# Child Indicators Research

Online ISSN: 1874-8988
Print ISSN: 1874-897X
Recent publications
• Rasmus Mannerström
• Lauri Hietajärvi
• Arniika Kuusisto
• [...]
• Arto Kallioniemi
Previous research on Schwartz’s theory of basic human values has mostly applied a variable-oriented approach . This study took a person-oriented approach and investigated how values co-occur and are manifested in individuals, that is, what kind of value profiles exist and how they differ in terms of subjective (i.e., life satisfaction) and social well-being (i.e., sense of belonging). In a sample of Finnish adolescents ( N = 973; women 59.6%; M age = 16.8, SD = .70), three value profiles emerged: personal-focus , growth-focus and self-protective , of which the personal-focus group scored highest on life satisfaction, the growth-focus group scored lowest on belonging to social media and the self-protective group scored highest on belonging to organizations. In all, subjective and social well-being were differently related to opposing values. The findings are discussed within a cultural and contextual framework.

• Jose Marquez
• Louise Lambert
• Megan Cutts
Interest in adolescents’ wellbeing and mental health is growing worldwide, but little research in this area has been conducted in certain world regions and countries such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Geographic, socio-demographic and school type differences in adolescent wellbeing and mental health are commonly observed in the field, and the UAE is a diverse country where these types of differences have been found for other outcomes (notably, academic). Yet, no prior national study has explored these differences in terms of wellbeing and mental health in the nation. We address this gap by investigating differences across emirates, gender, socio-economic status, immigrant status, school sector and school curriculum for overall life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect, meaning and purpose in life, and internalizing difficulties. We use linear regression to analyse cross-sectional data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) study from 2015 and 2018. We find substantial geographic, socio-demographic and school type differences in levels (2018) of wellbeing and mental health -which vary across distinct domains- and declines (2015–2018) of wellbeing. Better wellbeing and mental health are observed in the northern emirates and among boys. Better wellbeing and poorer mental health are observed among nationals (compared to expatriates) and in public schools (compared to private schools). Despite presenting the best academic outcomes, British schools present the worst wellbeing and mental health outcomes. However, results show the absence of a trade-off between academic competence and wellbeing and mental health, with evidence of a small positive association with wellbeing.

This study proposed a moderated mediation model to examine the mediating effect of hope and moderating effect of the teacher-student relationship in the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and autonomous learning among Chinese middle school students. Mediation analysis first indicated that hope partially mediated the relationship between SES and autonomous learning. Moderated mediation analysis further indicated that the teacher-student relationship moderated on the mediating pathway of hope on autonomous learning. With a higher level of teacher-student relationship, the positive relationship between hope and autonomous learning would be stronger. The findings elucidated that positive interaction with teachers could benefit students’ learning process by facilitating their hope belief and autonomous learning; such positive interaction could motivate students’ hope beliefs into autonomous learning behaviors. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Student well-being has recently emerged as a critical educational agenda due to its wide-reaching benefits for students in performing better at school and later as adults. With the emergence of student well-being as a priority area in educational policy and practice, efforts to measure and monitor student well-being have increased, and so has the number of student well-being domains proposed. Presently, a lack of consensus exists about what domains are appropriate to investigate and understand student well-being, resulting in a fragmented body of work. This paper aims to clarify the construct of student well-being by summarising and mapping different conceptualisations, approaches used to measure, and domains that entail wellbeing. The search of multiple databases identified 33 studies published in academic journals between 1989 and 2020. There were four approaches to conceptualising student well-being found in the reviewed studies. They were: Hedonic, eudaimonic, integrative (i.e., combining both hedonic and eudaimonic), and others. Results identified eight overarching domains of student well-being: Positive emotion, (lack of) Negative emotion, Relationships, Engagement, Accomplishment, Purpose at school, Intrapersonal/Internal factors, and Contextual/External factors. Recommendations for further research are offered, including the need for more qualitative research on student well-being as perceived and experienced by students and for research to be conducted in a non-western context.

Little is known about mental health during early childhood and differences in mental health problems between migrant and local preschool children in Chile. This research aimed to study the early mental health of children and disparities in mental health indicators between immigrant and local children in the context of a middle-income country. Parents and teachers assessed immigrant (n = 120) and non-immigrant (n = 383) children between 3 and 4 years old with the Sistema de Evaluación de Niños y Adolescentes (Child and Adolescent Evaluation System, SENA). A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to study both main and interaction effects while controlling for the clustering of children on center-based care. Results show that immigrant parents tended to report more internalizing problems than locals’ parents did in terms of depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints. Also, they reported more attention problems, developmental delay, unusual behavior, rigidity, and isolation in immigrant children. However, teachers’ assessments regarding immigrant children were similar to non-immigrant children’s evaluations in many cases. Finally, girls presented fewer emotional and behavioral problems than boys. Our study shows the importance of assessing mental health during early childhood, especially in immigrant children, and the difficulty of carrying out this evaluation through different information sources from parents and early childhood teachers.

Childhood obesity is not only worrisome for its effects on children’s health but also for its effects on general well-being. This article analyzes the impact of bodyweight on life satisfaction and three potential mechanisms that may explain this relationship among school-aged children. In addition to the traditional ordinary least squares method, we also use an instrumental variable approach to deal with the potential endogeneity of bodyweight. We use mother’s weight as plausible exogenous variation for children’s weight. Using a Chilean sample of boys (n = 2,262) and girls (n = 2,256) aged 9 to 12, we provide suggestive evidence that body mass index, weight and obesity are causality and negatively related to children’s life satisfaction. Our findings also suggest that body-image satisfaction, school bullying victimization, and physical health explain about 50 and 29 percent of the pathway between bodyweight and life satisfaction for girl and boys, respectively. Although, our results do not support gender differences in the bodyweight-life satisfaction association, we do find sizable gender differences in the mechanisms explaining this relationship. Finally, this study outlines some possible policy implications and potential avenues that future research should address.

