Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori are important in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. In this retrospective case study, we investigated whether certain alleles and haplotypes of major histocompatibility complex genes are associated with gastric MALT lymphoma and the efficacy of H pylori eradication therapy on the lymphoma.
Blood samples were obtained from 18 patients with H pylori-positive gastric MALT lymphoma (5 men and 13 women; age range, 51-80 years), 30 patients with H pylori-positive non-ulcer dyspepsia (17 men and 13 women; age range, 37-77 years), and 30 patients with H pylori-negative non-ulcer dyspepsia (12 men and 18 women; age range, 37-77 years). HLA-DQA1 and DQB1 allele typing was performed by use of a polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide procedure. All patients with MALT lymphoma were treated with H pylori eradication therapy and followed up by repeated endoscopy and biopsy.
We found a significant increase in alleles HLA-DQA1*0103 and HLA-DQB1*0601, and a haplotype DQA1*0103-DQB1*0601, in MALT lymphoma patients when compared with non-ulcer dyspepsia patients who were either H pylori-positive or not and with a healthy control population. After H pylori eradication, the lymphomas regressed completely in all 10 patients who possessed the DQA1*0103-DQB1*0601 haplotype but in only 4 of the 8 without this haplotype (P = .023).
DQA1*0103-DQB1*0601 haplotype-positive gastric MALT lymphoma is likely to respond to therapy by eradication of H pylori.
Fundic gland polyps (FGPs), the most common type of gastric polyps, have been associated with prolonged proton pump inhibitor therapy and an increased risk of colon cancer. The presence of FGPs has been inversely correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection. We evaluated the prevalence of H pylori-associated gastritis, colonic polyps, and carcinomas in subjects with and without FGPs.
We analyzed data collected from community-based endoscopy centers in 36 states (plus Washington DC and Puerto Rico) on patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy between April 2007 and March 2008. Of the 103,385 patients who underwent EGD during this time period, gastric biopsy samples were collected from 78,801 and colonic biopsies from 26,017. Slides of samples from Helicobacter-infected FGPs and FGPs with dysplasia were reviewed.
FGPs were detected in 6081 patients (67.8% women). Helicobacter infection was present in less than 0.5% patients with FGPs and 13.0% of those without FGPs (odds ratio [OR], 29.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 20.4-41.4; P < .0001). Colonic adenomas were detected in 42.3% of women with FGPs and 33.8% of those without (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.26-1.63; P < .001); there was no significant difference in colonic adenomas between men with and without FGPs.
Women had a higher prevalence of FGPs. FGPs were associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, gastric heterotopia, hyperplastic colonic polyps (only in men), and colonic adenomas (only in women, especially those over 60 years of age). The presence of FGPs was inversely correlated with H pylori infection, active gastritis, and gastric neoplasia.
We investigated the risk of death from iron overload among treated hemochromatosis probands who were homozygous for HFE C282Y and had serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L at diagnosis.
We compared serum levels of ferritin at diagnosis and other conditions with the rate of iron overload-associated death using data from 2 cohorts of probands with hemochromatosis who were homozygous for HFE C282Y (an Alabama cohort, n = 294, 63.9% men and an Ontario cohort, n = 128, 68.8% men). We defined iron overload-associated causes of death as cirrhosis (including hepatic failure and primary liver cancer) caused by iron deposition and cardiomyopathy caused by myocardial siderosis. All probands received phlebotomy and other appropriate therapy.
The mean survival times after diagnosis were 13.2 ± 7.3 y and 12.5 ± 8.3 y in Alabama and Ontario probands, respectively. Serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L at diagnosis were observed in 30.1% and 47.7% of Alabama and Ontario probands, respectively. In logistic regressions of serum ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L, there were significant positive associations with male sex and cirrhosis in Alabama probands and with age, male sex, increased levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and cirrhosis in Ontario probands. Of probands with serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L at diagnosis, 17.9% of those from Alabama and 14.8% of those from Ontario died of iron overload. Among probands with serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L, the relative risk of iron overload-associated death was 5.4 for the Alabama group (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-13.1; P = .0002) and 4.9 for the Ontario group (95% CI, 1.1-22.0; P = .0359).
