Ceskoslovenská Psychologie

Online ISSN: 0009-062X
Publications
Article
PIP: The sexual attitudes of 1719 (862 male, 857 female) respondents over 15 years of age were investigated by an anonymous survey who made up a representative sample of the population of the Czech Republic. The questionnaire contained a total of 35 questions. The findings showed objections, in principle, against premarital sexual intercourse and abortion (3.3% of men, 3.6% of women), while 57.5% of women and 59.7% of men stated that every woman has the right to decide whether to bear children. 3.0% of men and 4.4% of women were altogether against premarital sexual intercourse, while 50.3% of men and 69.4% of women deemed that it is allowed within the framework of a lasting relationship. 4.0% of men and 8.6% of women thought that pornography should be banned. 36% (22.7% of men, 46.4% of women) were against group sexual activity, while 53.7% of men and 47.7% of women deemed it acceptable but would refuse to take part in it. 24% (18.3% of men, 30.9% of women) were against extramarital intercourse, while 44.0% of men and 25.7% of women thought it was natural and normal. 28% (14.5% of men, 39.9% of women) were against casual sex, while 40.3% of men and 41.8% of women did not condemn it, but would not engage in it either. 7% (5.0% of men, 9.6% of women) were against masturbation and considered it harmful, while 65.5% of men and 58.4% of women thought it was a natural manifestation of human sexuality. 6% (6.1% of men, 5.7% of women) were against homosexual intercourse, while 33.4% of men and 41.0% of women thought it was a disease, which those afflicted could not help. 5% of men and 4.4% of women rejected contraceptive use.
 