Background Adolescence is a decisive stage in human development during which intense physical, psychological, emotional and social changes are experienced. The aim of the present study was to analyse the lifestyle differences related with the health of adolescents enrolled in first year (13.01 ± 0.62 years old) and fourth year of secondary education (16.02 ± 0.63 years old) from a region in the North of Spain. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 761 adolescents from twenty-five educational centres in a northern region of Spain. The sample was made up of 383 first year students and 378 fourth year students. Physical activity engagement, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, hours of nightly sleep, body mass index and maximum oxygen consumption were evaluated. Results First-year adolescent students reported higher values for self-esteem, health-related quality of life, physical activity, Mediterranean diet adherence, hours of nightly sleep and maximal oxygen consumption. Some differences emerged according to sex. Associative analysis revealed negative correlations between age, lifestyle habits (physical activity engagement, hours of nightly sleep and Mediterranean diet adherence) and health indicators (VO2max, self-esteem and HRQoL), with a positive association emerging with BMI. Similar findings emerged regardless of sex, with the exception of findings pertaining to VO2max not being significant in boys. Conclusion Differences perceived as a function of the adolescent’s age suggest that it should be an important consideration for educational and health organisations, with the aim of establishing intervention strategies appropriate for each age group.

The mental health and wellbeing of young people has important consequences for students and society. Schools are a logical environment for management and early intervention of wellbeing, mental health and engagement with school. Interventions aimed at improving mental health and wellbeing in education systems requires knowledge of how wellbeing is clustered at a school level. Cluster-randomised trials, and regression analyses of such data also require knowledge of clustering. While school-level clustering in academic achievement has been well documented, less is known about school-level clustering of outcomes such as student wellbeing, school climate and school engagement, especially for students younger than 13 years. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for 23 measures from the Wellbeing and Engagement Census (WEC) and five standardised tests of academic achievement from the Australian National Assessment Program, Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) for 19,529 students from 376 government primary schools in South Australia. We compared these to ICC values for scores from standardised tests of numeracy and literacy. School supportiveness had the largest estimated ICC (0.08) among the WEC measures, meaning 8% of the total variance was attributed to differences between schools. All other WEC measures had ICCs of 0.05 or below, and academic scores had higher ICCs (0.11 to 0.16). Nearly all ICC estimates decreased after adjusting for either student- or school-level sociodemographic factors, with academic scores showing the largest relative decreases. These ICC values can be used for planning cluster-randomised trials, complex surveys or statistical analyses and to provide insights into the education system.

Based on feldwork in Washera Qenie School, this article explores Ethiopian national identity from Qenie students’ viewpoint. Given a distinct line of knowledge system they come across, Qenie students viewed Ethiopia and Itiopiawinnet difer- ently. Individual and group interviews with 66 Qenie students (12 to 18 years old) uncovered traits that the children identifed as signifcant markers of Itiopiawinnet. These were presented under three key psychological dimensions as cognitive, emo- tional, and behavioral manifestations of national identity. By illuminating salient aspects of Ethiopian identity, this study contributes to the literature on Ethiopian national identity and for policymakers as a stepping board for further reconstruction or reframing of a multifaceted Ethiopian identity. Keywords Children · EOTC education · Itiopiawinnet · National identity · Qenie student

Psychosocial factors contribute to persistence of poverty, but are rarely addressed in poverty reduction reduction programs. We use mixed methods to investigate the relationship between a psychosocial behaviour change approach—empowered worldview (EWV), and investment decisions in children wellbeing among smallholder farmers in Zambia. Three years after exposure to EWV, logistic regression model results suggest that exposure to EWV was associated with an increased probability of parents providing basic needs of children including school fees, clothes, and food. This probability increased with more trainings. Using a matched sample, the average treatment effect on the treated of EWV is positive and statistically significant. Qualitative results reveal EWV enhanced participant agency, spouses’ propensity to work together and with others in the community, and aspirations for themselves and their children. These results point to the prevalence of psychosocial constraints and the need for interventions to sustainably address them to support human development.

Cohort effect refers to the social phenomenon that a certain event manifests differently depending on a group that is born in the same year or a similar time period. It is important to understand adolescents’ depressive symptoms vary from generation to generation. We studied the changes of the depressive symptoms during the eighth to tenth grade and examined the difference between the 1997-birth cohort and 2000-birth cohort. The study included 2,070 students (2014–2016 of 2000-birth-cohort data, from 8th to 10th grade, mean age = 12.95–14.95 years) and 2,278 students (2011–2013 of 1997-birth-cohort data, from 8th to 10th grade, mean age = 12.90–14.90 years) who participated in the Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey. Latent growth curve modeling and multi-group analysis were used to compare depressive symptom trajectories between cohorts. The result of comparing the depression levels of the cohorts showed the initial values and change rates verifying the presence of a significant cohort effect—the depression level of the 2000-birth-cohort (initial value = 17.75) was significantly lower than the depression level of the 1997-birth-cohort (initial value = 19.49). This study has significance in that adolescents’ depression has both age and cohort effects. It is speculated that the cohort effect may have been impacted by two major events: The Children Problem-Behavior Screening Questionare Test (mental health screening test), implemented nationwide in 2012, and the Sewol Ferry Disaster, which occurred in 2014. Based on the results, suggestions for future research were discussed.

In recent years, several studies have examined the effect of parents and friends on cyberbullying victims. Less is known about their combined effect on cyber perpetrators, especially among Jewish and Arab teens in Israel. We collected data from a representative sample of 350 Jewish and Arab adolescents (aged 15–16) and their parents. We repeated the interviews twice within a year. The survey included measurements of three parental practices: support, monitoring, and protectiveness, as reported by parents at the first time of data collection. We measured the adolescents’ engagement in sensation-seeking and cyberbullying as perpetrators and perceptions about peers’ involvement in these behaviors. Path-analysis models revealed that the perception of peers’ involvement in cyberbullying perpetration was positively linked with involvement in such behavior among Jewish and Arab teens. Contrary to our expectations, no parental practice had a direct effect on cyberbullying perpetration among teens in either ethnic group. The study presents important and unique findings. The results indicate that youngsters involved in cyberbullying are strongly influenced by their peers. The prevalence of this pattern in both the Jewish and the Arab populations indicates its universal nature. On a practical level, it may be suggested that bullying behaviors may be mitigated by taking measures in formal and informal education. Another aspect of the results is the decline in parental influence on adolescents’ cyberbullying behaviors, especially among Arab teens. This may be an indicator of cultural changes taking place in the Arab population in Israel alongside widening of the generation gap.

