Career Development International

Published by Emerald
Online ISSN: 1362-0436
Publications
Article
The study estimates an empirical model of return intentions using a dataset compiled from an internet survey of Turkish professionals residing abroad. In the migration literature, wage differentials are often cited as an important factor explaining skilled migration. The findings of our study suggest, however, that non-pecuniary factors, such as the importance of family and social considerations, are also influential in the return or non-return decision of the highly educated. In addition, economic instability in Turkey, prior intensions to stay abroad and work experience in Turkey also increase non-return. Female respondents also appear less likely to return indicating a more selective migration process for females.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review a group of books focusing on work‐family research and applications. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form of a summary and critique of recently published books centering on work‐family issues. Findings – Significantly expanded views of work‐family issues are represented in the multicultural, multidisciplinary perspectives presented in a series of books. Originality/value – By considering a number of different publications, the researcher, instructor, or practitioner can learn about advances in the work‐family domain.
 
Article
Purpose – Mayrhofer and Iellatchitch's discussion of rites of passage in the context of contemporary careers raises some concerns as to the usefulness of the concept as well as to its transferability across disciplines. This rejoinder maintains that, while the employment of rites of passage should be welcomed, its use in career discourse should be made with caution and reserve. Design/methodology/approach – Asks searching questions in pursuit of the above. Findings – That some controversial points are raised in Mayrhofer and Iellatchitch's article. Originality/value – This presents the other side of the subject of the original article.
 
Article
This paper focuses on the career progression of human resource professionals. The perspective is that of graduates from a postgraduate programme which conferred a professional qualification in human resource management. The study explored whether the acquisition of a HR professional qualification had the same impact upon career progression for male and female managers or whether other factors have a more significant effect, regardless of formal qualifications. The findings suggest that the careers of men and women do differ, with men receiving more internal promotions, while women were more likely to seek career progression in another organisation and to be less successful in terms of earnings. The women were much more likely than their male counterparts to perceive barriers to their careers such as lack of role models and difficulties with self-confidence. This raises issues of curriculum design regarding raising the confidence and aspirations of female managers.
 
Article
During the last decade the telecommunications sector has undergone an accelerated structural change in work organisation, qualification profiles and the mode of socialisation at work. Telecommunications is taking the lead when it comes to the dynamics of vocational identity transformation. Classical models of vocational identities are declining in favour of a new "negotiator-network/mobility" mode of socialisation at work. The latter is mainly taken in charge by a new generation of telecom employees who are mobile, flexible and proactive in constructing their own work identities and project-based work activities. This paper examines the key findings of the FAME project investigation in the telecommunications sector in France, Germany and the UK. The first section focuses on the employers' perception of the contextual background for change. The second section examines employees' responses to these structural changes and new modes of socialisation at work. The concluding section highlights some overall trends and implications.
 
Article
Purpose This paper examines Generation Y, potential graduate entrants to UK retailing, in respect of their job experiences, career perceptions and initial employment expectations. Design, methodology, approach Utilising qualitative research methods, an exploratory study was undertaken with 33 students (all of whom fell into the category of Generation Y) from two UK universities. Findings The study found that many of the propositions contained within the Generation Y literature were reflected among participants in relation to their future career and lifestyle aspirations. This points to the need for retailers to carefully manage graduate expectations and experiences to ensure commitment to the sector. Research Limitations/implications Being an exploratory study, the results are not genralisable to the wider population. The findings frame a future longitudinal study on the retail careers of Generation Y graduates as they move from the anticipation to the encounter stage of their career development. This will seek to further explore the implications of Generation Y values, including those relating to diversity and equality which were not raised as an issue in this preliminary study. Originality/Value The findings of this research contribute to our knowledge of the career aspirations of Generation Y. It indicates to retailers some of the future recruitment and HR practices they might adopt to meet the needs of this generation of employees.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on the career of the burnout concept itself, rather than reviewing research findings on burnout. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents an overview of the concept of burnout. Findings – The roots of the burnout concept seem to be embedded within broad social, economic, and cultural developments that took place in the last quarter of the past century and signify the rapid and profound transformation from an industrial society into a service economy. This social transformation goes along with psychological pressures that may translate into burnout. After the turn of the century, burnout is increasingly considered as an erosion of a positive psychological state. Although burnout seems to be a global phenomenon, the meaning of the concept differs between countries. For instance, in some countries burnout is used as a medical diagnosis, whereas in other countries it is a non‐medical, socially accepted label that carries a minimum stigma in terms of a psychiatric diagnosis. Originality/value – The paper documents that the exact meaning of the concept of burnout varies with its context and the intentions of those using the term.
 
