Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences

Print ISSN: 1842-4090
Publications
] Criteria and scores used to rank the touristic potential of Romanian administrative units within the mountain region. 
The crucial importance of mountain regions for the cohesion policies is underlined by key Romanian and European Union documents. However, the lack of a unique definition or criteria used to delineate and analyze them constitutes a barrier to the elaboration of development strategies. This study has created Geographical Information Systems-based methodology to select Romanian hardly accessible mountain regions with a complex and high-valued touristic potential and determine their characteristics using spatial analysis based on specific indicators. The results indicate that mountain regions are affected by poor accessibility, resulting into the lack of basic supplies, as well as education and health issues. Tourism trends suggest reduced accommodation, food, and entertainment opportunities, increased number of tourists, but decreasing average durations of stay and usage of touristic facilities. Based on these findings, the outstanding touristic potential of Romanian mountain regions appears to be insufficiently valorized, calling for actions on behalf of the authorities.
 
The thermal difference between the settlements and their environment is called urban heat island (UHI). Potential UHI intensities are determined by the size, population and built-up structure of settlements, while meteorological conditions have a determinant impact on the development of the heat island at a certain moment. However, not much attention is paid to medium-sized and small towns from this aspect in International and Hungarian studies. Consequently, this study has been focused on the development of UHI in such an environment in Hungary. Settlements, located near the city of Debrecen (cca. 220000 inhabitants) in East Hungary, with population of about 30000, 20000 10000 and 1000 were chosen for the research. Data were collected in two one-year-long mobile measurement campaigns. Spatial characteristics of UHI have been described. Results have proved the existence of UHI even in the smallest settlement under suitable weather conditions. Effects of cloudiness and wind speed have been revealed as well. Stratus clouds have proved to be the most effective in preventing the formation of UHI. Wind speed had a strong impact on the strength of the heat island, while wind directions affected its shape merely.
 
Abstract: Groundwater samples from a post-mining environment of a gold deposit in Romania (Zlatna mining site, Apuseni Mountains) were analysed for carbon isotopes in order to estimate the age, recharge conditions and flow transit velocities. Three distinct types of groundwater have been considered: springs, domestic wells and mine water. The previous stable isotope results (2H/1H and 18O/16O) showed that the recharge source of the groundwater is local meteoric water. All obtained per cent modern carbon (pMC) values are less than 100% which indicates old groundwater or mixture of old groundwaters and modern water coming from precipitation. The distribution of pMC data clearly shows an increasing trend from 40.86% in mine water to values as high as 93% in phreatic water sampled in domestic well. Springs show an intermediate position with pMC values varying from 54.03% to 79.41%. Mean calibrated date vary from 6065 BC to 2553 BC in mine water, from 3754 BC to 186 AC in springs, and from 563 AC to 1354 AC in phreatic water. Non-renewable paleo-waters could not be recognized in the study area. Correlation between pMC values and δ18O values of groundwater allowed to recognize inputs from the late-glacial (Younger Dryas) recharge in the case of mine water and several springs, as well as contributions from modern precipitation in the case of other springs and phreatic water sampled in domestic wells. Using radiocarbon dating for pairs of sampling points allowed the calculation of flow transit velocities of groundwater.
 
In 2009 and 2010 we identified seven Salamandra salamandra populations in the Getic Piedmont from south-western Romania. The salamanders come down to the southern limit of the piedmont, reaching altitudes of 201 meters. All of the seven populations are found in afforested areas. The S. salamandra populations from the Getic Piedmont seem to be in contact with those from the Southern Carpathians, indicating a continuous distribution range of the species in the region. The salamanders are directly exposed to anthropogenic pressure in the form of clearings of forests, road kills and waste dumping. The future survival of the salamanders in the Getic Piedmont depends on the protection of the forest habitats that they live in.
 
Pollution represents one of the main reasons for the decline of sturgeons in the Danube River, together with overfishing, damming, poaching, habitat lost, lack of effective management. Although water pollution by heavy metals in the Danube is considered to be very high, there is no specific data available on its impact on sturgeons Acipenser stellatus (stellate sturgeon), one of the three anadromous sturgeons existing presently in the Danube, which is critically endangered under IUCN Red List 2010 (International Union for Conservation of Nature) and listened in Appendix II of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). Nowadays it is believed to be extinct from the upper and middle Danube. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of copper and zinc on stellate sturgeon juveniles by semi-static renewal test, according to OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) guidance, using dechlorinated tap water with a hardness of 340 mg/1 CaCO3. The LC50 values for copper and zinc ions, were determined to be 0.547 mg/1 for Cu2+ and 34.22 mg/I for Zn2+ respectively, according to the probit method. Even if the calcium ions offer a clear protection against copper and zinc toxicity in the conditions of high water hardness, Acipenser stellatus species, remains very sensitive to the toxicity of these two metallic ions, with LC50 values lower than for other fish species.
 
Dolichophis caspius was indicated for two new localities in southern Romania: Pietrosani and Suhaia. This new data confirms a continuous distribution of the species in southern Romania, near the areas around the Danube's meadow. In the new localities, too, the large whip snake populates the loess walls that border the northern side of the Danube's meadow, in areas surrounded by vines. The identified populations are under a great deal of anthropogenic stress, road kills being identified in both locations. The survival of the species in the region is conditioned by the conservation of its habitat, which needs to be done first. Thus, the entire meadow of the Danube needs to be investigated as soon as possible, the existent populations need to be monitored and measures need to be taken for their protection.
 
The study presents the channel changes along a 17km length of a Tisza River bend by Martfu. Along the study we were trying to answer the question - what kind of deformations were caused by anthropogenic regulations (such as bank revetments) along the examined river channel in horizontal and vertical aspects in the post-engineering times. Furthermore, the objective was to determine in detail how the river channel regulation works influenced the channel parameters like reach length (LR), Chord length (H), Width (W) and the profile of cross sections. Different aspects of the analyzed river bend were identified. The results show that, the regulation works influenced the geomorphology of the channel, e.g. decrease in average width of the channel, the level of low water levels decreased in the period of 1911-1920 and in 1921-1930 no negative values were recorded after the regulation of the riffle. The cross section areas by the revetments decreased more intensively than the non-stabilized cross section areas. After the stabilization works - by the 1st, 4th, and 6th sections -, the midstream has been growing by the 2nd and 3rd sections between 312-310 km-s. As a result of increased erosion a cutbank has been developing between 311-310 km-s.
 
Triturus dobrogicus is signalled in a premier in Caraş Severin County in Caraş Depression. The species occupies a wet area near Iam locality, which is situated near the border with Serbia. T. dobrogicus is present at 89 m altitude in an area with a plain relief. The habitat is characteristic to the species, several amphibian species being identified together with the crested newts: Lissotriton vulgaris, Bombina bombina and Rana dalmatina. The survival of T. dobrogicus in the region is possible due to the existence of an adequate terrestrial habitat and to the fact that the aquatic habitat is not polluted. The measures that must be taken in order to assure its survival are discussed.
 
