The Hg(0) oxidation ability and reusability of Cu(x)Co(3-x)O(4) were investigated in an attempt to improve SO(2) anti-poisoning ability of metal oxide and produce more economic and effective sorbents for the control of Hg(0) emission from combustion processes. The influence of copper content on Cu(x)Co(3-x)O(4)'s (0.75< or = x < or =2.25) oxidation ability of Hg(0) in the presence of SO(2) was investigated. According to the X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and mass balance analysis on mercury, we found that Cu(1.5)Co(1.5)O(4) showed the highest S(BET) and best Hg(0) oxidation ability. With continuous increase of x from 0.75 to 2.25, Cu(x)Co(3-x)O(4)'s SO(2) anti-poisoning ability increased. The analysis results of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy manifested that the adsorptive mercury species on spent Cu(1.5)Co(1.5)O(4) was HgO. The spent Cu(1.5)Co(1.5)O(4) could be regenerated by thermal decomposition at 673K and regenerated Cu(1.5)Co(1.5)O(4) showed higher Hg(0) oxidation ability due to Hg-doping. Regenerated enrichment Hg(0) was collected using activated carbon at an ambient temperature to eliminate the secondary pollution.
13C12-Labelled mono-, di-, and tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD) and chlorinated dibenzofuran (CDF) standards have been tested for their applicability to standard EPA sampling and analytical Methods 0023A/8290. These methods target for analysis only the tetra- through octa-CDD/CDF homologues. Extension of the isotope dilution method to include those lower chlorinated homologues is important toward obtaining reliable species concentration data on the complete, mono- to octa-chlorinated homologue profile. These data will improve our ability to model poly-CDD/CDF concentrations through understanding mechanisms of poly-CDD/CDF formation, chlorination, and dechlorination.
In this study we investigated the effect of uranium on the growth of the bacterium Thermus scotoductus strain SA-01 as well as the whole cell U(VI) reduction capabilities of the organism. Also, site-directed mutagenesis confirmed the identity of a protein capable of a possible alternative mechanism of U(VI) reduction. SA-01 can grow aerobically in up to 1.25 mM uranium and has the capability to reduce low levels of U(VI) in under 20 h. TEM analysis performed on cells exposed to uranium showed extracellular and membrane-bound accumulation of uranium. The reductase-like protein was surprisingly identified as a peptide ABC transporter, peptide-binding protein. This study showcases the concept of protein promiscuity, where this protein with a distinct function in situ can also have the unintended function of a reactant for the reduction of U(VI).
High levels of p,p'-DDT were detected in Hong Kong breast milk sampled in 1976 and 1985. Monitoring DDT levels in human breast milk in this region is important to identify trends in exposure. As part of the 2002-03 WHO/EURO coordinated exposure study, the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites were determined in 10 pooled milk samples classified by geographic origin and dietary history, comprising milk samples from 238 primiparous mothers giving birth in Hong Kong. Analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC/Mass Spectrometry. The sum-DDT concentration (range: 0.92-2.05 mg/kg fat) was age-dependent and indicated a decreasing trend since the 1970s. Mothers who recently came from mainland China had higher p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratios, suggesting a more recent exposure compared to women mainly residing in Hong Kong. The average Hong Kong sum-DDT level (1.50 mg/kg fat) was among the highest of the contemporary levels (range: 0.12-1.97 mg/kg fat; median: 0.40 mg/kg fat) in the 16 countries/regions participating in the 2002-03 WHO/EURO exposure study. This is probably due to the previous extensive DDT exposure and continuing use of DDT in agriculture in mainland China. Despite the apparent decrease of DDT body load over 30 years, the environmental health hazard from DDT contamination in the Pearl River Delta region remains a concern. Measures to eradicate illegal use of DDT in mainland China and regular food monitoring programs are needed in the region. Despite the presence of DDT and other persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk, breastfeeding should continue to be strongly supported for its life-long benefits to infants.
Enzymes encoded by genes biodegrading microcystins (MCs) can help reveal the function of genes and biodegradation pathway of MCs. Here the first and important gene (USTB-05-A, 1,008 bp) involved in biodegradation of microcystin-RR (MC-RR) was cloned from Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05 and firstly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) with an expression vector of pGEX4T-1 successfully. The nucleotide sequences of cloned USTB-05-A possessed 92.5% homology to that of mlA reported in Sphingomonas sp. strain ACM-3962. The deduced amino acid sequences containing the cleavage sites of 26th (alanine) and 27th (leucine) showed 83% identical to that of MlrA. The cell-free extract (CE) of recombinant E. coli BL21 (DE3) containing USTB-05-A had high activity for biodegrading MC-RR. Initial MC-RR of 40 mg L(-1) was completely biodegraded under total protein of 350 mg L(-1) within 0.25 h. A product derived from MC-RR appeared distinctly with the decrease of MC-RR peak on the profile of HPLC. The product (m/z 1056.5) had molecular weight of 18 higher than that of MC-RR (m/z 1038.7). The findings provided the positive evidences that biodegradation of MC-RR began with the breakage of cyclic MC-RR and then it was converted to linear MC-RR as the first product catalyzed by first enzyme of Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05.
The degradation of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), a component of some rocket fuels, was investigated using atmospheric oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The reactions were carried out in the presence and absence of copper catalysis and at varying pH. Reactions were also carried out in the presence of hydrazine, a constituent, along with UDMH, of the rocket fuel Aerozine-50. In the presence of copper, UDMH was degraded by air passed through the solution; the efficiency of degradation increased as the pH increased but the carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was formed at neutral and alkaline pH. Oxidation was not seen in the absence of copper. Production of NDMA occurred even at copper concentrations of < 1 ppm. Oxidation of UDMH with hydrogen peroxide also gave rise to NDMA. When copper was absent degradation of UDMH did not occur at acid pH but when copper was present some degradation occurred at all pH levels investigated. The production of NDMA occurred mostly at neutral and alkaline pH. In general, higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and copper favored the production of NDMA. Dimethylamine, methanol, formaldehyde dimethylhydrazone, formaldehyde hydrazone, and tetramethyltetrazene were also produced. The last three compounds were tested and found to be mutagenic.
