Ciência e Cultura

PIP: Using census data and estimates, the author examines population growth in Latin America during the twentieth century. Retrospective comparisons among countries or larger areas reveal differences in population trends by country or region as well as interrelationships with socioeconomic factors. Natality, mortality, natural increase, internal migration, life expectancy, spatial distribution, and urbanization are considered. (summary in ENG)
"In order to evaluate mortality trends in adults aged 30-69 years in the State of Rio Grande do Sul [Brazil], changes in age-standardized mortality from 1970 to 1985 were calculated and compared with trends of 33 other countries. Virtual stability in Rio Grande do Sul over this 16-year period contrasts with dramatic reduction in age-standardized all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in many countries.... The data demonstrate that major declines in adult mortality can be achieved, and suggest that, during the period 1970-1985, Rio Grande do Sul participated little in the international tendency toward improved adult health." (SUMMARY IN POR)
PIP: The illegality of abortion in Brazil is questioned more and more. It would seem obvious that the prohibition of abortion would result in a decrease in the number of abortions, but upon closer observation, the opposite is true. Abortion related legislation in Brazil is among the most severe in the world. Both the physician and the patient are equally punishable, but this did not stop Brazilian women from having 3.5 million abortions/year. Countries with less severe laws have a much lower abortion rate. There have been extreme physiological and social consequences in Brazil as a result of abortion's illegality. The woman is not only a criminal, she is also a sinner in the eyes of the Church. In most cases, especially in low-income areas, abortion can lead to complications and death. Although there are no statistical data on the number of deaths due to illegal abortion, they would no doubt be alarming. An unwanted, unterminated pregnancy can have disastrous effects upon the mother, the child, and their relationship. These negative effects have been well documented. Prohibition will keep abortion out of the mainstream of national debate and aggravate the situation. A person's sexuality cannot be suppressed and considered evil. In lower income levels, unwanted pregnancy should not be a punishment for being poor. The legalization movement will grow, as it has in developed nations. The members of the Brazilian Society for Scientific Progress must remain active in the debate, because they cannot ignore something of such national importance.
"A sample of 1,806 families from the Brazilian Northeastern region was analysed in order to study the effect of several socio-economical parameters upon the reproductive structure of this population." The data are from a hospital in Sao Paulo district and were collected in 1969-1970. The results show the low health status of the population as a whole, which in turn, has an influence on mortality. In particular, postnatal mortality rates are shown to increase from the south to the north of the region, in association with different levels of socioeconomic development. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt
PIP: The proportion of free and emancipated people among the slave-owning population of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 1738 and 1811 is studied. The percent of the slave population belonging to those social levels is also examined according to sex, age group, and area of origin. (summary in ENG)
A questão do desmatamento não é somente ambiental, nem somente de desrespeito à lei: é socioeconômica. Logo, a chave é pensar políticas de contenção de desmatamento ligadas, indissociavelmente, a políticas de produção, a longo prazo, ou seja, considerar a forma como os agentes mobilizam recursos (naturais e institucionais) no quadro de sistemas de produção e de acordo com procedimentos tecnológicos específicos.
Relationship between Euglossa (Euglossella) mandibularis Friese, 1899 (hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini) and Cyphomandra calycina (Solanaceae) - Males of Euglossa (Euglossella) mandibularis visit Cyphomandra calycina flowers to colect odoriferous compounds. These substances are extracted from strongly developed connectives with the use of foreleg brushes. It is suggested that male bees are strongly attracted by flowers even before anthesis. They were frequently observed damaging the apex of mature blossoms and pushing the corolla lobes to force flower opening. Male E. mandibularis receives C. calycina pollen on mesoterna while scratching the connectives. They are probable effective pollinators of this plant, since they are their most frequent visitors and their mesoterna do contact flowers stigma during odour gathering.
Top-cited authors
Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha
  • Rio de Janeiro State University
Ivan Sazima
  • University of Campinas
Wanderley Rodrigues Bastos
  • Universidade Federal de Rondônia
Olaf Malm
  • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
M. Lucia Bianconi
  • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro