MAGE-A antigens belong to cancer/testis (CT) antigens that are expressed in tumors but not in normal tissues except testis and placenta. MAGE-A antigens and their epitope peptides have been used in tumor immunotherapy trials. MAGE-A4 antigen is extensively expressed in various histological types of tumors, so it represents an attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. In this study, we predicted HLA-A*0201-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes of MAGE-A4, followed by peptide/HLA-A*0201 affinity and complex stability assays. Of selected four peptides (designated P1, P2, P3, and P4), P1 (MAGE-A4(286-294), KVLEHVVRV) and P3 (MAGE-A4(272-280), FLWGPRALA) could elicit peptide-specific CTLs both in vitro from HLA-A*0201-positive PBMCs and in HLA-A*0201/K(b) transgenic mice. And the induced CTLs could lyse target cells in an HLA-A*0201-restricted fashion, demonstrating that the two peptides are HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL epitopes and could serve as targets for therapeutic antitumoral vaccination.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (HPAI H5N1) viruses can infect mammals, including humans, causing severe systemic disease with the inhibition of the immune system and a high mortality rate. In conditions of lymphoid tissue depletion, the liver plays an important role in host defence against viruses. The changes in mice liver infected with HPAI H5N1 virus A/goose/Krasnoozerskoye/627/05 have been studied. It has been shown that the virus persistence in the liver leads to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α , IL-6) and intracellular proteases (lysozyme, cathepsin D, and myeloperoxidase) by Kupffer cells. Defective antiviral response exacerbates destructive processes in the liver accelerating the development of liver failure.
Receptor activator of nuclear factor κ B ligand (RANKL) plays a crucial role in the bone erosion of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by prompting osteoclastogenesis. Considering that 1,25(OH)2D3 has been suggested as a potent inducer of RANKL expression, it should clarify whether vitamin D supplement could result in RANKL overexpression and thereby facilitate excessive osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in RA. Here, we investigated modulatory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression of RANKL and its decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) in an inflammatory condition of human rheumatoid synoviocyte MH7A. MH7A cells were stimulated with IL1 β and then treated with different concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 for 48 h. A significantly elevated OPG/RANKL ratio and markedly decreased levels of IL-6 and TNF β mRNA expression in cells and IL-6 protein in supernatants were observed in IL1 β -induced MH7A in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 compared with those in the absence of it. Osteoclast formation was obviously decreased when RAW264.7 cells were treated with both 1,25(OH)2D3 and IL1 β . In summary, although it has a biological function to induce RANKL expression, 1,25(OH)2D3 could upregulate OPG/RANKL ratio and mediate anti-inflammatory action in an inflammatory milieu of synoviocyte, contributing to the inhibition of inflammation-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA.
To analyze the methylation status of miR-124a loci in synovial tissues of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP).
Materials and methods:
DNA obtained from the frozen tissue of 7 RA samples, 6 osteoarthritis (OA) samples, and 3 healthy controls were undergoing bisulfite conversion and then analyzed for miR-124a promoter methylation using MSP assay.
miR-124-a1 and miR-124-a2 promoter methylation were both seen in 71.4% of RA samples compared to 16.7% of OA samples. miR-124-a3 promoter methylation was seen in 57.1% of RA samples and 0% of OA samples. All the three loci were unmethylated in 3 healthy controls.
The methylation status of miR-124a seen in this study concurs with that reported in tumor cells, indicating epigenetic dysregulation constituents, a mechanism in the development of rheumatoid arthritis.