Article
Gave the Parental Acceptance–Rejection Questionnaire and Personality Assessment Questionnaire to 116 male and 112 female Czech 6th graders (mean age 12 yrs 2 mo). The questionnaires were constructed based on the parental acceptance–rejection theory. The results were compared with data obtained with children in Washington, DC and Monterrey, Mexico. The findings support R. P. Rohner's theory of the effect of perceived parental acceptance–rejection on children's personality. The Czech Ss scored highest on the parental warmth scale and lowest on 3 parental rejections scales, and they had the fewest unfavorable personality characteristics. Comparison of the 3 different cultural groups suggests that negative self-concept in school-age children is related to parental rejection, whereas children's dependence on parents is related to parental warmth. Children's independence seems to be due mainly to parents' child-rejecting attitude. (English & Russian abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the relation between scholastic achievement and the results of intelligence testing in a sample of 24 7th graders. It is maintained that the researcher's own concept of a successful student affects test selection, but this concept may not reflect the student's actual academic record. (English & Russian abstracts) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of antisocial behaviors in a representative randomized national sample of urban youth in the Czech Republic. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school survey, was administered to a nationwide sample of 4,980 adolescents in three age cohorts (12, 14, and 16 years) in Prague and 12 regional capitals of the Czech Republic. The most frequent antisocial behaviors were identified typical (normative) behaviors of this developmental stage--all types of conduct problems, physical fighting, damage of public or private property, and shoplifting. However, some findings are alarming. In particular, high prevalence of aggressive behavior and problem behavior related to substance use, including selling drugs for money, were found. The findings support the idea that comprehensive, tailored, and gender-specific programmes should be implemented to meet particular needs and that the critical period for implementation of the preventive programmes is early adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Administered a test battery to 357 men and 188 women who described their family upbringing as "strict" and to 450 men and 178 women who described their upbringing as "liberal." The tests were designed to assess internal state, frustration, and methods of coping with stress. Type of upbringing was found to have a greater effect on women than on men. Ss brought up in strict households had greater mood changes, more health problems, and greater frustration in social relations. While Ss brought up in liberal households had healthier and happier childhoods than did strictly reared Ss, the liberally reared Ss had more trouble adapting to jobs and respecting superiors. Their behavior was more relaxed and unrestrained. The high variance in data suggests that the relation between family rearing patterns and adult behavior is not a simple cause and effect relation but a complicated mutual process. (Russian abstract) (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Contends that A. Spooner and W. Kellogg's (see record 1943-01494-001) conclusion that backward conditioning is a nonassociative process distinct from forward conditioning was based on incorrect methodology, and describes the present author's research attempts to verify that backward conditioning is an associative phenomena (learning). In 2 long-term classical eyelid conditioning experiments with 91 Ss, the mean frequency values of backward conditioning, forward conditioning, pseudoconditioning, and intersignal reaction were compared. A typical learning acquisition curve was obtained in backward conditioning; the occurrence rate of conditional reactions increased with reinforcements. Previous studies supporting the associative character of backward conditioning are reviewed, and the importance of backward conditioning for verbal learning is discussed. (Czech & Russian summaries) (70 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Documents the particular phases of lexical study in Czech personality descriptors and presents the structure derived from the factor analysis of the representative list of personality traits. In the first phase, 4,145 adjectives proper for the description of a person or personality description were selected from the Czech language. These adjectives were classified by 6 judges into the categories of German classification system in the next phase. 366 adjectives were chosen as representative for the Disposition (personality traits) category. These were submitted to 426 subjects for self-rating. The factor analysis using the principal components analyses with the Varimax rotation was carried out. The five-factor solution produced the factors Extraversion–Surgency, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Intellect. The interpretation of these factors in the sense of Big Five was verified on the basis of their correlations with factors gained from the evaluation of a representative list of traits according to the Norman model, with factors from the markers of Big Five and with factors derived from the scales of NEO-FFI. The more-factor solutions didn't bring any further dimension that would exceed the framework of Big Five by its content. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
To investigate the dimensionality of the Czechoslovakian translation of the 16 PF, 600 college students were given Forms A and B and the 32 * 32 correlation matrix was computed. The logic of factor analysis was used in 2 ways. First, the 16 * 16 correlation table of scales of Form A were correlated for unreliability of the scales. Some of the obtained correlation coefficients in this "corrected" table were very high, suggesting that there are less than 16 factors in the questionnaire. 2nd, selected pairs of scales of Form A were represented graphically as pairs of vectors in 2-dimensional space, with items of Form A as points having projections on these axes corresponding to their item-scale correlations. At the item level, results support the hypothesis of collapse of some dimensions. An even more drastic collapse is hypothesized in the corresponding 16-dimensional space. Although not encouraging, results are considered at least as good as those obtained for the German translation of the 16 PF. Scale intercorrelations were also comparable to those obtained for typical American samples, although the reliabilities were drastically reduced. (Russian summary) (19 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses aspects of positive psychology together with the growth in feelings of happiness and fulfillment both in adults and children in the Czech Republic after 1990. Positive psychology is defined as the analysis of subjective well-being and positive aspects of human life. Examples of positive personality traits are given together with a summary of the Wellspring of Quality of Life Questionnaire (D. O. Clifton, 2000). Limits and constraints of positive psychology are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
An analysis is given of the interrelationship of human mind and communication on the basis of meaning as a psychological concept. Meaning in the mind expresses the context under which the mental life goes on. Cognitive processes include meanings as interpretations of mental representations. Emotions include meanings as appraisals of situations from the point of view of benefit or menace. Regulations of behaviour and activity include meanings within purposefulness of volitional processes. The significant nature of the mind as a whole was characterized by L. S. Vygotsky and later on by A. N. Leontiev as the interrelation of meaning and sense, by C. Osgood as connotative meanings, i.e. correlations between organismic states and signs, and by J. Bruner as the intentional states realized through participation in the systems of culture. Communication, especially the verbal one, contains generalized meanings. When analyzing the emergency of speech acts different authors show that the formulation of communicative message is preceded by intention, basic scheme of utterance, inner sense, deep layer, conceptual structure, or mental model. The common denominator of these different concepts is the generality of intended message before its formulation, i.e. the generality of relevant meanings. Already the triadic theory of sign by C. S. Peirce contributed to the clarification of the general nature of schemes or meanings. According to him every genuine triad involves the idea of "every possible something", and therefore of generality. The general nature of the meaning is given by the generalized social experience contained in it. This experience is the part of the culture as the complex of learned and shared systems of meanings. The role of the group in the arising, functioning, and development of meanings was showed already by F. Bartlett. The meaning becomes according to him real when it becomes the convention of the group. The process of conventionalisation is connected with the taking over of the cultural element by one group from the other. The nature of the meaning as the generalized social experience is connected with at least the triadic (and multiple) communication. The group character of triadic (and multiple) communication enables the alternation of immediate participation in communicative process and of the side view, from the observer's standpoint. The communication interconnects thus through generalized meanings the significant nature of the mind with group and sociocultural processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied 2 models of value systems: (1) hierarchical, which is aimed at identifying individual value hierarchies; and (2) circular, which attempts to comprehend the universally valid structure of relation among values. 