This study aimed to determine the safety of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w) in 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) for the treatment of knee or hand osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.
A pooled analysis of safety data from seven multicenter, randomized, blinded, Phase III clinical trials (4-12 weeks' duration) of TDiclo was conducted. The analysis focused on a subset of patients (n = 280) aged 75 years or older with a primary diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee (six trials) or hand (one trial). Patients received one of three topical treatments: TDiclo (n = 138); placebo (2.33% or 4.55% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 39); or control (45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide, n = 103). Treatment groups were compared using Chi-square analysis, Fisher's Exact test, or analysis of variance.
The most common adverse events involved the skin or subcutaneous tissue, primarily at the application site. The incidence of dry skin was higher in the TDiclo (36.2%; P < 0.0001) and dimethyl sulfoxide control (18.4%; P = 0.0142) groups than in the placebo group (2.6%); the incidence of other skin or subcutaneous tissue adverse events was similar between the groups. Relatively few patients (<18%) experienced gastrointestinal adverse events, and group differences were not detected. In the TDiclo group, constipation (3.6%), diarrhea (3.6%), and nausea (3.6%) were the most common gastrointestinal adverse events. Cardiovascular and renal/ urinary adverse events were rare, and group differences were not detected. There was one case (0.7%) each of hypertension, spider veins, and vasodilation in the TDiclo group. Changes from baseline to the final visit in blood pressure and hepatic/renal enzyme levels were also similar between the groups.
TDiclo appears to be well tolerated for the treatment of osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.
Depression is common in elderly stroke survivors and has been associated with systemic inflammation. We aimed to investigate an elderly population of Swedish stroke patients for evidence of sustained peripheral inflammation 18 months post-stroke and to identify if inflammation is associated with post-stroke depression at 18 months post-stroke.
The Barthel Index was used to measure the level of impairment in activities of daily living at 3 days post-stroke. Serum concentrations of inflammation markers, ie, C-reactive protein and white cell count, were measured in 149 stroke patients (mean age 81 ± 5.33 years, 35% male) at 18 months post-stroke, and a comparison was made with an age-matched sample of elderly Swedish individuals who had not suffered a stroke. At the same visit, clinical depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised criteria. Severity of depression was assessed using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS).
Mean C-reactive protein and white cell count levels in stroke patients were significantly elevated at 18 months post-stroke compared with population probands. Disability scores were associated with MADRS depression scores, but C-reactive protein and white cell count were not.
We found evidence for a sustained peripheral inflammatory response at 18 months post-stroke. C-reactive protein and white cell count were not associated with depression in this study.
Critical to survival is the geriatric concept, allostasis, defined as the ability to achieve stability through change. It is appropriate that allostasis is an introduction to this commentary, which may partially apply to the medical and pharmacy profession as currently constituted.
To investigate the association between physical activity (eg, energy expenditure) and survival over 11 years of follow-up in a large representative community sample of older Brazilian adults with a low level of education. Furthermore, we assessed sex as a potential effect modifier of this association.
A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted on all the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil). A total of 1,606 subjects (92.2% of the population) enrolled, and 1,378 (85.8%) were included in this study. Type, frequency, and duration of physical activity were assessed in the baseline survey questionnaire, and the metabolic equivalent task tertiles were estimated. The follow-up time was 11 years (1997-2007), and the end point was mortality. Deaths were reported by next of kin during the annual follow-up interview and ascertained through the Brazilian System of Information on Mortality, Brazilian Ministry of Health. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated by Cox proportional-hazard models, and potential confounders were considered.
A statistically significant interaction (P<0.03) was found between sex and energy expenditure. Among older men, increases in levels of physical activity were associated with reduced mortality risk. The hazard ratios were 0.59 (95% CI 0.43-0.81) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.34-0.66) for the second and third tertiles, respectively. Among older women, there was no significant association between physical activity and mortality.