A variety of immune-based therapies has been developed in order to boost or induce protective CD8(+) T cell responses in order to control HIV replication. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique capability to stimulate naïve T cells into effector T cells, their use for the induction of HIV-specific immune responses has been studied intensively. In the present study we investigated whether modulation of the activation state of DCs electroporated with consensus codon-optimized HxB2 gag mRNA enhances their capacity to induce HIV gag-specific T cell responses. To this end, mature DCs were (i) co-electroporated with mRNA encoding interleukin (IL)-12p70 mRNA, or (ii) activated with a cytokine cocktail consisting of R848 and interferon (IFN)-γ. Our results confirm the ability of HxB2 gag-expressing DCs to expand functional HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. However, although most of the patients had detectable gag-specific CD8(+) T cell responses, no significant differences in the level of expansion of functional CD8(+) T cells could be demonstrated when comparing conventional or immune-modulated DCs expressing IL-12p70. This result which goes against expectation may lead to a re-evaluation of the need for IL-12 expression by DCs in order to improve T-cell responses in HIV-1-infected individuals.
IFN-γ has been used in the treatment of IL-12Rβ1 deficiency patients with disseminated BCG infection (BCGosis), but the optimal dose to reach efficacy is not clear. We used IFN-γ in the treatment of a 2.7-year-old patient with IL-12Rβ1 deficiency and refractory BCG-osis. IFNγ was started at a dose of 50 μg/m² 3 times per week. The dose was upgraded to 100 mcg/m² after 3 months, then to 200 mcg/m² 6 months afterwards. Serum mycobactericidal activity and lymphocytes number and function were evaluated throughout the study. There was no clinical response to IFN-γ with 50 or 100 μg/m² doses. However, there was some response to the 200 μg/m² dose with no additional adverse effects. The serum mycobactericidal activity was not significantly different during the whole treatment period. Lymphocytes proliferation in response to PHA was significantly higher after 3 months of using the highest dose as compared to the lowest dose. The tuberculin skin test reaction remained persistently negative. We conclude that in a patient with IL-12Rβ1 deficiency, IFN-γ at a dose of 200 μg/m², but not at lower dosages, was found to have a noticeable clinical effect with no additional adverse effects.
Herein, we show that PTX-B and its non-toxic mutant PT9K/129G inhibit transcription and secretion of TGF-beta elicited by HIV-1 Tat in NK cells. Moreover, Tat strongly activates the cJun component of the multimolecular complex AP-1, while TGF-beta triggers cFos and cJun. Treatment of NK cells In turn,with PTX-B or PT9K/129G inhibits Tat and TGF-beta-induced activation of AP-1. TGF-beta enhances starvation-induced NK cell apoptosis, reduces the transcription of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and inhibits Akt phosphorylation induced by oligomerization of the triggering NK cell receptor NKG2D. All these TGF-beta-mediated effects are prevented by PTX-B or PT9K/129G, through a PI-3K-dependent mechanism. Finally, PTX-B and PT9K/129G upregulate Bcl-x(L), the isoform of Bcl-x that protects cells from starvation-induced apoptosis. Of note, in NK cells from patients with HIV-1 infection, mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L) was consistently lower than that of healthy donors; interestingly, TGF-beta and Tat were detected in the sera of these patients. These data suggest that Tat-induced TGF-beta production and the consequent NK cell failure, possibly occurring during early HIV-1 infection, may be regulated by PTX-B and PT9K/129G.
Utilizing a food allergy murine model, we have investigated the intrinsic antiallergic potential of the Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 strain.
BALB/c mice were sensitized at weekly intervals with ovalbumin (OVA) plus cholera toxin (CT) by the oral route for 7 weeks. In this model, an oral challenge with a high dose of OVA at the end of the sensitization period leads to clinical symptoms. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 was given to mice via the drinking water during sensitization (prevention phase) or after sensitization (management phase).
Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 administration to sensitized mice strikingly reduced allergic manifestations in the management phase upon challenge, when compared to control mice. No preventive effect was observed with the strain. Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 significantly decreased relative expression levels of the Th-2 cytokine, IL-13, and associated chemokines CCL11 (eotaxin-1) and CCL17 (TARC) in the ileum. No effect was observed in the jejunum.
These results taken together designate Lactococcus lactis NCC 2287 as a candidate probiotic strain appropriate in the management of allergic symptoms.