Children’s participation in decisions about their lives is a crucial point of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which is the basis of child welfare and protection worldwide. Despite these clear guidelines, there is evidence that children’s voices may be heard but often with little impact on the decisions made by professionals in the childcare system. This study seeks to ascertain whether the voice of children living in foster care is considered and respected when making decisions that concern them, whether the children effectively exercise it, and what factors impact their participation. A systematic scoping review was performed to clarify concepts and unveil research gaps, using eleven scientific databases and publishers that allowed us to identify twelve recent studies in critical journals. In the light of the Bouma et al., (2018) model, the findings showed that there is, in general, a lack of effective children’s participation, namely in terms of information, listening, and involvement. Children’s voices still have a minimum impact on the decisions made in the childcare system. It will be necessary to avoid the bureaucratic assumption that there is an age cut-off point to promote participation. More, it is stressed the importance of a trusting, sincere and confidential relationship between the child and the social worker and the need to ensure training for professionals who intervene in review/statutory meetings or judicial proceedings, namely in the court of law.

We examined the ways low-income adolescents’ family resources, school resources, and belief in a just world, served to predict their subjective well-being, propensity for depression, and problem behaviors. One hundred and ninety-four low-income Chinese adolescents completed self-reported questionnaires. The results found that family resources interacted with school resources in predicting subjective well-being and depression, with resources made available through schools diminished the detrimental effects of low levels of family resources. Moreover, the relationship between the different sources of resources and psychological adjustment was moderated by the adolescents’ belief in a just world. The belief in a just world enhanced the positive effects of high levels of school resources on subjective well-being and depression only among adolescents with relatively high family resources. The belief in a just world buffered the negative effects of low levels of school resources that contributed to problem behaviors. This study identified school resources and belief in a just world, which are potentially malleable, as protective factors related to low-income adolescents’ psychological adjustment. The results have important implications for future studies and interventions.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global mental health crisis that disproportionately impacts adolescents. Loneliness is a particularly salient pandemic psychosocial outcome to understand; however, research to date on this outcome is sparse and largely cross-sectional. In response, we examined pre-pandemic risk factors for pandemic loneliness. Further, we examined how risk may differ based on key demographics, and whether mediation or moderation models best explained potential disparities in experiencing loneliness. Self-reported, pre-pandemic mental health, trauma exposure, and family conflict survey data were collected at Wave 1 in a diverse sample of 369 adolescents (54.5% female, 45.5% male; 30.1% White; 30.9% Black; 18.4% Hispanic; Mage = 15.04; SD age = 1.10). Subsequently, self-reported experiences of loneliness during the pandemic were collected 6 months (April-June 2020) and 12 months (October-December 2020) later. Using a regression-based framework (i.e., PROCESS), we tested (a) which pre-pandemic risks uniquely predicted prospective loneliness and (b) whether loneliness risk was elevated for certain identities (i.e., mediation models) or whether certain identities were more sensitive to specific risks (i.e., moderation models). Overall, pre-pandemic depressive and aggression symptoms predicted early pandemic loneliness (6-month follow-up), whereas anxiety symptoms specifically predicted mid-pandemic loneliness (12-month follow-up). Environmental stressors were moderated by gender, such that females with pre-pandemic trauma exposure were more likely to report pandemic loneliness. Further, pre-pandemic internalizing distress for girls and externalizing symptoms for boys, reflected gender-specific pathways for loneliness. Implications for mental health prevention in the wake of national disasters are discussed. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12187-022-09984-8.

Purpose Refugee adolescents’ quality of life (Qol) was not investigated during the Covid-19 pandemic which have a potential impact on refugee adolescents’ Qol. In this study, it is planned to investigate refugee adolescents’ Qol and its association with depression and quality of life. Methods 301 refugee adolescents aged between 14 and 18 who immigrated from Syria was included in the study. Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form (PID-5 BF), Beck Depression Scale, and Life Quality Scale was used as assessment tools. The data were tested using structural equation modeling. Results Both depressive symptoms and personality traits are associated with low Qol. Also, depression mediated the relationship between personality disorder and Qol. Conclusion This is the first study that investigates Qol in Syrian refugee adolescents during the pandemic. This study draws attention to the importance of depressive symptoms and personality traits management for improvement of Qol in Syrian refugee adolescent population. Highlights • Depressive symptoms are associated with low Qol in refugee adolescents. • Personality traits are associated with low Qol in refugee adolescents. • Depressive symptoms have a mediator role between personality traits and Qol.

A population-level adolescent health survey has been a reliable source of information about the health and well-being of 12–19-year-olds in Western Canada since its introduction in 1992. However, the survey has never accurately measured child poverty, partially due to the complex social and geographical make-up of the region. The current study sought to adapt a model for developing a child-centric index of material deprivation which had been successfully used in the UK. To develop the BC Youth Deprivation Index, 25 focus groups, including three youth-led groups, were held with 300 adolescents aged 12–19 in urban, semi-urban, rural, and remote communities in each of the province’s five regions (North, Interior, Fraser, Vancouver Coastal, and Island). Participants in the focus groups created a 10-item index of the material items adolescents felt they needed in order to belong. The draft index was piloted with 297 BC adolescents aged 12–19. The index demonstrated good internal reliability and was correlated with measures of food insecurity and subjective well-being. The finalised index was completed by over 38,000 adolescents, and is available to policy makers and practitioners. The study outcomes support the value of meaningfully engaging young people in the process of measurement development.