In hemochromatosis probands homozygous for HFE C282Y, serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L at diagnosis were positively associated with male sex and cirrhosis. Even with treatment, the relative risk of death from iron overload was 5-fold greater in probands with serum levels of ferritin greater than 1000 μg/L.
The long-term outcomes of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for bile duct stone removal are not well known.
A total of 1000 patients with bile duct stones were treated with EPBD. After assessing immediate outcomes, patients were followed up for late biliary complications.
Complete bile duct clearance was achieved with EPBD alone in 963 patients (96.3%) in a mean of 1.5 endoscopic sessions. Post-EPBD pancreatitis developed in 48 patients (4.8%), including 1 patient graded as severe. The long-term outcome was evaluated in 837 patients with a mean follow-up period of 4.4 years. Biliary complications were seen in 104 patients (12.4%), and they were less frequent in the cholecystectomy (CCx) after EPBD group than in the gallbladder (GB) left in situ with stones, GB left in situ without stones, and CCx before EPBD groups (2.8% vs 22.6%, 9.2%, and 13.5%, respectively). Stone recurrence was seen in 74 patients (8.8%)--2.4%, 15.6%, 5.9%, and 10.8% in the CCx after EPBD, GB left in situ with stones, GB left in situ without stones, and CCx before EPBD groups, respectively. Lithotripsy and gallbladder status were identified as risk factors for stone recurrence. Cholecystitis occurred in 13 patients (4.5%) in the GB left in situ with stones group.
EPBD was effective in treating bile duct stones that were not accompanied by an unacceptably high risk of pancreatitis. Patients with calculous gallbladder had the highest risk for late complications, and cholecystectomy is recommended after removal of their bile duct stones.
Upper-gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in the elderly is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to determine the prognostic factors of UGIB in a large cohort of elders.
From March 2005 to February 2006, we conducted a prospective multicenter study in 53 French hospitals that consecutively enrolled 3287 patients for UGIB. A total of 1041 patients (47.8% women) were older than 74 years. Their epidemiologic characteristics and prognosis were compared with the 2246 younger patients (26.8% women).
Elders more frequently took drugs causing UGIB: 65% versus 32% for younger patients (P < 10(-6)). Peptic ulcers, erosive gastritis, and esophagitis accounted for 63.6% of UGIB causes in elders versus 39.7% in younger patients (P < 10(-4)). Conversely, esogastric varices and gastropathy were responsible for 11% of UGIB in elders versus 44% in younger patients (P < 10(-6)). The rebleeding rate, morbidity, and in-hospital mortality were not statistically different between elders and younger patients: 11.8% versus 9.7% (P = .07), 22.6% versus 21.6% (P = .5), and 8.9% versus 8.2% (P = .5), respectively. Transfusion requirements, need for surgery, and length of stay were significantly different between elders and younger patients: 73% versus 57.5% (P < 10(-6)), 4% versus 2.5% (P < .02), 10.6 +/- 15.6 versus 8.5 +/- 12.4 days (P < 10(-6)), respectively. Whatever the etiology (peptic lesions or portal hypertension) in-hospital mortality was the same: 6.5% versus 7.3% and 10.9% versus 11.3%, respectively.
Elders can do as well as younger patients with acute UGIB. Although the reasons are not completely clear, they may be related to differences in treatment.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and possibly also increased risk for cancers outside the intestinal tract. We followed-up a population-based cohort of 1160 patients with UC diagnosed in Copenhagen County between 1962 and 1987 for up to 36 years to analyze the overall and site-specific cancer risk.
Observed vs. expected cancers were presented as standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) with 95% exact confidence intervals (CI) calculated by using individual person-years at risk and sex- and age-specific incidence rates for the Danish background population in 1995.