Article
Uses a case-study approach. Asserts that for successful implementation multi-source feedback must be viewed from an integrated perspective and that 360-degree feedback must be seen as more than a data collection and feedback system. Suggests that the measured characteristics and behaviours must be related to the organization’s strategic objectives and culture and that the feedback process must be supported by tools which facilitate the analysis and interpretation of the data and developmental planning.
 
Determinants of intention for job-related and career-related development activities  
Final LISREL path diagram with the significant determinants of both intentions for development  
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate which psychological determinants relate to the intention to participate in development activities. Psychological determinants such as attitude toward development activities, self-efficacy, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and management support are related to the intention of support staff workers of a University Medical Centre in The Netherlands to participate in job-related and/or career-related development activities. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire study was conducted in a sample of support staff employees. By means of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the study analyses the relationship between the two intentional orientations and a number of determinants. Findings – Analyses revealed that job satisfaction relates positively with the intention for job-related development activities and negatively with career-related activities. Surprisingly, there was no direct relation between management support and either of the two orientations of development intention. Furthermore, the study revealed that the respondents prefer development in their current job over career development to obtain other functions in the current or future organization. Research limitations/implications – Although it is a small-scale study focused on one labour organization, the paper presents two independent developmental orientations and reveals their distinct relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Practical implications – The paper argues that a better fit between HRD strategies and manager-employee dialogue may encourage the influence of managers on development intention. Originality/value – The paper discusses two independent developmental orientations and their distinct relationships with psychological determinants.
 
Graphical representations of the moderating role on the relationship between role conflict and positive employee outcomes 
Graphical representations of the moderating role on the relationship between adverse working conditions conflict and negative employee outcomes 
Article
This study examined the direct and buffering effects of mentoring on the relationship between adverse working conditions and positive (i.e. intrinsic job satisfaction and career satisfaction) and negative (i.e. the burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) employee outcomes. Moderated regression analyses on the data of 1,320 faculty members showed direct effects of mentoring on both positive and negative employee outcomes. Moreover, from the results of testing the buffering hypotheses, it appears that mentoring is possibly not only an important career development and psychosocial resource in prosperity, but also maybe an important tool to improve positive employee outcomes and to reduce burnout when employees are confronted with adverse working conditions. Implications of results and directions for future research are discussed.
 
Article
Provides advice for human resource managers gathered from a panel of 24 turnaround managers. A turnaround is a situation in which a company has experienced a period of declining profits, high costs and/or inability to meet its financial obligations. Turnaround managers specialize in the turnaround of firms in financial decline. Presents the stages of a turnaround, human resource problems encountered in each stage, actions taken to correct the problems and advice for human resource managers.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships of internal and external networking behaviors of managers and professionals with their affective, continuance, and normative commitment. Design/methodology/approach – Data were obtained from 335 managers and professionals of a health system who completed a survey on networking behavior and organizational commitment. Correlation analyses and multiple regressions were performed to test our hypotheses. Findings – The results showed that networking behavior focussed within an individual's organization was positively related with affective commitment and normative commitment. Networking with individuals outside of an individual's organization showed a significant negative relationship with normative commitment. Contrary to expectations, networking externally was not related to affective commitment, and neither internal nor external networking behaviors were related to continuance commitment. Research limitations/implications – Because data were collected at a single point in time, no statements can be made about causality. Future research is needed assessing both internal and external networking behavior and the three types of organizational commitment across time to help determine direction of causality or whether reciprocal relationships exist. Practical implications – Organizations that encourage internal networking behaviors may see individuals who are more connected with their colleagues and affectively committed to their organizations. However, encouraging external networking behavior may result in a drop in normative commitment as individuals might identify more with their profession than their employer. Originality/value – Although previous research has shown that networking behavior is related to job performance and career success measures, the research extends the literature by investigating whether networking is related to attitudinal variables such as organizational commitment. The paper explores whether differential relationships exist between internal and external networking behavior with three types of organizational commitment.
 
