[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 18: 215–231, 2011]
The development of effective treatments for Asian Americans is important because treatment disparities continue to exist for this population. Because of their theoretical grounding in East Asian philosophies, mindfulness and acceptance-based psychotherapies appear to constitute promising ways to provide culturally responsive mental health care to Asian Americans. However, in practice, these approaches often reflect conceptions of mental health that are more consistent with Western worldviews. We review points of intersection and divergence between Western-based mindfulness and acceptance psychotherapies and Asian American cultural values. We then propose a culturally syntonic approach that accentuates certain components of mindfulness and acceptance psychotherapies and adapts other components of these approaches to be more consistent with Asian American cultural values.
The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of the sleep-wake cycle in children, adolescents, and adults with bipolar disorder. After reviewing the evidence that has accrued to date on the nature and severity of the sleep disturbance experienced, we document the importance of sleep for quality of life, risk for relapse, affective functioning, cognitive functioning, health (sleep disturbance is implicated in obesity, poor diet, and inadequate exercise), impulsivity, and risk taking. We argue that sleep may be critically important in the complex multifactorial cause of interepisode dysfunction, adverse health outcomes, and relapse. An agenda for future research is presented that includes improving the quality of sleep measures and controlling for the impact of bipolar medications.
Bipolar disorder has garnered increasing attention as many argue that rates of bipolar disorder are skyrocketing and the definition of the classic bipolar disorder phenotype should be expanded, especially among children and adolescents. Understanding the psychosocial etiologies of bipolar disorder across the lifespan is critically important, and Alloy and colleagues' (2009) scholarly review makes an important contribution. Given the debate and controversy surrounding the description, diagnosis, and phenotype of bipolar disorder, having an accurate, reliable, and valid classification for definition, diagnosis, and assessment is critical for explicating potential etiology. Likewise, advanced understanding of etiology, especially when grounded in basic psychological science as Alloy and colleagues' review is, can importantly inform clinical phenomenology, course, assessment, and intervention. In summary, there is an essential interplay among description, classification, assessment, etiology, and intervention, such that a deeper understanding of all these areas is necessary for advancing an empirically based practice of assessment and intervention.
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 18: 238–241, 2011]
Psychotherapy is a Western method of treating mental illness. Culturally adapting psychotherapy to better meet the needs of ethnic minorities is an important endeavor. Hall, Hong, Zane, and Meyer. (2011) did an excellent job of reviewing the intersection and divergence between Asian culture and mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies. They also point out that some therapies can be naturally syntonic with Asian American cultural values and belief systems. This is especially important given cultural differences between the East and West. Later, I provide an overview of the complexities involved in adapting treatments for diverse clients. I also discuss the importance of deconstructing stereotypes and understanding the complex interplay between clinical and cultural issues. Individualization of treatment for diverse clients can be achieved through culturally formed practice.
The co-occurrence of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders often leads to poor treatment retention and adherence. Both empirical research and statements of best practices suggest that interventions including motivational interviewing principles can enhance treatment engagement and improve outcomes. This article describes a set of exercises used within a motivational enhancement protocol for outpatients with schizophrenia-spectrum and alcohol use disorders. We describe how each exercise was tailored to the target population, and how it is designed to enhance motivation to change and treatment engagement. Examples from clinical transcripts are used to demonstrate how motivational interviewing is adapted to the cognitive, social, and environmental circumstances associated with schizophrenia.
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 17: 350–359, 2010]
Published rates of comorbidity between pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been higher than would be expected if they were independent conditions, but also dramatically different across different studies. This review examines processes that could artificially create the appearance of comorbidity or substantially bias estimates of the PBD-ADHD comorbidity rate, including categorization of dimensional constructs, overlap among diagnostic criteria, over-splitting, developmental sequencing, and referral or surveillance biases. Evidence also suggests some mechanisms for “true” PBD-ADHD comorbidity, including shared risk factors, distinct subtypes, and weak causal relationships. Keys to differential diagnosis include focusing on episodic presentation and nonoverlapping symptoms unique to mania.