The aim of this research was to analyze the typologies of primary education students with regard to possession and use of video games, and the possible psycho-emotional and educational implications. To identify the different typologies, a latent class model using Latent Gold v4.5 software was applied in order to model relations between the variables observed, assuming that the structure of underlying relations was explained by a latent categorical variable (not observed). The results revealed two clearly differentiated clusters: one formed of boys who get better marks in Mathematics, usually play video games with gaming consoles for the TV screen, usually play video games online with friends, play video games for more than two hours at weekends, feel very happy when playing video games, and whose first choice of free-time activity is to play video games; the other consisted of girls who get better marks in Spanish Language and Literature, usually play video games on a tablet, usually with a family member, play video games for more than two hours at weekends, feel very happy playing video games, though to a slightly lesser extent than boys, and whose first choice of free-time activity is not usually to play video games.

Energy poverty in Sub-Saharan African countries continues to be of global concern. Its grave implications for the achievement of the sustainable development goal 7 (SDG 7) by 2030, validate this concern. Current studies, therefore, focus on analyzing the impact of energy poverty on child well-being, thus, their health, education, and cognitive skills. Despite this, studies in Sub-Saharan African countries where the highest energy poverty rates are remains scanty. Hence, using data from the current wave of the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS 7), this paper analyzes multidimensional energy poverty and its impact on the health, education, and cognitive skills of children in Ghana. The multidimensional energy poverty analysis reveals that nearly 59% of children in Ghana are living in multidimensional energy-poor households. Further, the structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses show that a standard deviation increase in multidimensional energy poverty reduces child health, education, and cognitive skills by 0.155, 0.13, and 0.402 standard deviation respectively. The government through the Ministry of Energy and allied agencies and departments must commit to making modern energy accessible and affordable throughout the country to mitigate the negative impact of multidimensional energy poverty on child well-being.

This study aimed to analyze the risk and protective factors affecting the COVID-19 anxiety of primary school students after the reopening. It was investigated how primary school students’ parents’ vaccination, and COVID-19 cases seen at school, knowledge and awareness directly or indirectly explained their individual and social COVID-19 anxiety. The data were obtained from 227 primary school students living in different regions of Turkey. Pandemic Awareness Scale, Pandemic Anxiety Scale, Pandemic Information Test and Information Form were used to obtain the data. The data were analyzed by path analysis. According to the results, the case seen at school, knowledge and awareness of COVID-19 directly and significantly predicted primary school students’ individual and social COVID-19 anxiety. Vaccination of parents, on the other hand, directly significantly predicted social COVID-19 anxiety of primary school students, but did not significantly predict individual COVID-19 anxiety. In addition, in this effect, awareness of COVID-19 mediates the knowledge of COVID-19, and cases seen at school mediate the vaccination of parents. The obtained model showed a good fit. According to the results, primary school students’ knowledge and awareness about COVID-19 and parents’ vaccination reduced their anxieties, and COVID-19 cases seen at school increased their anxiety.

This paper investigates the effect of poor households’ subscription to National Health Insurance Scheme on their children’s school performance. Resource-poor households are often vulnerable to low investment in education. This is particularly the case where expenditure on health can trade of educational spending and compromise children’s academic performance. This paper argues that poor households’ subscription to National Health Insurance Scheme could reduce their health expenditure and consequentially increase educational spending to improve their children’s school performance. This proposition was investigated using data from the seventh round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey. The Instrumental Variable method was employed to address possible endogeneity problems between health insurance subscription and children’s learning outcomes. Additionally, the propensity score matching technique was used to validate the results. The results show that poor households’ subscription to National Health Insurance Scheme improves their children’s learning outcomes in Ghana. The results, therefore, imply that universal health coverage among the poor could enhance human capital development in developing countries.

Conducting a neurodevelopmental screening without considering ecological factors is insufficient and may underestimate the actual risk to development for children living in poverty. This article describes ecological risk factors among a nationwide sample (n = 231) of young children experiencing homelessness. Researchers examined rates of health care access and continuity, food insecurity, lead exposure, ACEs, and access to safe places to play using a new ecological screening tool developed for the population. Children in the sample experienced high rates of food insecurity, faced significant challenges to health care access, and significant exposure to adverse childhood events. Children experiencing homelessness and poverty experience more barriers to health care access and significantly more food insecurity and hunger. A third of caregivers reported that their child had some exposure to lead, primary due to substandard housing. And the majority were enduring long periods of homelessness with over half (56%) being between 1–6 months. Findings are discussed within a social determinants of health perspective.

The aims of this study are twofold. The first goal is to investigate the relationship between children’s experiences of being bullied (physically, verbally, and emotionally) and their subjective well-being (SWB) in seven low-industrialised Asian countries. The second aim is to ascertain how the relation between bullying victimisation and SWB differs across these countries. This study used data from the third wave of the Children’s Worlds survey across two age groups (10- and 12-year-olds) within seven Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam). The sample consists of 11,483 children, based on representative sampling in each country (49.4% boys and 50.6% girls; Mean age = 11.21). Data were analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) and multigroup SEM in order to check for metric and scalar invariance among countries. The results show an excellent fit for the models using the pooled sample for 10- and 12-year-olds. The multigroup models also displayed an excellent fit and found a significant negative contribution of bullying victimisation to SWB of children in all seven countries, depending on the type of bullying incidents (except for being left out by other children in the 10-year-old group in Nepal, which had a significant positive contribution). Being left out by other children made the strongest contribution to SWB of children in the Asian countries studied, except for India (both age groups), Nepal (10-year-old group), and Sri Lanka (12-year-old group). Being called unkind names was the most frequent bullying incident, more frequently among boys and 12-year-olds than among girls and 10-year-olds. Even though bullying victimisation negatively contributed to SWB, relatively high scores were observed for SWB in six countries according to Cummins’ theory of homeostasis (except Vietnam that displayed SWB mean scores below the expected set-point ranging from 60 to 90). The results were explained using Cummins’ SWB homeostasis theory, suggesting that children’s buffers were efficiently activated to adapt to the adverse situation of being physically, verbally, or emotionally bullied, in order to protect their SWB.