Career Success Framework
The process of career success for a Lebanese Associate Professor, married with two kids
The process of career success for a Qatari Associate Professor, married with four kids
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore notions of career success from a process-oriented perspective. The authors argue that success can be usefully conceptualized as a subjectively malleable and localized construct that is continually (re)interpreted and (re)shaped through the interaction between individual agency and macro-level structures. Design/methodology/approach – The paper employs a qualitative methodology drawing on 32 in-depth semi-structured interviews with female academics from eight countries in the Arab Middle East. Findings – Findings of this study provide an empirical validation of the suggested Career Success Framework and moves toward an integrative model of objective and subjective career success criteria. More specifically, the findings showed that women's definitions of success are: first, localized in that they capture considerations relating to predominant institutions in the region (i.e. family and gender ideology); second, subjectively malleable in that they capture women's agency embedded in specific macro-level structures; and finally, process oriented in that they reflect a dynamic interaction between the structure agency as well as the subsequent actions, strategies, and behaviors women adopt to alleviate tension and reach their personal notions of career success. Practical implications – The authors suggest that there may be value in customizing human resource management policies in the region around the salience of family and community service. Moreover, organizations can play a pivotal role in supporting women to work through the experienced tensions. Examples of such support are mentoring programs, championing female role models, and designing corporate social responsibility initiatives geared toward shifting mandated gender structures in the region. Finally, the authors argue that organizations could benefit by supporting women's atypical patterns of career engagement to allow for interactions with wider circles of stakeholders such as the community. This requires organizations to rethink their career success criteria to allow for the integration of non-traditional elements of career. Social implications – Adopting a more process-oriented view of career success avoids reification by drawing attention to local macro-level structures as well as individual agency. It also suggests that existing norms for how “success” is understood are only one element in a wider process of what it means to be “successful”, thereby opening space for more diverse and localized conceptualizations. Originality/value – This paper provides a more process-oriented consideration of career success, highlighting the importance of understanding how perceived tensions shape an individual's behaviors, actions, and career strategies. The value of this contribution is that it allows us to better understand the complex interaction of structure and agency in shaping an individual's notions of career success.
 
Article
The article highlights the importance of the company car as a major motivational tool used by employers when developing their employment policies. Research was carried out in a specific industry to highlight the differences that were perceived by employees in competing companies within a specific market sector. Changes in the Government Tax Laws with regard to “benefit in kind”, have tainted the individuals’ view of what was a key motivational tool. The different variables that employers assume are essential factors are highlighted, whilst closer analysis indicates the differing perceived value to the employee. The differing views are based on the varying levels of needs sustained by employees whilst the examination of the hierarchy of these needs is identified within the target groups selected. A clearer perception of how a major motivational tool can act as a demotivator is highlighted, and the findings are evaluated in the conclusions of the article.
 
Article
Despite a renewed interest in processes which help organizations to harness social capital, it is apparent that practical efforts to achieve this rarely focus on employees who are members of low status groups. In large part this is because such employees tend to be skeptical of, and to resist, engagement in intervention programs on the basis of previous adverse experience regarding the benefits achieved and lack of trust. This paper presents evidence that, among hospital staff, work groups who felt they were devalued displayed higher levels of cynicism regarding the potential efficacy of a stress intervention program. Within the organization, devalued groups were characterized by lower levels of organizational identification and members of these groups reported under-utilization of their skills by the organization. Thus, there is evidence that organizations are failing to realize the social capital of specific groups. The ASPIRe model of organizational development is discussed as an appropriate vehicle to provide devalued groups with genuine opportunities for development and empowerment. To the extent that such a program receives genuine institutional support, we argue that it has the potential to unlock key enclaves of social capital that tend otherwise to be overlooked
 
Perceived difficulties with international staffing options Australian companies % German companies %
presents findings about current and future staffing in Australian and
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the specific difficulties that senior managers face when employing expatriate, Chinese and local-hired foreign managers in China-based subsidiaries of Western multinational companies (MNCs). Furthermore, it aims to examine the resultant coping strategies to overcome identified weaknesses. Design/methodology/approach – This research adopts a qualitative approach, using semi-structured interviews with key-informants from senior management in 44 Australian and German companies operating in China. Findings – The study identified specific difficulties associated with the employment of expatriate, local Chinese, and local-hired foreign managers in Australian and German subsidiaries in China. The interviewees indicate a widespread intention to replace expatriate managers with Chinese managers and local-hired foreign managers. The striving for localization of staffing is more pronounced in German than Australian MNCs. German companies offer more comprehensive development activities for the Chinese talent than Australian companies. Research limitations/implications – The small number of participants and the restriction to one key informant per company limit the generalizability of the findings. The effects of different staffing options still need to be researched in longitudinal studies and in varied contexts. Practical implications – Localization of staff suggests the need for specific, culture-sensitive approaches to personnel development. The findings also suggest that the knowledge transfer between expatriate and local managers deserves more attention. Finally, the return on investment that companies receive from differing staffing options should be assessed using a multidimensional set of success criteria. Originality/value – This paper has two main contributions to existing research. First, it links academic discussion about the options of international staffing with the experience of practitioners from Western MNCs operating in China. Second, it provides further support for the existence of country-of-origin effects in international staffing. Yes Yes
 