The possible genotoxic potential of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), which is a metabolite of dichlorobiphenyltrichloroetane (DDT), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which are organochlorine pesticides have been evaluated in vitro by using human lymphocytes as test system. Genetic damage was determined by scoring the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in primary lymphocyte cultures obtained from different donors. The results indicated that, under the experimental conditions used, the DDT metabolite DDE was able to induce significant increases in the frequency of micronucleated cells, which indicate a certain clastogenic and/or aneugenic potential. DDE was tested in the range of 10-80 mM, but the only concentration producing a significant genotoxic effect was 80 mM. On the other hand, HCB was unable to induce a significant increase in the MN frequency in the range of concentrations assayed, from 0.005 to 0.1mM. The selected concentrations of DDE and HCB were chosen according to their toxicity in cell blood cultures; higher concentrations reduced significantly cell proliferation and produced a low frequency of binucleated cells. In conclusion, the results indicate that a genotoxic risk is associated with the exposure to DDE at concentrations 80 mM and above.
For the first time, a pathway for synthesis of 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chloro-3-thiophenol)-1,1-dichloroethene (3-SH-DDE), is presented. The compound is of particular interest as a precursor for synthesis of alkylsulfonyl-DDE containing different alkyl groups to discover structural activity relationships, and to promote synthesis of radiolabeled methylsulfonyl-DDE. 2-Chloro-5-methylphenol was first methylated and further oxidized to the corresponding benzoic acid. The acid was reduced to the corresponding aldehyde (4-chloro-3-methoxy benzaldehyde) via 4-chloro-3-methoxy-benzene methanol. A lead/aluminium bimetal system was used to carry out the reductive addition of tetrachloromethane to 4-chloro-3-methoxy benzaldehyde to obtain 2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chloro-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanol, the desired starting material to synthesize the DDT-analogue (2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chloro-3-methoxy-phenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane). Elimination of hydrochloric acid and removal of the methyl group led to the 3-OH-DDE. The Newman-Kwart rearrangement was applied to convert 3-OH-DDE to 3-SH-DDE via the dimethylcarbamothioate derivative. 3-SH-DDE is then used as a precursor for the radiolabel synthesis. The overall yield to acquire 3-SH-DDE after 11 steps was 3%. The step with the lowest yield was the DDT-analog synthesis with a yield of 30%. All other step had a yield of >50%. 3-SH-DDE was methylated with (14)C-labeled iodomethane and oxidized by hydrogen peroxide to obtain 3-[(14)C]MeSO(2)-DDE in an overall yield of 30%.
The combination of multicomponent reactions (MCRs) of different amino acids, aldehydes, isocyanides and acids allows complex structures to be prepared in one-pot reactions. The synthesis of 1,1'-iminodicarboxylic acid derivatives 12 demonstrates the high selectivity of the Ugi Four Component Reaction using two different aldehydes and two different isocyanides. The limitations of the MCRs are illustrated by the synthesis of a 1,1'-iminodicarboxylic acid derivative 6 from L-lysine. Furthermore, 2,6-diketopiperazines and dibenzodiazocin-2,6-diones are synthesized via MCRs.
A transient release of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) to an otherwise uncontaminated aquifer at a manufacturing facility presented a useful opportunity to validate the results of previous laboratory and field studies on TCA transformation in groundwater. Abiotic TCA transformation to 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE) and acetic acid at the site exhibited first-order kinetics with half-life of 2.9 years 15 degrees C. Degradation effects were seen to overwhelm chemical retardation effects on the DCE/TCA concentration ratio in groundwater. The kinetic data was sufficient to date the release to within one week of when it actually occurred. A kinetic approach may be applicable to dating the releases on other contaminated sites where a single transient release is indicated. The transformation of dissolved TCA in groundwater with a half-life of several years can be expected at many contaminated sites.
The fate and treatability of 1,1,1-TCA by natural and enhanced reductive dechlorination was studied in laboratory microcosms. The study shows that compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) identified an alternative 1,1,1-TCA degradation pathway that cannot be explained by assuming biotic reductive dechlorination. In all biotic microcosms 1,1,1-TCA was degraded with no apparent increase in the biotic degradation product 1,1-DCA. 1,1,1-TCA degradation was documented by a clear enrichment in (13)C in all biotic microcosms, but not in the abiotic control, which suggests biotic or biotically mediated degradation. Biotic degradation by reductive dechlorination of 1,1-DCA to CA only occurred in bioaugmented microcosms and in donor stimulated microcosms with low initial 1,1,1-TCA or after significant decrease in 1,1,1-TCA concentration (after∼day 200). Hence, the primary degradation pathway for 1,1,1-TCA does not appear to be reductive dechlorination via 1,1-DCA. In the biotic microcosms, the degradation of 1,1,1-TCA occurred under iron and sulfate reducing conditions. Biotic reduction of iron and sulfate likely resulted in formation of FeS, which can abiotically degrade 1,1,1-TCA. Hence, abiotic degradation of 1,1,1-TCA mediated by biotic FeS formation constitute an explanation for the observed 1,1,1-TCA degradation. This is supported by a high 1,1,1-TCA (13)C enrichment factor consistent with abiotic degradation in biotic microcosms. 1,1-DCA carbon isotope field data suggest that this abiotic degradation of 1,1,1-TCA is a relevant process also at the field site.
This study examines the effect of iron-bearing phyllosilicates on dechlorination rates of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) in iron-based degradative solidification/stabilization (DS/S-Fe(II)). Laboratory batch experiments were conducted to evaluate dechlorination rates of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) in a mixture solution of Fe(II), cement and three different iron-bearing phyllosilicates (biotite, vermiculite, and montmorillonite). A first-order rate model was generally used to describe the dechlorination kinetics and the rate constants were dependent on soil mineral type (biotite, vermiculite, and montmorillonite), Fe(II) dose, and the mass ratio of cement to soil mineral. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for montmorillonite was lower than that for biotite and vermiculite by factors of 11-27 when the mass ratio of cement to phyllosilicates was fixed at one. The presence of biotite and vermiculite increase and the presence of montmorillonite decrease the degradation rate that would be observed in their absence. The effect of cement/mineral ratio on rate constants with three different soil minerals indicates that biotite was more reactive than the other two phyllosilicates. This may be due to high accessible natural Fe(II) content in biotite. Montmorillonite appears to inhibit dechlorination by either inactivating Fe(II) by ion exchange or by physically blocking active sites on cement hydration products.