It was possible to observe the effect of physical activity in reducing mortality risk, and there was a significant interaction between sex and energy expenditure, which should be considered in the analysis of this association in different populations.
Fragility fractures that occur as a result of osteoporosis are frequently associated with chronic pain and decreased quality of life as well as significant morbidity and mortality. Fracture reduction, however, is often less than optimal due to poor compliance with medications. Studies have demonstrated that risedronate, a heterocyclic nitrogen containing bisphosphonate can reduce vertebral, nonvertebral, and hip fracture incidence in postmenopausal women, in men, and in subsets of older patients at great risk of falls and fragility. The mechanism, efficacy, dosing options, and tolerability of risedronate are reviewed.
The purpose of this study was to examine if psychosocial intervention for family caregivers made any differences in describing symptoms of dementia in the persons they cared for. The study population comprised family caregivers of persons aged 70 years and older receiving social services and diagnosed with dementia disorders. A group of 129 family caregivers underwent psychosocial intervention including education, information, and provision of a support group, while 133 family caregivers did not and these formed the control group. Family caregivers were followed-up every 6 months for a total of 18 months. They rated intellectual, emotional, and activity of daily living (ADL) functions in persons with dementia using the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen scale (GBS-scale). Family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention rated the intellectual and emotional symptoms of dementia significantly higher 6 months later compared to controls and the effect was sustained during the 18-month follow-up irrespective of relationship and education. Most notably, decrease in function of recent memory, ability to increase tempo, long-windedness, distractibility, and blunting were better identified. Our findings suggest that the family caregivers who underwent psychosocial intervention achieved better understanding of different symptoms and the behaviors of dementia. These findings may explain earlier findings of positive effects after psychosocial intervention on family caregivers' sense of burden, satisfaction, and ability to delay nursing home placement.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of articular cartilage extracellular matrix and is due to functional impairments occurring in chondrocytes. In previous works, we highlighted that Regenerative Tissue Optimization (TO-RGN) treatment with radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technology influenced the gene expression profiles controlling stem cell differentiation and the pluripotency of human skin-derived fibroblasts in vitro. Since interleukin-1 beta signaling has been implicated in the induction and progression of this disease (through metalloproteinase-3 synthesis and nitric oxide production), we investigated whether REAC TO-RGN might influence the biochemical and morphological changes induced by interleukin-1 beta in normal and OA chondrocytes.
The induction of metalloproteinase-3 and proteoglycan synthesis was evaluated by a solid-phase enzyme-amplified sensitivity immunoassay, and nitric oxide production was evaluated with the Griess method. Ultrastructural features were observed by transmission electron microscopy.
REAC TO-RGN treatment decreased nitric oxide and metalloproteinase-3 production in normal and OA chondrocytes, while inducing an increase in proteoglycan synthesis. OA chondrocytes were more affected by REAC TO-RGN treatment than were normal chondrocytes. Ultrastructural changes confirmed that REAC TO-RGN may counteract the negative effects of interleukin-1 beta incubation.
The results of this in vitro study suggest that REAC TO-RGN treatment may represent a new, promising approach for the management of OA.
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide is reported to initiate flexible inflammation in the hippocampus of the human brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of atorvastatin on the production of inflammation cytokines in the hippocampus and the potential impacts on behavioral ability, in an AD model.
We firstly established AD rat models using intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42. A Morris water maze was also performed to determine the spatial learning and memory ability in the AD models. Intracellular staining of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha was determined using immunohistochemical staining at 6 hours and day 7 after the injection of Aβ.
The escape latency of the atorvastatin-treated AD group (5 mg/kg/d) was significantly shorter than that of AD group on day 3 (41 ± 1.05 seconds versus 47 ± 1.05 seconds, P < 0.01) and day 4 (34 ± 1.25 seconds versus 43 ± 1.01 seconds, P < 0.01) after the beginning of the training. Furthermore, the atorvastatin-treated AD group displayed a significant higher mean number of annulus crossings than did the AD group (2.9 ± 0.5 versus 2.4 ± 0.9, P < 0.05). Fewer injured nerve cells and proliferated glial cells were also demonstrated in the atorvastatin-treated AD group than in the AD group. Of great importance, we demonstrated that IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly decreased in the atorvastatin-treated AD group than that in the AD group.