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the most important risk factors for erectile dysfunction, mostly due to the impairment of oxidative stress and endothelial function in the penis. The cannabinoid system might regulate peripheral mechanisms of sexual function; however, its role is still poorly understood. We investigated the effects of CB2 activation on oxidative stress and fibrosis within the corpus cavernosum of hypercholesterolemic mice. Apolipoprotein-E-knockout mice were fed with a western-type diet for 11 weeks and treated with JWH-133 (selective CB2 agonist) or vehicle during the last 3 weeks. CB2 receptor expression, total collagen content, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production within the penis were assessed. In vitro corpus cavernosum strips preparation was performed to evaluate the nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. CB2 protein expression was shown in cavernosal endothelial and smooth muscle cells of wild type and hypercholesterolemic mice. Treatment with JWH-133 reduced ROS production and NADPH-oxidase expression in hypercholesterolemic mice penis. Furthermore, JWH-133 increased endothelial NO synthase expression in the corpus cavernosum and augmented NO bioavailability. The decrease in oxidative stress levels was accompanied with a reduction in corpus cavernosum collagen content. In summary, CB2 activation decreased histological features, which were associated with erectile dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic mice.
Twenty-eight HLA-A2+ patients with high-risk, locally advanced or metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer were immunized with a peptide homologue of prostate-specific antigen, PSA146-154, between July 2002 and September 2004 and monitored for clinical and immune responses. Fifty percent of the patients developed strong PSA146-154-peptide-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin responses, tetramer and/or IFN-γ responses within one year. Thirteen patients had stable or declining serum levels of PSA one year post-vaccination. A decreased risk of biochemical progression was observed in patients who developed augmented tetramer responses at six months compared to pre-vaccination levels (P = .02). Thirteen patients have died while 15 patients remain alive with a mean overall survival of 60 months (95% CI, 51 to 68 months) per Kaplan-Meier analysis. A trend towards greater overall survival was detected in men with high-risk, hormone-sensitive CaP who developed specific T-cell immunity following vaccination with PSA146-154 peptide.
. This study was to screen for the miRNAs differently expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of RA, to further identify the expression of miR-155 in RA PBMC and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), and to evaluate the function of miR-155 in RA-FLS.
. Microarray was used to screen for differentially expressed miRNAs in RA PBMC. miR-155 expression in PBMC and FLS of RA were identified by real-time PCR. Enforced overexpression and downexpression of miR-155 were used to investigate the function of miR-155 in RA-FLS. Expression of IKBKE which was previously identified as the actual target of miR-155 was examined by Western blot and real-time PCR in RA-FLS.
. miR-155 levels were increased in both PBMC and FLS of RA and could be induced by TNF-
. Upregulation of miR-155 decreased MMP-3 levels and suppressed proliferation and invasion of RA-FLS. Inverse relationship between the expressions of miR-155 and the MMPs production-related protein IKBKE was found.
. An inflammatory milieu may alter miRNA expression profiles in rheumatoid arthritis. miR-155 is upregulated in RA-FLS, and it may be a protective factor against the inflammatory effect in part by attenuating expression of IKBKE.
To investigate the relationship between interleukin-17 and proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism with respect to alcoholic liver disease, male ICR mice were randomized into five groups: control, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks, and anti-IL-17 antibody treated ALD. A proteomic approach was adopted to investigate changes in liver proteins between control and ALD groups. The proteomic analysis was performed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. Spots of interest were subsequently subjected to nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for protein identification. Additionally, expression levels of selected proteins were confirmed by western blot. Transcriptional levels of some selected proteins were determined by RT-PCR. Expression levels of 95 protein spots changed significantly (ratio >1.5, P < 0.05) during the development of ALD. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-lc (SREBP-1c), carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase (ECHS1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR- α ) were identified by MS/MS among the proteins shown to vary the most; increased IL-17 elevated the transcription of SREBP-1c and ChREBP but suppressed ECHS1 and PPAR- α . The interleukin-17 signaling pathway is involved in ALD development; anti-IL-17 antibody improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing interleukin-17-related fatty acid metabolism.