Exceedance probabilities (P) and return periods (T) of greatest floods on the Danube River 
Exceedance probabilities (P) and return periods (T) of greatest floods on the Sava River 
Exceedance probabilities (P) and return periods (T) of greatest floods on Tisza and Tamiš River
Exceedance probabilities (P) and return periods (T) of greatest floods in the Velika Morava River Basin
In this article we analyzed the greatest floods in Serbia between 1960 and 2010. The probability of flood occurrence was calculated for 21 hydrological observation stations on major rivers (Danube, Sava, Tisza, Tamis. and Velika Morava) in whose valleys great floods were recorded in the observed period. By means of probability theory and mathematical statistics, analyses of time series of maximum discharges and water levels were made and the theoretical functions of the distribution of high water occurrence were obtained. The probability of flood occurrence was calculated on the basis of these data. Most often the Log-Pearson Type 3 and Pearson Type 3 distribution showed the best agreement with the empirical distribution function. The results have shown that the greatest floods in the majority of watercourses were recorded in 1965 and 2006 and return periods longer than 100 years were observed on the Vlasina River near Vlasotince (168 years), on the Velika Morava near Varvarin (132 years) and the Danube near Bezdan (116 years) and Veliko Gradiste (108 years). The analysis of floods shows that they mostly occur in late spring or early summer, in the periods of frequent cyclones.
 
Correlations between hydrographs (m 3 /s) and daily precipitations intensity (mm) recorded during the flood events between July 26 and July 31, 2010, at: (a) Podiş, (b) Chetrosu, (c) Valea Budului, (d) Măgura and (e) Mărgineni gauge stations on the Trebeş-Negel RB; (f) E-OBS v 20.0e daily rainfalls amounts (mm) map in the Eastern Europe on July 27, 2010.
The main characteristics of the gauge stations within the Trebeş-Negel RB
Daily rainfall recorded at the Podiş, Chetrosu, Valea Budului, Măgura and Mărgineni pluviometric stations during the period between July 2 and July 8, 1991, in the Trebeş-Negel RB
Correlations between the maximum levels, caution levels and discharges recorded at the Podiş, Chetrosu, Valea Budului, Măgura and Mărgineni gauge stations during the period between July 2 and July 8, 1991, in the Trebeş-Negel RB
Daily rainfall recorded at Podiş, Chetrosu, Valea Budului and Mărgineni pluviometric stations during the period between July 11 and July 14, 2005, in the Trebeş-Negel RB
The European Network of Experimental and Representative Basins (ENERB) is the results of several experimental projects concerning the hydrological forecasting and flood mitigation effort which have been implemented within states member of European Union. In Romania, the hydrometric activity for ENERB it is currently composed of 14 representative basins (RB) of which the Trebeş-Negel (184 km2) was selected as RB for Eastern Carpathian and Subcarpathian transition zone. Located in one of the most affected territories by hydrological hazards, the Trebeş-Negel RB reacted as a small-scale flood sensor for the entire region. Using the well-documented discharge and pluviometric database collected at five gauge stations within the study area, we develop the first comparative analysis of historical flood events that occurred in the Trebeş-Negel RB post-1990. Five exceptional floods were selected: flood events from July 2 to July 8, 1991; flood events from June 16 to June 22, 1992; flood events from July 11 to July 14, 2005; flood events from July 26 to July 31, 2010; and flood events from June 28 to July 1, 2018. All flood events envisaged were caused by heavy rains, when significant amounts of precipitations were recorded which sometimes exceeded 100 mm/day.
 
Climate change is a worldwide problem that is facing the globe in different aspects. To investigate this phenomenon, research has been conducted to check whether climate change is affecting the western part of Jerusalem Governorate or not. Long-term data on annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall were collected from different sources and analyzed for long-term monthly and annual trends. Results showed significant (p< 0.05) decrease in the annual rainfall, with about 7.3 mm decadal reduction during 1850-2018. The highest and significant decrease in decadal rainfall occurred during 1890-1939 and 1980-2018, with a decadal decrease of 50.9 mm and 55.9 mm, respectively. The decrease corresponds to 84 mm reduction in annual rainfall since 1850, which could be attributed to the extended effect of the GHG from the industrial revolution on Palestine since the beginning of the 20th century. A significant and increasing trend in drought periods was also obvious, with 1.7 years of drought/ decade and an increasing drought recurrence during 1920-1930 and 1998-2018 periods (69% of the drought years occurred in the two periods). Winter season showed highest and significant reduction in rainfall than spring season (1.7 mm/decade and 0.7 mm/decade, respectively), whereas autumn season showed a non-significant decadal decrease in rainfall of about 0.04 mm/decade. The reduction in rainfall and the recurrence of more drought periods, especially the last 20 years, might be the cause for the concurrent reduction in rainfed agricultural areas in Palestine; about 38% reduction in the total rainfed areas (1515 km2 in 2000 to 929 km2 in 2017/2018).
 
Analytical data on location of measuring stations
Correlation between annual value of soil moisture and rainfall during the period 2009-2014  
Integrated conservation and management of agricultural areas affected by the current global warming represents a priority at international level following the implementation of the principles of sustainable agriculture and adaptation measures. Transylvanian Plain (TP), with an area of 395,616 ha is of great agricultural importance for Romania, but with an afforestation degree of only 6.8% and numerous degradation phenomena of farmland, it has the lowest degree of sustainability to climate change. Monitoring of agro-climatic indicators and their evolution in between 2008-2014 and the analysis of the obtained data underlie the technological development of recommendations tailored to current favorable conditions for the main crops. Results obtained show that: the thermal regime of the soils in TP is of mesic type and the hydric regime is ustic; multiannual average of temperature in soil at 10 cm depth is 11.40 degrees C, respectively at 50 cm depth is 10.24 degrees C; the average yearly air temperature is 11.17 degrees C; multiannual average of soil moisture is 0.227 m(3)/m(3); Multiannual average value of precipitation is 466.52 mm. During the studied period, compared with data series available (1961-1990; 1901-2000), clear decrease of the average quantities of rainfall especially during critical periods for crops, and increases in average temperatures for the entire year can be noticed. Between June and August the highest temperature difference were recorded, differences of +3.09 degrees C to +3.65 degrees C. There is an increase phenomenon of drought and heat; determined indicators show that most values, 61.11%, are commensurate with a semiarid climate. Aggression peaks are in February-April, July, and October-November, and for the whole period, in 19.43% of the cases are favorable and very favorable conditions for triggering erosion. Recommended ago-technical measures to limit and counteract the effects of drought, as a climatic phenomenon with major risk to agriculture in TP, refer to: i) use of a biological material resistant to water stress and heat; use of management practices favorable for accumulation of, conservation and the efficient use of water from rainfall; iii) operating a system of conservation agriculture based on soil protection and desertification avoidance.
 