Atorvastatin might attenuate the damage of nerve cells and improve learning and memory ability by inhibiting inflammatory response in the progression of AD.
The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing concern worldwide. The prevalence of hemodialysis in Taiwan is the highest in the world, and this may increase the prevalence of orthopedic fractures. The aim of this study was to explore the incidences of various orthopedic injuries and the related risk factors.
A nationwide prospective study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance dataset was conducted during 2004-2008. A total of 82,491 CKD patients were selected as the fixed cohort population. The International Classification of Diseases 9-CM diagnosis codes and treatment codes were identified as the inclusion criteria for orthopedic injury.
A total of 82,491 Taiwanese people with CKD were identified in 2004, and 4915 orthopedic injuries occurred during the 5-year follow-up period. The cumulative incidences of orthopedic injuries were 42.56‰ for lower limb fractures, and 12.93‰, 3.27‰, and 1.64‰ for upper limb fractures, vertebrae fractures, and joint dislocations, respectively. All three types of orthopedic fractures were more common in the oldest age stratum (≥65 years old). In the CKD patients, the risk ratio of osteoporosis was 3.47 (95% confidence interval, 3.10-3.89) for all orthopedic injuries. Patients of advanced age, the female gender, and those with high comorbidity were also at significant risk of sustaining orthopedic fractures.
The results from this Taiwanese CKD cohort support the strong influence of aging and osteoporosis on all kinds of orthopedic injuries. The postponing of osteoporosis may need to be taken into consideration for the prevention of orthopedic injury among CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis.
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in anthropometric measurements using an aerobic and Pilates exercise program which lasted 24 weeks.
This was a clinical intervention study of 303 women over the age of 60 living in Novi Sad, Serbia. Changes in body mass index and skinfold thickness were estimated through height, weight, and anthropometric measurements. The program comprised Pilates exercises for upper- and lower-body strength, agility, and aerobic capacity.
Fat mass (FM) improved significantly (pre-test, 32.89%, 8.65; post-test, 28.25%, 6.58; P<0.01). Bone diameters and muscle perimeters showed no significant changes pre- and post-test (P>0.05), but there was a higher correlation between FM (%) and waist-hip ratio (rho, 0.80; P<0.01).
A mixed program of aerobics and Pilates, controls and improves baseline muscle mass and decreases FM values, without causing deterioration during practice and follow-up exercises.
Anne WS Rutjes,1 Marcello Di Nisio2,31Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2Department of Medical, Oral, and Biotechnological Sciences, University G D'Annunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy; 3Department of Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the NetherlandsWe read with interest the article by Ruiz-Montero et al, in which the authors used a before-and-after study design to examine changes in body composition (fat mass and lean body mass) related to an aerobic-Pilates program in elderly Serbian women.1 The authors concluded that "a combined program of aerobic and Pilates, carried out under the supervision of an instructor, at least twice a week, produces health benefits in functionally independent women over the age of 60". This conclusion is overly optimistic and not supported by the evidence provided. View original paper by Ruiz-Montero and colleagues.
To investigate the possible associations between serum levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) and specific clinical markers and prognosis in critically ill patients diagnosed with stress hyperglycemia.
A total of 70 critically ill patients and 25 normal controls were recruited for this study. Serum levels of sRAGE and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additional data on other clinical markers were obtained from patient records in the intensive care unit. Comparisons of sRAGE and AGEs levels between groups were assessed by t-test. The relationships between sRAGE and other clinical markers were assessed by Pearson's correlation analyses and multiple linear regression analyses. Risk factors for prognosis, such as 28-day mortality were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.