In this study, we mainly investigate the role of Th17 cells, Th1 cells, and their related cytokines in the pathophysiology of AML. BM and PB were extracted from ND, CR, and relapsed-refractory AML patients and controls. Th subsets frequencies were examined by flow cytometry. BM plasma Th-associated cytokines levels were determined by ELISA. The frequencies of Th17 and Th1, and IFN- γ or TGF- β concentrations were significantly decreased in ND compared with CR patients or controls. Th17 percentage was significantly lower in BM than in PB for ND patients but was higher in BM for CR patients. However, in CR or relapsed-refractory patients, Th1 percentage in BM was higher than that in PB. Moreover, BM IL-17A level showed a decreased trend in ND patients. A significant elevation of plasma IL-6 level was found in ND compared with CR patients or controls. IL-17A showed the positive correlation with IL-6 concentration. And Th17 cells frequencies and TGF- β 1 concentration were increased in BM from AML patients achieving CR after chemotherapy. Moreover, a significant decrease of BM plasma TGF- β 1 level was found in M3 patients compared with the other subtypes. Our findings suggest that Th17 and related cytokines may be implicated in AML pathogenesis.
The main purpose of this study was to determine the expression of interleukins-17/-23 (ILs-17/-23) and receptors of interleukins-17/-23 (IL-17R, IL-23R) in minor salivary glands (MSGs) of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Expression of IL-17, IL-23 and receptors of IL-17/-23 was analyzed in MSGs from 25 patients with pSS, 25 patients with probable preclinical pSS, and 25 patients with nonautoimmune sicca syndrome by immunohistochemistry. Comparison of the expression of IL-17, IL-23 and receptors of IL-17, IL-23 in MSG of patients with pSS with probable preclinical pSS, and with nonautoimmune sicca syndrome showed significant differences between three groups. However, the expression of IL-17, IL-23 and receptors of IL-17/-23 in MSG was comparable in pSS and probable preclinical pSS patients. We did not find correlation between the expression of IL-17 and IL-23 and of IL-17R and IL-23R in patients with pSS. These results demonstrate an involvement of IL-17/-23 system in the early pSS pathogenesis.
T-helper 17 (Th17) cells are characterized by producing interleukin-17 (IL-17, also called IL-17A), IL-17F, IL-21, and IL-22 and potentially TNF- α and IL-6 upon certain stimulation. IL-23, which promotes Th17 cell development, as well as IL-17 and IL-22 produced by the Th17 cells plays essential roles in various inflammatory diseases, such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, and Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of the functional role of Th17 cells, with particular focus on the Th17 cell-related cytokines such as IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23, in mouse models and human inflammatory diseases.
Extensive research in recent years suggests that exposure to xenobiotic stimuli plays a critical role in autoimmunity induction and severity and that the resulting response would be exacerbated in individuals with an infection-aroused immune system. In this context, heavy metals constitute a prominent category of xenobiotic substances, known to alter divergent immune cell responses in accidentally and occupationally exposed individuals, thereby increasing the susceptibility to autoimmunity and cancer, especially when accompanied by inflammation-triggered persistent sensitization. This perception is learned from experimental models of infection and epidemiologic studies and clearly underscores the interplay of exposure to such immunomodulatory elements with pre- or postexposure infectious events. Further, the TH17 cell subset, known to be associated with a growing list of autoimmune manifestations, may be the "superstar" at the interface of xenobiotic exposure and autoimmunity. In this review, the most recently established links to this nomination are short-listed to create a framework to better understand new insights into TH17's contributions to autoimmunity.
Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE) caused by the cestode
, is a severe helminth infection of man, where unrestricted parasite growth will ultimately result in organ failure and fatality. The tissue-infiltrative growth of the larval metacestode and the limited efficacy of available drugs complicate successful intervention in AE; patients often need life-long medication, and if possible, surgical resection of affected tissues and organs. Resistance to AE has been reported, but the determinants which confer protection are not known. ln this study, we analyzed in patients at distinct stages of Alveolar Echirococcosis, that is cured, stable and progressive AE, as well as in infection-free controls, the cellular production and plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines lL-17A, lL-17B, lL-17F and their soluble receptors lL-17RA (slL-17RA) and IL-17RB (sIL-17RB). Significantly elevated levels of IL-17B and slL-17RB were observed, whilst lL-17F and slL-17RA were reduced in patients with AE. Similarly, the cellular production of lL-17F and slL-L7RA in response to
antigens was low in AE patients, while levels of slL-17RB were highly enhanced. These observations suggest immune-modulating properties of
on lL-17 cytokine-mediated pro-inflammatory immune responses; this may facilitate the tissue infiltrative growth of the parasite and its persistence in the human host.
Many autoimmune diseases are driven by self-reactive T helper (Th) cells. A new population of effector CD4(+) T cells characterized by the secretion of interleukin (IL)-17, referred to as Th17 cells, has been demonstrated to be phenotypically, functionally, and developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 cells. Because the liver is known to be an important source of transforming growth factor- β and IL-6, which are cytokines that are crucial for Th17 differentiation, it is very likely that Th17 cells contribute to liver inflammation and autoimmunity. In contrast, another distinct subset of T cells, regulatory T cells (Treg), downregulate immune responses and play an important role in maintaining self-tolerance. In addition, there is a reciprocal relationship between Th17 cells and Tregs, in development and effector functions, and the balance between Th17 and Treg cells can affect the outcome of immune responses, particularly in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we will focus on the latest investigative findings related to Th17 cells in autoimmune liver disease.
Previous studies showed that polymerized-type I collagen (polymerized collagen) exhibits potent immunoregulatory properties. This work evaluated the effect of intramuscular administration of polymerized collagen in early and established collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice and analyzed changes in Th subsets following therapy. Incidence of CIA was of 100% in mice challenged with type II collagen. Clinimorphometric analysis showed a downregulation of inflammation after administration of all treatments (P < 0.05). Histological analysis showed that the CIA-mice group had extensive bone erosion, pannus and severe focal inflammatory infiltrates. In contrast, there was a remarkable reduction in the severity of arthritis in mice under polymerized collagen, methotrexate or methotrexate/polymerized collagen treatment. Polymerized Collagen but not methotrexate induced tissue joint regeneration. Polymerized Collagen and methotrexate/polymerized collagen but not methotrexate alone induces downregulation of CD4(+)/IL17A(+) T cells and upregulation of Tregs and CD4(+)/IFN-γ(+) T cells. Thus, Polymerized Collagen could be an effective therapeutic agent in early and established rheumatoid arthritis by exerting downregulation of autoimmune inflammation.
Unbalanced Th1/Th2 T-cell responses in the liver are a characteristic of hepatic inflammation and subsequent liver fibrosis. The recently discovered Th17 cells, a subtype of CD4(+) T-helper cells mainly producing IL-17 and IL-22, have initially been linked to host defense against infections and to autoimmunity. Their preferred differentiation upon TGFβ and IL-6, two cytokines abundantly present in injured liver, makes a contribution of Th17 cells to hepatic inflammation very likely. Indeed, initial studies in humans revealed activated Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines in various liver diseases. However, functional experiments in mouse models are not fully conclusive at present, and the pathogenic contribution of Th17 cells to liver inflammation might vary upon the disease etiology, for example, between infectious and autoimmune disorders. Understanding the chemokines and chemokine receptors promoting hepatic Th17 cell recruitment (possibly CCR6 or CCR4) might reveal new therapeutic targets interfering with Th17 migration or differentiation in liver disease.
It is widely accepted that chronic inflammation plays an active role in cancer. Inflammatory immunocytes and related cytokines in the tumor microenvironment are supposed to be a "double-edged sword" in colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression. Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine, can promote cancer-elicited inflammation and prevent cancer cells from immune surveillance. Despite controversy, IL-17 is generally considered to be a promoter in CRC progression. In this review, we devote to summarize the current progress regarding the role of IL-17 in tumor initiation and progression, as well as the prognostic value in CRC.
