control trials have documented superiority of FCBT twice daily on IOP control compared with monotherapy with the individual components, and equal efficacy compared with concomitant therapy. IOP reduction with FCBT versus fixed combination dorzolamide 2% and timolol 0.5% (FCDT) was similar in a small study. Other studies (n > 293) evaluating concomitant brimonidine and timolol have shown that it is not inferior to FCDT. However, concomitant brimonidine and timolol administered twice daily was significantly less efficacious in IOP reduction than fixed combination latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5% (FCLT). There are no published studies comparing FCBT with FCLT. The side effect profile for FCBT reflects that of its individual components. FCBT was generally well tolerated, with less ocular side effects than brimondine alone, but more than timolol alone. Documented systemic effects were few, although this could be confounded by selection bias. FCBT is a safe and effective IOP lowering agent for POAG and ocular hypertension.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two fixed combinations, ie, timolol 0.5% + brimonidine 0.2% + dorzolamide 2% (TBD) versus timolol 0.5% + brimonidine 0.2% (TB) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
We performed a 3-month, randomized, double-blind study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and an intraocular pressure of 21-30 mmHg. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one drop of TBD or TB twice a day. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in intraocular pressure after 3 months of treatment. Safety measures were assessed by the presence of adverse events.
Mean baseline intraocular pressure was similar at 8 am and 4 pm in the treatment groups (TBD 22.3 ± 0.9 mmHg, TB 22.4 ± 1.8 mmHg, P = 0.558; TBD 19.02 ± 1.3, TB 19.08 ± 1.2, P = 0.536, respectively). At the end of the study, the mean intraocular pressure was significantly lower in the TBD group at both 8 am (16.19 ± 2.0 mmHg versus 18.35 ± 1.4 mmHg, P = 0.000) and 4 pm (14.74 ± 2.4 mmHg versus 16.77 ± 1.4 mmHg, P = 0.000).
Fixed-combination TBD was more effective than fixed-combination TB for reducing IOP in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5% + brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Combigan®) for reduction for intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma when the dose frequency is increased from twice to three times daily.
The patients included had either primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Those who were previously on treatment completed a drug washout period prior to inclusion. IOP was measured at baseline, after 4 weeks of treatment with Combigan twice daily, and again after a further 4 weeks of Combigan three times daily. Blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were also recorded at each assessment.
Thirty-one eyes from 31 patients were included. Increasing the Combigan dose frequency resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.001) additional reduction in IOP of 2.25 ± 1.18 mmHg, corresponding to a further 10.3% reduction in IOP from baseline. No local or systemic adverse effects were documented.
Treatment with Combigan three times daily was more effective in reducing IOP than the twice-daily regimen, with no increase in adverse effects.
The aim of this study was to compare patient-perceived relief of ocular itch, nasal symptoms, and eye drop comfort when allergic conjunctivitis was treated with bepotastine besilate 1.5% versus olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2%.
This randomized, observer-masked, single-center, crossover study included 30 patients with ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis accompanied by nasal symptoms. Patients were treated with bepotastine besilate 1.5% twice daily (7 am and 4 pm) or olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% once daily (7 am) for 14 days. Following a 7-day washout period during which only preservative-free artificial tears were used twice daily, patients were crossed over to the alternative treatment for 14 days. Parameters evaluated by twice-daily patient diaries included each treatment’s ability to relieve ocular itch, ability to relieve itchy/runny nose, ability to relieve ocular allergy symptoms, and eye drop comfort. At the conclusion of the study, patients were also asked to identify which agent provided better all-day relief of ocular itching, better all-day relief of itchy/runny nose, superior comfort, and for which treatment they would prefer a prescription.
According to the mean daily diary responses, bepotastine besilate 1.5% provided significantly better relief of evening ocular itch, relief of morning and evening itchy/runny nose, and relief of morning and evening ocular allergy symptoms. At study end, 63.3% and 66.7% of patients preferred bepotastine besilate 1.5% for all-day relief of ocular itching and all-day relief of itchy/runny nose, respectively. At study end, there was no significant difference in the number of patients preferring one treatment over the other for comfort. Overall, 66.7% of patients stated that they would prefer to treat their allergic conjunctivitis with bepotastine besilate 1.5% over olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2%.
Based on their evaluation of therapeutic performance, patients preferred bepotastine besilate 1.5% over olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% by two-to-one for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis.
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% ophthalmic solution, a recent reformulation containing 20% less active ingredient that the original formulation, is indicated for the reduction of ocular pain and burning/stinging following corneal refractive surgery. Clinical studies have shown ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% to be as effective as ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% to control inflammation after cataract surgery including prevention of cystoid macular edema (CME). Its efficacy to inhibit miosis during cataract surgery as well as its role in the treatment of dry eye has been reported. The purpose of this paper is to review the use of ketorolac tromethamine 0.4% in the treatment of post-surgical inflammation following cataract and refractive surgery.
A new carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)-containing ophthalmic formulation of 0.45% ketorolac, pH 6.8 (Acuvail(®)) was recently developed for treatment of inflammation and pain after cataract surgery. This study compared pharmacokinetics of the new formulation with that of a prior formulation, 0.4% ketorolac, pH 7.4 (Acular LS(®)).