The degradation of chlorinated organic compounds, such as PCE (tetrachloroethene), TCE (trichloroethene) and 1,1,1-TCA (1,1,1-trichloroethane), was conducted using nanosized FePd bimetallic particles. In order to enhance the reactivity of ZVI (zero valent iron) nanoparticles, surface modification of ZVI nanoparticles was performed using Pd and CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose). The surface modification was found to form CMC-stabilized FePd bimetallic nanoparticles (CMC-FePd). The average TCE removal efficiency by the CMC-FePd was significantly increased by ∼85% compared to employing conventional ZVI nanoparticles (∼15%). This increase in the TCE removal efficiency was most likely due to the increased amount of atomic hydrogen produced by the formation of CMC-FePd. For PCE and 1,1,1-TCA, the removal efficiencies by CMC-FePd were approximately 80% and 56%, respectively. For all three chlorinated organic compounds, the amount of Cl- ions in the aqueous phase during the degradation increased with increasing reaction time. This result suggests that the main degradation mechanism of the chlorinated compounds by CMC-FePd was reductive dechlorination.
Transformation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TeCA) by Fe(II) in 10% cement slurries was characterized using a batch reactor system. 1,1,2,2-TeCA was completely converted to trichloroethylene (TCE) within 1h in all experiments, even in controls with cement that did not include Fe(II). Therefore, complete degradation of 1,1,2,2-TeCA depends on the behavior of TCE. The half-life of TCE was observed to be 15d when concentrations of Fe(II) and 1,1,2,2-TeCA were 98mM and 0.245mM, respectively. The kinetics of TCE removal was observed to be dependent on Fe(II) dose, pH and initial substrate concentration. Pseudo-first-order rate constants linearly increased with Fe(II) dose up to 198mM when initial target concentration was 0.245mM. Pseudo-first-order kinetics generally described the degradation reactions of TCE at a specific initial concentration, but a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was necessary to describe the degradation kinetics of TCE over a wide range of initial concentrations. A surface reaction of TCE on active solids, which were formed from Fe(II) and products of cement hydration appears to control observed TCE degradation kinetics.
In several practical applications gas streams containing chlorinated volatile organic compounds with variable chemical nature (namely, 1,2-dichloroethane and trichloroethylene) and a significant moisture content (15000ppm) must be addressed. In this paper the control of such emissions by catalytic oxidation over Ce/Zr mixed oxides was analysed. Results in terms of activity and selectivity were compared with those obtained when other H-rich additives (1000ppm), such as hexane or toluene, were fed. High activity was found from mixed oxides featuring a suitable combination of a large population of acid sites, easily accessible oxygen species, and hydrophobic nature attributable to cerium content. The presence of additional H-rich compounds in the feed stream (water, toluene or hexane) tended to decrease the catalytic activity due to the blockage and/or competition for actives sites. However, the increased presence of hydrogen atoms in the stream notably promoted the selectivity to hydrogen chloride instead of molecular chlorine.
The amphipod Melita longidactyla occurs in great abundance and serves important roles in the trophic transfer and nutrient recycling in marine systems along the Chinese coast. This study investigated the lethal dose (48h LC(50)), as well as sub-lethal effects of a common xenobiotic, 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB), on the bioenergetics, growth and reproduction of this important species. The 48h LC(50) for M. longidactyla exposed to 1,2-DCB was 780 microgL(-1). Exposure to 20 microgL(-1) 1,2-DCB for 3 weeks resulted in 22% reduction in the growth (dry weight) and 57% reduction in the number of progeny, respectively. Furthermore, a significant reduction in RNA:DNA ratio was observed in amphipods exposed to 1,2-DCB at concentration as low as 5 microgL(-1), whereas significant reductions in scope for growth occurred upon exposure to higher concentrations of 1,2-DCB (10 and 20 microgL(-1)) for 3 and 5 weeks. Our results showed that environmentally relevant concentrations of 1,2-DCB can affect the bioenergetics and more importantly, growth and reproduction of M. longidactyla, implicating that 1,2-DCB may affect the recruitment and sustainability of natural populations of this ecologically important species.
The 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1, MBP-79) and further halogenated 1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) are a class of marine natural products repeatedly detected in seafood and marine mammals from all over the world. Only Q1 is currently commercially available as reference standard and the full synthesis of mixed brominated-chlorinated compound is rather complicated. For this reason, synthetic Q1 (240 mg) was transferred into bromine-containing MBPs by UV-irradiation in the presence of bromine. Bromine, which rapidly vanished from the solutions, was renewed during the reaction in order to generate higher amounts of Br-containing MBPs. A total of ∼150 mg Q1 was transferred after ∼10 min irradiation with high amounts of Br(2) to give 30.5mg BrCl(6)-MBPs along with lower proportions of Br(2)Cl(5)-, Br(3)Cl(4)-, Br(4)Cl(3)- and traces of Br(5)Cl(2)-MBPs. Longer UV-irradiation in the presence of Br(2) even allowed for the detection of Br(6)Cl-MBPs and traces of Br(7)-MBP. However, this reaction also provided some unknown by-products. A sample stored in the dark and later in in-door light (no UV irradiation) also eliminated Q1 after 76 d in favour of heptahalogenated MBPs with up to three bromine substituents. The irradiation products were separated on silica, and fractions containing only Q1 and BrCl(6)-MBPs were then further fractionated by non-aqueous RP-HPLC. A pure isolate of the major BrCl(6)-MBP (∼1.5mg) was characterized by GC/MS and (13)C NMR to be 2-bromo-3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachloro-1-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Br-MBP-75). Partial GC enantioseparation of the axially chiral Br-MBP-75 was achieved on a β-PMCD column. A full enantioseparation was managed by enantioselective HPLC using a NUCLEOCEL DELTA S column. Low amounts of pure BrCl(6)-MBP enantiomers could be trapped.
This study developed single-well, gas-sparging tests for assessing the feasibility of in situ aerobic cometabolism of trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) using propane and methane as growth substrates. Tests were performed in groundwater contaminated with TCE (100-400 microg l(-1)) and cis-DCE (20-60 microg l(-1)). A series of gas-sparging tests was performed by first sparging ("bubbling") gas mixtures in a well fitted with a "straddle" packer and then periodically sampling groundwater from the same well to develop concentration profiles and to estimate transformation rate coefficients. Evidence that gas-sparging of propane (or methane) and oxygen had stimulated organisms expressing a propane (or methane) monooxygenase enzyme system and the capability to transform TCE and cis-DCE included: (1) the transformation of sparged ethylene and propylene to their corresponding cometabolic by-products, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, (2) the transformation of both cis-DCE and TCE in the propane-sparged well, (3) the transformation of cis-DCE in the methane-sparged well, and (4) the inhibition of ethylene and propylene transformations in the presence of acetylene, a known monooxygenase inactivator. At a well sparged with propane, first-order rate coefficients for propane utilization and ethylene and propylene transformation were similar, ranging from 0.007 to 0.010 h(-1). At the well sparged with methane, the propylene first-order transformation rate coefficient was 0.028 h(-1), a factor of 1.8 and 1.6 greater than methane and ethylene, respectively. The results demonstrated that gas-sparging tests are a rapid, low-cost means of assessing the potential for the in situ aerobic cometabolism of cis-DCE and TCE.
Cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) is a compound of concern at many chloroethene-contaminated sites, since it tends to accumulate during reductive dechlorination of the higher chlorinated ethenes. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during aerobic cDCE biodegradation was observed in groundwater microcosms under varying incubation conditions (room temperature/groundwater temperature; with/without inorganic nutrients), and resulted in an average stable carbon isotope enrichment factor of -15.2+/-0.5 per thousand. A new enrichment culture, obtained from groundwater microcosms, degraded cDCE concentrations up to 100mgL(-1), was active at temperatures between 4 and 23 degrees C, had a pH optimum of approximately 7, and could withstand prolonged periods (250d) of starvation. Microbial growth during degradation of cDCE as sole carbon and energy source was demonstrated by protein formation in mineral medium not containing any known auxiliary substrate. The obtained growth yield was 12.5+/-1.9g of proteinMol(-1) of cDCE, with a doubling time of 53+/-2h at 23 degrees C. Aerobic degradation of cDCE as sole carbon and energy source appears to be a promising biological process for site remediation.
Laboratory batch experiments have been performed with sediment and groundwater obtained from two sites in Denmark to study the aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-1,2-DCE) to assess the natural aerobic biodegradation potential at two sites. The experiments revealed that VC was degraded to below the detection limit within 204 and 57 days at the two sites. c-1,2-DCE was also degraded in the experiments but not completely. At the two sites 50% and 35% was removed by the end of the experimental period of 204 and 274 days. The removal of c-1,2-DCE seems to occur concomitantly with VC indicating that the biodegradation of c-1,2-DCE may depend on the biodegradation of VC. However, in both cases natural groundwater was mixed with sediment and consequently there may be other compounds (e.g. ammonium, natural organic compound etc.) that serves as primary substrates for the co-metabolic biodegradation of c-1,2-DCE. At one of the sites methane was supplied to try to enhance the biodegradation of VC and c-1,2-DCE. That was successful since the time for complete biodegradation of VC decreased from 204 days in the absence of methane to 84 days in the presence of methane. For c-1,2-DCE the amount that was biodegraded after 204 days increased from 50% to 90% as a result of the addition of methane. It seems like a potential for natural biodegradation exists at least for VC at these two sites and also to some degree for c-1,2-DCE.
The photocatalysed degradation of two selected priority organic pollutants, namely benzidine (1) and 1,2-diphenylhydrazine (DPH, 2) has been investigated in aqueous suspensions of titanium dioxide (TiO2) under a variety of conditions employing a pH-stat technique. The degradation was studied by monitoring the change in substrate concentration of the model compound employing HPLC analysis and the decrease in total organic carbon content, respectively, as a function of irradiation time. The degradation kinetics were studied under different conditions such as reaction pH, substrate and photocatalyst concentration, type of TiO2 photocatalyst and the presence of alternative additives such as H2O2, KBrO3 and (NH4)2S2O8 besides molecular oxygen. The degradation rates and the photonic efficiencies were found to be strongly influenced by the above parameters. Toxicity tests for the irradiated samples of benzidine measuring the luminescence of bacteria Vibrio fischeri after 30 min of incubation were also performed. 4-amino-biphenyl (7) and hydroquinone (13) were identified as intermediate products by GC/MS technique and probable pathways for the formation of the products are proposed.
1,2-Dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH) is used primarily as an additive flame retardant. 1H NMR spectroscopy and an X-ray structure determination have revealed that a technical mixture consists largely of two (of the four possible) diastereomers, rac-(1R,2R)-1,2-dibromo-(4S)-4-((1S)-1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (alpha-TBECH) and rac-(1R,2R)-1,2-dibromo-(4S)-4-((1R)-1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (beta-TBECH), in a mole ratio of approximately 1:1. The two other possible isomers, gamma- and delta-TBECH, were not detected in a technical mixture. The TBECH isomers are thermally sensitive and can easily interconvert at temperatures of 125 degrees C. A thermal equilibrium mixture of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-TBECH consists of approximately 33%, 33%, 17% and 17% of these isomers, respectively. Separation of all four TBECH diastereomers, with minimal thermal interconversion of the isomers, was achieved by careful selection of GC-capillary column length and injector temperature. Although technical TBECH does not contain the gamma- and delta-isomers, they may still be relevant environmental contaminants since manufacturing processes utilize thermal processes which may induce their formation.
We report the effects of 1,2- and 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB and 1,4-DCB) on the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. We evaluated the response of the antioxidant system through the assay of glutathione reductase (GR), guaiacol peroxidase (POD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Additionally, the effect of DCBs on the detoxication system by measuring the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) was evaluated. C. demersum showed elevated GST activities when exposed to 10 and 20 mg l(-1) 1,2-DCB, and at 10 mg l(-1) for 1,4-DCB. These results show that glutathione conjugation take place at relatively high concentrations of both isomers. Significantly increased activities of POD were also detected in C. demersum exposed to concentrations above 5 mg l(-1) of the corresponding isomer. The GR activity was enhanced in plants exposed to 1,2-DCB (5 mg l(-1)) and 1,4-DCB (10 mg l(-1)). GPx was also significantly increased in exposures to the corresponding isomer, each at a concentration of 10 mg l(-1). However, plants exposed to low doses of 1,4-DCB (1 mg l(-1)) showed significantly decreased activities of both enzymes GR and GPx. Consequently, it is clear that the exposure of the aquatic macrophyte C. demersum to DCBs is able to cause an activation of the antioxidant system, showing an isomer specific pattern, which suggests that the defence system of this plant is playing an important role in scavenging ROS, helping to protect the organism against adverse oxidative effects generated by the prooxidant action of the tested xenobiotics. Furthermore, increased GST activities give indirect evidence on the conjugation of either DCBs or the corresponding metabolites during phase II of detoxication, which supports the elimination process of toxic metabolites from cells of C. demersum.