Serum sRAGE and AGEs levels were significantly higher in critically ill patients, compared to normal controls (P<0.05). The increase in serum sRAGE levels was significantly correlated with AGEs levels, interleukin-6 levels, and the sequential organ failure assessment score (P<0.01). Using multiple linear regression analysis, the association between AGEs and sRAGE remained significant after adjustment of other clinical factors. However, there were no significant correlations between sRAGE levels and patient outcome in these critically ill patients.
Serum sRAGE levels were significantly elevated in critically ill patients and positively correlated with higher AGEs levels, but sRAGE levels were not associated with increased mortality, suggesting sRAGE levels are not a predictor of prognosis in critically ill patients.
In recent years there has been a growing interest in nonsurgical procedures for facial rejuvenation. Hyaluronic acid is currently the most widely used dermal filler for the treatment of facial wrinkles. However, new products with interesting features are being introduced into the market. Cross-linked carboxymethylcellulose is one of these and represents a new alternative for the correction of wrinkles and facial defects.
The retrospective, multicenter, open-label study on nasolabial folds reported here was carried out between January 2010 and April 2014 on 350 subjects between 22 and 67 years of age for a 36-month follow-up period in order to consistently and extensively assess the safety and performance of this treatment.
The study revealed effective and durable correction of nasolabial wrinkles for periods of 9-12 months. Product reapplication over a 36-month period did not lead to an increase in adverse effects, which always remained rare and of little clinical significance, usually consisting of bruising and redness.
Cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to the resorbable products currently on the market.
We used the Short Form (SF)-36® Health Survey scale to assess the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise (PFE) on aging males who received transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P).
From April 2010 to December 2010, a total of 66 patients who underwent TUR-P were enrolled in this study. They were randomized into two groups (with 33 patients in each group) - an experimental group who performed postoperative PFE every day and a control group. Data, including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), uroflowmetry study, and the SF-36 quality of life measure, were collected before the operation, and at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the operation. We analyzed the differences between the two groups with respect to their IPSS scores, maximal urinary flow rate, residual urine amount, and life quality.
A total of 61 patients (experimental group: 32 patients, and control group: 29 patients) completed this study. We found that at 12 weeks postop, patients who performed PFE every day had a better maximal urinary flow rate (16.41 ± 6.20 vs 12.41 ± 7.28 mL/min) (P = 0.026) compared with patients in the control group. The experimental group had a much greater decrease in IPSS score (P < 0.001). As for the SF-36 scale, the experimental group had higher scores than did the control group on both the physiological domain (54.86 vs 49.86) (P = 0.029) and the psychological domain (61.88 vs 52.69) (P = 0.005). However, there were no significant differences with respect to the postvoiding residual urine between the two groups (57.24 ± 52.95 vs 64.68 ± 50.63 mL) (P = 0.618).
Compared with the control group, patients who performed PFE for 12 weeks after TUR-P showed improvement in their maximal urinary flow rate and lower urinary tract symptoms, and had a better quality of life. The immediate initiation of PFE is suggested for patients who undergo TUR-P.
A three-dimensional (3D) continuous pulse arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique was used to investigate cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and age- and sex-matched healthy controls.
Three groups were recruited for comparison, 24 AD patients, 17 MCI patients, and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Three-dimensional ASL scans covering the entire brain were acquired with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance scanner. Spatial processing was performed with statistical parametric mapping 8. A second-level one-way analysis of variance analysis (threshold at P<0.05) was performed on the preprocessed ASL data. An average whole-brain CBF for each subject was also included as group-level covariates for the perfusion data, to control for individual CBF variations.
Significantly increased CBF was detected in bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal subgyral regions in aMCI compared with controls. When comparing AD with aMCI, the major hyperperfusion regions were the right limbic lobe and basal ganglia regions, including the putamen, caudate, lentiform nucleus, and thalamus, and hypoperfusion was found in the left medial frontal lobe, parietal cortex, the right middle temporo-occipital lobe, and particularly, the left anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found decreased CBF in the bilateral temporo-parieto-occipital cortices and left limbic lobe in AD patients, relative to the control group. aMCI subjects showed decreased blood flow in the left occipital lobe, bilateral inferior temporal cortex, and right middle temporal cortex.