To extend the reach, transparency, and accountability for the implementation and outcomes of effective treatments in routine care, more clarity is needed about what happens in treatment. We attempt to (a) clarify terminology to describe and measure psychological treatment, and (b) consider what treatment adherence instruments can tell us about what happens in treatment. We reviewed the content of 11 adherence instruments for 14 evidence-based treatments for disruptive behavior problems in youth identified in an ongoing review of adherence measurement methods used in psychosocial treatment studies from 1980 - 2008. Item number, content, and level of detail varied widely. Implications are considered for the definition of effective treatments and design and testing of strategies to measure and monitor their delivery.
Increasingly, the telephone is being used to deliver psychotherapy for depression, in part as a means to reduce barriers to treatment. Twelve trials of telephone-administered psychotherapies, in which depressive symptoms were assessed, were included. There was a significant reduction in depressive symptoms for patients enrolled in telephone-administered psychotherapy as compared to control conditions (d = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.14-0.39, p < .0001). There was also a significant reduction in depressive symptoms in analyses of pretreatment to posttreatment change (d = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.50-1.13, p < .0001). The mean attrition rate was 7.56% (95% CI = 4.23-10.90). These findings suggest that telephone-administered psychotherapy can produce significant reductions in depressive symptoms. Attrition rates were considerably lower than rates reported in face-to-face psychotherapy.
This article reviews the current state of the literature on the assessment of bipolar disorder in adults. Research on reliable and valid measures for bipolar disorder has unfortunately lagged behind assessment research for other disorders, such as major depression. We review diagnostic tools, self-report measures to facilitate screening for bipolar diagnoses, and symptom severity measures. We briefly review other assessment domains, including measures designed to facilitate self-monitoring of symptoms. We highlight particular gaps in the field, including an absence of research on the reliable diagnosis of bipolar II and milder forms of disorder, a lack of empirical data on the best ways to integrate data from multiple domains, and a shortage of measures targeting a broader set of illness-related constructs relevant to bipolar disorder.
This special series focuses upon the ways in which research on treatment integrity, a multidimensional construct including assessment of the content and quality of a psychosocial treatment delivered to a client as well as relational elements, can inform dissemination and implementation science. The five articles for this special series illustrate how treatment integrity concepts and methods can be applied across different levels of the mental health service system to advance dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide an overview of treatment integrity research and describe three broad conceptual models that are relevant to the articles in the series. We conclude with a brief description of each of the five articles in the series.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) are prevalent and frequently co-occur. Comorbid PTSD/SUD is associated with a more complex and costly clinical course when compared with either disorder alone, including increased chronic physical health problems, poorer social functioning, higher rates of suicide attempts, more legal problems, increased risk of violence, worse treatment adherence, and less improvement during treatment. In response, psychosocial treatment options have increased substantially over the past decade and integrated approaches - treatments that address symptoms of both PTSD and SUD concurrently -are fast becoming the preferred model for treatment. This paper reviews the prevalence, etiology and assessment practices as well as advances in the behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of comorbid PTSD and SUDs.
The model of brief therapy developed by Fisch, Weakland, Watzlawick, and colleagues in Palo Alto is based on identifying and interrupting ironic processes that occur when repeated attempts to solve a problem keep the problem going or make it worse. Formulations of ironic problem-solution loops provide a template for assessment and strategic intervention, indicating where to look to understand what keeps a problem going (look for "more of the same" solution) and what needs to happen for the complaint to be resolved (someone must apply "less of the same" solution). Supporting research is preliminary but suggests this approach may be well suited for change-resistant clients.