Halogenated 1'methyl-1,2'-bipyrroles (MBPs) have been identified worldwide in marine mammals. Here we present the tentative identification of previously undetected MBP congeners in Delpinus delphis blubber using gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOF-MS). This is the first report of 26 congeners. The presence of numerous partially halogenated congeners suggests that they are either biosynthesized concomitantly with their perhalogenated counterparts or that their dehalogenation products can also bioaccumulate. The newly found compounds fit the geographic trend that has been previously noted. That is, samples from the Atlantic Ocean are dominated by the more brominated congeners while those from the Pacific are dominated by the more chlorinated congeners.
The marine halogenated natural product 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1) is widely distributed in the environment. In this study, we screened samples which have previously been found to contain remarkably high residues of Q1 (blubber of marine mammals from Australia, samples from Antarctica, human milk from the Faroe Island) for the additional presence of mixed chlorinated and brominated congeners. Using GC/ECNI-MS, all samples tested were positive and many contained four out of five possible bromohexachloro congeners (BrCl6-MBPs), five out of 14 possible dibromopentachloro congeners (Br2Cl5-MBPs), five of 21 possible tribromotetrachloro-congeners (Br3Cl4-MBPs), as well as several higher brominated congeners. About 20 heptahalo congeners of Q1 are described for the first time in the scientific literature. Isomers eluted within about one minute, respectively. Hence it is possible, that the peak clusters identified may be composed of more, co-eluting congeners. Similarities in the GC/ECNI-MS mass spectra with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were addressed. We also suggest an acronym system similar to that in use for polychlorinated biphenyls that may simplify the use of this substance class in scientific papers. In the samples from Australia, BrCl6-MBPs and Br2Cl5-MBPs amounted for 7-27.5% and 0.4-4.2% of Q1, respectively whereas Br3Cl4-MBPs and higher brominated MBPs were found in the range of <1% of Q1 or less.
This presentation adds new spectroscopic and analytical data on the natural product Q1 that was recently identified by synthesis as 2,3,3('),4,4('),5,5(')-heptachloro-1(')-methyl-1,2(')-bipyrrole. Solid state magic angle spinning 13C NMR data of Q1 is presented as an option for structural proof. Furthermore, the UV spectrum of neat Q1 (absorption maximum at 223 nm) was recorded and, with NMR spectroscopic data, confirmed a twisted bipyrrole ring system. A quantitative standard of Q1 was prepared which allowed to correct previous concentration estimates relative to the electron capture detector response factor of trans-nonachlor. As a result, the actual Q1 response was only 0.65+/-15% of the response factor of trans-nonachlor. Therefore, actual Q1 levels are about 50% higher than the previous estimates. With this result the highest (corrected) Q1 concentration determined to date in the blubber of marine mammals from Australia is 14 mg/kg lipid. Analysis of Q1 and trans-nonachlor in specimens from the German North Sea coast suggests that harbor seals are more able to metabolize Q1 than harbor porpoises. Finally, we calculated that 79 congeners of Q1 (i.e. lower chlorinated 1(')-methyl-1,2(')-bipyrroles) are theoretically possible and present their structures.
A single oral dose of [14C] 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) was administered to conventional and bile-duct cannulated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Tissue disposition, excretion and metabolism was determined. BTBPE is a low-volume brominated flame retardant used in resins or plastics, and toxicity data in peer-reviewed journals is extremely limited. BTBPE was fairly insoluble in lipophilic solutions, which made dose preparation difficult. The great majority of 14C (>94%) was excreted in the feces of both groups of rats at 72 h, and tissue retention was minimal. Lipophilic tissues contained the highest concentrations of BTBPE, e.g. thymus, adipose tissue, adrenals, lung, and skin. Metabolites were excreted in the urine, bile and feces, but at a very low level. Fecal metabolites were characterized as monohydroxylated, monohydroxylated with debromination, dihydroxylated/debrominated on a single aromatic ring, monohydroxylated on each aromatic ring with accompanying debromination, and cleavage on either side of the ether linkage to yield tribromophenol and tribromophenoxyethanol. Despite a limited quantity of stable metabolites extractable in the feces, non-extractable 14C levels were relatively high (39% of the 0-24 h fecal 14C), which suggested that BTBPE could be metabolically activated in the rat and covalently bound to fecal proteins and/or lipids. It was concluded that limited absorption and metabolism of BTBPE would occur by ingestion in mammals.
The formation of bound residues by naphthalene and its metabolite, cis-naphthalene-1,2-dihydrodiol, in a sediment (1% OC), a silty loam soil (2.9% OC) and a peat (26% OC) was examined. The experiments were carried out under both sterile and nonsterile conditions for up to 35 days. The samples containing bound contaminant were hydrolyzed at an alkaline pH and fractionated using 3,000 and 500 Da molecular weight cutoff ultrafiltration membranes in series. The results for all the geosorbents examined showed that bound residue formation is low for naphthalene and between 5 and 20 times higher for the metabolite. The amount of bound residues released by hydrolysis was higher for the metabolite than for the parent compound for all the samples. The molecular weight distribution of bound radioactivity after hydrolysis showed binding to the high molecular weight components of the sediment organic matter and to the low molecular weight components for soil and peat organic matter when incubated with cis-naphthalene-1,2-dihydrodiol. Experiments performed with naphthalene-UL-(14)C showed larger amounts of bound residue found than in experiments with naphthalene-1-(14)C.
1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is one of the most hazardous pollutant of soil and groundwater, and is produced in excess of 5.44×10⁹ kg annually. Owing to their toxicity, persistence and potential for bioaccumulation, there is a growing interest in technologies for their removal. Heavy metals are known to be toxic to soil microorganisms at high concentrations and can hinder the biodegradation of organic contaminants. In this study, the inhibitory effect of heavy metals, namely; arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, on the aerobic biodegradation of 1,2-DCA by autochthonous microorganisms was evaluated in soil microcosm setting. The presence of heavy metals was observed to have a negative impact on the biodegradation of 1,2-DCA in both soil samples tested, with the toxic effect being more pronounced in loam soil, than in clay soil. Generally, 75 ppm As³⁺, 840 ppm Hg²⁺, and 420 ppm Pb²⁺ resulted in 34.24%, 40.64%, and 45.94% increase in the half live (t½) of 1,2-DCA, respectively, in loam soil, while concentrations above 127.5 ppm Cd²⁺, 840 ppm Hg²⁺ and 420 ppm of Pb²⁺ and less than 75 ppm As³⁺ was required to cause a >10% increase in the t½ of 1,2-DCA in clay soil. A dose-dependent relationship between degradation rate constant (k₁) of 1,2-DCA and metal ion concentrations was observed for all the heavy metals tested, except for Hg²⁺. This study demonstrated that different heavy metals have different impacts on the degree of 1,2-DCA degradation. Results also suggest that the degree of inhibition is metal specific and is also dependent on several factors including; soil type, pH, moisture content and available nutrients.