Article
Purpose – This study investigates the influence of affective organizational commitment, career aspirations, and networking activities on propensity to mentor (serving as a mentor and desiring to become a mentor). Design/methodology/approach – Data from websurveys of 262 managerial employees of a Dutch bank are analyzed using logistic regression. Findings – Results indicate that affective organizational commitment is unrelated to propensity to mentor, whereas career aspirations are positively related, and networking activities are negatively related to serving as a mentor, but not desiring to be a mentor. Research limitations/implications – The study is limited by its reliance on self-report data and the Dutch culture may have influenced the results of the study to an unknown degree. Practical implications – Results of this study suggest that employees volunteering to be a mentor are clearly ambitious in terms of their own career, but are not necessarily highly committed to their organization nor do they perform exemplary behaviors in terms of extra role behavior or networking. Originality/value – Individuals are more likely to engage in mentoring activities and to desire to become a mentor if they have high career aspirations. This relationship may be the result of an instrumental perspective on the part of the mentor, who sees developing a cadre of loyal and supportive organizational members as having a positive effect on his or her own career advancement.
 
Interaction between task-oriented attributes and their importance  
Regression analysis explaining occupational self-efficacy via task-oriented
Moderated regression analysis explaining occupational self-efficacy via
Moderated regression analysis explaining occupational self-efficacy via
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between leadership-relevant attributes and occupational self-efficacy in management students. It is assumed that leadership-relevant attributes are related to high self-efficacy beliefs. Design/methodology/approach – In the present study management students from three different countries, namely Germany, Australia, and India, described to what degree they possess task- and person-oriented leadership attributes and indicate their occupational self-efficacy for their future profession. Data were analysed using regression analyses. Findings – As expected, leadership-relevant attributes were related to occupational self-efficacy. Some support was found for the assumption that ratings of the importance of relevant attributes moderates the relationship between reported leadership-relevant attributes and occupational self-efficacy but only for task-oriented attributes. Research limitations/implications – The sample size was small so that comparisons between subgroups were not possible. All data were self-reported. Practical implications – The results are relevant for career counselling. Looking at self-description of individuals in terms of attributes relevant to their future job rather than working directly on their occupational self-efficacy could be emphasised. Originality/value – The study provides initial hints at the relationship between self-description and occupational self-efficacy in connection with future managers.
 
Article
Purpose – This mixed-method study aims to determine the extent to which the career paths of senior managers conform with the traditional versus protean elements described in the careers literature and whether these paths vary by gender. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 15 senior managers (seven women and eight men) in a large public sector agency in Australia were interviewed about their career trajectories to date. Data were coded according to four major areas which characterise and distinguish between traditional and protean careers: development, orientation of the employee, definition of success, and organisational environment. A total of 81 managers (34 women and 47 men) from the same organisation were also surveyed. Variables of interest were those that could be triangulated with qualitative data such as the availability of career opportunities. Findings – Results suggest that, contrary to much existing literature which proposes that all careers have been fundamentally altered, the traditional career which relies on length of service, geographic mobility and a steady climb up the corporate ladder, is still the dominant model in some organisations. However, the trend towards protean careers is evident and is more pronounced for women than for men. Research limitations/implications – The specific nature of the organisation (large, male-dominated, public sector) may limit the generalisability of results. Practical implications – The framework used to explore career paths according to traditional/ protean elements in this study may assist human resource practitioners to develop appropriate strategies which maximise the professional development of employees. Originality/value – The results of this research challenge the universality of change in the nature of careers, particularly in public sector environments.
 