113 students (aged 19–44 yrs; 35 males and 78 females) from Prague, the Czech Republic, were asked to assess 10 values and 10 indexes of quality of life and behaviors connected with those qualities. The results show that Ss who gave the first 2 ranks in the individual hierarchy of values to values excluding each other in the circular model had the worse results in 9 of 10 ascertained indexes than Ss who gave the first 2 ranks to the non-excluding values. Eight of these differences were statistically significant, e.g. the life satisfaction, frequency of experiencing positive emotions, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activities; however, overall, the main conflict values were love and self-determination. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the psychological roots of atheism and religion. Christian concepts of the individual and personality are discussed. The negative effects of religious propaganda are emphasized. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Defines notion as a reflection of objective reality; selected principles of Marxian psychology are used in this definition: historicism, the unity of mind and activity, the mutual quantity–quality relation, and the dialectic unity of opposites. Using this definition, the author discusses talent and giftedness. In contrast to aptitude and ability, which can be developed, giftedness is viewed as a complex of stable internal conditions of activity and a functional substructure of personality. Various proposals for distinguishing talent from giftedness are reviewed, and the author concludes that the 2 terms are synonymous. (Russian abstract) (41 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Presents different forms of the test of drawing the enchanted family, which is often used in child psychologic diagnosis. In a study of children from the families of alcoholics, 198 drawings of an enchanted family were obtained from children of middle and high school age from the experimental and a matched control group. The most frequently chosen animals by Ss of both groups were the dog and the cat. The father, mother, S, and his/her siblings each was found to have its own specific constellation of identifying animals. Certain animals were preferred by boys, others by girls. The attempt to establish consistent animal groups that are diagnostically significant (e.g., domestic animals, predatory animals, young animals, unpleasant creatures) appears only partially successful. The method of an enchanted family is regarded as useful for clinical work and research. (Russian abstract) (6 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the validity and reliability of 2 short scales for assessment of the emotional component of habitual subjective well-being. Four scale items for positive state of mind and 6 items for negative state of mind were identified by means of explorative factor analysis from a wide universe of descriptors. In 6 consequent studies with different samples (pupils from 2 countries, students, adults, and seniors) the replicated factor structure proved the factor invariance of both scales from the sample type. The inter-correlation of both scales allows interpretation of their results as quasi-independent. The coefficients of stability (r=0.63 for positive state of mind and r=0.66 for negative state of mind) point to the fact that the frequency of positive and negative experiencing is not unambiguously determined by stable personality dispositions. Correlation values in 6 different samples comprising 1,028 subjects with construct related and construct distant scales confirm both convergent and divergent validity of the emotional habitual subjective well-being scales. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The test of influence of satisfaction in two areas of life - work satisfaction and health satisfaction--on general life satisfaction was done in the study. At the same time the influence of control level and mental demands of work on work satisfaction and the influence of life events on health satisfaction was assessed. 155 respondents (both men and women)--officials of public administration--took part in the study. Method of structural equations modelling (SEM) was used. The results show that (1) work satisfaction is the additive function of control level and mental demands of work, (2) health satisfaction is significantly influenced by 'he weighted value of life events (LCU) that happened to respondents during the last six month and that (3) life satisfaction is significantly influenced first of all by the health satisfaction. Work satisfaction shows significant relation to life satisfaction only due to its own association with the control dimension (i.e. work autonomy and opportunities to apply own competencies and interests, and to develop personally at work). The control influences significantly the general life satisfaction independently, i.e. the influence is not mediated by work satisfaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In the paper, the system of following four hypotheses was presented: (1) Materialistic values in the Schwartz's system of values (Schwartz, 1992) will correspond most strongly with sections of individualistic values, namely with sections signed as success, power and hedonism. (2) Dimension "happiness" of Scale of materialistic values (Richins and Dawson, 1992) will show the negative relation to life satisfaction: the more the individuals will believe that their happiness is dependent on their material situation the less they will be satisfied with their lives. (3) Individualistic values from Schwartz's system of values (Schwartz, 1992) will show the positive relation to life satisfaction: the more important place in the individual hierarchy will be occupied by the individualistic values, the more they will be satisfied with their lives. (4) Reciprocal suppression: (a) When controlling the individualistic values the negative relation of materialistic values to life satisfaction will become even more negative; (b) When controlling the materialistic values the positive relation of individualistic values to life satisfaction will become even more positive. These hypotheses were tested in a questionnaire study in which the high school students and university students (n=195) took part. The results are quite corresponding to hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
An experimental study on 40 Ss in 4 series of teaching shows that ability to learn in sleep is natural to everyone, but it is necessary to "awaken" this ability. Knowledge gained during sleep must be transfered to consciousness. In order to be more effective this transfer should be postponed for a short period after awakening. There are individual differences connected with degree of suggestability in Ss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Definitions and demarcations of concepts of hypnosis and suggestion, somnambulism, amnesia, and auto-suggestion. Suggestion and hypnosis are emotional modulations of psychic content. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The influence of perceived social support on health and socio-economic differences in social support were investigated in sample of adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years). The perceived social support was studied in five spheres: school, interpersonal relations, serious decisions, health problems, and psychological problems. The subjective health state of adolescents was studied by means of four self-rating scales: general health evaluation scale, well-beings questionnaire, vitality and mental health scale, and subjective health complaints occurrence questionnaire. The socio-economic status of adolescents was assessed in three ways: the highest parents' occupational group, the highest parents' education, and the type of school attended by an adolescent. The authors' findings proved a significant influence of social support on the health of adolescents. The adolescents who stated that they have no person to turn upon, to talk with about any of five selected problem spheres, evaluated their own health state mole frequently only as good, insufficient or bad, the level of their wellbeing, vitality, and mental health was lower, and they suffered from higher number of subjective health complaints in comparison with the group of adolescents who stated that they have a person to turn upon. The health state of girls was statistically significantly worse than that of boys, on the other hand statistically significantly more boys stated that they have no per: son to talk with. The gender differences in health were smaller in groups with high level of social support. The low level of social support influenced more the health of investigated girls. The socio-economic differences in social support were proved only when using the type of school as the indicator of the socio-economic status of adolescents but not when using the highest parents' social class or the highest parents' education. Especially the apprentice schools youth was threatened by the lack of social support.
 