T-helper-17 (Th17) cells are implicated in a number of inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. Antagonism of Th17 cells is a treatment option for arthritis. Here, we report that Baicalin, a compound isolated from the Chinese herb Huangqin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi), relieved ankle swelling and protected the joint against inflammatory destruction in a murine adjuvant-induced arthritis model. Baicalin inhibited splenic Th17 cell population expansion in vivo. Baicalin prevented interleukin- (IL-) 17-mediated lymphocyte adhesion to cultured synoviocytes. Baicalin also blocked IL-17-induced intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA expression in cultured synoviocytes. Collectively, these findings suggest that Baicalin downregulates the joint inflammation caused by IL-17, which is likely produced by an expanded population of splenic Th17 cells in experimental arthritis. Baicalin might be a promising novel therapeutic agent for treating rheumatoid arthritis in humans.
While the defects in HLA class I-mediated Ag presentation by Burkitt lymphoma (BL) have been well documented, CD4+ T-cells are also poorly stimulated by HLA class II Ag presentation, and the reasons underlying this defect(s) have not yet been fully resolved. Here, we show that BL cells are deficient in their ability to optimally stimulate CD4+ T cells via the HLA class II pathway. The observed defect was not associated with low levels of BL-expressed costimulatory molecules, as addition of external co-stimulation failed to result in BL-mediated CD4+ T-cell activation. We further demonstrate that BL cells express the components of the class II pathway, and the defect was not caused by faulty Ag/class II interaction, because antigenic peptides bound with measurable affinity to BL-associated class II molecules. Treatment of BL with broystatin-1, a potent modulator of protein kinase C, led to significant improvement of functional class II Ag presentation in BL. The restoration of immune recognition appeared to be linked with an increased expression of a 17 kDa peptidylprolyl-like protein. These results demonstrate the presence of a specific defect in HLA class II-mediated Ag presentation in BL and reveal that treatment with bryostatin-1 could lead to enhanced immunogenicity.
There is a lack of information about the genotype frequencies of IL-6 -174G/C and -572G/C polymorphisms in Mexicans with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of the IL-6 -174G/C and -572G/C polymorphisms in Mexican mestizo with RA.
We included 137 patients with RA and 102 healthy controls. Patients were assessed for clinical characteristics. IL-6 -174G/C and -572G/C polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP analysis. Allele and genotype frequencies and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were computed. Odds ratios (ORs) were computed to identify the risk for RA associated with the presence of GG genotype in comparison with the GC or CC genotypes.
The genotype -174GG occurred at a higher frequency in cases and controls (77.4% versus 78.4%, P = 0.845). We found similar results for the genotype -572GG (54% in patients versus 60.8% in controls, P = 0.295).
This is the first study to evaluate the association of -174G/C and -572G/C polymorphisms of the IL-6 gene with RA in Mexican mestizo patients. These two polymorphisms were not associated with RA in the studied sample. Additional studies are required to evaluate if these IL-6 polymorphisms have relevance to the development of more severe disease.
Since the discovery of IL-17 in 1995 as a T-cell cytokine, inducing IL-6 and IL-8 production by fibroblasts, and the report of a separate T-cell lineage producing IL-17(A), called Th17 cells, in 2005, the role of IL-17 has been studied in several inflammatory diseases. By inducing IL-8 production and subsequent neutrophil attraction towards the site of inflammation, IL-17A can link adaptive and innate immune responses. More specifically, its role in respiratory diseases has intensively been investigated. We here review its role in human respiratory diseases and try to unravel the question whether IL-17A only provides a link between the adaptive and innate respiratory immunity or whether this cytokine might also be locally produced by innate immune cells. We furthermore briefly discuss the possibility to reduce local IL-17A production as a treatment option for respiratory diseases.