The sexual attitudes of 1719 (862 male, 857 female) respondents over 15 years of age were investigated by an anonymous survey who made up a representative sample of the population of the Czech Republic. The questionnaire contained a total of 35 questions. The findings showed objections, in principle, against premarital sexual intercourse and abortion (3.3% of men, 3.6% of women), while 57.5% of women and 59.7% of men stated that every woman has the right to decide whether to bear children. 3.0% of men and 4.4% of women were altogether against premarital sexual intercourse, while 50.3% of men and 69.4% of women deemed that it is allowed within the framework of a lasting relationship. 4.0% of men and 8.6% of women thought that pornography should be banned. 36% (22.7% of men, 46.4% of women) were against group sexual activity, while 53.7% of men and 47.7% of women deemed it acceptable but would refuse to take part in it. 24% (18.3% of men, 30.9% of women) were against extramarital intercourse, while 44.0% of men and 25.7% of women thought it was natural and normal. 28% (14.5% of men, 39.9% of women) were against casual sex, while 40.3% of men and 41.8% of women did not condemn it, but would not engage in it either. 7% (5.0% of men, 9.6% of women) were against masturbation and considered it harmful, while 65.5% of men and 58.4% of women thought it was a natural manifestation of human sexuality. 6% (6.1% of men, 5.7% of women) were against homosexual intercourse, while 33.4% of men and 41.0% of women thought it was a disease, which those afflicted could not help. 5% of men and 4.4% of women rejected contraceptive use.
Gave the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire and Personality Assessment Questionnaire to 116 male and 112 female Czech 6th graders (mean age 12 yrs 2 mo). The questionnaires were constructed based on the parental acceptance–rejection theory. The results were compared with data obtained with children in Washington, DC and Monterrey, Mexico. The findings support R. P. Rohner's theory of the effect of perceived parental acceptance–rejection on children's personality. The Czech Ss scored highest on the parental warmth scale and lowest on 3 parental rejections scales, and they had the fewest unfavorable personality characteristics. Comparison of the 3 different cultural groups suggests that negative self-concept in school-age children is related to parental rejection, whereas children's dependence on parents is related to parental warmth. Children's independence seems to be due mainly to parents' child-rejecting attitude. (English & Russian abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied the relation between scholastic achievement and the results of intelligence testing in a sample of 24 7th graders. It is maintained that the researcher's own concept of a successful student affects test selection, but this concept may not reflect the student's actual academic record. (English & Russian abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of antisocial behaviors in a representative randomized national sample of urban youth in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was administered to a nationwide sample of 4,980 adolescents in three age cohorts (12, 14, and 16 years) in Prague and 12 regional capitals of the Czech Republic. The most frequent antisocial behaviors were identified typical (normative) behaviors of this developmental stage--all types of conduct problems, physical fighting, damage of public or private property, and shoplifting. However, some findings are alarming. In particular, high prevalence of aggressive behavior and problem behavior related to substance use, including selling drugs for money, were found. The findings support the idea that comprehensive, tailored, and gender-specific programmes should be implemented to meet particular needs and that the critical period for implementation of the preventive programmes is early adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Administered a test battery to 357 men and 188 women who described their family upbringing as "strict" and to 450 men and 178 women who described their upbringing as "liberal." The tests were designed to assess internal state, frustration, and methods of coping with stress. Type of upbringing was found to have a greater effect on women than on men. Ss brought up in strict households had greater mood changes, more health problems, and greater frustration in social relations. While Ss brought up in liberal households had healthier and happier childhoods than did strictly reared Ss, the liberally reared Ss had more trouble adapting to jobs and respecting superiors. Their behavior was more relaxed and unrestrained. The high variance in data suggests that the relation between family rearing patterns and adult behavior is not a simple cause and effect relation but a complicated mutual process. (Russian abstract) (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Contends that A. Spooner and W. Kellogg's (see record