3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) is a chlorinated alcohol that is often formed as a by-product in the manufacturing of food products. In addition, 3-MCPD may be a disinfection by-product from wastewater treatment by chlorine and may be present in drinking waters from purification plants using epichlorohydrin-linked cationic polymer resins as flocculants. Due to concerns about the toxicity of 3-MCPD and its potential presence in water samples, the removal of 3-MCPD from water should be addressed and examined. For the first time a systematic examination of the removal of 3-MCPD via hydrolysis and photolysis processes is presented. 3-MCPD is shown to undergo hydrolysis at near neutral pH values, but at much slower rates than can be obtained by UV/H2O2 processes. 3-MCPD does not undergo rapid direct photolysis. Re-evaluation of temperature and pH dependent hydrolysis rate data indicates that hydrolysis is first order with respect to [OH(-)].
Biostimulation, bioaugmentation and dual-bioaugmentation strategies were investigated in this study for efficient bioremediation of water co-contaminated with 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) and heavy metals, in a microcosm set-up. 1,2-DCA concentration was periodically measured in the microcosms by gas chromatographic analysis of the headspace samples, while bacterial population and diversity were determined by standard plate count technique and Polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, respectively. Dual-bioaugmentation, proved to be most effective exhibiting 22.43%, 26.54%, 19.58% and 30.49% increase in 1,2-DCA degradation in microcosms co-contaminated with As(3+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+), respectively, followed by bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Dual-bioaugmented microcosms also exhibited the highest increase in the biodegradation rate constant (k1) resulting in 1.76-, 2-, 1.7- and 2.1-fold increase in As(3+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) co-contaminated microcosms respectively, compared to the untreated microcosms. Dominant bacterial strains obtained from the co-contaminated microcosms were found to belong to the genera Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter and Bradyrhizobium, previously reported for 1,2-DCA and other chlorinated compounds degradation. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed variation in microbial diversity over time in the different co-contaminated microcosms. Results obtained in this study have significant implications for developing innovative bioremediation strategies for treating water co-contaminated with chlorinated organics and heavy metals.
Studies on the catalytic destruction of 1,2-dichlorobenzene were carried out on a specially constructed semi-technical equipment whose most important element was a catalytic reactor with a monolithic catalyst in the form of 150 x 150 x 100 mm cubes. A catalyst made from cordierite with an active layer composed of Al2O3 - 64 wt%, TiO2 - 26 wt%, V2O5 - 6.6 wt% and WO3 - 3.4 wt% was used. The reactor made it possible to carry out the process in the temperature range 150-350 degrees C, at variable catalyst loading and different velocities of gas flow through the reactor. The content of 1,2-dichlorobenzene in the air was analysed by a chromatographic method. A significant effect of catalyst loading and temperature on 1,2-dichlorobenzene destruction efficiency was observed and no effect of the linear flow velocity through the catalyst on o-dichlorobenzene destruction efficiency was reported. The applied vanadium-tungsten catalyst on a monolithic carrier made from TiO2/gamma-Al2O3 revealed very good activity that resulted in an over 80% efficiency of 1,2-dichlorobenzene destruction at the temperature around 250 degrees C at a very high catalyst loading reaching ca. 8200 h(-1). Additionally, in this study the kinetics of 1,2-dichlorobenzene decomposition was determined, specifying the order of reaction and dependence of the decomposition rate constant on temperature, using a simple power-rate law model.
A fractured sandstone aquifer at an industrial site is contaminated with trichloroethene to depths greater than 244m. Field data indicate that trichloroethene is undergoing reduction to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE); vinyl chloride and ethene are present at much lower concentrations. Transformation of cDCE by pathways other than reductive dechlorination (abiotic and/or biotic) is of interest. Pyrite, which has been linked to abiotic transformation of chlorinated ethenes, is present at varying levels in the sandstone. To evaluate the possible role of pyrite in transforming cDCE, microcosms were prepared with groundwater, ∼40mgL(-1) cDCE+[(14)C]cDCE, and crushed solids (pure pyrite, pyrite-rich sandstone, or typical sandstone). During 120d of incubation, the highest level of cDCE transformation occurred with typical sandstone (11-14% (14)CO(2), 1-3% (14)C-soluble products), followed by pyrite-rich sandstone (2-4% (14)CO(2), 1% (14)C-soluble products) and even lesser amounts with pure pyrite. These results indicate pyrite is not likely the mineral involved in transforming cDCE. A separate experiment using only typical sandstone compared the rate of cDCE transformation in non-sterilized, autoclaved, and propylene-oxide sterilized treatments, with pseudo-first order rate constants of 8.7, 5.4, and 1.0yr(-1), respectively; however, transformation stopped after several months of incubation. Autoclaving increased the volume of pores, adsorption pore diameter, and surface area in comparison to non-sterilized typical sandstone. Nevertheless, autoclaving was less disruptive than chemical sterilization. The results provide definitive experimental evidence that cDCE undergoes anaerobic abiotic and biotic transformation in typical sandstone, with formation of CO(2) and soluble products.
Arthrobacter sp. P1-1, isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated site in Hilo, HI, USA, can decompose phenanthrene (40 mg l(-1)) completely within 7 days. A detailed phenanthrene metabolism map was constructed based on metabolite analysis and replacement cultures. Initial dioxygenation occurs on 1,2-, 3,4-, and 9,10-C of phenanthrene, dominantly on 3,4-C positions. Rapid accumulation of 5,6- and 7,8-benzocoumarin suggests that phenanthrene-1,2- and -3,4-diols mainly undergo meta-cleavage. However, a trace amount of o-carboxyvinylnaphthoates and diphenic acid indicates a limited extent of ortho-cleavage of the diols. Naphthalene-1,2-diol, as a common and converged metabolite, was formed from 1-[(E)-2-carboxyvinyl]-2-naphthoic acid, naphthalene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid in separate culture tests. Naphthalene-1,2-diol is then degraded in a dominant phthalic acid pathway and a minor salicylic acid pathway. Several metabolites of phthalic acid were found, while no salicylic acid metabolites were detected. The strain P1-1 likely has a very diverse set of PAH-degrading enzymes or the enzymes having relaxed substrate-specificity.