Ketorolac formulations were administered bilaterally (35 μL) to female New Zealand White rabbits. Samples from aqueous humor and iris-ciliary body were collected at multiple time points, and ketorolac was quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
In aqueous humor, the peak concentration (C(max)) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(0-τ)) of ketorolac were, respectively, 389 ng/mL and 939 ng·h/mL following administration of the CMC-containing 0.45% ketorolac, pH 6.8, and 211 ng/mL and 465 ng·hr/mL following administration of the 0.4% ketorolac, pH 7.4. In iris-ciliary body, C(max) and AUC(0-τ) of ketorolac were, respectively 450 ng/g and 2040 ng·h/g after administration of the CMC-containing 0.45% ketorolac, pH 6.8, and 216 ng/g and 699 ng·h/g after administration of the 0.4% ketorolac, pH 7.4. PK simulations predicted an AUC(0-τ) of 2910 ng·h/g for twice daily, CMC-containing 0.45% ketorolac, pH 6.8, compared to 725 ng·h/g for 4 times daily, 0.4% ketorolac, pH 7.4.
The CMC-containing formulation of 0.45% ketorolac, pH 6.8, increased ketorolac bioavailability by 2-fold in aqueous humor and by 3-fold in iris-ciliary body in comparison to the 0.4% ketorolac, pH 7.4, allowing a reduced dosing schedule from 4 times daily to twice daily.
This subject-masked, randomized, active and placebo-controlled study compared subjects' perceptions of two antibiotic ophthalmic drops. One hundred and twenty-five healthy volunteers received two of the following solutions: moxifloxacin 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Vigamox((R)), Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Ft Worth, TX, USA), azithromycin 1% in DuraSite((R)) (AzaSite(), Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Durham, NC, USA), or Tears Naturale II((R)) (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Ft. Worth, TX, USA) in contralateral eyes. Immediately following instillation and at 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes thereafter, subjects rated comfort, acceptability, and blurring on 0-10 point analog scales stating their preference of treatment. Among subjects receiving moxifloxacin and azithromycin in contralateral eyes, 84% preferred moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin was rated more comfortable and acceptable with less blurring than azithromycin (p < 0.0001). These differences were observed in both the adult and pediatric populations. Ocular adverse events (redness, irritation, stinging, burning, dryness, itching and chemosis) were observed in 18 (17.3%) eyes receiving azithromycin and 1 (1%) eye receiving moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin was significantly more tolerable than azithromycin in healthy adult and pediatric eyes. Tolerability and patient acceptance affect compliance; thus these data should be of significance to the clinician.
Glaucoma is a collection of diseases characterized by multifactorial progressive changes leading to visual field loss and optic neuropathy most frequently due to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). The goal of treatment is the lowering of the IOP to prevent additional optic nerve damage. Treatment usually begins with topical pharmacological agents as monotherapy, progresses to combination therapy with agents from up to 4 different classes of IOP-lowering medications, and then proceeds to laser or incisional surgical modalities for refractory cases. The fixed combination therapy with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide hydrochloride 2% and the beta blocker timolol maleate 0.5% is now available in a generic formulation for the treatment of patients who have not responded sufficiently to monotherapy with beta adrenergic blockers. In pre- and postmarketing clinical studies, the fixed combination dorzolamide-timolol has been shown to be safe and efficacious, and well tolerated by patients. The fixed combination dorzolamide-timolol is convenient for patients, reduces their dosing regimen with the goal of increasing their compliance, reduces the effects of "washout" when instilling multiple drops, and reduces the preservative burden by reducing the number of drops administered per day.
We investigated the efficiency, safety and patient preference of switching from dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% while maintaining the prostaglandin F2α analog.
We initially enrolled 44 eyes from 44 primary open angle glaucoma patients, and a total of 42 patients completed the study. All patients were under treatment with various prostaglandin F2α analogs and dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%. While maintaining the prostaglandin F2α analog, dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% was switched to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%. Conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were evaluated at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Adverse events and patient preferences, measured using a questionnaire at study initiation and at 24 weeks, were also noted.
The IOP was 17.7±1.7, 16.8±2.6, 16.7±2.2, and 16.7±2.4 mmHg at baseline and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks, respectively, with no significant differences in IOP values at any time point (P=0.117, one-way analysis of variance). In addition, no significant differences were found in the incidence of conjunctival hyperemia or SPK score at any time point (all P>0.5, by Kruskal-Wallis test). Based on the evaluation of side effects using the questionnaire, stinging/burning was less common (P=0.042), while blurred vision was more common (P=0.003), after switching to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%. Regarding patient preferences, 13 patients (31%) preferred dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%, 12 patients (29%) preferred brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%, and 17 patients (40%) preferred neither.
When switching from dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% to brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%, the IOP values and incidence of superficial punctate keratopathy and conjunctival hyperemia were sustained throughout the 24-week observation period, and the patient preferences were similar for the two regimens. However, differences were observed in the ocular sensations of stinging/burning with dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% and blurred vision with brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5%.
The eye has protective barriers (ie, the conjunctival and corneal membranes) and defense mechanisms (ie, reflex tearing, blinking, lacrimal drainage) which present challenges to topical drug delivery. Topical ocular corticosteroids are commonly used in the treatment of anterior segment diseases and inflammation associated with ocular surgery, and manufacturers continually strive to improve their characteristics. We describe the development of a novel ophthalmic gel formulation of loteprednol etabonate (LE), a C-20 ester-based corticosteroid with an established safety profile, in the treatment of ocular inflammatory conditions. The new LE gel formulation is non-settling, eliminating the need to shake the product to resuspend the drug, has a pH close to that of tears, and a low preservative concentration. The rheological characteristics of LE gel are such that the formulation is instilled as a drop and transitions to a fluid upon instillation in the eye, yet retains sufficient viscosity to prolong ocular surface retention. The new formulation provides consistent, uniform dosing as evidenced by dose extrusion studies, while pharmacokinetic studies in rabbits demonstrated rapid and sustained exposure to LE in ocular tissues following instillation of LE gel. Finally, results from two clinical studies of LE gel in the treatment of postoperative inflammation and pain following cataract surgery indicate that it was safe and effective. Most patients reported no unpleasant drop sensation upon instillation, and reports of blurred vision were rare.