The cohort was followed-up for a median of 19 years, or 22,290 person-years. A total of 124 malignancies were observed compared with 139.85 expected (SMR, .89; 95% CI, .74-1.07). The observed number of CRCs was almost exactly equal to expected: 13 cases vs. 12.42 (SMR, 1.05; 95% CI, .56-1.79). The cumulative probability of CRC was .4% by 10 years, 1.1% by 20 years, and 2.1% by 30 years of disease. Among men, melanoma was increased (SMR, 3.45; 95% CI, 1.38-7.10); otherwise, no increased risk for cancer could be detected. No hepatobiliary cancers and no increased risk for lymphoma or leukemia were found.
Neither the overall cancer risk, nor the CRC risk, were increased in this population-based cohort after a median of 19 years of follow-up evaluation. An active surgical approach in medical treatment failures and long-term use of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) as relapse prevention may explain this remarkable result.
Obesity is associated with Barrett's esophagus (BE) and with changes in circulating levels of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin) and cytokines. Although studies have reported that adipokines and inflammatory cytokines are necessary for the development of BE, their role is controversial.
We performed a case-control study; cases (n=141) were patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and were found to have BE, based on endoscopy and histology, and controls (n=139) were primary care patients eligible for screening colonoscopies who agreed to undergo esophagogastroduodenoscopy. We examined the association between BE and circulating levels of adipokines and cytokines (interleukin [IL]1β, 6, 8, 10, and 12p70; tumor necrosis factor [TNF]α; and interferon [IFN]γ). Cases and controls were compared, calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and using unadjusted and multiple logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race, waist-hip ratio, use of proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and Helicobacter pylori infection.
The adjusted ORs for BE were 2.62 (95% CI, 1.0-6.8), 5.18 (95% CI, 1.7-15.7), and 8.02 (95% CI, 2.79-23.07) for the highest quintile vs the lowest quintile of levels of IL12p70, IL8, and leptin, respectively, but the OR not significant for IL6 (2.39; 95% CI, 0.84-6.79). The adjusted OR for BE was 0.14 for highest quintile of IL10 compared with lowest quintile (95% CI, 0.05-0.35) and 0.03 for IL1β ≥median vs none detected (95% CI, 0.006-0.13). Higher levels of IL8 and leptin and lower levels of IL10 and IL1β were associated with the presence of long- (≥3 cm) and short-segment BE. There were no differences between cases and controls in levels of IFNγ, TNFα, adiponectin, or insulin.
Based on a case-control study, BE is associated with circulating inflammatory cytokines and leptin and low levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. These findings could partly explain the effect of obesity on BE.
Unremitting gastric acid and pepsin hypersecretion causes serious persistent and relapsing lesions, but the natural history with medical treatment alone has not been well-defined. The aims of this study were to heal and prevent relapse of acid/peptic lesions during acid suppression and to analyze benefits and risks during long-term lansoprazole treatment.
Sixty-seven patients (49 with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome [ZES], 18 without), with basal acid output (BAO) >15 mmol/h or >5 mmol/h if post-antrectomy (n = 9, all ZES), were treated with individually optimized doses of lansoprazole (7.5-450 mg/day; median, 75 mg/day) to reduce BAO to <5 mmol/h or <1 mmol/h post-antrectomy and underwent endoscopy every 3-6 months for up to 13 years (median, 6.25 years).
Before treatment, 94% had duodenal ulcer, 64% had esophagitis, 60% had 1 or more bleeding episodes, 13% had perforated ulcers, 90% had pain, 60% had heartburn, and 40%-48% had diarrhea, vomiting, and/or weight loss. Forty-seven patients (70%) remained symptom- and lesion-free, whereas 13 (20%) had mild, transient relapses, and 7 (10%) had more complicated relapses. Overall, symptoms were reduced 90+%; ulcer or esophagitis relapsed in 4.8% of patients/year, unrelated to Helicobacter pylori , whereas complications declined to <2%/y. Post-antrectomy ZES patients had 3.6-fold higher relapse rates than unoperated ZES patients (67% vs 18%, respectively). With BAO >5 mmol/h in intact patients, relative risk of relapse was 4.1, confidence interval 2.1-8.1, P < .001. Twenty patients died, 3 as a result of ZES (2 metastatic gastrinomas).