This study examined the catalytic oxidation of 1,2-dichlorobenzene on V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) nanoparticles. The V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) nanoparticles were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of vanadium oxytripropoxide and titanium tetraisopropoxide. The effects of the synthesis conditions, such as the synthesis temperature and precursor heating temperature, were investigated. The specific surface areas of V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) nanoparticles increased with increasing synthesis temperature and decreasing precursor heating temperature. The catalytic oxidation rate of the V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) catalyst formed by thermal decomposition process at a catalytic reaction temperature of 150 and 200 degrees C was 46% and 95%, respectively. As a result, it was concluded that the V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) catalysts synthesized by a thermal decomposition process showed good performance for 1,2-DCB decomposition at a lower temperature.
The structure was investigated of the mercapturic acid excreted in urine of rats after the i.p. administration of 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. Of the two regioisomeric mercapturic acids, i.e. N-acetyl-S-(2,3-dimethylbenzyl)-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-(2,6-dimethyl-benzyl)-L-cysteine, only the former was isolated by preparative HPLC and identified, by comparison with an authentic specimen. The excretion rate of the mercapturate was estimated to be approximately 5% of dose, not a substantial metabolic route.
A combined thermal desorption (TD)-molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor system was applied to remediate the 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB) contaminated soil. The TD reactor was used to enrich the contaminant from soil, and its dechlorination of the contaminant was achieved in the MSO reactor. The optimum operating conditions of TD, and the effects of MSO reactor temperatures, additive amounts of the TCB on destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) of TCB and chlorine retention efficiency (CRE) were investigated. The reaction mechanism and pathway were proposed as well. The combined system could remediate the contaminated soil at a large scale of concentration from 5 to 25gkg(-1), and the DRE and CRE reached more than 99% and 95%, respectively, at temperatures above 850°C. The reaction emissions included C6H6, CH4, CO and CO2, and chlorinated species were not detected. It was found that a little increase in the temperature can considerably reduce the emission of C6H6, CH4, and CO, while the CO2 level increased.
We used a hydrophobic solid support, octadecylsilylated silica gel (C18), packed in a quartz column as a reaction medium for the photolysis of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) and 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD). When we exposed the column to a 450 W UV lamp, the adsorbed 1,2,3,4-TCDD or 2,3,7,8-TCDD in 10% 2-propanol/water decomposed completely in 20 minutes and 5 minutes, respectively. The large estimated partition coefficient of 1,2,3,4-TCDD in 10% 2-propanol/water (> 1000) indicates that on the C18 stationary phase, both the saturated hydrocarbon chains and the absorbed 2-propanol may act as proton donors and accelerate the photolysis. In direct sunlight, the adsorbed 1,2,3,4-TCDD in 10% 2-propanol/water decomposed much faster than in a nonaqueous solvent (50% 2-propanol/methanol). This solvent effect is advantageous for the practical use of the C18 photolysis process in aqueous waste treatment. We have demonstrated that complete C18 trapping with continuous photodecomposition of TCDD contained in an aqueous alcohol waste is possible.
This study investigated reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD) in the presence of Pd/Fe, Cu/Fe and Ni/Fe bimetallic catalysts or zero-valent iron (ZVI) under aqueous and ambient temperature conditions. It was found that the Pd/Fe catalyst can rapidly transform 1,2,3,4-TCDD to chlorine-free dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) with >95% of conversion and half lives on the order of 5h, whereas Cu/Fe, Ni/Fe and ZVI were not reactive over 10d. The dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD in the Pd/Fe systems was found to be stepwise, with 1,2,3-tri (TrCDD), 1,2-di (DCDD), and mono-(MCDD) chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins as the three intermediate products at low concentrations and DD as the final and dominant product. The reaction rate of 1,2,3,4-TCDD dechlorination appeared to decrease as the coverage of palladium on iron particle surface increases from 0.0060 mol% to 0.0228 mol%. Compared to our prior study of reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD with zero valent zinc (ZVZ) as the reductant, the reactions with Pd/Fe bimetallic materials were relatively slower for TCDD, but much faster for TrCDDs and DCDDs, yielding DD as the major product. The study suggested that Pd/Fe bimetallic catalyst-based reactions may be suitable for rapid decontamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) polluted soils and sediments.
Carbon isotope fractionation was observed during dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TeCDD) by a mixed culture containing Dehalococcoides ethenogenes strain 195. Fractionation was examined when 1,2,3,4-TeCDD was added as the only chlorinated compound and when 1,2,3,4-TeCDD was added with a known growth substrate, tetrachloroethene (PCE). The 1,2,3,4-TeCDD was dechlorinated to 1,2,4-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,4-TrCDD) which was enriched in (13)C relative to 1,2,3,4-TeCDD with isotope separation factors, epsilon(C), of 1.3+/-0.2 per thousand and 1.7+/-0.4 per thousand (average+/-95% confidence interval (CI)) in cultures with and without PCE, respectively. The 1,2,4-TrCDD was further dechlorinated to 1,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,3-DCDD) which was depleted in (13)C relative to 1,2,4-TrCDD with epsilon(C) of -2.4+/-0.4 per thousand and -2.9+/-0.8 per thousand (average+/-95% CI) in cultures with and without PCE, respectively. This demonstrates carbon isotope fractionation during sequential reductive dechlorination of PCDDs, where isotope fractionation during dechlorination of the intermediate was substantial and a (13)C depleted lightly chlorinated PCDD congener was ultimately formed during dechlorination of more highly chlorinated PCDD congeners. Despite reproducible, statistically significant differences between isotope compositions of the parent, 1,2,3,4-TeCDD and daughter, 1,2,4-TrCDD and 1,3-DCDD congeners in triplicate bottles of both treatments, fractionation factors for 1,2,3,4-TeCDD could not be determined for all replicates by regression analysis of the plot of the Rayleigh equation. It is possible that dissolution of 1,2,3,4-TeCDD imposed a kinetic limitation on dechlorination, thus masking isotope fractionation during its dechlorination.