Demographic Information
Motives for taking the MBA
Benefits from the MBA (Canada)
Article
This article explores the career progress of female MBA graduates in Canada and the UK and the nature of career barriers experienced in each context. Results suggest that while Canadian women have similar career profiles to men, women in the UK lag behind their male counterparts after graduation from the course. At the same time, UK women encounter more intractable career barriers in the form of negative attitudes and prejudice. A model of the ‘MBA effect’ is proposed in terms of how the qualification may impact on career barriers. This incorporates three different types of barriers which are seen to operate at the individual level (person centred barriers) and at the intermediate/organizational level (organizational culture and attitudes, corporate practices) as well as, at the macro level, the impact of legislative frameworks. Results from the UK and Canadian surveys are discussed in relation to this model and in the context of feminist theory and women in management literature.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate if gender and altruism evidence similar relationships with the different types of helping behaviors (e.g. organizational citizenship behaviors, OCBs; volunteering, vol; and helping kin, HK). Design/methodology/approach – Data from websurveys of 178 professional employees are analyzed using Zellner's seemingly unrelated regression (SURE). Findings – Results indicate women engage in HK to a greater extent than men, however this difference between men and women in helping behaviors disappears when the other variables are entered in the model. Gender and altruism interacted to influence OCBs, such that the relationship was stronger for women than for men. Practical implications – An important implication of these results is that by knowing the motives that are most important to people, organizations may tailor their appeals to potential volunteers. Targeting potential volunteers is most effective when it matches people's reasons for volunteering. Originality/value – The unique contribution of this study is that it simultaneously examined the relationship between altruism and the three types of helping behavior in a single study.
 
Proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between interpersonal conflict at work and organizational citizenship behavior directed at individuals (OCBI)
Three-way interaction between perceived competence, proactive personality, and interpersonal conflict in the prediction of organizational citizenship behavior directed at organizations (OCBO)
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interaction between self-reported proactive personality, competence, and interpersonal conflict in the prediction of supervisor ratings of organizational citizenship behaviors directed at individuals (OCBI) and organizations (OCBO). Design/methodology/approach – Data were obtained from 165 full-time subordinate-supervisor dyads. Employees self-reported personality and control variable information in wave 1 and competence and interpersonal conflict information in wave 2. Data regarding employee OCB performance were collected from supervisors in wave 3. Findings – Results suggest that OCBs are performed less frequently in stressful circumstances but that proactive personality appears to assuage the effects of stress. Significant two- and three-way interactions suggest the interplay of personal and situational characteristics are more complex in predicting OCBO than OCBI, likely due to its more distal nature. Practical implications – Results of the current study suggest steps managers may want to take to increase employee performance of OCBs, specifically, selecting proactive individuals, creating training programs to bolster employees’ competence, and minimizing interpersonal conflict at work. Originality/value – The current study confirms and extends extant research. The current study goes beyond previous work to consider a more complex interaction of factors that are related to employee engagement in OCBs.
 
Article
The present study examined the effects of rewarding contextual performance with career development activities on perceptions of justice. Participants (264) read vignettes which gave information regarding two colleagues in a large retail store who applied for a career development activity. Type of career development activity, level of contextual performance, and the development activity recipient was varied across the vignettes. Results indicated that participants believed there was greater justice when they themselves received the development activity, irrespective of whose performance was higher. Participants were also more satisfied and had greater interest in pursuing a career in the organization when they themselves received the development opportunity, especially for organizationally-oriented activities. Happiness completely mediated the relationship between who received the career development activity and both procedural and distributive justice. Implications of these findings for organizational justice and careers research, as well as for managers, are discussed.
 
Article
Discusses the need for effective business process outsourcing, and starts by identifying core and non-core activities. Common tasks of outsourcing are identified and each task is examined, in turn, to identify the management competences required. Presents a framework of technical and behavioural competences and puts forward an effective action-learning approach for use by management development specialists. One role is examined to demonstrate a manager’s outsourced responsibilities, and the competences required to manage them.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to explore the phenomenon of senior women managers leaving corporate organisations to start their own companies. Women's advancement to senior management roles is facilitated by the acquisition of human capital and social capital. Female ex-corporate managers leverage personal accumulations of knowledge, skills, relationships and networks when starting and growing new ventures. A conceptual framework of "embedded career capital" accrued during past experiences and transferable to the individuals’ new entrepreneurial ventures is put forward. Design/methodology/approach – Structured, in-depth interviews with ten female entrepreneurs who recently left senior management positions in large UK corporations to start their own ventures support a spectrum from embedded career capital which is transferable and value-creating to embodied career capital consisting of immobile, non-rent-generating accumulations. Findings – Senior women managers leverage "embedded career capital", human capital and social capital accumulated from past experiences, when founding and growing their own businesses. Embedded career capital is mobile and value-generating to the women's new start-ups. In contrast, embodied capital is not capable of generating rents outside the arena in which it was developed and not transferable to the new venture. Research limitations/implications – This exploratory study is based on ten interviews, and reveals practical implications for both senior women managers eager to advance their careers as entrepreneurs and companies keen to retain these women. Originality/value – The results provide support for the new concept of embedded career capital. This paper is one of the first to examine how women account for the use of human capital and social capital in the transition from corporate management to own ventures.
 