With individually optimized medical suppression of acid secretion, 90% of patients had good to excellent long-term outcomes without surgery, with an annualized total relapse rate of <5%.
Background & aims:
RM-131, a synthetic ghrelin agonist, greatly accelerates gastric emptying of solids in patients with type 2 diabetes and delayed gastric emptying (DGE). We investigated the safety and effects of a single dose of RM-131 on gastric emptying and upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes and previously documented DGE.
In a double-blind cross-over study, 10 patients with type 1 diabetes (age, 45.7 ± 4.4 y; body mass index, 24.1 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) and previously documented DGE were assigned in random order to receive a single dose of RM-131 (100 μg, subcutaneously) or placebo. Thirty minutes later, they ate a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal containing EggBeaters (ConAgra Foods, Omaha, NE), and then underwent 4 hours of gastric emptying and 6 hours of colonic filling analyses by scintigraphy. Upper GI symptoms were assessed using a daily diary, gastroparesis cardinal symptom index (total GCSI-DD) and a combination of nausea, vomiting, fullness, and pain (NVFP) scores (each rated on a 0-5 scale).
At screening, participants' mean level of hemoglobin A1c was 9.1% ± 0.5%; their total GCSI-DD score was 1.66 ± 0.38 (median, 1.71), and their total NVFP score was 1.73 ± 0.39 (median, 1.9). The t1/2 of solid gastric emptying was 84.9 ± 31.6 minutes when subjects were given RM-131 and 118.7 ± 26.7 when they were given a placebo. The median difference (Δ)was 33.9 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] -12, -49), or -54.7% (IQR, -21%,-110%). RM-131 decreased gastric retention of solids at 1 hour (P = .005) and 2 hours (P = .019). Numeric differences in t1/2 for gastric emptying of liquids, solid gastric emptying lag time, and colonic filling at 6 hours were not significant. Total GCSI-DD scores were 0.79 on placebo (IQR, 0.75, 2.08) and 0.17 on RM-131 (IQR, 0.00, 0.67; P = .026); NVFP scores were lower on RM-131 (P = .041). There were no significant adverse effects.
RM-131 significantly accelerates gastric emptying of solids and reduces upper GI symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes and documented DGE.
Liver biopsy examination is the gold standard to diagnose the presence of cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of both 13 C-aminopyrine breath test ( 13 C-ABT) and 13 C-galactose breath test ( 13 C-GBT) in the noninvasive assessment of the presence of cirrhosis in patients with chronic liver disease.
We evaluated 61 patients with chronic liver disease of diverse etiologies (21 compensated cirrhosis). All patients underwent 13 C-GBT and 13 C-ABT, and the results were expressed as a percentage of the administered dose of 13 C recovered per hour (%dose/h) and as the cumulative percentage of administered dose of 13 C recovered over time (%dose cumulative). Results were analyzed according to absence vs presence of cirrhosis.
On average, 13 C-GBT %dose/h and %dose cumulative were decreased significantly in patients with compensated cirrhosis, and the same finding was observed for 13 C-ABT results from 30 to 120 minutes. 13 C-GBT %dose/h at 120 minutes had 71.4% sensitivity, 85.0% specificity, and 83.7% accuracy, whereas 13 C-ABT %dose cumulative at 30 minutes had 85.7% sensitivity, 67.5% specificity, and 77.1% accuracy for distinguishing between the 2 subgroups of patients. Combined assessment of 13 C-GBT and 13 C-ABT increased the diagnostic accuracy (80% positive predictive value) of either test alone and reached 92.5% specificity and 100% sensitivity for the diagnosis of cirrhosis.
In patients with chronic liver disease, both 13 C-GBT and 13 C-ABT are useful for the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Combination of the tests increases the diagnostic yield of each test alone.
Malnutrition persists in most patients with chronic pancreatitis despite an adequate clinical response to oral pancreatic enzyme substitution therapy. Our aims were to analyze the accuracy of the 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test as a tool for evaluating the effect of enzyme therapy on fat digestion in chronic pancreatitis, and to analyze the impact of modifying the therapy according to the breath test on patients' nutritional status.