Absolute excess (mm) of the annual precipitation in 2014 (Q) above the norm (Qn) for the period 1931-1985
Precipitation in the warm half of the year 2014 (mm)
In 2014 almost all stations of Bulgaria reported annual rainfalls significantly exceeding the norm, especially as far as the warm semester quantities are concerned. In this paper, the situation in the lowlands, plains, hilly areas and mountainous valley is presented. In eight of the 16 stations studied, the annual rainfalls exceeded 1000 mm, when the norm for most stations in the non-mountainous part of the country (lower than 600 m of elevation) was between 500 and 700 mm. Excess above annual norms varied between 177 and 578 mm with average values of about 350-450 mm. First and foremost this was due to a precipitation increase in the warm half of the year. An analysis of typical meteorological situations was made in order to clarify the causes for this anomaly. The number of Icelandic cyclones associated with rainfall situations over the country was slightly smaller than the usual one. The Mediterranean cyclones activity in the warm half of the year marked an untypical upward trend, most likely due to NAO index short time shifting from a positive to a negative phase. It can be suggested that this was the main reason for the substantial growth of rainfalls in Bulgaria during the warm season of 2014.
 
Ages of the ME15 sediment layers according to their depth  
Ages of the ME16 sediment layers according to their depth After determining the ages of each sediment sample, both linear and mass sedimentation rates were determined for both sediment cores. The obtained sedimentation rates confirm the presence of major floods in the territory of the Danube Delta. In the case of ME15, the linear sedimentation rate has values ranging from 0.11 cm/y to 1.82 cm/y, with an average of 0.71 ± 0.12 cm/y, while the mass sedimentation rate has an average value of 0.23 ± 0.02 g/cm 2 y, its values being in the 0.13 – 0.92 g/cm 2 y range. Also, there are three periods with relative constant sedimentation rates: 1890 – 1933 (0.11 ± 0.02 cm/y and 0.06 ± 0.01 g/cm 2 y), 1950 – 1980 (0.37 ± 0.05 cm/y and 0.14 ± 0.03 g/cm 2 y) and 1990 – 2013 (0.42 ± 0.05 cm/y and 0.23 ± 0.03 g/cm 2 y). There were two bigger sediment depositions shown by both mass and linear sedimentation rates, one between 1980 and 1990, and the second approximately in 1940 (Fig. 5). The one produced in 1940 had a water flow of 15100 m 3 /s, being the second greatest flood registered in the last  
Sedimentation rates of the ME15 sediment core ME16 shows a relatively constant linear sedimentation with values in the 0.04 – 0.46cm/y range with an average of 0.18 ± 0.02 cm/y, whereas the mass sedimentation ranges from 0.01 to 0.07g/cm 2 y, having an average of 0.03 g/cm 2 y. Both sedimentation rates show two local maximums: the first being in 1914 (0.3 cm/y, 0.06 g/cm 2 y), the second in the 1955 – 1964 period (0.46 cm/y, 0.07g/cm 2 y), but the recording of the floods in these periods has not been made systematically.  
Sedimentation rates of the ME16 sediment core  
The 210Pb radiometric dating method was applied in order to determine the sedimentation rates of a northern Danube Delta lake (Merhei Lake) using α and γ spectrometry for assessing the radionuclides of interest. Another objective is to measure the geochronology of each sediment layer and to determine the dynamics of the characteristic sedimentation processes. The Danube Delta is the second largest river delta in Europe, having an approximate surface of 4152 km2. The Danube branches into three main distributaries into the delta: Chilia, Sulina and Sfântul Gheorghe. Two sediment cores (one from the close proximity of the estuary and another one from a more secluded area) were taken from a northern lake, namely Merhei Lake, formed between the Chilia and Sulina branches. The sedimentation rate was measured by 210Pb using its α emitting progeny, 210Pb, for determining the solid discharge of the delta branches and, respectively, the spacial and temporal variations; while 226Ra (determining the supported and unsupported 210Pb content of the sediments) was determined using high resolution γ spectrometry. The sediments have been dated up to 1885, having average mass sedimentation rates of 0.30 ± 0.04 g/cm2y and linear sedimentation rates of 0.68 ± 0.18 cm/y. The sediment is transported throughout the lake, so the more secluded part of the lake has at some depths up to twenty times more sediment intake than the one near the estuary.
 
The sediment accumulation rates and geochronology of the lagoon sediments were studied from Muthupet, SECI. Accumulation rate was determined by applying a constant rate of supply model (CRS) to the measured 210Pbexcess profile. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the age and rate of accumulation of sediments using short-lived radionuclides. Core sampling was carried out at two sites Core 1 and 2 where the samples were taken upto 150 and 175 cm depth respectively, at an interval of 2.5 cm. The age and sedimentation rate of the cores (C1 and C2) were estimated using the depth distribution of radionuclides 137Cs, 210Pb and 228Ra determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry on frozen dry samples. The 210Pb activity profile in C1 and C2 has a maximum value in few layers beneath the surface sediment. Bottom sediments of C1 (77.5-80 cm) and C2 (117.5-120 cm) depth were dated as the years of 1881 and 1880 respectively. There are two distinct correlations/variations between depth and sediment dates in C1 and C2 from top to the bottom. C1 shows a deflection at peak around 30 cm depth whilst C2 shows maxima at 100 cm depth. Both the cores demonstrate higher values near the surface and tail down to the bottom of the cores.
 
The distribution of natural radionuclides in the main rock-types: granodiorites (granites), biotite-gneisses, black shales and amphibolites from the Male Karpaty Mts. complex was studied in samples collected from two boreholes. The samples were analyzed by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of U-238, Th-232 and K-40 were found to be within the range of 0.091 - 37.800 mg/kg (U-238), 0.534 - 13.234 mg/kg (Th-232) and 0.116 - 5.162 mg/kg (K-40). The highest average U-238 concentration was in black shale, highest average Th-232 concentration in granodiorite-granite and highest average K-40 concentration in granodiorite - granite as well. Activities of U-238 were determined within the range of 1.092 - 48.960 Bq/kg (with exception of one anomalous value -453.6 Bq/kg), activities of Th-232 within the range of 2.189 - 54.298 Bq/kg and activities of K-40 within the range of 30.933 - 1,376.499 Bq/kg. It is considered that the source of U-238 and Th-232 (and partially also of K-40) is in the granitoide intrusion. Uranium was during the metamorphic process mobilized from granitoides to the black shales. The concentrations and consequently the total activities of U-238, Th-232 and K-40 in the studied rock samples exceed the permitted limit values for building materials. It is possible to recommend their utilization only for external purposes.
 