Caring for left-behind children (LBC) in rural areas can provide reserve force for the construction of new countryside and help realize rural revitalization. Based on a sample from China Education Panel Survey (CEPS), this study captured rural children’s poverty by building a multidimensional poverty index system of five dimensions (right to subsistence, health, protection, development, and participation). Then explore the relationship between the left-behind experience (LBE) and multidimensional poverty of rural children. The finding revealed that LBE significantly increases the probability of children falling into multidimensional poverty. Specifically, compared to LBE with accompanying by a single parent and LBE during school, the negative impacts of LBE without accompanying by parents and LBE during pre-school are greater, respectively. Moreover, girls and the only-child with LBE are more likely to fall into multidimensional poverty. The study also found that, overall, the poverty incidence of rural children’s right to development is the highest among the five dimensions, as well as the multidimensional poverty contribution rate of the right to participation. The multidimensional poverty index (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$MPI$$\end{document}), the multidimensional poverty incidence (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$H$$\end{document}), the multidimensional poverty intensity (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$A$$\end{document}), the contribution rates of the right to subsistence, protection, and participation of children with LBE in rural areas are higher than those of children without LBE respectively. This study contributes to a better understanding of the multidimensional poverty of rural children in China and provides a valuable direction for alleviating multidimensional poverty from the perspective of LBE. Meanwhile, these findings are conducive to raising the attention of families and governments to LBC in rural areas and ensuring the welfare of rural children.

This study describes the multidimensionality of child poverty and produces the first multidimensional child poverty indices in North Macedonia. We use the Alkire-Foster method to develop two age-specific (0–4 years and 5–17 years) child multidimensional poverty indices (MPIs) by leveraging secondary data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2018/2019 for North Macedonia and North Macedonia Roma Settlements. We find that the largest part of multidimensionally poor children are deprived within the range 33 − 39% of deprivations and the structure of multidimensional child poverty is similar for less, as well as for more intensely deprived children in both age-groups. Additionally, we identify the most deprived groups with respect to the area of living, ethnicity, and geographical location. The study provides general recommendations for policymakers to reduce child poverty in North Macedonia.

The study investigated the nutritional status of under-five children of farm households. The study utilized primary data from 352 farm households with 140 under-five children. Household crop commercialization index (CCI) was used to estimate cassava farm household crop sale ratio and categorize the households into four commercialization levels while WHO Anthro software was employed to analyze under-five children anthropometric indices such as weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-height z-score (WHZ). Logit regression model (LRM) was used to examine the drivers of under-five children’s nutritional status of farm households. The study found that 42.9%, 7.9% and 3.6% of the children are stunted, underweight and wasted respectively. The highest stunting level was recorded in zero level households (CCI 1). Although, some higher CCI households (medium-high and very-high level) recorded increased percent of stunted children. This revealed that being a member of low or high-level commercialization households may not guarantee better nutritional status of young children of farm households. The results of LRM indicated that the predictors of children nutritional status were child’s age, farm size, access to electricity, healthcare and commercialization variables. Moreover, weak positive and negative relationships exist between CCI and children’s nutrition outcomes as measured by the z-scores. The study recommended maternal nutrition-sensitive education intervention that can improve nutrition knowledge of mothers and provision of infrastructure that enhance increased farm production and promote healthy living among farm households.

In recent years, many studies have referred to the interdependence between cognitive (hard-skills) and students’ academic performance. However, despite their relevance, soft-skills have not received the same treatment and have not been analysed as extensively, particularly from a gender perspective. Therefore, and bearing in mind that analysing from a gender perspective is essential to reduce occupational segregation and soft-skills can enhance young people’s personal and academic development, throughout this paper we have analysed the gender gap in soft-skills with a sample of 15–16 years old students from the Spanish region of Andalusia. To do so, we have used a recent innovation of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique. Our results show not only that the gender gap in soft-skills is correlated with gender stereotypes, but also that grade retention or being an immigrant show a greater degree of association with boys’ soft-skills than girls’, while mothers’ educational level is more correlated with the soft-skills of girls.

This paper studies the role of schools' we-mentality in shaping students' civic outcome. A school's we-mentality is important for the students' perception and education of sense of community. We-mentality is measured by an automated content-analysis approach applied to the schools' general principle. Data stem from a survey conducted in 13 German schools with 488 students. Using OLS and multi-level regression techniques, I find that stronger we-mentality is associated with more students being engaged in local civic activities. Moreover, students that exhibit stronger trust in others and are willing to engage with new and unknown tasks show more positive attitudes towards civic issues. The results hold relevance for the educational design of schools in fostering adolescents' civic education and participation.

Peer school victimization via minor and less severe forms of violence may predict victimization via more severe and major forms of violence. Nonetheless, very rarely are the escalating patterns of violence addressed theoretically or empirically tested. In the school context, the quality of peer and teacher–student relationships are critical determinants of peer victimization, although inconclusive mechanisms have been suggested to establish associations among students’ interpersonal relationships and peer victimization. To address prior inconsistencies and better conceptualize theoretical knowledge of these associations, this study developed and tested a path model of peer and teacher–student relationships and peer victimization via relational, verbal, and physical victimization. Secondary data analysis of a nationally representative sample of fifth- and eighth-grade students in Israel (N = 75,852) revealed an escalation pattern across types of victimization, in which relational victimization was associated with victimization via verbal and physical violence. Although both types of relationships significantly influenced victimization, peer relationships had the strongest effect, beyond the influence of teacher–student relationships. The identified empirical links among interpersonal relationships and peer victimization can support theoretical and operational frameworks essential to preventing school victimization and protecting students from negative educational, social, and emotional outcomes. Finally, we suggest important directions for future research.