1943-01494-001) conclusion that backward conditioning is a nonassociative process distinct from forward conditioning was based on incorrect methodology, and describes the present author's research attempts to verify that backward conditioning is an associative phenomena (learning). In 2 long-term classical eyelid conditioning experiments with 91 Ss, the mean frequency values of backward conditioning, forward conditioning, pseudoconditioning, and intersignal reaction were compared. A typical learning acquisition curve was obtained in backward conditioning; the occurrence rate of conditional reactions increased with reinforcements. Previous studies supporting the associative character of backward conditioning are reviewed, and the importance of backward conditioning for verbal learning is discussed. (Czech & Russian summaries) (70 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Documents the particular phases of lexical study in Czech personality descriptors and presents the structure derived from the factor analysis of the representative list of personality traits. In the first phase, 4,145 adjectives proper for the description of a person or personality description were selected from the Czech language. These adjectives were classified by 6 judges into the categories of German classification system in the next phase. 366 adjectives were chosen as representative for the Disposition (personality traits) category. These were submitted to 426 subjects for self-rating. The factor analysis using the principal components analyses with the Varimax rotation was carried out. The five-factor solution produced the factors Extraversion–Surgency, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect. The interpretation of these factors in the sense of Big Five was verified on the basis of their correlations with factors gained from the evaluation of a representative list of traits according to the Norman model, with factors from the markers of Big Five and with factors derived from the scales of NEO-FFI. The more-factor solutions didn't bring any further dimension that would exceed the framework of Big Five by its content. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
To investigate the dimensionality of the Czechoslovakian translation of the 16 PF, 600 college students were given Forms A and B and the 32 * 32 correlation matrix was computed. The logic of factor analysis was used in 2 ways. First, the 16 * 16 correlation table of scales of Form A were correlated for unreliability of the scales. Some of the obtained correlation coefficients in this "corrected" table were very high, suggesting that there are less than 16 factors in the questionnaire. 2nd, selected pairs of scales of Form A were represented graphically as pairs of vectors in 2-dimensional space, with items of Form A as points having projections on these axes corresponding to their item-scale correlations. At the item level, results support the hypothesis of collapse of some dimensions. An even more drastic collapse is hypothesized in the corresponding 16-dimensional space. Although not encouraging, results are considered at least as good as those obtained for the German translation of the 16 PF. Scale intercorrelations were also comparable to those obtained for typical American samples, although the reliabilities were drastically reduced. (Russian summary) (19 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses aspects of positive psychology together with the growth in feelings of happiness and fulfillment both in adults and children in the Czech Republic after 1990. Positive psychology is defined as the analysis of subjective well-being and positive aspects of human life. Examples of positive personality traits are given together with a summary of the Wellspring of Quality of Life Questionnaire (D. O. Clifton, 2000). Limits and constraints of positive psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
An analysis is given of the interrelationship of human mind and communication on the basis of meaning as a psychological concept. Meaning in the mind expresses the context under which the mental life goes on. Cognitive processes include meanings as interpretations of mental representations. Emotions include meanings as appraisals of situations from the point of view of benefit or menace. Regulations of behaviour and activity include meanings within purposefulness of volitional processes. The significant nature of the mind as a whole was characterized by L. S. Vygotsky and later on by A. N. Leontiev as the interrelation of meaning and sense, by C. Osgood as connotative meanings, i.e. correlations between organismic states and signs, and by J. Bruner as the intentional states realized through participation in the systems of culture. Communication, especially the verbal one, contains generalized meanings. When analyzing the emergency of speech acts different authors show that the formulation of communicative message is preceded by intention, basic scheme of utterance, inner sense, deep layer, conceptual structure, or mental model. The common denominator of these different concepts is the generality of intended message before its formulation, i.e. the generality of relevant meanings. Already the triadic theory of sign by C. S. Peirce contributed to the clarification of the general nature of schemes or meanings. According to him every genuine triad involves the idea of "every possible something", and therefore of generality. The general nature of the meaning is given by the generalized social experience contained in it. This experience is the part of the culture as the complex of learned and shared systems of meanings. The role of the group in the arising, functioning, and development of meanings was showed already by F. Bartlett. The meaning becomes according to him real when it becomes the convention of the group. The process of conventionalisation is connected with the taking over of the cultural element by one group from the other. The nature of the meaning as the generalized social experience is connected with at least the triadic (and multiple) communication. The group character of triadic (and multiple) communication enables the alternation of immediate participation in communicative process and of the side view, from the observer's standpoint. The communication interconnects thus through generalized meanings the significant nature of the mind with group and sociocultural processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Studied 2 models of value systems: (1) hierarchical, which is aimed at identifying individual value hierarchies; and (2) circular, which attempts to comprehend the universally valid structure of relation among values. 