The distribution of natural radionuclides in the main rock-types: granodiorites (granites), biotite-gneisses, black shales and amphibolites from the Malé Karpaty Mts. complex was studied in samples collected from two boreholes. The samples were analyzed by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. The concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K were found to be within the range of 0.091 - 37.800 mg/kg (238U), 0.534 - 13.234 mg/kg (232Th), and 0.116 - 5.162 mg/kg (40K). The highest average 238U concentration was in black shale, highest average 232Th concentration in granodiorite-granite and highest average 40K concentration in granodiorite - granite as well. Activities of 238U were determined within the range of 1.092 - 48.960 Bq/kg (with exception of one anomalous value - 453.6 Bq/kg), activities of 232Th within the range of 2.189 - 54.298 Bq/kg and activities of 40K within the range of 30.933 - 1,376.499 Bq/kg. It is considered that the source of 238U and 232Th (and partially also of 40K) is in the granitoide intrusion. Uranium was during the metamorphic process mobilized from granitoides to the black shales. The concentrations and consequently the total activities of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the studied rock samples exceed the permitted limit values for building materials. It is possible to recommend their utilization only for external purposes.
 
The site of the final disposal facility for radioactive waste of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant at Bátaapáti in Hungary is under intensive geological survey, including paleo-environmental and paleo-surface investigations. The objective of this paper is to present the results of a borehole database analysis and modelling for the pre-Quaternary paleo-surface reconstruction in this important area. Data are heights above sea level of this paleo-surface measured in drill cores. The analysis is based on the assumption that a geological process such as hill slope erosion produces a statistically homogeneous distribution of the measured variable, paleo-surface depth in this case. During spatial trend analysis the obtained six statistically significant paleo-surface depth populations are divided into 13 trend surfaces significant at the 95% confidence level. The model gained by merging the 13 local trend surfaces describe the overall slope conditions. The other surface model is obtained by the accurate linear Triangular Irregular Network (TIN) interpolation capturing all the local details of morphological information. The original 10m grid TIN model is generalised by average smoothing filter with window size increasing from 25m to 1,000m in order to reveal morphological 'trends' at various spatial scales. Analysis of morphological lineaments confirm that major valleys run along regional fault lines, while secondary erosion processes forming the smaller side valleys act at scales below 1km. In this way the pre-Quaternary and younger paleo-valleys can be distingushed from the higher spatial scale tectonic forms. The stationary residuals remaining after trend removal enables detailed surface reconstruction by kriging interpolation.
 
From viewpoint of the risk estimation of heavy metal contamination in the mining country has great importance realisation of digital model of the landscape. It is necessary study the terraine inclination and bending, surface water runoff, potential and actual erosion because these characteristics have terminative influence on water percolation through the dump-field technogenous sediments and heavy metal contamination spreding. Modeling of these indicators enable state the risk of the country contamination as well as find the best solutions for the country remediation. The results at the Lubietová deposit (area of Podlipa and Reiner dump-field) show that the terrain beneath the dumps is endangeret by erosion and heavy metal pollution contamination; much more at Podlipa area and only in limited extent in the surrounding of the Reiner dump-field area.
 
Location of the study areas 
A) LULC pattern in the EBCB at the time of the First Military Survey B) LULC pattern in the Taktaköz and in the Nagy Hill at Tokaj at the time of the First Military Survey C) LULC pattern in the EBCB according to the CLC2000 digital map D) LULC in the Taktaköz and in the Nagy Hill at Tokaj according to the CLC2000 digital map 
Pattern of LULC of the study areas in the investigated period
Changes in values of hemeroby and ratio of artificial surfaces for the Tokaj Hill
Changes in values of hemeroby and artificial surfaces for the Taktaköz
Using historical geographic and landscape ecological methods three North Hungarian landscape units that underwent different types of anthropic impact were studied. Viticulture in the Nagy Hill of Tokaj was founded more than eight centuries ago, however, due to economic crises and the phylloxera epidemic extension of the vineyards has fallen to less than one-half during 250 years; wetlands and grassland of the Taktaköz were changed by arable lands after river regulation and flood prevention performed in the second half of the 19th century; and traditional land use/land cover pattern of the East Borsod Coal Basin has been transformed by coal mining and industrialization from the end of the 19th century. On the basis of study on transformation of land use/land cover patterns, consequences concerning landscape planning of the studied areas can be drawn. (1) Vineyards of the Nagy Hill of Tokaj have represented a traditional land use category in the area for many centuries; therefore, re-plantation of the abandoned vineyards would be the reasonable purpose. (2) In the Taktaköz arable lands have become dominant land use elements. Although the recent land use pattern can be regarded as traditional, the ancient wetlands and grasslands could be, at least partly, restored by significant landscaping work. (3) In the East Borsod Coal Basin the extension of forest has spontaneously increased after the closure of coal mines, therefore, the pre-mining landscape pattern could be more-or-less restored without considerable landscape transforming action.
 
Land-use conflicts are multifaceted social phenomena especially prevalent in periurban landscapes where land is limited and the margin of separation between diverse urban and rural uses is small. Their complexity poses an ongoing challenge for research and management. We investigate which socio-demographic and environmental variables are associated with conflict occurrence. The study area is located in a peri-urban landscape of Switzerland where conflict data were collected through a content analysis of the local print media. Decision trees are calculated to relate the presence or absence of conflicts to possible explanatory variables. The results show that four main variables are associated with the occurrence of land-use conflicts: proportion of rented accommodation, steepness of the terrain, population growth, and the proportion of commuters. The tree model is useful for theory building and can stimulate discussions on where land use conflicts are most likely to occur. Furthermore, based on the study we would suggest accompanying land change processes in areas with a high proportion of rented accommodations with especially comprehensive public participation processes.
 
An oceanographic cruise on board the R/V El Puma (from the National Autonomous University of Mexico) was performed around the volcanic rocks of Clarion Island (CIR) in the western region of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Mexico. Surface sediments, nodules and representative rock samples from the CIR were collected. Texture is mainly constituted by silt and clay that suggest the influence of pelagic muds carried from the mainland to the deep sea by sea currents. The sandy fraction (less abundant) of the sediments is characterized by micronodules, pumice and remains of siliceous organisms. The most abundant muddy sediment fraction contains smectite, which played a role in the incorporation and release of metals and REE into the polymetallic nodules. The Mn, Ni, Co and REE concentrations in the studied sediments and nodules were slightly enriched when compared to UCC, NASC and CIR rocks.
 