Article
In the framework of project "lnequality in health In adolescents", the influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, lack of physical activity. and their cumulative influence on health was Investigated in the sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 2616, including 1370 boys, average age 15 years). The data were collected by the questionnaire form. The results confirm the detrimental influence of smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, and lack of physical activity on adolescents' health. The particular types of risk behaviour show the detrimental influence on health. Only in the case of connection of sport and injury occurrence, the influence of risk behaviour on the health is opposite to the presumptions, the injuries occur more often in sporting adolescents than in non-sporting ones. The undesirable influence of particular types of risk behaviour on health cumulates.
 
Article
In defining social intelligence it is distinguished how the individual understands and interprets own behaviour, behaviour of other people, and how he/she manages to behave effectively in dependence on that (social intelligent behaviour). The social competence is effective, consistent, and respectful behaviour of an individual that enables him/her to achieve the life goals, to fulfil the life tasks. The development of social competent behaviour of an individual supposes the improvement of self-reflection, reflection of social processes, reflection of subjective sense and interpretations of behaviour, training of social competences. Social competence includes in spi te of the social intelligence an a priori positive connotation. By this, the social competence, social competent behaviour differs from the social intelligence, social intelligent behaviour that can also have a manipulative, antisocial character. The mentioned definition respects the psychometrical and personality approaches to study and training of social intelligence. The intervention and prevention programmes make possible to clarify the terminological difference and usefulness of using the constructs social intelligence and social competence.
 