The accuracy of the breath test for monitoring the effect of therapy was evaluated prospectively in 29 patients with maldigestion secondary to chronic pancreatitis by using the coefficient of fat absorption as the gold standard. Therapy was modified to obtain a normal breath test result in a further 20 chronic pancreatitis patients with malnutrition despite an adequate clinical response to the enzyme therapy; the impact of this therapeutic modification on patients' nutritional status was evaluated.
The coefficient of fat absorption and breath test results were similar when assessing fat absorption before and during treatment. Modification of the enzyme therapy to normalize fat absorption as assessed by the breath test in the second group of 20 patients was associated with a significant increase of body weight (P < .001), and serum concentrations of retinol binding protein (P < .001) and prealbumin (P < .001).
The 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test is an accurate method to evaluate the effect of enzyme therapy on fat digestion. This method is simpler than the standard fecal fat test to assess therapy in patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Normalizing fat absorption improves nutrition in these patients.
The aim of this study was to examine the risk of pancreatitis in patients with celiac disease (CD) from a general population cohort.
By using Swedish national registers, we identified 14,239 individuals with a diagnosis of CD (1964-2003) and 69,381 reference individuals matched for age, sex, calendar year, and county of residence at the time of diagnosis. Cox regression estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) for a subsequent diagnosis of pancreatitis. We restricted analyses to individuals with more than 1 year of follow-up and no diagnosis of pancreatitis before or within 1 year after study entry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the association of pancreatitis with subsequent CD.
CD was associated with an increased risk of subsequent pancreatitis of any type (HR, 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-4.4; P < .001; on the basis of 95 positive events in individuals with CD vs 163 positive events in reference individuals) and chronic pancreatitis (HR, 19.8; 95% CI, 9.2-42.8; P < .001; on the basis of 37 and 13 positive events, respectively). Adjustment for socioeconomic index, diabetes mellitus, alcohol-related disorders, or gallstone disease had no notable effect on the risk estimates. The risk increase for pancreatitis was only found among individuals with CD diagnosed in adulthood. Pancreatitis of any type (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.5-4.3; P < .001) and chronic pancreatitis (odds ratio, 7.3; 95% CI, 4.0-13.5; P < .001) were associated with subsequent CD.
This study suggests that individuals with CD are at increased risk of pancreatitis.
Helicobacter pylori is an important causative factor in gastric carcinogenesis. However, its role in extragastric gastrointestinal malignancies, such as esophageal cancer, is controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of H. pylori infection and H. pylori cagA-positive strain with this malignancy by performing meta-analysis of all relevant studies.
Extensive MEDLINE English language medical literature searches for human studies were performed through February 2007 with suitable keywords. Pooled estimates were obtained by using fixed or random-effects model as appropriate. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated with the Cochran Q test, whereas the likelihood of publication bias was assessed by constructing funnel plots. Their symmetry was estimated by the Begg and Mazumdar adjusted rank correlation test.
In adenocarcinoma patients there were inverse significant relationships with both the H. pylori prevalence (pooled odds ratio [OR], 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.73; P < .001) and the prevalence of H. pylori cagA-positive strain (pooled OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31-0.82; P = .006). Similarly in patients with Barrett's esophagus there were inverse significant relationships (pooled OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.43-0.94; P = .025 and pooled OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.21-0.76; P = .005, respectively). In patients with squamous cell carcinoma there were no significant relationships with both H. pylori prevalence (pooled OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.55-1.33; P = .48) and the prevalence of H. pylori cagA-positive strains (pooled OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.7-2.13; P = .48).
The results showed an inverse statistically significant relationship of H. pylori infection with both esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus, which might suggest a protective role of the infection in these entities. On the contrary, no statistically significant relationship with squamous cell carcinoma was found.