Map of the study area, Bolnisi Municipality, Georgia.
Accumulation Coefficient (AC) in the control sugar beet and sugar beet with Bioragi and deposit, 2013.
Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations in soils. The samples were taken in the village Balichi in July and September, 2013. mg/kg.
Cd, Cu, and Zn concentration in Sugar beet. 1 Controll, 2 Bioragi, 3 Deposit. Values are in mg/kg.
ANOVA data analysis for Cd, Cu, and Zn between controlled, with Bioragi and Deposit sugar beets. ANOVA for Cd.
Environmental contaminants such as heavy metals are a major problem for living organisms. Phytoremediation methods are used to eliminate the problem of soil pollution, which is the direct use of living green plants for cleaning the soil. In Georgia, the soil contamination problem is particularly acute in some regions, including Bolnisi Municipality (South-East Georgia the country), where gold and copper are mined in the open-pits. Within the scope of the research, the sugar beet was studied in the field conditions near the mining area using Bio-stimulants Bioragi and Deposit that were not used before. ANOVA statistical method was used for data analysis and accumulation coefficient (AC) was calculated. The study showed that the Cd, Cu, and Zn accumulation coefficients were higher in the control sugar beet than in the plants fertilized with bio-stimulants. The cadmium AC in sugar beet was much higher than copper and zinc AC. In September the sugar beet accumulated the highest concentration of Cd, Cu, and Zn, then in July and October. Control sugar beet uptake more heavy metals in July and September, compared to Bioragi and Deposit, but in October Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations were higher in sugar beet with Bioragi. It was discovered that the lifespan of the sugar beet with Bioragi was longer than control sugar beet. Bio-stimulants in polluted soils can be appropriate, in terms of reducing heavy metals and have a practical use for agricultural purposes.
 
The "kovarvany" called reddish, hardened embeddings of the eolian sand were examined. A few 10 cm thick, lens like or irregular bodies appear in the top of dunar morphology. They consist finer quartz sand with increased amount of clayey-silty grain size fraction and 0.5-1.2% iron content. In spite of the similar mineralogical composition of the sand fraction, differences appear in the shape and the size of the grains. The upper faces of these embeddings are gently waved, the grains are well packed, with nests of limonite concretions. The lower separation surface is irregular, often with a gradual passage to the host sand. In the SEM photos of the sand grains, biogenetical corrosion and crushing were evidenced. The bonding material with touching and void filling character consists of a colloidal mixture of iron hydroxides and clay minerals, while in the host sand, free mason" (cementless, uncemented?) and meniscus type bonding appear. The goethite and illite neoformation in the bonding material indicate the beginning of the diagenetic processes in this sediment. Neither ascending iron ions nor iron oxi-hidroxide precipitation was evidenced in the moving zone of the groundwater table. These embeddings represent the rest of ancient forest soil, with biogenetic iron accumulation and grain crushing. Thus, during the wet periods of the Holocene, the dunes were capped with small tree groups and bushes - and later, when the vegetation was dried out, the soil cover was partly eroded and it was buried under the moving sand nappes.
 
Main physical, chemical and mineral properties of the soil profile
Copper adsorption capacity of the illuviation (E) and accumulation (B) horizons of a Luvisol profile was studied in high ionic strength NaCl solution and at pH 4-5. The maximum copper adsorption calculated by Langmuir equation was 0.052 mol/kg Cu (3 304 mg/kg Cu) for the E horizon, and 0.071 mol/kg (4 512 mg/kg) Cu for the B horizon. The differences arise from the different mineral composition of the distinct horizons. Hydrous iron oxides and swelling chlorite/vermiculite in the accumulation layer increase Cu adsorption capacity, while hydroxy-interlayering in vermiculite, and absence of iron oxides decrease Cu uptake of the eluviated horizon. Based on XRD studies, measurable fraction of Cu was sorbed in the interlayer space of vermiculite by ion exchange mechanism. This adsorbed Cu caused the loss of expansion capacity of the vermiculite.
 
Location of the plants and laundries of Gafsa Phosphates Company (CPG) and the sampling sites in the GafsaMétlaoui Basin.
Variation of (Na 2 O+K 2 O)/CaO versus CaO wt% from the soil of Gafsa-Métlaoui Basin. 1: mud; 2: Selja; 3: Métlaoui; 4: M'Dhilla; 5: Sehib; 6: Tarfaoui; 7: Chott El Gharsa; 8: Soil control and 9: Phosphogypsum.
Variation of Fe 2 O 3 rate CaO wt% from the soil of Gafsa-Métlaoui Basin. 1: mud; 2: Selja; 3: Métlaoui; 4: M'Dhilla; 5: Sehib; 6: Tarfaoui; 7: Chott El Gharsa; 8: Soil control and 9: Phosphogypsum.
Heavy metal potential availability (expressed in percent of the total metal content) in the studied area. Each value represents the arithmetic mean of the 23 sampling points.
The enrichment of the phosphates by a humid process can be accompanied with rejects of mud poured in hydrographic network of the region of Gafsa-Metlaoui to Chott El Gharsa. These releases are rich in phosphate and trace elements; the average is around these values: P 2 O 5 : 10.96 %, Cd: 25.83 ppm, Zn: 260.91 ppm, Cr: 387.7 ppm, Cu: 16 ppm, Ni: 26 ppm and Sr: 717.15 ppm. Soils adjoining these rejects present total concentrations in Cd, Zn and Cr higher to the maximal contents tolerated in soils. A two step sequential extraction showed that heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni) were poorly labile (i.e. not soluble in diluted CaCl 2), indicating that their leaching under natural conditions is probably very low. However, extraction with DTPA, CaCl 2 and TEA generated significant amounts of metals (mainly Cd and Cu), suggesting that they were potentially mobilizable. However, zinc and strontium are more concentrated in the mobile phase, indicating that the Zn-Sr-solutions are possible in natural conditions. This study evaluates the potential for phytoremediation of 30 species collected from six localities, growing on a contaminated site of the study area. Plants and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed for total metals concentrations. While total metals concentrations in soils vary from 1 to 36 ppm Cd, 1.6 to 2463 ppm Zn, 8.5 to 442 ppm Cr, 2.8 to 38.5 ppm Cu, 1 to 31.7 ppm Ni and 144.6 to 1310 ppm Sr, while those in the plants ranged from 0.11 to 82 ppm Cd, 0.5 to 567 ppm Zn, 0.04 to 174.7 ppm Cr, 0.95 to 51.73 ppm Cu, 0.17 to 6.9 ppm Ni and 6 ppm to 2858 ppm Sr. None of the plants were suitable for phytoextraction because no hyperaccumulator was identified. However, plants with a high bioconcentration factor (BCF, metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil) and low translocation factor (TF, metal concentration ratio of plant leaves to roots) have the potential for phytostabilization. The plants most effective in the accumulation of metals in leaves are Malva aegyptiaca (TF=30.7) for Cd, Frankenia thymifolia (TF=8.55) for Zn, Peganum harmala (TF=29.14) for Cu and Citrulus sp (TF=10.42) for Sr. Anthemis stiparum was most suitable for phytostabilization of contaminated sites with Cd (BCF=23.51). Our study showed that native plant species growing on contaminated sites may have the potential for phytoremediation.
 