This paper aims to present the results of implementing a new, multi-dimensional and cumulative tool that records the well-being of children in the 1st semester of the school year 2020–2021, which constitutes the fourth round of an ongoing research. The tool was implemented in Attica through questionnaires circulated in twenty-five schools and three support centers for children and families under the organization, “The Smile of the Child” (twenty-eight bodies in total). The total number of children who participated in the sample was 1,114, belonging to three distinct school categories: the 6th grade of elementary school (10–11 years old), the 3rd grade of junior high (13–14 years old), and the 3rd grade of high school (16–17 years old). The results, mapped out in seven clusters, reveal evident concerns over nutrition and the moral education of students. In addition, the results indicate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being of children and reveal with regard to national policy and legislation framework that the status of welfare state in Greece is ineffective and problematic. The theoretical and methodological framework of the study was confirmed through a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and a principal component analysis (PCA).The outputs of MCA reflect and confirm the good effect of “The Smile of the Child” for children in need. Finally, an action plan including the creation of policies based on public finance and fuzzy logic was suggested, the most important being the necessity of the establishment of a new Ministry for the protection of child well-being.

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant changes in the lives of families with young children. The present study aimed to explore whether child social isolation due to the COVID-19 crisis was associated with toddlers’ emotional and behavioral health (EBH) and whether this association was moderated by caregiving distress, during the second mandatory lockdown in Portugal. Participants included 315 toddlers and their primary caregivers. Caregivers were invited to complete a set of questionnaires in order to report about toddlers’ social isolation from other significant family members, other children, and activities outside the house, and to provide ratings of caregiving distress and toddlers’ EBH. Family socioeconomic factors, including stressors resulted from the pandemic, were also measured. Significant interaction effects, independent of child sex and sociodemographic factors, between COVID-19-related social isolation and caregiving distress emerged in the prediction of toddlers’ EBH: COVID-19-related social isolation was found to be a significant predictor of both emotional/behavioral competencies and problems, but only among toddlers exposed to higher levels of caregiving distress. This study evidences the negative impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the functioning of Portuguese families and toddlers’ EBH. It emphasizes the importance for policies to consider the implications of the COVID-19 crisis for young children, and to provide psychosocial support to families in order to reduce caregiving distress and, thus, prevent children’s mental health problems.

In many countries, Indigenous populations have reported lower levels of subjective well-being (SWB) compared to non-Indigenous groups. However, research on this topic is still scarce in Latin America, particularly Chile, where Indigenous people from nine recognized ethnic minority groups represent 9.5% of the population. This study analyzes the SWB of children and adolescents pertaining to Indigenous ethnic minorities living in Chile. Participants were 44,451 students from 430 schools with low socioeconomic status (20.18% were from ethnic minorities) enrolled in fifth to eighth grade (M age = 12.47, SD = 1.41) who answered the Brief Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale and a single item on overall life satisfaction, which have been used as subjective well-being indicators. Findings showed that non-Indigenous adolescents reported higher subjective well-being, followed by the Mapuches and Aymara groups, with the other Indigenous group reporting the lowest scores. Well-being profiles were similar between the Mapuche and non-Indigenous groups and significantly different from the profiles of the Aymara and other Indigenous groups. We discuss these cross-cultural differences and their implications for policy and intervention.

This article explores how child protection clients perceive their opportunities to exercise agency in their encounters with child protection services. Child clients include respondents who were children at the time of responding or had previous contact with child protection services, i.e. those under the age of 18 (n = 217); adult clients include parents, guardians, and relatives (collectively referred to as “family members”) who had personal experience with child protection workers (n = 505). The analysis applies a three dimensionional framework of understanding agency (autonomy, construction and action) inspired by Kuczynski and colleagues. The analysis showed that child protection clients, i.e. both children and adults, have insufficient opportunities to exercise their agency in their interactions with child protection services. One of the factors hindering the exercise of agency is the power imbalance perceived by clients due to the lack of transparency in child protection work and the imposition of their own opinions by child protection practitioners. On the other hand, agency is enhanced if the client feels that they are an equal partner in their interactions with the child protection worker. It was also found that an opportunity to exercise agency made children and their family members feel that child protection work had been effective: a large proportion of both children and adults who had been able to exercise agency reported that their situation improved as a result of child protection work. The article concludes with recommendations for enhancing child protection clients’ agency in their interactions with child protection practitioners.

The COVID-19 pandemic and lockdowns potentially severely impact adolescents’ mental well-being. This research aims to study students’ subjective well-being during the covid-19 pandemic in Iran and investigate the role of loneliness, resilience, and parental involvement. For this study, 629 students (female = 345) were recruited by purposive sampling. Students were assessed on the Student’s Subjective Well-Being, Loneliness Scale, Resilience Scale, and Parental Involvement. The results confirm our hypothesis that the relationship between parental involvement and students’ subjective well-being is mediated by loneliness. Furthermore, the results indicated a partial mediation of resilience in the relationship between parental involvement and students’ subjective well-being. This study theoretically contributes to a better understanding of the factors determining the impact of traumatic events such as a pandemic on adolescents’ mental health. The implications of this study indicate interventions that can be carried out to minimize the negative psychological consequences of the pandemic.

Low-Income children are susceptible to mental health problems. While social support has been found to protect children from these issues, most studies focus on the frequency of support rather than the importance of support. The importance of support refers to subjective value that the child places on the support provided. The present study investigated whether social support from parents, teacher, classmates or close friends was related to internalizing and externalizing problems, in 513 low-income children between 7 and 12 years of age. We investigated if these associations followed a main effect model, stress-buffering model or enhanced stress-buffering model. When parent support was considered important by the child, there were positive associations of economic hardship and internalizing problems. Furthermore, when parent support was frequent, or both infrequent and important, there was a positive association between economic hardship and externalizing problems. Conversely, teacher support that was considered important by the child was protective for internalizing problems in children. In addition, teacher support that was frequent and considered important, was protective for children’s externalizing problems. Implications arising from the study are discussed.