The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the United States has significant health and economic consequences. Ultrasound (US) surveillance is recommended for patients with cirrhosis because of their high risk of HCC and improving treatment outcomes for small tumors. We assessed the costs, clinical benefits, and cost effectiveness of US surveillance and alternative strategies for HCC in cirrhosis using a computer-based state transition model with parameters derived from available literature.
Our model compared a policy of no surveillance with 6 surveillance strategies in cirrhotic patients ages 50 years and older in the United States: (1) annual US, (2) semiannual US, (3) semiannual US with alpha-fetoprotein, (4) annual computed tomography (CT), (5) semiannual CT, and (6) annual magnetic resonance imaging. The number of screening tests needed to detect one small HCC, cost per treated HCC, lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated.
Semiannual US surveillance for HCC in cirrhosis increased quality-adjusted life expectancy by 8.6 months on average, but extended it nearly 3.5 years in patients with small treated tumors. Semiannual US surveillance had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $30,700 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, and was more cost effective than the alternative surveillance strategies using a threshold of $50,000 per QALY gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the combined alpha-fetoprotein/US and annual CT strategies exceeded $50,000/QALY unless the sensitivity and specificity of US decreased to less than 65% and 60%, respectively.
Semiannual US surveillance for HCC in cirrhotic patients improves clinical outcomes at a reasonable cost.
Little is known about differences in the prevalence of severe iron overload at death in whites and blacks. We evaluated data and samples from 16,152 autopsies (8484 whites, 7668 blacks) performed at a single university hospital.
Cases of severe multi-organ iron overload were identified by review of autopsy protocols and Perls-stained tissue specimens, analysis of hepatocyte and Kupffer cell iron levels, and measurement of liver tissue iron concentrations.
We analyzed autopsy data from 10,345 adults (age > or =21 years), 1337 children (1-20 years), and 4470 infants (<1 year). Iron overload without reports of excessive exogenous iron was observed in 18 adults; the prevalence in whites and blacks was 0.0019 and 0.0015, respectively (P = .6494). Twenty-nine adults and 2 children had iron overload with reports of excessive exogenous iron. In adults, the prevalences of iron overload with reports of excessive exogenous iron in whites and blacks were 0.0040 and 0.0013, respectively (P = .0107). Among adults, the prevalence of cirrhosis was 6-fold greater in those with iron overload. In adults with severe iron overload, 67% without reports of excessive exogenous iron and 14% with reports of excessive exogenous iron died of hepatic failure or cardiomyopathy caused by siderosis. The overall prevalence of deaths caused by severe iron overload in whites and blacks was 0.0021 and 0.0009, respectively (P = .0842).
The prevalence of severe iron overload without reports of excessive exogenous iron did not differ significantly between whites and blacks. The prevalence of iron overload with reports of excessive exogenous iron was greater in whites. Hepatic failure and cardiomyopathy were common causes of death in severe iron overload cases.
First-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients are at risk for developing precancerous conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of biomarkers pepsinogen I (PGI), pepsinogen II (PGII), their ratio (PG I:II), as well as gastrin 17 for screening of precancerous conditions and corpus predominant gastritis.
First-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients underwent endoscopy. Three biopsy specimens from the antrum and 3 from the corpus were evaluated according to the Sydney classification. Serum was taken for the measurement of fasting PGI, PGII, and gastrin 17 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.
A total of 481 patients were examined (age, 47.8 +/- 6.7 y). With the extension of gastritis, PGII was increased up to 2.5 times (6.6 +/- 2.8 microg/mL in normal mucosa, 9.5 +/- 6.7 microg/mL in antral gastritis, and 16.9 +/- 12.4 microg/mL in corpus-predominant gastritis; P < .01), PGI increased slightly (88.3 +/- 29.4 microg/mL in normal mucosa and 111.2 +/- 71.4 microg/mL in corpus-predominant gastritis), and gastrin 17 was increased substantially in corpus-predominant gastritis (15.3 +/- 19.5 pmol/mL vs 3.8 +/- 5.7 pmol/mL in normal mucosa). By using a cut-off value of 7.5 microg/mL for PGII, any type of gastritis from normal mucosa can be diagnosed with a sensitivity and specificity of 80%. The sensitivity and specificity of the PG I:II ratio (< or =3) and gastrin 17 (>17 pmol/mL) together were 9.4% and 99% for screening corpus-predominant gastritis and 14.8% and 97.8%, respectively, for screening intestinal metaplasia in the corpus.