Physico-chemical properties of the soil irrigated with tube-well and wastewater
Heavy metals in tube-well water and wastewater
Heavy metals in soil irrigated with tube-well water and wastewater
Heavy metals concentration in vegetables irrigated with wastewater
Worldwide wastewater loaded with toxic heavy metals, used as a reliable source for irrigating a variety of crops, have some risks and restrictions. The extent of wastewater heavy metal accumulation was investigated during 2009-10 in soils, vegetables and fodder crops grown in the periphery of District Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The wastewater exhibited extreme basicity (pH 10.31) and the ratios of electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption, carbonates and bi-carbonates, and chloride concentration were beyond the prescribed standards suggesting that the use of wastewater could be a limiting factor. In addition, wastewater had abnormally higher levels of Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cr, and Cd. Generally, in wastewater irrigated soil, the heavy metal concentration was higher than tube-well irrigated soil and was found beyond the permissible limits. Majority of the vegetables and fodder crops tested here accumulated excessive amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, which were beyond the permissible limits. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Mn and Fe on the contrary were below the permissible limits in vegetables and fodder crops. Utilization of wastewater for irrigating the food and feed crops might not be safe, which could possibly be due to high salinity and sodium adsorption ratio leading eventually to adverse impact on growth and yield of crops. Soils and crops irrigated with wastewater should closely be monitored for heavy metals deposition so that the human health problems could be avoided.
 
Present situation of carbonate exploration in the Lower Paleozoic petroleum system in the Tarim Basin (Qi, 2014; Wang et al., 2014; You et al., 2014; Shen et al., 2016, Ma et al., 2015)
Correlation of the Ordovician in Tarim Basin (Lü et al., 2014)
Vertical distribution of reservoir and cap rock in Tarim Basin (He et al., 2016)
Schematic diagram of the burial curve projected with homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in the Ordovician of Tahe Oilfield (Chen et al, 2014).
The Lower Palaeozoic deep marine strata of the Tarim Basin are rich in petroleum resources and show bright prospect of exploration. The Tarim Basin is a typical multicycle superimposed cratonic basin. The Tarim Basin experienced a number of significant structural changes, resulting in a complex reservoiring process of oil and gas with the characteristics of "multi-source hydrocarbon supply, multi-stage reservoir, and mixed adjustment". The Cambrian-Ordovician hydrocarbon source rock in the Tarim Basin can be divided into three sets of source rocks: the Mid-Lower Cambrian, Mid-Lower Ordovician, and Upper Ordovician ones. The low geothermal gradient in the Tarim Basin contributed to the late oil generation of Cambrian and Ordovician oil-gas source rocks. The oil and gas of ultra-deep marine carbonates in the Tarim Basin generally commonly originated from multiple source rocks. The ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in the Tarim Basin include four types, namely, reef-bank reservoir, dolomite reservoir, karst reservoir, and fracture reservoir, which are jointly controlled by factors of structure, strata sequence, facies, and fluid. The ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in the Tarim Basin experienced multiple oil and gas accumulation period. The first accumulation period occurred in the late Caledonian period, the second one in the late Hercynian period, and the third one in the Himalayan period. The petroleum reservoir in the Tarim Basin is characterized by obvious multi-stage sealing and layered enrichment. Many types of pathways of migration were developed in the Tarim Basin, such as unconformities, faults, fractures, permeable transport layers, and volcanic piercement. The validity of pathways of hydrocarbons migration mainly depends on the location of source rocks and the matching relation between the period of hydrocarbon generation and migration and the formation of pathways. The formation and distribution of petroleum reservoir in the Tarim Basin is mainly controlled by factors of palaeouplift, palaeoslope, hydrocarbon source, regional seal, and structural balance zone.
 
This article raises the issue of heavy metal concentrations in urban soils. Soil samples were collected from the surface layers of urban soils located in industrial areas, urban allotment garden areas as well as urban green areas in the city of Skarzysko-Kamienna which has chiefly industrial origins. The soil samples collected in Skarzysko-Kamienna indicated slightly acidic pHKCl in the range of 3.48-6.97. The highest average pHKCl value was reported for the industrial areas. The analyses indicated varied concentrations of heavy metals. The maximum values were reported for the soil samples coming from the industrial areas, except for Cd whose highest values were noted in the soils of urban allotment gardens. The results in comparison to the geochemical background defined for the soils of Skarzysko-Kamienna demonstrated higher concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Zn in the soils. This was confirmed by the analysis of the contamination degree determined through the geoaccumulation index (Igeo); however, the Igeo values were very differentiated within each group of land-use types. The study does not indicate a direct relationship between heavy metal concentrations and types of land use, except for Cr in the case of which such relationships were statistically proved. The degree of contamination of the city is especially affected by the locations having outlying concentrations of heavy metals as showed by the spatial presentation of the obtained results by means of the kriging method.
 
Lăpuş River basin (after Costin & Baciu, 2010with modifications).
The heavy metals content in samples
Sample location in Lăpuş Valley.
The heavy metals content in stream sediments
The abandoned mining sites related to uncontrolled mine waste and acid mine drainage are one of the most serious environmental problems of Romania. The mining activities in Romania started to decline since the 90's when economically has become unprofitable, but the consequences on the ecosystem begin to emerge: drastic decline of fish fauna, drying of the riparian vegetation of floodplains. The Baia Mare mining region offers numerous, and well studied examples for this problems. The Upper Lăpuş Valley was selected by us because of the presence of a typical terrace system, and the lack of other (no mining) industrial pollution sources. Therefore, sampling the successive levels, beginning from the actual riverbed, until the Pleistocene terrace, the historical and industrial heavy metal inflow can be separated to the natural (geological) background. The Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations in soil samples of the upper level of the floodplain are higher, that the background, reaching in some samples the attention level. The values for heavy metals are between 4.90 - 2015 ppm for Cu, 0.50 - 50.90 ppm for Cd, 5.00 - 1050 ppm for Pb and between 21.00 - 5050ppm for Zn. It is evident, that there are a historical pollution, tied to the pre-industrial mine works from Băiuţ area and to the activity of the Rojahida furnace plant. The pollution front advances downward both in alluvia and in soils of floodplain, menacing all of Lăpuş Valley, including the protected area of Lăpuş Gorge. Spreading the mineral particles in soil cover, the heavy, toxic metals will be accumulate in feedstuff, in crops and finally, in human foods.
 
The aim of the experiment was to determine how earlier Zn pollution or the acidification of the soil influenced Zn adsorption and desorption of adsorbed Zn. Previous Zn pollution levels were 0, 500 and 2500 mg·kg⁻¹ Zn, while the shaking solutions used for adsorption analysis had concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg·dm⁻³. Desorption analysis was performed using the hot water percolation (HWP) method, resulting in ten 100 cm³ fractions. The pH value was measured both for adsorption and desorption. Langmuir isotherms were fitted to the adsorption data and the maximum adsorbable Zn quantity and the value of the equilibrium constant were determined. As a modified Langmuir isotherm was applied, the quantity of Zn bound on the surface prior to adsorption analysis was also determined. Sorption properties of soil were changed by both reduction of soil pH and partial saturation of Zn binding sites. The change in pH (pH6-pH4) had the greatest influence on the soil buffer capacity and on the equilibrium constant of this process, while previous Zn pollution also reduced the adsorption capacity. Zn loads in excess of the sorption capacity of the soil resulted in a significant decrease in soil pH. A considerable part of the adsorbed zinc is bound to the soil in readily mobilisable form. More the pH of the soil differs from the original value the more pronounced this phenomenon becomes.
 