The effects of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD) on drug-metabolizing enzymes were studied in male and female rats. 1,2,3,4-TCDD (25, 50, 100 and 200 mumol/kg) was administered by i.p. injection once. Among the cytochrome P-450 (P450)-mediated monooxygenase activities tested, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in both male and female rats, which are associated with CYP1A1, were remarkably induced by all doses of 1,2,3,4-TCDD. The relative induction to each control activity were from 3.0- to 24.5-fold and from 2.2- to 16.5-fold, respectively. Also, 1,2,3,4-TCDD increased other CYP1A-mediated monooxygenase activities such as 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD) and 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) in male and female rats dose-dependently (1.4- to 4.3-fold). Western immunoblotting showed that the levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 proteins in liver microsomes were increased by 1,2,3,4-TCDD. Although the activities of other P450-mediated monooxygenases, namely 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase (PROD), 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase (BROD), aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND) and nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase (NDAND) in both male and female rats were induced at high doses (> or = 50 mumol/kg) of 1,2,3,4-TCDD, the relative level was low compared with those of the CYP1A-mediated monooxygenase such as EROD, ECOD or MROD. In addition to P450-mediated monooxygenase, there was significant induction in the activities of the Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) activities towards 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) towards 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) and DT-diaphorase. These results indicate that 1,2,3,4-TCDD induces both Phase I (CYP1A-mediated monooxygenase) and Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (UGT, GST, DT-diaphorase) in the male and female rat liver, and that the alterations of drug-metabolizing enzyme are characteristic of PCDD toxicity.
Sediments of the Kymijoki River are highly contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These persistent PCDD/Fs resist biotic degradation and therefore the potential for microbial reductive dechlorination was assessed to determine how microbes impact the fate of these compounds. Anaerobic sediment microcosms of five different sites in the river were spiked with 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,4-TeCDF) as a model compound to determine the dechlorination potential in the sediments. Dechlorinating bacteria were active in all the study sites of the river. The extent of dechlorination over 10 and 29months corresponded to the levels of aged PCDD/Fs, with sediments of the most contaminated site at Kuusankoski being the most active for reductive dechlorination. The dechlorination activity and levels of aged PCDD/Fs were correlated within the sediment cores at the all sites. The pathway of 1,2,3,4-TeCDF dechlorination was mainly via 1,3,4-trichlorodibenzofuran (TrCDF) to 1,3-dichlorodibenzofuran (DiCDF). Dechlorination via 1,2,4-TrCDF to further dechlorination products was also detected. Lateral reductive dechlorination would decrease the toxicity of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs. Our data suggest that sediments of the Kymijoki River contain indigenous microorganisms that are responsible for dechlorination of PCDD/Fs, especially at the most contaminated site.
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are toxic and widespread persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Cost-effective technologies for destroying or detoxifying PCDDs are in high demand. The overall purpose of this study was to develop a zero-valent zinc based technology for transforming toxic PCDDs to less- or non-toxic forms. We measured the dechlorination rates of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD) in the presence of zero-valent zinc under aqueous conditions, identified the daughter compounds of the reaction, and constructed possible pathways for the reactions. The reaction rates of daughter compounds with zero-valent zinc were also measured independently. Our results showed that the zero-valent zinc is a suitable candidate for reducing PCDDs. Reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD was stepwise and complete to dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) mainly via 1,2,4-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,4-TrCDD), 1,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,3-DCDD), 1-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1-MCDD) to DD and via 1,2,4-TrCDD, 2,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3-DCDD), 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-MCDD) to DD. In each separate system, the observed half-lives of 1,2,3,4-TCDD, 1,2,3-TrCDD, 1,2,4-TrCDD, 1,2-DCDD, 1,3-DCDD, 1,4-DCDD and 2,3-DCDD are 0.56, 2.62, 5.71, 24.93, 41.53, 93.67 and 169.06 h respectively. The tendency of rate constant follows TCDD>TrCDD>DCDD. Our results suggest that zero-valent zinc is a suitable candidate for rapidly reducing highly chlorinated PCDDs to less or non-chlorinated daughter products.
The possibility of the formation of PCDDs and dechlorination of PCDFs during the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge in laboratory scale digesters was investigated. Digesters were spiked with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF-13C(6) (240 ng/g organic matter (OM)) and pentachlorophenol (PeCP)-13C(6) (24 microg/g OM) and the output sludge monitored for 60 days. No dechlorination or formation of the labelled or native PCDD/Fs was observed. The detectable 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF-13C(6) dechlorination yield was 0.0008-1% depending on homologue group and the detectable formation of OCDD yield was 0.00042% PeCP-13C(6). Preferential respiration of other, more bioavailable, substrates is suggested as the most plausible explanation for the lack of dechlorination. Formation of PCDDs from PeCP has been observed in aerobic environments but this study provides further evidence that it is not a precursor for formation during anaerobic digestion.
Six bacterial strains able to degrade aerobically 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid (PBTC) were isolated. The bacteria used PBTC as sole source of phosphorus in the presence of an alternative source of carbon. The microorganisms were taken from various ecosystems, e.g. river water, river sediment and activated sludge. PBTC up to a concentration of 1 mM (270 mg/l) was completely degraded by a defined mixed culture.
In this study, nanoscale Pd-Fe particles, with diameters less than 100 nm, were synthesized and dispersed over the chitosan and silica supports. Three different Pd-Fe particles were synthesized, namely 0.1% Pd-Fe, 0.5% Pd-Fe and 1.0% Pd-Fe. SEM images confirmed that the Pd-Fe particles were dispersed over the surface of the supports while SEM-EDX confirmed evenly distribution of Pd over Fe(zero-valent). alpha-Fe(zero-valent) crystallites were identified by means of XRD and observed in TEM. Reductive dechlorinations of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB) with the nanoscale Pd-Fe/chitosan and Pd-Fe/silica were carried out in the batch experiment system. Disappearance of the parent species and formation of the reaction intermediates and end product were monitored at discrete times. The results show that the nano-scale Pd-Fe particles were able to completely dechlorinate the chlorinated benzenes within a very short timescale. Complete dechlorinations of 1,2,4-TCB to benzene were achieved within 60 min with the 1.0% Pd-Fe/chitosan and within 100 min with the 1.0% Pd-Fe/silica. Reaction rates were observed to increase with increasing Pd content of the Pd-Fe/support. The reactions apparently followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to the 1,2,4-TCB transformation. A kinetic model is constructed to fit the experimental results for the reactions, enabling identification of the major and minor dechlorination pathways of 1,2,4-TCB. The model suggests that the 1,2,4-TCB transformation mainly followed the primary pathway of direct reductive dechlorination to benzene and secondary pathway of sequential hydrogenolysis to 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB) and then chlorobenzene (CB) or benzene.