PGII is a suitable marker for screening any gastritis from normal mucosa, but neither PGI, the PG I:II ratio, gastrin 17, nor their combination were able to select those with precancerous conditions and corpus-predominant gastritis among the first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There are no accurate and reliable tools for diagnosis of early-stage pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) or small metastatic lesions. It is also a challenge to differentiate PDA from focal mass-forming pancreatitis (FMP). There is controversy over the efficacy of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) in diagnosis of PDA. We investigated whether FDG-PET provides information that, combined with data from other imaging techniques, can aide in decision making for patients with suspected PDA. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data collected from 232 consecutive patients with suspected PDA at Kobe University Hospital from January 2006 through June 2012. All patients underwent a diagnostic imaging protocol that included multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT), super-paramagnetic iron oxide-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (SPIO-MRI), and FDG-PET. Based on endoscopic ultrasonography, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography analyses, 218 patients had PDA (89 underwent resection and 129 did not) and 14 had FMP (8 had focal mass-forming chronic pancreatitis [FMCP] and 6 had focal mass-forming autoimmune pancreatitis [(FMAIP]). RESULTS: FDG-PET detected 50% of stage 0 and I, 91.9% of stage II, 100% of stage III, and 96.8% of stage IV tumors. Detection was significantly affected by tumor size (P =.024) and T stage (P =.023) in resected tumors. MDCT and SPIO-MRI detected significantly more liver metastases than FDG-PET. Few para-aortic lymph node or peritoneal metastases were detected by FDG-PET. FDG-PET correctly identified 11 of the 14 patients with FMP (5/8 with FMCP and 6/6 with FMAIP). CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET is not effective in detecting early-stage PDA and small metastases, or in differentiating PDA from FMP. Combining FDG-PET with current diagnostic techniques for PDA did not provide any decisive information, so it should not be included in this analysis.
The safety and efficacy of maintenance therapy with the anti-tumor necrosis factor certolizumab pegol has not been reported beyond 6 months. We assessed the long-term efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity of continuous versus interrupted maintenance therapy with subcutaneous certolizumab pegol in patients with Crohn's disease.
Patients who responded to induction therapy at week 6 of the PEGylated Antibody Fragment Evaluation in Crohn's Disease: Safety and Efficacy (PRECiSE) 2 trial were assigned randomly to groups given certolizumab pegol (continuous) or placebo (drug-interruption) during weeks 6 to 26. Patients who completed PRECiSE 2 were eligible to enter PRECiSE 3, an ongoing, prospective, open-label extension trial in which patients have received certolizumab pegol (400 mg) every 4 weeks for 54 weeks to date, and were not offered the option to increase their dose. Disease activity was measured by the Harvey-Bradshaw Index.
Harvey-Bradshaw Index responses at week 26 for the continuous and drug-interruption groups were 56.3% and 37.6%, respectively; corresponding remission rates were 47.9% and 32.4%, respectively. Of patients responding at week 26, response rates at week 80 after the start of PRECiSE 2 in the continuous and drug-interruption groups were 66.1% and 63.3%, respectively; among patients in remission at week 26, week 80 remission rates were 62.1% and 63.2%, respectively. More patients in the drug-interruption group developed antibodies against certolizumab pegol (and had lower plasma concentrations of certolizumab pegol) than the continuously treated group.
Certolizumab pegol effectively maintains remission of Crohn's disease for up to 18 months. Continuous therapy is more effective than interrupted therapy.
Background & aims:
We investigated the usefulness of dual-phase F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to differentiate benign from malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and to evaluate branch-duct IPMNs.