This study aims to determine the field and petrographic properties of sandstones observed in Arsuz-İskenderun (Hatay) region and micro-size porosity changes in acidizing stages. The fine-grained sandstones of the Aktepe formation have more quartz grains than the other components and the binding material is matrix. Rock fragments that consist of fossil shells, limestone and igneous fragments are observed relatively to quartz and feldspar grains in the Kızıldere formation sandstones. The first step of reservoir rock acidizing is HCl acidizing and the process is experimentally provided by capillarity experiment. HCl with dilution rates of 7.5% - 15% - 30% was absorbed into the samples at room temperature and after 100 minutes, effective distances were observed as 0.6-0.8-1.1 cm and dissolved rock amounts as 32.82-34.02-35.54 g, respectively. In acidizing process, the average porosity analysed with Micro-CT is 39.6% of acidified samples with 15% diluted acid and non-acidified samples, equivalent results were obtained with porosity values measured by well logs. There is an increase in the porosity of about 16% with acidizing. Pores were bonded together by acidizing and pore size increase about 20%. The change in the pore throat by acidizing is 105%. Calculation of porosity of rocks by Micro-CT and image processing methods can be performed faster compared to the other methods.
 
The ability of mixed biomass (stems and leaves) of an invasive plant Reynoutria japonica to bind up Zn(II) ions has been studied. For modelling of kinetic data, pseudo-second-order model was used. The sorption equilibrium data were described by the Langmuir and Freundlich models; the processes were in concordance with obtained Langmuir and Freudlich isotherms. Both linear and non-linear models were suitable for data modelling. Maximal sorption capacity for Zn(II) was 8.97 mg/g (PAB 0.5). The sorption mechanism explained as ion exchange was described using EDS analyses. The binding groups of leaves and stems of R. japonica biomass were analyzed using FTIR method. For desorption of Zn(II) from R. japonica mixed biomass, 0.2M H2SO4 was successfully used.
 
Rainfall-runoffmodeling is important in flood forecasting systems. Although, a wide variety rainfall-runoffmodels has been developed and applied, but it cannot be claimed that there is one model which can perform satisfactorily at all times or under all conditions. Instead of switching models from one to another, this study proposes combining the simple linear rainfall-runoffmodel results. This study presents the development of five combination methods, simple average method (SAM), the weighted average method (WAM), the fuzzy system method (FSM), the neural network method (NNM) and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system method (ANFISM) to combine the simulated results of three different rainfall-runoffmodels called single linear model (SLM), Linear Perturbation Model (LPM) and Linearly Varying Gain Factor Model (LVGFM) on four catchments. Comparison of the estimated runoffresults reveals that the ANFIS combination method performs better than the other combination methods and is the best individual rainfall-runoffmodel. Furthermore, the ANFIS combination method provides improved flood estimates and is recommended for use as the combination system for flood forecasting that can also be used by engineers and hydrologists.
 
The chabazitic and phillipsitic tuffs presented in this study are located in the south of Sandi{dotless}kli{dotless} (Afyon-west Anatolia). In this district there are important zeolitic resources. In petrographic investigations of tuffs, optical microscopy, SEM, and XRD methods were used for mineral analysis. Trachyte/ trachyandesitic tuffs contain chabazite and tephriphonolitic tuffs contain chabazite and phillipiste. According to the XRD results, chabazite occurs in the Ca-form; phillipsite is in the Na-K, K, and K,Caforms. Zeolite contents of tuffs (52.41-58.59 wt. %) were determined by using a heavy liquid method. Physical and mechanical tests of tuffs for using as building stone have been done in accordance with the Turkish Standard (TS 699). Zeolitic tuffs according to rock classification based on porosity fall in to the "very porous rock" category, and according to rock classification based on uniaxial compressive strength fall in to the "very low strength rock" category. The removal performance of heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+) in aqueous solution were investigated by adsorption process on chabazitic and phillipsitic tuffs. The selectivity sequence was determined as Cu > Zn > {all equal to}Ni for chabazitic tuffs, and as Cu > Ni > {all equal to}Zn for phillipsitic tuffs. The major chemical components of the trass, along with the flexural and compressive strengths of the pozzolana mortar, conform well to the requirements of both the ASTM and the Turkish Standard TS 25 (TS EN 196-1). The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the blended cement mortar prepared with 15% and 30% zeolitic tuff additive are in accordance with the Turkish Standard (TS EN 197-1), and according to the results of experiments they can be mixed in the OPC and used as blended cement. These results show that zeolitic tuffs are used as blend materials and building stone, and to remove heavy metal ions from domestic wastewater because cation exchange properties provide economical and environmental advantages.
 
The chabazitic and phillipsitic tuffs presented in this study are located in the south of Sandikh (Afyon-west Anatolia). In this district there are important zeolitic resources. In petrographic investigations of tuffs, optical microscopy, SEM, and XRD methods were used for mineral analysis. Trachyte/trachyandesitic tuffs contain chabazite and tephriphonolitic tuffs contain chabazite and phillipiste. According to the XRD results, chabazite occurs in the Ca-form; phillipsite is in the Na-K, K, and K,Ca-forms. Zeolite contents of tuffs (52.41-58.59 wt. %) were determined by using a heavy liquid method. Physical and mechanical tests of tuffs for using as building stone have been done in accordance with the Turkish Standard (TS 699). Zeolitic tuffs according to rock classification based on porosity fall in to the "very porous rock" category, and according to rock classification based on uniaxial compressive strength fall in to the "very low strength rock" category. The removal performance of heavy metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+) in aqueous solution were investigated by adsorption process on chabazitic and phillipsitic tuffs. The selectivity sequence was determined as Cu > Zn > congruent to Ni for chabazitic tuffs, and as Cu > Ni > congruent to Zn for phillipsitic tuffs. The major chemical components of the trass, along with the flexural and compressive strengths of the pozzolana mortar, conform well to the requirements of both the ASTM and the Turkish Standard IS 25 (TS EN 196-1). The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the blended cement mortar prepared with 15% and 30% zeolitic tuff additive are in accordance with the Turkish Standard (TS EN 197-1), and according to the results of experiments they can be mixed in the OPC and used as blended cement. These results show that zeolitic tuffs are used as blend materials and building stone, and to remove heavy metal ions from domestic wastewater because cation exchange properties provide economical and environmental advantages.
 
