Ceskoslovenska fysiologie / Ustredni ustav biologicky

The Czech anatomist and physiologist of the 18th century, Jirí Procháska (1749-1820), ranks among the major figures of Czech cultural history. Due to historical circumstances, the works of Jirí Procháska were published mostly in Latin and only some in German. However, given that only two of his works have been translated into Czech and one of them also partially into English, the results of his extensive research activities are currently unavailable not only to the international scientific community, but also to the Czech scientific community. Although his research reflected the time in which he lived and thus has been re-evaluated by later researchers, his achievements undoubtedly belong to the major intellectual heritage of Czech science and certainly deserve attention as such. It is therefore our duty not only to remember the work and legacy of Jirí Procháska, which significantly influenced the development of our knowledge, but also to try to critically assess his contribution in terms of today. The article surveys the important biographical events of Jirí Procháska's life, taking into account the importance of his research and teaching.
The treatise "De structura nervorum" by Jiří Procháska was published in 1779 after his appointment as a professor in Prague. This work is remarkable not only for its anatomical and histological findings, but also for its historical introduction, which contains a very detailed bibliographical review of previous knowledge about the structure of the nervous tissue. The treatise "De structura nervorum" has never been translated from the Latin language, but as a historical document about the level of neuroscience research conducted by a famous Czech researcher, it deserves further analysis. The present article includes a historical overview of knowledge about the structure of nervous tissue up to the late 18th century from the perspective of today, a translation of the historical introduction about the medieval knowledge of the structure of the nervous tissue and documenting the way in which Jirí Procháska processed his bibliography, a translation and interpretation of his neurohistological observations and an analysis of the results in the light of current knowledge.
The article deals with the history of foundation and beginnings of the Institute of Physiology of the Medical Faculty of Comenius University in Bratislava. In the school year 1924/25, after the Czechoslovak state university had been founded, the Physiological Institute began its work. The first director was prof. MUDr. Antonín Hanák. Under his leadership the basis of pedagogical and scientific activities in the Institute was established. In the school year 1926/27, Institute moved into the newly built rooms in Sasinková street No 2, where it has been located ever since. Professor Hanák had been working in Bratislava since 1924 till 1930. After his walk-off to Praha, professor MUDr. Vilém Hons became the head of the Institute. In the school year 1936/37 he was elected the dean of the Medical Faculty of Comenius University. He worked in Bratislava till 1939, when he was suspended from the service in the Slovak schools. Both Czech professors founded firm basis of physiology as a subject matter and as a scientific discipline in Slovakia.
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