113 students (aged 19–44 yrs; 35 males and 78 females) from Prague, the Czech Republic, were asked to assess 10 values and 10 indexes of quality of life and behaviors connected with those qualities. The results show that Ss who gave the first 2 ranks in the individual hierarchy of values to values excluding each other in the circular model had the worse results in 9 of 10 ascertained indexes than Ss who gave the first 2 ranks to the non-excluding values. Eight of these differences were statistically significant, e.g. the life satisfaction, frequency of experiencing positive emotions, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activities; however, overall, the main conflict values were love and self-determination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the psychological roots of atheism and religion. Christian concepts of the individual and personality are discussed. The negative effects of religious propaganda are emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
notion as a reflection of objective reality; selected principles of Marxian psychology are used in this definition: historicism, the unity of mind and activity, the mutual quantity–quality relation, and the dialectic unity of opposites. Using this definition, the author discusses talent and giftedness. In contrast to aptitude and ability, which can be developed, giftedness is viewed as a complex of stable internal conditions of activity and a functional substructure of personality. Various proposals for distinguishing talent from giftedness are reviewed, and the author concludes that the 2 terms are synonymous. (Russian abstract) (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Presents different forms of the test of drawing the enchanted family, which is often used in child psychologic diagnosis. In a study of children from the families of alcoholics, 198 drawings of an enchanted family were obtained from children of middle and high school age from the experimental and a matched control group. The most frequently chosen animals by Ss of both groups were the dog and the cat. The father, mother, S, and his/her siblings each was found to have its own specific constellation of identifying animals. Certain animals were preferred by boys, others by girls. The attempt to establish consistent animal groups that are diagnostically significant (e.g., domestic animals, predatory animals, young animals, unpleasant creatures) appears only partially successful. The method of an enchanted family is regarded as useful for clinical work and research. (Russian abstract) (6 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the validity and reliability of 2 short scales for assessment of the emotional component of habitual subjective well-being. Four scale items for positive state of mind and 6 items for negative state of mind were identified by means of explorative factor analysis from a wide universe of descriptors. In 6 consequent studies with different samples (pupils from 2 countries, students, adults, and seniors) the replicated factor structure proved the factor invariance of both scales from the sample type. The inter-correlation of both scales allows interpretation of their results as quasi-independent. The coefficients of stability (r=0.63 for positive state of mind and r=0.66 for negative state of mind) point to the fact that the frequency of positive and negative experiencing is not unambiguously determined by stable personality dispositions. Correlation values in 6 different samples comprising 1,028 subjects with construct related and construct distant scales confirm both convergent and divergent validity of the emotional habitual subjective well-being scales. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The test of influence of satisfaction in two areas of life - work satisfaction and health satisfaction--on general life satisfaction was done in the study. At the same time the influence of control level and mental demands of work on work satisfaction and the influence of life events on health satisfaction was assessed. 155 respondents (both men and women)--officials of public administration--took part in the study. Method of structural equations modelling (SEM) was used. The results show that (1) work satisfaction is the additive function of control level and mental demands of work, (2) health satisfaction is significantly influenced by 'he weighted value of life events (LCU) that happened to respondents during the last six month and that (3) life satisfaction is significantly influenced first of all by the health satisfaction. Work satisfaction shows significant relation to life satisfaction only due to its own association with the control dimension (i.e. work autonomy and opportunities to apply own competencies and interests, and to develop personally at work). The control influences significantly the general life satisfaction independently, i.e. the influence is not mediated by work satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In the paper, the system of following four hypotheses was presented: (1) Materialistic values in the Schwartz's system of values (Schwartz, 1992) will correspond most strongly with sections of individualistic values, namely with sections signed as success, power and hedonism. (2) Dimension "happiness" of Scale of materialistic values (Richins and Dawson, 1992) will show the negative relation