Article
The study is devoted to perception, subjective meaning of concepts of school, learning, and prevention of drug dependencies. The semantic differential method was used. The influence of gender, alcohol consumption measure, smoking, and participation in peer programme of drug dependence prevention on the perception of mentioned key concepts was verified. The constructivism and systemic approach represented the theoretical and methodological starting points of the programme, the methods of applied social psychology were used. Together 303 pupils of basic schools and students of eight-years secondary schools took part in the study. In the perception of key concepts, factors of effectiveness, aesthetics, and orientation in learning were identified. For girls, learning is more valuable and effective than for boys. For adolescents, learning is more anaesthetic and unpleasant than pleasant, the boys and girls do not differ in this, similarly as in the level of orientation in learning. Learning is for both boys and girls rather known, clear and predictable. The subjective picture, meaning of the school and learning, is almost the same in girls, what is not the case in boys. For them, learning is more clear, known, and predictable than school and more pleasant than school. The study proved the differences in the perception of key concepts studied, in favour of non-smokers, those who do not undergo experiments with alcohol, and proved the effectiveness of peer programme of prevention.
 
Article
The importance of grandparents in life of their grandchildren is generally accepted but only very rarely also studied as a problem. The representation of grandparents in the social network of their adolescent grandchildren and the relations of incorporation of grandparents into the social network and selected health factors were studied in the sample of adolescents (1370 boys and 1246 girls, average aged 15 years). A quarter of adolescents mentioned their grandparents as a part of their social network. Those adolescents who perceived grandparents as a potential source of social support differed from their peers by higher self-esteem level, they assessed their health status more frequently as excellent or very good, they stated lower occurrence of subjective health troubles, a higher long-term subjective well being (quality of life), and a generally higher measure of social support. The statistically significant difference was not proved only in the measure of short-term subjective well-being. These finding can indicate a positive influence of grandparents on the quality of life of their adolescent grandchildren but they can also represent a manifestation of generally better social skills, the richness of social network.
 
Article
The paper gives brief survey on selected questions of usage of sociometry in school praxis. Attention is focused on sociometric test, elements of sociometrical structure and kinds of usage in school praxis. The following problems are analyzed in the detailed way: the necessity of objectivization of results by direct observation, taking the size of sample into account, stability of findings, problem of representation of the group dynamics, the measure of participation and its influence, the difference between sociometric and perceived popularity, the difference between social and mathematical reality, the question of peer influence vs. selection in subgroups, the best friend vs. subgroup, the gender differences in the context of sociometry. The aim of this paper is to encourage to more extensive application of sociometric techniques.
 
Article
The review study draws attention to the fact, that many studies dealing with quality of life started from the simplified presumption: changes in quality of life perceived by an individual (and communicated to experts by a questionnaire or interview) are connected predominantly with changes in individual's health status. That is why the same variables were assessed in individual repeatedly by the same method. But there is growing number of studies drawing attention to the fact that due to different life events and directed interventions the individual is changing, too. It is not possible to calculate mechanically the difference between post-test and pre-test because in the meantime the individual's preferences, standards of evaluation etc., could change. The review study draws near two theories trying to explain these possible changes: implicit theory of stability and change (Ross, 1989) and response shift theory - Sprangers, Schwartz, 1999, 2000). The response shift theory supposes that changes occur in three spheres: in individual's inner standards (recalibration of evaluating scale), in the hierarchy of individual's values (reevaluation of priorities) and at last concepts, key sphere characterising the quality of life (re-con-ceptualisation). The study makes acquainted with the theoretical model of relations among the basic variables. Leaning against the literature brings near six types of methods making possible to assess the shift in individual's response: the individualized methods, preference methods, methods of sequential comparison, methods leaning against a research project, statistical methods, and at last the group of qualitative methods. In the conclusion, the possibilities and limits of response shift theory are discussed and its generally inspiring potential for longitudinal studies is reminded.
 