Ten soil profiles from the Mezohavas region of the Gurghiu Mountains and ten from the Vf Madarasi Teto region of the Harghita Mountains were investigated by taking samples from the various horizons of each profile, leading to a series of 39 soil samples from Gurghiu and 37 from Harghita. In the course of the work the rate of phosphate adsorption on the soils was determined, and correlations were sought between chemical soil properties and the rate of adsorption. The maximum adsorption rate was calculated with the help of the Langmuir isotherm, and numerous other soil properties were examined in order to determine which parameters were correlated with the rate of phosphate adsorption. Among the soil properties, the oxalate-soluble Al and Fe contents, i.e. the non-crystalline Al and Fe oxyhydroxides, proved to be in close, positive, approximately linear correlation with the phosphate adsorption rate for both groups of soils. In addition, phosphate adsorption exhibited a close, negative, exponential correlation with the quantity of exchangeable cations, and a positive linear correlation with the pyrophosphate-soluble Al, i.e. that bound to organic matter.
 
Ten sediment samples from Arieş river sediments were studied microbiologically during the four seasons of the year 2008. The following four ecophysiological bacterial groups have been studied: aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs, ammonifiers, nitrifiers and denitrifiers. The presence of all the four ecophysiological bacterial groups was registered in all the studied sediments. The studied bacterial groups present fluctuations according with the sampling season and the sampling points. The descending ranking of their abundance in the sampled sediments was: aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs, ammonifiers, denitrifiers, nitrifiers. Based on the bacteria number of the each ecophysiological group, the bacterial indicators of sediment quality (BIQS) were calculated and we observed its seasonal variations.
 
A) Location of the study area, observation points (26, 14, 14a, 21) direction of geological cross section (I.-II.). B) lithological cross section (based on Molnár and Kuti 1987)
Hydrographs of the nearest wells (location is indicated on map, Figure 4). Groundwater levels are in monthly averages between 1981 and 2013.
Basic processes in the lake evolution and Smaroglay's stages (1939) in the slow lake-evolution (I.). Modified theory with more rapid alternation (II.). Legend: 1. precipitation, 2. infiltration (limited in black pan and marsh stages), 3. evapotranspiration, 4. annual lake water fluctuation, 5. annual groundwater fluctuation; A: thin lime mud, B: thick lime mud, C: thick, almost impermeable lime mud and organic rich layer
There are many shallow, environmentally sensitive salt-affected lakes in the Danube-Tisza Interfluve, Hungary. Because of long-term tendencies in regional and local hydrological and meteorological conditions (e.g. channelization, precipitation extremities, consecutive droughts) significant changes occurred in the state of these shallow lakes (or soda pans) in the last decades. In the example of Lake Szappanos the changes were studied that have taken place over the last three decades, such as the quality of surface water, groundwater and soil condition, transformation of vegetation, in 2014/2015 - repeating a survey in 1982. In the observed points, the average depth of groundwater level slightly dropped, away from the lake the differences became more pronounced, while the extension of the lake surface decreased. The soluble salt content of the groundwater decreased by one order of magnitude. The saline groundwater lies deeper, getting to lose its role as the source of salt. The rainfed near-surface water can act as a "freshwater cushion", which results in freshwater-like conditions, accompanied by changes in the vegetation. The "desalinization" process can be reversed to some extent and the Smaroglay's (1939) lake-evolutionary stages ("white" to "black" lake toward freshwater marsh) could be interchangeable in both directions by changing the influencing factors.
 
The shrinking of wetlands in Hungary is a striking consequence of recent climatic processes and anthropogenic influence. The investigation of endangered wetland areas is of crucial importance, since the complex phenomenon of climate change superimposed by inadequate management strategies seriously threatens these exceptionally rich and diverse areas. Statistical and spatial assessment is a difficult task as tendencies need to be realised and quantified in a highly variable environment. The quantity of water in the landscape is a key factor from this aspect. The database of the study was made up of medium scale and freely accessible LANDSAT satellite images at the greatest possible temporal resolution. The main object of the investigation was the mapping of aridification on a longer 130 year and a shorter 4 year timescale at the protected Upper Kiskunság Lakes, being severely hit by droughts in the past decades. When analysing maps and images certain areas were difficult to classify and results did hardly yield a general and uniform long term tendency. Degradation processes were evaluated by applying both an optimistic and pessimistic scenario. In case of the optimistic evaluation, ambiguous patches were always considered to represent the favourable state in the future (the pessimistic approach worked the opposite way). Concerning the optimistic and pessimistic scenarios 5.6 and 33.5% of the study area will be affected negatively by water management strategies and precipitation decrease, respectively. As a consequence a remote sensing based monitoring activity is suggested by using sensors of great resolution in order to support planning, decision making and nature conservation in the future.
 
The geographical position of soil samples and the total contents of the heavy metals 
The soils the notes of bonitate 
The studied area is placed south of the copper plant Baia Mare and was under the impact of gaseous emissions for many years. Heavy metals pollution and landslide caused by pedogenetic conditions were the factors that led to the limitation of land use for agriculture. Based on the physical and chemical characteristics and soil composition profile there were identified these types of soil: eutricambosol, typical luvosol, stagnic, gleyic luvosol and aluviosols. Lead concentration value is between 32-165ppm with high frequency values exceeding 100 ppm, the allowable maximum limit (100 ppm) for lead is exceeded by 1.14 – 1.65 times. Lead concentrations increase in close proximity of copper plant (425-995ppm). Copper concentrations are between 28-118ppm and at present the maximum frequency is below the allowable maximum values within the territory of Groşi locality for all the soils type. Copper concentrations between 54-750ppm, with the value frequency of over 100 ppm, are representative of soils in the area adjacent to the metallurgical plant. On the Groşi territory locality the Cu show concentration elevated above background. Zinc concentrations within the Groşi locality are between 89-308ppm. Zinc concentrations between 252-1325ppm are greater in the region adjacent to Baia Mare metallurgical plant. Cadmium concentrations do not exceed the allowable maximum value in the area of Groşi locality (0.7ppm) but in the area nearby metallurgical plant the excessive concentrations (1.20-9.44ppm) exceed the alert and intervention thresholds. Determinations by X-ray diffraction have emphasized the existence of montmorillonite and allophane in the clay fraction associated with hidromuscovite, feldspar and quartz. Low note of bonitate are due to gleyization and pseudogleyization and pollution from human activities and in particular the metallurgical industry. If used as grassland, the grades levels are between 58-81 and fall within the class III of bonitate and I class.
 
Top-cited authors
Lacatusu Radu
  • National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science, Agrochemistry and Environmental Protection
Floarea Damian
  • Universitatea de Nord din Baia Mare
Gheorghe Damian
  • Universitatea Alexandru Ioan Cuza
Anca-Rovena Lacatusu
  • National Research and Development Institute for Soil Science, Agrochemistry and Environmental Protection
Venkatramanan Senapathi
  • Alagappa University