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 17: 293–306, 2010]
The high level of concurrent and sequential comorbidity between anxiety and depression in children and adolescents may result from (a) substantial overlap in both the symptoms and items used to assess these putatively different disorders, (b) common etiologic factors (e.g., familial risk, negative affectivity, information-processing biases, neural substrates) implicated in the development of each condition, and (c) negative sequelae of anxiety conferring increased risk for the development of depression. Basic research on their various common and unique etiologic mechanisms has guided the development of efficacious treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in youth. Potential processes through which the successful treatment of childhood anxiety might prevent subsequent depression are described.
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 17: 307–318, 2010]
Although oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and anxiety disorders (ADs) often co-occur, the literature is mixed regarding the effects of such co-occurrence. For example, there is evidence that AD symptoms may mitigate ODD symptoms (buffer hypothesis) or exacerbate ODD symptoms (multiple problem hypothesis). A dual-pathway model incorporates previous research and addresses both hypotheses. We describe several possible etiological or risk processes that may underlie each of these ODD–AD pathways, including child temperament, aggression, limbic system processes, executive functioning abilities, and social information–processing biases, and suggest an integrated model. We conclude with implications for the model and directions for future research involving co-occurring ODD and ADs.
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 18: 266–273, 2011]
Research on anxiety treatment with Black women reveals a need to develop interventions that address factors relevant to their lives. Such factors include feelings of isolation, multiple roles undertaken by Black women, and faith. A recurrent theme across treatment studies is the importance of having support from other Black women. Sister circles are support groups that build upon existing friendships, fictive kin networks, and the sense of community found among Black women. Sister circles appear to offer many of the components Black women desire in an anxiety intervention. In this article, we explore sister circles as an intervention for anxious Black women. Culturally infused aspects from our sister circle work with middle-class Black women are presented. Further research is needed.
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 18: 305–310, 2011]
An exciting review in this issue (Forgeard et al., 2011) highlights a number of emerging themes in contemporary translational research. A primary challenge for the next generation of researchers reading this work will be how to carry out the grand charges levied by Forgeard et al. on the ground, that is, to lay the foundations for moving the emerging basic science of depression into the Depression Clinic of Tomorrow. Addressing these challenges could suggest changes in the nature of the basic science, and the questions that are being asked, and employed approaches in contemporary depression research. Preconditions for clinical adoption discussed in the review include (a) beginning to hold neuroscience-based measures of features of depression to the same standards held for other depression measures in the clinic, (b) attending to how the proposed methods might actually end up being feasibly imported into the clinic, and (c) what interventions targeted at mechanisms of depression might look like in the next decade.
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 17: 72–81, 2010]
Research on substance use disorders has produced a slew of disappointments in studies designed to confirm basic principles of the technology approach to treatment dissemination. These setbacks should inspire addictions science to pursue complementary paths of inquiry that focus on evidence-based practices delivered under naturalistic conditions. This will require larger accommodations to, and closer partnerships with, the indigenous cultures of everyday care.
Psychosocial treatments for persons with severe mental illness (SMI) have been developing rapidly over the past decade. Despite the fact that people with SMI are often in the greatest need of care, clinical psychologists are not currently playing a major role in their treatment and are underrepresented compared to other disciplines in this area such as nursing, social work, and psychiatry. In this article, we present possible reasons for clinical psychologists' underrepresentation and discuss motivators, potential opportunities, and ways for clinical psychologists to take a greater role in the provision of services for persons with SMI. Implications for the training of clinical psychologists are discussed.
Research has emerged providing consistent support for the behavioral approach system (BAS) dysregulation theory of bipolar disorder. The objective of the current article is to examine the extent to which findings from the BAS dysregulation theory can inform psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. Towards this end, we first provide an overview of the BAS dysregulation theory. Second, we review extant research on psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. And, third, we discuss means by which research and theory in line with the BAS dysregulation model can inform psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. Particular attention is given to the clinical implications of research suggesting that bipolar disorder is characterized by high drive/incentive motivation, ambitious goal-setting, and perfectionism in the achievement domain.