Article
The paper deals with a study carried out in an interesting research sample and with a seemingly easy-to-prove hypothesis. Because of certain circumstances that were not taken into consideration at the beginning of the research, the results were different than expected. The author is re-examining the results and conclusions of the study that can be inferred after several years.
 
Article
The predictive validity of Cloninger's Character and Temperament Inventory was examined comparing responses collected from a sample of 100 healthy women and a sample of 101 detoxified women with diagnosis F10.2. The study was not aimed at testing any existing theory of abusus of alcohol. Analysis of findings, using GLS MANOVA and multiple regression analysis with age as a covariate, brought support for the supposition of differences between the healthy women and the sample of detoxified women personality profiles and predictive potential of the instrument.
 
Article
In the year 1896, L. Witmer defined a new psychological discipline - the clinical psychology, started to lecture on it and to form it as a new profession realized on the independent psychological clinic which he established by applying the clinical - casuistical - method, the constituent part of which as well as the diagnostics as the therapy was. At the same time he performed the function of a psychological expert on schools thus he is considered to be the founder not only of the clinical but also of the school psychology. In the anniversary article, the author is thinking over the challenges which are symbolized by this anniversary, like e.g. the fulfilling of the humanistic and preventive mission of psychology, including the methods for overcoming stress, but also the using of psychodiagnostic methods in somatic ill people, in order to pass from the treatment of illnesses to the treatment of people, as far as to the appeal to the high professional level and reliability. Except of the documents of WHO the author refers to the relevant historical sources and to those Czech and Slovak works which can help to fulfil the outlined challenges.
 
Article
The concept of g factor was first defined by Charles Spearman in his work published 111 years ago. His theory was further developed by Arthur Jensen. The "Spearman-Jensen" hypothesis contains a number of postulates which try to prove a specific position of g factor in the sphere of mental testing. These postulates are briefly summarized. In the course of 20th century Raymond Cattell and John Horn elaborated so-called Gf-Gc theory, which is based on L. Thurstone's works rather than the works by the British school authors. The relation of Gf-Gc theory to g factor is also discussed. A fundamental work of the end of 20th century is the work of J.B.Carroll, whose concept of g factor differs from the concept of Gf-Gc theory, although the most common theory of intelligence, used today, is the so-called CHC (Cattell-Horn-Carroll) theory, which includes the works of all the mentioned authors. So g-factor today ignites as heated controversy as in the past.
 
Article
Generally accepted date of the origin of psychology history is dated to the year 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt created his psychological laboratory at the Leipzig University. This paper brings some less known circumstances of the foundation and operation of the first world's psychological laboratory. Also the impact of Wilhelm Wundt's work on the experimental psychology field is being discussed.
 
Article
M. T. Bažány was an important initiator of the revitalization of psychology in Czechoslovakia in the 1950s. He established the first experimental psychology center in Slovakia. He created and put into action the new concept of psychological educational child care. He initiated the establishment of psychological educational clinics, the Research Institute of Child Psychology and Pathopsychology, the Psychodiagnostic Center, the professional journal titled Child Psychology and Pathopsychology, the Laboratory of Comparative Psychology and the Special and Treatment Pedagogy Institute. After the ocupation in 1968 he emmigrated and from 1970 - 1990 he worked as a UNESCO expert in the area of education in developing countries. After the democratic rebirth in 1990 he returned to Slovakia and as the dean of the School of Pedagogy at the Comenius University in Bratislava he brought this institution up to the standard of a European University.
 