We used FDG-PET/CT to evaluate IPMNs in 48 consecutive patients who underwent surgical resection from May 2004 to March 2012. IPMNs were classified as benign (n = 16) or malignant (n = 32) on the basis of histology analysis. The ability of FDG-PET/CT to identify branch-duct IPMNs was compared with that of the International Consensus Guidelines.
The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was higher for early-phase malignant IPMNs than that for benign IPMNs (3.5 ± 2.2 vs 1.5 ± 0.4, P < .001). When the SUVmax cutoff value was set at 2.0, early-phase malignant IPMNs were identified with 88% sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The retention index values for malignant and benign IPMNs were 19.6 ± 17.8 and -2.6 ± 12.9, respectively. When the SUVmax cutoff was set to 2.0 and the retention index value to -10.0, early-phase malignant IPMNs were identified with 88% sensitivity, 94% specificity, and 90% accuracy. In identification of branch-duct IPMNs, when the SUVmax cutoff was set to 2.0, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values were 79%, 92%, and 84%, respectively. By using a maximum main pancreatic duct diameter ≥7 mm, the Guidelines identified branch-duct IPMNs with greater specificity than FDG-PET/CT. The Guidelines criteria of maximum cyst size ≥30 mm and the presence of intramural nodules identified branch-duct IPMNs with almost equal sensitivity to FDG-PET/CT.
Dual-phase FDG-PET/CT is useful for preoperative identification of malignant IPMN and for evaluating branch-duct IPMN.
The long-term immunogenicity and efficacy of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination remain to be defined. We aimed to examine the long-term immunogenicity and efficacy of HBV vaccination with 3 different regimens over 18 years of follow-up.
A total of 318 Chinese subjects receiving 3 different regimens of HBV vaccination (2-dose recombinant vs. 3-dose recombinant vs. 3-dose plasma-derived vaccines) without receiving a booster dose were recruited. The HBV serologic markers, including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), were determined at yearly follow-up. After 18 years, 88 subjects were still being followed up.
Compared with subjects receiving the 2-dose regimen, subjects receiving the 3 dose regimens had a significantly higher geometric mean titer of anti-HBs and a higher proportion had anti-HBs titers > or =10 mIU/mL during the 18 years of follow-up. There were no differences in these 2 parameters between subjects receiving the 3-dose recombinant and subjects receiving the 3-dose plasma-derived vaccines. A total of 88 anamnestic responses were documented in 70 subjects (8 with initial anti-HBs titers <100 mIU/mL at 12 months and 7 with anti-HBs titers <10 mIU/mL before the anamnestic responses). No subject became positive for HBsAg. Three subjects had benign breakthrough HBV infection without leading to chronicity indicated by isolated anti-HBc positivity.
There was less long-term immunogenicity associated with the 2-dose regimen when compared with the 3-dose regimens of HBV vaccination. Because of the highly effective anamnestic responses, a booster dose was not necessary at least up to 18 years after the primary vaccination.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is extremely common among morbidly obese patients. We assessed the usefulness of plasma caspase-generated cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) fragments as a novel marker for NAFLD in a bariatric cohort.
The cohort consisted of 99 consecutive patients who underwent liver biopsy at the time of bariatric surgery. CK-18 levels were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and 6 months after surgery. Patients were subdivided into 4 histologic groups: not NAFLD (normal liver biopsy), nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), borderline diagnosis, and definitive nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).
CK-18 levels were significantly higher in subjects with NASH compared with those with not NAFLD, NAFL, or borderline diagnosis (median [25th quartile, 75th quartile], 389 U/L [275, 839] vs 196 U/L [158, 245], vs 217 U/L [154, 228], or vs 200 U/L [176, 274], respectively; P < .0001). CK-18 levels were significantly higher in subjects with moderate to severe fibrosis versus those with no or mild fibrosis (334.5 U/L [240.5, 896] vs 207 U/L [175, 275], respectively; P = .007). A significant decrease in CK-18 levels was observed in most patients 6 months postoperatively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.99). The values with the best combination of sensitivity and specificity were 252 U/L (sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 77%) and 275 U/L (sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 100%).
These results support the potential utility of this test for diagnosis and staging of NAFLD before bariatric surgery.