to life satisfaction: the more the individuals will believe that their happiness is dependent on their material situation the less they will be satisfied with their lives. (3) Individualistic values from Schwartz's system of values (Schwartz, 1992) will show the positive relation to life satisfaction: the more important place in the individual hierarchy will be occupied by the individualistic values, the more they will be satisfied with their lives. (4) Reciprocal suppression: (a) When controlling the individualistic values the negative relation of materialistic values to life satisfaction will become even more negative; (b) When controlling the materialistic values the positive relation of individualistic values to life satisfaction will become even more positive. These hypotheses were tested in a questionnaire study in which the high school students and university students (n=195) took part. The results are quite corresponding to hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
An experimental study on 40 Ss in 4 series of teaching shows that ability to learn in sleep is natural to everyone, but it is necessary to "awaken" this ability. Knowledge gained during sleep must be transfered to consciousness. In order to be more effective this transfer should be postponed for a short period after awakening. There are individual differences connected with degree of suggestability in Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Definitions and demarcations of concepts of hypnosis and suggestion, somnambulism, amnesia, and auto-suggestion. Suggestion and hypnosis are emotional modulations of psychic content. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support were investigated in sample of adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years). The perceived social support was studied in five spheres: school, interpersonal relations, serious decisions, health problems, and psychological problems. The subjective health state of adolescents was studied by means of four self-rating scales: general health evaluation scale, well-beings questionnaire, vitality and mental health scale, and subjective health complaints occurrence questionnaire. The socio-economic status of adolescents was assessed in three ways: the highest parents' occupational group, the highest parents' education, and the type of school attended by an adolescent. The authors' findings proved a significant influence of social support on the health of adolescents. The adolescents who stated that they have no person to turn upon, to talk with about any of five selected problem spheres, evaluated their own health state mole frequently only as good, insufficient or bad, the level of their wellbeing, vitality, and mental health was lower, and they suffered from higher number of subjective health complaints in comparison with the group of adolescents who stated that they have a person to turn upon. The health state of girls was statistically significantly worse than that of boys, on the other hand statistically significantly more boys stated that they have no per: son to talk with. The gender differences in health were smaller in groups with high level of social support. The low level of social support influenced more the health of investigated girls. The socio-economic differences in social support were proved only when using the type of school as the indicator of the socio-economic status of adolescents but not when using the highest parents' social class or the highest parents' education. Especially the apprentice schools youth was threatened by the lack of social support.
In the framework of project "lnequality in health In adolescents", the influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, lack of physical activity. and their cumulative influence on health was Investigated in the sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, average age 15 years). The data were collected by the questionnaire form. The results confirm the detrimental influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, and lack of physical activity on adolescents' health. The particular types of risk behaviour show the detrimental influence on health. Only in the case of connection of sport and injury occurrence, the influence of risk behaviour on the health is opposite to the presumptions, the injuries occur more often in sporting adolescents than in non-sporting ones. The undesirable influence of particular types of risk behaviour on health cumulates.
In defining social intelligence it is distinguished how the individual understands and interprets own behaviour, behaviour of other people, and how he/she manages to behave effectively in dependence on that (social intelligent behaviour). The social competence is effective, consistent, and respectful behaviour of an individual that enables him/her to achieve the life goals, to fulfil the life tasks. The development of social competent behaviour of an individual supposes the improvement of self-reflection, reflection of social processes, reflection of subjective sense and interpretations of behaviour, training of social competences. Social competence includes in spi te of the social intelligence an a priori positive connotation. By this, the social competence, social competent behaviour differs from the social intelligence, social intelligent behaviour that can also have a manipulative, antisocial character. The mentioned definition respects the psychometrical and personality approaches to study and training of social intelligence. The intervention and prevention programmes make possible to clarify the terminological difference and usefulness of using the constructs social intelligence and social competence.