Article
Objectives. The major goal of the study was to assess the impact of intensive drug use in adolescence in the life situation of the respondents at the period of young adulthood. Sample and setting. The analyses are based on data collected during the first examination (1996 to 1998) and during the reassessment in 2010/2011. Information was obtained through structured interviews and questionnaires focused on addictive behaviour, personality characteristics, self-esteem, mental health and life satisfaction. The sample consisted of 124 persons examined at the time of adolescence. The follow-up was carried out after 14 years with 52 persons (42% of original sample). Statistical analyses. T-test or nonparametric Mann-Whitney's U test was applied to test differences in group means, χ2 test was used to explore differences in frequencies, and to test associations between variables the Pearson's correlation coefficient was chosen. Results. Three quarters of the sample interviewed at the time of young adulthood were without drug problems. Subjects in the problem group compared to non-problem group more often used heroin in adolescence, more often used heroin on daily basis, and had more detoxifications and more drug treatments. Problem group had lower life satisfaction, but in other psychological characteristics did not differ from the non-problem group. Conclusions and limitations of the study. Intensive use of hard drugs in adolescence persisted into young adulthood in a quarter of the sample. Three quarters of the followed individuals are socially adapted and stabilized without drug use. Adolescent drug use has a detrimental effect on educational attainment and worse career prospects. Two limitations of the study should be mentioned: the first is the low response rate at the follow-up; the second concerns the study site, which was limited to Prague, so the conclusions may be relevant to metropolitan population only.
 
Article
The study is aimed to the contribution of German natural scientist Hermann von Helmholtz to better understanding of visual and auditory perception. Helmholtz's work originated in the period of culminating interest of natural scientists in the nature of psychological processes and first experimental studies in perception. The author attempts to view the Helmholtz's work in the historical context and he also refers to the modern research aimed at the same problems. The author deals primarily with those of Helmholtz's conceptions and theories that determined the further development in the study of sensual perception.
 
Article
Contribution deals with a distinguished personality of Czech pedagogy and psychology, Cyril Stejskal. C. Stejskal belongs to the founders of the Czech counselling, school psychology, and pedology.
 
Article
Contribution deals with a recognized child psychologist of Czech origin Marta Kosova who expatriated in 1949 to Austria. She was interested in child psychology: mainly in employing projective methods in psychodiagnostics. She is an author of the study on children's drawings in Terezin. She herself went through both Terezin as well as through concentration camp in Osvetim.
 
Article
The development of Psychological society in Czechoslovakia in 1927-1952 can be divided into following periods: 1. since its establishing in 1927 till the world war II., 2. in the war time, 3. since 1945 till 1947, 4. since 1948 till its extinction in 1952. In the years 1927-1952, the Psychological society was under the strong influence of different political systems. In totalitarian times (under the pressure of party orders and procedures), it was on the decline. In times of liberalism, it was extensively developing, both professionally and intellectually The periods of its activity in open conditions of the years 1927-1938 and 1945-1947 can be considered inspiring for today and tomorrow, the totalitarian periods can be considered the informative ones.
 
Article
As far as consequences of divorce are concerned the number of studies comes to the conclusion that the prosperity of children is most seriously influenced by the conflict of parents. It is not important if conflict takes place during the matrimony, in the time of divorce or after the divorce. It is true that prosperity of children of divorced matrimonies is in whole worst then prosperity of children living in intact families, nevertheless there is no doubt the worst outcome of children of divorced matrimonies is in most influenced by results of children living in conflict setting after the divorce. This group of children seems to be the most risky group. All studies studying this children come to the conclusion that they are in high risk of mental health problems. Studies find some 30 to 40% of divorcing families engages in some kind of divorce or after divorce conflict. Cases of high conflict divorces are not so frequent, nevertheless about one million of US children is involved in after divorce parental litigations. divorce.
 
Article
The Czech method "Questionnaire of satisfaction and frustration" (DSF) was administered to 450 patients (233 men, 217 women). The results of satisfaction in 24 distinct areas of life and an average level of frustration are introduced and values before and after 17. November 1989, a significant change in the social order, are compared. Some gradual changes pertaining to partial time intervals are presented as well. Despite certain differences after the transition to a new social regime, the basic level of frustration remains constantly high during the observed 19 years and it undoubtedly reflects the continually difficult psychological and social situation of many patients. Before the social transition (238 subjects), there was higher frustration concerning culture satisfaction and quality of services. On the contrary, after 17. November 1989 (212 subjects), higher amount of frustration is associated with employment opportunities, children provision, appraisal of mental as well as physical health, level of social and medical care, life satisfaction and average life frustration. Comparison between sexes reveals higher frustration of women in the item "family harmony", otherwise there are no detectable sex differences which were frequent in patients observed in years 1980-1981. The applied method (DSF) has already proved helpful when assessing the validity and reliability of methods designated specially for epilepsy patients (WPSI, ESI-55) and its utilization continues when estimating psychometric parameters of methods QOLIE-89, QOLIE31andQOLlE-10.
 