The well-being of children and adolescents is emerging as an area of interest for population health measurement. Previous approaches assessing national and state trends in well-being have relied on composite indices. However, these methodologies suffer from several weaknesses. This paper develops an improved index for the United States that is measurable with existing population-data resources. It derives the appropriate weights for items in this index using a longitudinal panel of 2,942 children in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Candidate component measures are selected for the index based on their demonstrated association with several subjective scales assessed during young adulthood. The final index demonstrates that a broad range of measures indicate higher levels of population-level well-being. The predictive validity of the index for outcomes during young adulthood is also assessed: a one-standard-deviation increase in the index score is associated with a 7.9-percentage-point decrease [95% CI: 5.9 - 9.8] in ever reporting fair or poor health, a 6.3-percentage-point decrease [95% CI: 4.6 - 8.0] in ever reporting depression, and a 17.2% [95% CI: 13.7% - 20.5%] increase in peak earnings. These values for predictive validity are slightly higher than those of existing methodologies. We also find that incorporating contextual indicators from childhood and adolescence does not substantively improve predictive validity. Policy-makers and government agencies interested in population-level well-being of children and adolescents can continue to use existing indices as reasonable proxies, but should also commit to upgrading data systems to make them more child-centric in the future. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12187-022-09962-0.

The corona virus (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a global health crisis causing fear and negative psychological consequences. In this study, the validity and reliability of the Emotional Flexibility Scale were evaluated in a sample of adolescents in Turkey. A total of 833 high school students from 65 different cities participated in the study. Emotional flexibility, adolescent psychological resilience, and adolescents' subjective well-being Scales were used as data collection tools. For the adaptation of emotional flexibility scale, confirmatory factor analysis, convergent validity, and reliability analyses were used. Also, the mediating role of subjective well-being on the relationship between emotional flexibility and resilience was tested. Emotional flexibility was found to be associated with subjective well-being and resilience. The results of the study show that the Emotional Flexibility Scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool in the sample of adolescents in Turkey. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12187-022-09959-9.

What does it mean to be a (female) child in the city of Baku, Azerbaijan? How can we critically interpret the girls' understandings of well-being considering different forms of compliance with unequal social orders? What conclusions may be drawn from understandings of well-being about the nature of welfare state structures and therein children's specific positioning? To answer these questions, we conducted qualitative interviews with 13 girls during their various leisure activities. The study shows that parents and in particular mothers are children's key reference persons, while there are hardly any spaces the girls can explore or reference persons outside their immediate families. The article reconstructs how the 13 girls view the social practices of adults and how they relate these practices to their own perceptions of well-being. We inductively reconstruct different forms of compliance, i.e., the extent to which social practices are consistent with the symbolic representations (norms and values) of a specific social order and specific relations of power and hegemony. The analysis shows how girls make differentiations between adult social practices based on their knowledge orders: some practices they justify through a sort of complicity with adultist structures (competent compliance), others they must accept due to their own vulnerabilities as children (compliance and constitutive vulnerability), still others irritate, are rejected, or sabotaged (fragile compliance).

The present paper considers the main constraints and opportunities in the construction of girls’ educational projects in Kyrgyzstan in relation to their subjective well-being from the intergenerational perspective. Today children have got new educational opportunities brought by various social transformations; at the same time, they come across new challenges which are often related to social inequality and economic problems on the local level. Especially female educational trajectories seem to experience noticeable effects of these transformations. The author uses the theoretical concept of social capital to observe the role of the family in the construction of girls’ educational projects. In addition to this, the applied intergenerational approach allows to observe the changes and continuities in parent-child relations. The findings show that in Kyrgyzstan “being well-educated” continues to be an essential element, the foundation of girls’ educational projects, similar to how it was for girls’ mothers in the same age. In the context of a strong hierarchical family structure and low level of state opportunities, today girls tend to rely only on family social and cultural capital for the realisation of educational projects. However, families’ actions are often aimed at the future prosperity, neglecting children’s interests at the present time. Besides, girls face gender-specific limitations related to the perception of women’s roles in the society. The frames within which girls can take decisions regarding educational trajectories are strongly defined by their families. This often leads to the feeling of uncertainty among girls and ambivalence between global promises and the “actual” local opportunity structures.

This study examines the relationship between parental time poverty, child work, and school attendance in Ghana using data from the sixth and seventh rounds of the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS6 and GLSS7). Results of the analysis indicate an increasing decline in child enrolment in public schools (from 9% to 6%) among time poor household heads. In addition, parental time poverty increases children's walking hours to and from school and private school enrolment. We observed heterogeneity of parental time poverty on child work in relation to the location of households and gender disaggregation. Child work and school attendance-reducing effect of parental time poverty is mainly prevalent among male children but mixed for location. Our result is robust to the alternative estimation method of addressing endogeneity and further shows that household income is the primary channel through which time poverty influences child work and school attendance. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12187-022-09926-4 10.1007/s12187-022-09926-4.

Adolescent subjective well-being, including life satisfaction, has shown declines at national level across many countries in recent years. Although several possible explanatory factors have been identified, there is a lack of research on whether these may be similar or different across countries. Using data on 15-year-old adolescents from the Programme for International Student Assessment study in Scotland, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, the United States, Japan, Ireland and France in 2015 and 2018, we find that changes in school well-being and, to a lesser extent, the use of Information and Communication Technologies and material well-being were associated with observed declines in life satisfaction. Although there are similarities across some countries, cross-country differences in factors associated with decreasing life satisfaction emerged, notably between Western nations and Japan, with some gender differences also evident.

This theoretical study explores the empowerment perspective regarding children with disabilities. Article 12 of the UNCRC states children’s right to express their views and be listened to. Meanwhile, studies show that children with disabilities are at risk of overprotection, which may restrict their participation and influence. Honneth’s theory of recognition and Sen’s Capability Approach are discussed together with the empowerment perspective when it comes to fulfilling article 12 regarding children with disabilities alongside empirical studies. Finally, a new model of dynamic empowerment is suggested to illuminate the interrelational complexity in this matter, as well as a way of identifying and understanding the possible mechanisms that may affect children with disabilities and their participation and influence.