Our results indicated that ASL provided useful perfusion information in AD disease and may be used as an appealing alternative for further pathologic and neuropsychological studies, especially of compensatory mechanisms for cerebral hypoperfusion.
Innovative Vision Products, Inc. (IVP)'s scientists developed the lubricant eye drops (Can-C) designed as 1% N-acetylcarnosine (NAC) prodrug of L-carnosine containing a mucoadhesive cellulose-based compound combined with corneal absorption promoters in a sustained drug delivery system. Only the natural L-isomeric form of NAC raw material was specifically synthesized at the cGMP facility and employed for the manufacturing of Can-C eye drops.
In the present clinical study the authors assessed vision before and after 9 month term of topical ocular administration of NAC lubricant eye drops or placebo in 75 symptomatic patients with age-related uncomplicated cataracts in one or both eyes, with acuity in one eye of 20/40 or worse (best-corrected distance), and no previous cataract surgery in either eye and no other ocular abnormality and 72 noncataract subjects ranged in age from 54 to 78 years.
Subjects in these subsample groups have reported complaints of glare and wanted to administer eye drops to get quick eye relief and quality of vision for their daily activities including driving and computer works. Following 9 months of treatment with NAC lubricant eye drops, most patients' glare scores were improved or returned to normal in disability glare tests with Halometer DG. Improvement in disability glare was accompanied with independent improvement in acuity. Furthermore, patients with the poorest pretreatment vision were as likely to regain certain better visual function after 9 months of treatment with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops as those with the worth pretreatment vision.
The authors made a reference to electronic records of the product sales to patients who have been made the repurchase of the Can-C eye drops since December 2001.
Based on this analysis of recorded adjustments to inventory, various parameters were analyzed during the continued repurchase behavior program, including testimonials from buyers. With these figures, researchers judged on the patients' compliance rate to self-administer NAC eye-drops.
The ophthalmic drug showed potential for the non-surgical treatment of age-related cataracts for participants after controlling for age, gender and daily activities and on a combined basis of repurchases behavior reports in more than 50,000 various cohort survivors, has been demonstrated to have a high efficacy and good tolerability for prevention and treatment of visual impairment determined for the older population with relative stable pattern of causes for blindness and visual impairment. The mechanisms of prevention and reversal of cataracts with NAC ophthalmic drug are considered which include prevention by the intraocular released carnosine of free-radical-induced inactivation of proprietary lens antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase); prevention of carbohydrate and metal-catalyzed autooxidation of ascorbic acid-induced cross-linking glycation reactions to the lens proteins; transglycation properties of carnosine, allowing it to compete for the glycating agent, protecting proteins (lens crystallins) against modification; universal antioxidant and scavenging activity towards lipid hydroperoxides, aldehydes and oxygen radicals; activation with l-carnosine ingredient of proteasome activity in the lens; chaperone-like disaggregating to lens crystallins activity of NAC and of its bioactivated principal carnosine. Blindness incidence increased with advancing age, such as cataract and glaucoma, which are by far the commonest causes of blindness in our sample and in all age groups, glaucomatous neurodegeneration can be treated with developed NAC autoinduction prodrug eye drops equipped with corneal absorption promoters. The common blinding affections presenting in developed countries such as, senile macular degeneration, hereditary chorioretinal dystrophies, diabetic retinopathy are poorly represented in our current summary of vital-statistics and will be reported inherent in next N-acetylcarnosine ophthalmic drug studies.
The authors present evidence, about why only a certain kind of NAC is safe, and why only certain formulas designed by IVP for drug discovery are efficacious in the prevention and treatment of senile cataract for long-term use. Overall cumulated studies demonstrate that the designed by IVP new vision-saving drug NAC eye drops help the aging eye to recover by improving its clarity, glare sensitivity, color perception and overall vision.