Article
The paper deals with the development of school psychology in the Czech republic after the year 1989. The attention is paid to the corporative, legislative, and other questions resulting into professional discussions within the effort to support and develop the field. The author starts from available papers and rather sporadic empirical studies and selects the topics that seem to be fundamental for contemporary development of the Czech school psychology: problem of similarity of school and counseling psychology, scope of employment of school psychologist, critical points of the profession or the identity of school psychologist. In the conclusion, the present development of research and publication activities and possibilities of education in the filed of school psychology in the Czech republic are outlined.
 
Article
The paper deals with changes in views and attitudes of the Czech Republic population in the relation to European Union in the period 1993-2003. The author tries to clear up the shifts in temporal series on the basis of accessible pieces of knowledge of social psychology referring especially to the cognitive and emotional components of opinion and attitude, strong and weak attitudes, conformity, and theory of cognitive dissonance. The comparison concerns the standpoints of 15 years and older population, people with electorship willing to vote in the referendum, main education groups and members of these groups decided to vote in the referendum. Data from public opinion investigation, gained by simple forms of statements, indicated the influence of complicated network of circumstances and processes on proceeding changes in views and attitudes.
 
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The aim of the questionnaire study of all Emergency Medical Service's professional categories in the Czech Republic was to identify the amount of burnout syndrome symptoms, first (in the year 2003) without any previous intervention techniques and secondly (in 2005) after preventive and intervention strategies used in some EMS organisations. Analysis of the sources of stress and positive aspects associated with profession as they are seen by the professionals themselves, and analysis of exposition to critical events was also made in the year 2003. The comparison of burnout syndrome symptoms score in screening questionnaire was made using the analysis of variance and test of the influence of individual factors was made using the general linear model. Statistically significant influence of the length of practice in EMS was found and the profession of dispatcher has significantly higher score of burnout symptoms when compared with all other professions in EMS. The group of respondents from the year 2005 was analysed also according to experience with any psychological intervention technique but no statistically significant difference was found. Nevertheless the respondents were satisfied with these techniques (from 79% to 92% satisfaction).
 
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Objectives: The aim of the exploratory study was to compare incidence of attributes of smoking and nonsmoking 15-year-old adolescents. Method: The data were based on a self-administered structured questionnaire focused primarily on general heath, life style, life satisfaction, and consumption of addictive substances. Subjects and setting: The subjects consisted of 1217 15-year-old pupils (48.7 % boys, 51.3 % girls). The data were collected in school environment in 2006. Statistical analysis: The estimation of attribute proportions difference between smoking and nonsmoking adolescents was tested analyzing 2x2 contingency tables, and predictive values of 30 dichotomous variables were investigated using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: In sum there were 257 (21 %) daily smokers in the sample (boys 113, 44 %; girls 144, 56 %), and 960 nonsmokers (boys 480, 50 %; girls 480, 50 %). Variables significantly associated with adolescent smoking were identified in the domain of family and close social network: smoking status of the friend was highly predictive for smoking of adolescent in the sample (OR 13.7). Similarly, parent's smoking predicted smoking of the child markedly (OR 2.2 for mother and OR 2.1 for father). Tendency to break down the rules and to uninhibited forms of behavior were also strongly associated with adolescent smoking. Compared to nonsmokers, smokers in our sample more often grew up in incomplete family, more frequently express discontent with family atmosphere, and spent less time together with parents. Demands of the school and expectations of parents were also more frequently reported by smokers as stressful. Limitations of the study The source of data was a self-reported questionnaire not primarily constructed to cover addictive behavior of adolescents.
 
Top-cited authors
Iva Solcova
  • The Czech Academy of Sciences
Vladimír Kebza
  • Charles University in Prague
Martina Hrebícková
  • The Czech Academy of Sciences
Jiri Mares
  • Charles University in Prague
Karel Hnilica
  • Charles University in Prague