We review longitudinal predictors, primarily psychosocial, of the onset, course, and expression of bipolar spectrum disorders. We organize our review along a proximal - distal continuum, discussing the most proximal (i.e., prodromes) predictors of bipolar episodes first, then recent environmental (i.e., life events) predictors of bipolar symptoms and episodes next, followed by more distal psychological (i.e., cognitive styles) predictors, and ending with the most distal temperament (i.e., Behavioral Approach System sensitivity) predictors. We then present a theoretical model, the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) dysregulation model, for understanding and integrating the role of these predictors of bipolar spectrum disorders. Finally, we consider the implications of the reviewed longitudinal predictors for future research and psychosocial treatments of bipolar disorders.
Nusslock, Abramson, Harmon-Jones, Alloy, and Coan (this issue) propose that current psychosocial treatments for bipolar disorder be supplemented with interventions focused on altering goal dysregulation pathways. While innovations to existing treatment manuals are always welcome, there are several reasons why this suggestion may require further consideration. We highlight issues pertaining to the status of cognitive-behavioral therapy for bipolar disorder, the distinction between education and psychoeducation, the nature of familial expressed emotion, differences between clinical and analog samples, and the larger question of how to assess mechanisms in psychosocial treatment studies. We also raise the question of whether an optimistic goal orientation can be a protective factor in patients' long-term coping with bipolar disorder.
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 17: 58–71, 2010]
The present study is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for 198 college students sanctioned for alcohol-related violations of school policy (Carey, Henson, Carey, & Maisto, 2009). Using multivariate latent growth curve models, we evaluated theoretically derived mediators of the observed BMI effect: motivation to change (readiness-to-change, costs and benefits of drinking) and drinking norms (injunctive norms for peers, and descriptive norms for friends, local peers, and national peers). Results provided partial support for mediation by changes in perceptions of descriptive but not injunctive norms, a pattern that varied by gender and norm type. We found no evidence of a mediating role for any of the motivational variables.
Measures of treatment integrity are needed to advance clinical research in general and are viewed as particularly relevant for dissemination and implementation research. Although some efforts to develop such measures are underway, a conceptual and methodological framework will help guide these efforts. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how frameworks adapted from the psychosocial treatment, therapy process, healthcare, and business literatures can be used to address this gap. We propose that components of treatment integrity (i.e., adherence, differentiation, competence, alliance, client involvement) pulled from the treatment technology and process literatures can be used as quality indicators of treatment implementation and thereby guide quality improvement efforts in practice settings. Further, we discuss how treatment integrity indices can be used in feedback systems that utilize benchmarking to expedite the process of translating evidence-based practices to service settings.
[Clin Psychol Sci Prac 18: 67–83, 2011]
Multiple evidence-based treatments for adolescents with substance use disorders are available; however, the diffusion of these treatments in practice remains minimal. A dissemination and implementation model incorporating research-based training components for simultaneous implementation across 33 dispersed sites and over 200 clinical staff is described. Key elements for the diffusion of the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach and Assertive Continuing Care were as follows: (a) 3 years of funding to support local implementation; (b) comprehensive training, including a 3.5-day workshop, biweekly coaching calls, and ongoing performance feedback facilitated by a web tool; (c) a clinician certification process; (d) a supervisor certification process to promote long-term sustainability; and (e) random fidelity reviews after certification. Process data are summarized for 167 clinicians and 64 supervisors.
Maser et al. (2009) identify several problems with the categorical DSM, and suggest that a shift to a mixed categorical-dimensional system is warranted. Maser et al. support their argument by citing evidence related to mood and anxiety disorders, among other conditions. In this commentary, I consider the applicability of several issues raised by Maser et al. to two disruptive behavior disorders in youth, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The issues include paradigm shifts concerning (a) the diagnostic threshold, (b) symptoms, and (c) distress/psychosocial impairment. Within each topic, several developmental psychopathology principles that parallel and extend the Maser et al. issues are presented and described. This commentary also provides examples of dimensions that could be useful for conceptualizing ODD and CD within a mixed categorical-dimensional classification system.