The introduction of organized cervical cancer (CC) screening programs has drastically reduced the prevalence of CC. However the incidence is still too high, especially among elderly women. All guidelines strongly recommend a regular Papanicolaou (Pap) testing for young and middle-aged patients. On the other hand, many international professional societies no longer advise screening in women who have undergone hysterectomy, and in women aged 65 years and above, who have a previous history of regular Pap smears. Here we report the case of poorly differentiated CC, involving the pelvic lymph nodes and urinary bladder, occurring in a 79-year-old woman who regularly underwent Pap tests, with no reported cytological abnormalities. In this very rare case, the CC cells, as well as cells from metastatic lymph nodes and cells from urinary specimens, molecularly showed human papilloma virus (HPV)-53. With the limitations of a single case, this report brings important information to prevent CC in elderly patients: the utility of molecular tests to increase sensitivity of Pap smears in postmenopausal women; the importance of HPV-53 as one of the four "emergent" genotypes having a possible role in oncogenesis; and the presence of HPV-53 in lymph node metastases from cervical carcinoma, which would support the role of this virus in the maintenance of malignant status.
Zappacosta et al1 recently published a case report concerning a human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive invasive cervical cancer in a 79-year-old women who had a history of normal Pap smears. In this article, Anyplex II HPV28 (Seegene) is used for HPV genotyping of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue, liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens and urine samples. It is suggested that HPV53 is present exclusively in the cervical cancer cells, lymph node metastases, and atypical urinary cells of one single case while the surrounding CIN2+ tissue revealed ten different HPV strains. Unfortunately, the HPV genotype results for lymph nodes and urinary cells are not presented while these results underline the potential role of HPV53 in oncogenesis. Moreover, it is generally accepted that one lesion is caused by one HPV infection, detection of multiple HPV types thus indicates the presence of multiple infections,2 suggesting that this patient may have several lesions.
In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term antihypertensive treatment with calcium channel blockers or beta blockers on the bone mineral density of maxilla, as determined by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
This retrospective study was conducted on CBCT images of men older than 55 years who had received different dental indications. Data were grouped into three categories according to the antihypertensive medication history of the patients: group A included patients who had been taking beta-blocker treatment for more than 5 years, group B included patients who had been taking calcium channel blocker treatment for more than 5 years, and the control group included patients who had never used any hypertensive medications before.
Statistically significant differences were observed between the beta blocker and calcium channel blocker groups.
In hypertension treatment, beta blockers may be preferred to calcium channel blockers in patients at high risk for osteoporosis and bone resorption.
It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition.
Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age.
Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation.
The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly.
To test the hypothesis that aerobic-related leisure-time physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive function and that the effect varies among apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype groups.
Cross-sectional study of persons examined in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III; 1988-1994).
US noninstitutionalized population.
From a sample of 7159, aged ≥60 years, we analyzed data for 1799 older American men and women who had information on PA, a short mental status examination (SMSE), and were genotyped at the apolipoprotein E gene locus.
In the initial bivariate analysis, non-ɛ4 carriers and ɛ4-heterozygotes performed better than ɛ4-homozygotes in the 60-69 age group. After controlling for multiple confounders including mobility limitation, PA correlated with a higher SMSE score in non-ɛ4 carriers (P = 0.014), but not in ɛ4 carriers (P = 0.887). At ≥70 years, PA also correlated with higher adjusted SMSE scores in non-ɛ4 carriers (P = 0.02); but this association became nonsignificant after controlling for mobility limitation (P = 0.12).
In a nationally representative sample, PA was associated with enhanced cognition, an effect that was differentially influenced by apolipoprotein E genotype. Experimental studies are needed to determine whether or not PA can attenuate cognitive decline.
With the increasing size of the elderly population and evolving imaging technology, silent brain infarction (SBI) has garnered attention from both the public and the physicians. Over 20% of the elderly exhibit SBI, and the prevalence of SBI increases steadily with age, ie, 30%-40% in those older than 70 years. Well-known cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension has been identified as a risk factor of SBI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47) Besides this, blood pressure (BP) reactivity to mental stress, morning BP surges, and orthostatic BP changes have been demonstrated to contribute to the presence of SBI. Further, a metabolic syndrome not only as a whole syndrome (OR =2.18) but also as individual components could have an influence on SBI. Increased C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, coronary artery disease, body mass index, and alcohol consumption have also been associated with SBI. The ORs and possible mechanisms have been discussed in this article. Overt stroke, dementia, depression, and aspiration pneumonia were all associated with SBI. (overt stroke: hazard ratio [HR] =1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-2.8; dementia: HR =2.26, 95% CI: 1.09-4.70). We also looked into their close relationship with SBI in this review.
To assess safety and efficacy of saxagliptin in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
This was a post hoc analysis of pooled data from older patients (≥65 years of age) from five 24-week phase III trials: three studies of saxagliptin versus placebo as an add-on therapy to metformin, glyburide, or a thiazolidinedione; and two studies of saxagliptin versus placebo as monotherapy in drug-naïve patients. Separate analyses were conducted on one study of initial combination therapy with saxagliptin plus metformin versus metformin monotherapy in drug-naïve patients. The safety analysis population for the five-study pool included 428 patients ≥ 65 years of age with baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 7.0% to 10.5% who received saxagliptin 2.5 or 5 mg or placebo, and for the study of initial combination therapy included 69 patients ≥ 65 years of age with baseline HbA1c 8.0% to 12.0% who received saxagliptin 5 mg in combination with metformin or metformin monotherapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline HbA1c.
In the five-study pool, the differences in the adjusted mean change from baseline HbA1c among older patients receiving saxagliptin versus placebo were -0.60% (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.99% to -0.21%) for saxagliptin 2.5 mg and -0.55% (-0.97% to -0.14%) for saxagliptin 5 mg; in the initial combination study, the difference was -1.22% (-2.27% to -0.17%) among older patients receiving saxagliptin 5 mg plus metformin versus metformin monotherapy. The results were generally similar in older and younger patients. Saxagliptin was well tolerated; the incidence and types of adverse events were similar for saxagliptin and comparators. Hypoglycemia was reported in 3.0% to 9.4% of patients receiving saxagliptin (0%-8.0% for comparators) and was confirmed (finger stick glucose ≤ 50 mg/dL, with associated symptoms) in 0% to 0.7% (0%-0.7% for comparators); hypoglycemic episodes did not vary by age category and did not require medical intervention.
Saxagliptin was effective and well tolerated, with a low risk of hypoglycemia, when used as monotherapy, add-on therapy, or initial combination therapy with metformin in older patients with T2DM.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a telephone-based self-care intervention among urban living individuals 75+ years of age by comparing self-reported perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency before and after the intervention.
In a randomized controlled study, 15 persons answered a questionnaire about perceived health, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency. In a sex- and age-matched control group (n=15), the same questions were answered. Data were collected before and after intervention. An open-ended question about experiences of the intervention was included in the last questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a first meeting with health professionals and additional five self-care telephone calls. The control group did not receive any intervention or attention except for the questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study group. To compare the intervention group and control group on nominal and ordinal levels, the McNemar test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively, were chosen.
Thirty individuals (14 females and 16 males) participated in the study, ranging in age between 75 and 93 years. A significant difference was obtained in the intervention group regarding mental health. Mental health improved significantly in the intervention group (P=0.037). In the control group, mental health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and self-care agency showed worse outcome results after the intervention (19 weeks).
Self-care telephone talks improved mental health significantly in our sample, and mental health focus could be understood as a possible condition for health promotion to take place. Structured self-care telephone talks have proved to be successful and a relevant method to use in practice.