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the greatest disruption to children’s schooling in generations. This study analyses primary school children’s emotional engagement with remote schooling during the Spring 2020 lockdown in the Republic of Ireland, which involved one of the longest school closures among rich countries at the time. It investigates whether children’s engagement with their remote schooling varied by personal and family characteristics, using data from the Children’s School Lives (CSL) surveys. CSL is a nationally representative study of primary schools in Ireland, which collected information from children aged 8–9 years in May – August 2019 and in May – July 2020. Linear regression estimates with school fixed effects are based on the analytic sample of nearly 400 children (from across 71 schools) who took part in both waves and have complete data on all the key variables. Emotional engagement with schooling is measured using child-reported items on satisfaction with schooling. Everything else being equal, children who reported higher engagement with schooling before the pandemic were more engaged with remote schooling during the lockdown. Although there were no significant differences by family affluence, children with greater resources for home schooling reported higher levels of engagement. This includes having a computer or a laptop for schoolwork, having someone to help with schoolwork if the child is worried about falling behind, and having schoolwork checked by a teacher. This points to the paramount importance of adequate digital technologies in the home as well as the availability of help during periods of remote schooling.

Wellbeing declines during adolescence, for which the reasons are unclear. This analysis explored associations between wellbeing and multiple lifestyle, socioeconomic and school-level factors in young people. Data were collected as part of the Wellbeing in School (WiSe) survey of adolescent school children in Northern Ireland at age 13–14 years ( N = 1618; 49% female) and 15–16 years ( N = 1558; 50.5% female). Wellbeing was assessed using the short-form Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (sWEMWBS), where scores declined between time one (13–14 years) and time two (15–16 years) in both sexes and were significantly lower in females at both timepoints. Multilevel, multivariate modelling was therefore undertaken separately for males and females with sWEMWBS scores as the dependent variable. Physical activity, family affluence, fruit and vegetable intake, social media use, sleep duration, school factors (size and type) and religion were independent variables. More frequent physical activity in both sexes at both timepoints was associated with higher sWEMWBS scores. In females, higher sWEMWBS scores were associated with less social media use at time one (and marginally at time two), greater family affluence at time two, and being Catholic at both timepoints. In males, higher sWEMWBS scores were associated with more frequent fruit and vegetable intake at time one. Mental wellbeing was unrelated to sleep duration or school factors in either sex, at both time points. Efforts to maximize mental wellbeing in adolescents should promote engagement in physical activity and implement sex-specific interventions.

The contributions in this special section deal with growing up in two post-Soviet states – Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan. Each contribution has a different priority on the variety of forces that shape the wellbeing of children and youth as structured in the interaction between the efforts and abilities of their families, the state, as well as social and health policies in both national and cross-national contexts. In this special section, we understand infrastructure as places and institutions for day-care, education, leisure, social and health services. The papers identify barriers that children and young people encounter as they attempt to realize their potential and wishes in a variety of social, educational, and health contexts. These obstacles have something in common: they are rooted in a deficit of public and social infrastructure that is evident in these two states (European Commission, 2011; Sardarova, 2020; OECD, 2018; UNICEF, 2015).

Juvenile delinquency is the outcome of complex interactions with multiple factors. However , few studies have explored what factors most likely contribute to delinquent behavior among female and male adolescents when all possible levels of factors are included in one model. To fill this gap, the current study investigated what factors were associated with juvenile delinquency and which factors were appeared to be significant in both female and male adolescents using machine learning algorithms. This information can be particularly informative for policymakers and researchers to capture the overall feature of delinquency. Data were derived from three-time points (8th grade, 9th grade, and 10th grade) of the nationally-representative Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS). The sample consisted of an almost equal number of males and females. This study employed the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression as an exploratory analysis to identify important factors related to juvenile delinquency and compared coefficients of each factor in the model. The results showed that individual factors, including cyber delinquency, aggression, romantic relationships, following school rules, engagement in learning activities at school, academic confidence in Korean, English, and math, relationships with teachers, peer relationships, social withdrawal, and mobile phone dependency , were relatively important factors of delinquency for both females and males. These findings suggest that using LASSO regression to identify the most important factors for juvenile delinquency will provide an opportunity to understand the complex phenomenon of delinquency among female and male adolescents and can be a useful source in delinquency prevention policies in Korea.

Self-compassion refers to being kind, understanding, and accepting toward oneself in times of failure, frustration, or negative feelings. Since self-compassion is related to both physical and psychological well-being, measuring and understanding self-compassion in different populations carries importance for their mental well-being and life satisfaction outcomes. One such group is the youth, who experience unique developmental challenges. For this purpose, a Self-Compassion Scale for Youth (SCS-Y) was developed (Neff et al., 2021) and this paper presents its Turkish adaptation. The Turkish translation of SCS-Y was tested on a sample of Turkish youth (N = 450, 61.8% female, Mage= 13.09 ± 1.59, range = 11–15) and was found to have acceptable reliability. The scale showed a similar structure to the original testing on American youth with a bifactor model of a general self-compassion score and six subscale scores, and a two-bifactor model where negative and positive aspects are grouped together. Self-compassion was positively related to resilience and well-being, and negatively related to depression. A serial mediation analysis showed self-compassion to have a direct and positive effect on resilience, and to have an indirect effect on well-being mediated by resilience and depression. Given that the trainable skill of self-compassion is associated with higher resilience, lower depression, and better well-being, the value of this scale and its different adaptations becomes evident, as they enable measuring self-compassion in youth in various populations such as the present Turkish one and guiding the design of future interventions to increase self-compassion, targeted for the specific concerns of the youth.

This research paper aims to present the results of implementing a new multi-dimensional and cumulative tool that records child well-being, in the 2nd semester of the school year 2019-2020, which is the third round of an ongoing research. It also presents the results of the same year as a whole, in order to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being of children. The tool was applied in Attica through questionnaires, addressing 22 public schools and three support centers of the organization, The Smile of the Child (25 units in total). The number of children in the sample was 560, belonging to three distinct school categories. The results of the 2nd semester were mapped out in seven clusters. The analysis of the results of the school year 2019-2020 as a whole was applied on a sample of 1,731 children; in other words, it incorporated almost the entire sample of the surveys conducted in the 1st and 2nd semesters. Finally, an action plan, based on the legal framework, focusing on mitigating the negative effects of the pandemic on child well-being is suggested. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12187-021-09910-4.

Top-cited authors
• Universitat de Girona
• Glasgow Caledonian University
• NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde
• Mehmet Akif Ersoy University
• University of Bergen