Article
Discusses the use of career development workshops aimed at helping participants find the right direction for themselves in the midst of rapid and significant organizational change. Suggests that getting career development right is an important dimension of the broader change management process and that individuals who have a strong sense of direction in terms of their own careers are likely to address organizational change generally in a more active and positive manner. Gives a detailed account of the workshop process, in a case study set in the UK National Health Service during the 1990-96 period, when it was undergoing wide-ranging change.
 
Article
Explains the theory of mind mapping, how to construct a mind map and the situations in which it may be useful. Highlights the effectiveness of the technique in getting to the heart of a matter. Shows how it can be used to improve note-taking and presentations, and to make meetings more effective. Concludes by examining the potential uses of mind mapping in life-management.
 
Article
Purpose – This special issue seeks to examine mentoring relationships and offer new perspectives and frameworks, suggesting exciting avenues for future research on mentoring and career development. Design/methodology/approach – In the last two decades, the workplace has been dramatically transformed. Individuals traditionally had careers entrenched in organizations, relying on the paternalistic firm for career development. Increasingly now, individuals are enacting careers outside organizational boundaries, defining career success on their own terms rather than by the organizational measures of salary and rank. Rapid technological change and globalization have intensified the decoupling of individual careers from organizations, putting more emphasis on individuals for their own career development and creating an even greater need for mentoring. Findings – Although much research has been done on the impact of mentoring on subjective and objective career success, there are still many unexamined and under‐explored aspects of mentoring. This collection of ten articles tackles some of these areas, providing new insights and offering new avenues for research and practice. Originality/value – These articles are authored by individuals from a variety of disciplines (e.g. organizational behavior, psychology, health care), and countries (e.g. USA, UK, Nigeria), with each article bringing a unique lens to the study of mentoring and careers. Individually, each article makes a contribution to the better understanding of how mentoring has evolved and is enacted today. Together, this collection of articles provides important insights that it is hoped encourage even further research into the complexities of developmental relationships and their impact on career development.
 
Article
This paper explores the overlapping domains of business/firm and family. Suggests that the descriptor of "joint careers" is preferable to that of symbiotic careers. Describes what we term the primary career and auxiliary career which often go to make up a joint career. Both strands of career are a prerequisite for the resilience and success of the family business. The example of youth entrepreneurship is dealt with to show the possibility of an inversion of the traditional roles with the parents' career becoming ancillary to that of their offspring. Empirical observations from New Zealand are drawn on to illustrate our discussion. It is hoped that ideas discussed in this paper will aid the understandings of further dimensions and properties of the "thread" of the theory of the boundaryless career and help move forward the research agenda on the united career trajectory.(Publication abstract)
 
Model for perceived inequity, discrimination and job dissatisfaction 
Article
Purpose – Few studies have focussed on the situation of employees with physical disabilities from the perspective of human resources management – in particular on the career development expectations of this group. The purpose of this paper is to meet this need by focussing on individuals with physical disabilities in Andalusia (Spain). It analyzes three key aspects: whether the perception of discrimination is related to the perception of inequity due to their disabilities, with this relationship being moderated by gender; whether these perceptions of inequality and discrimination lead to feelings of dissatisfaction with the employing organization; and whether the perception of discrimination mediates the relationship between perceived inequity and job dissatisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – Using the theoretical framework of organizational justice, regression analysis is applied to test the hypotheses in a population of 459 employed people with physical disabilities. Findings – The results show that perceived discrimination is due to perceived inequity when peers who do not have a disability are used as comparative reference; however, this relationship is not moderated by gender. These perceptions of inequity and discrimination cause individuals to feel dissatisfaction in organizations, and a mediating effect is found for the perception of discrimination in professional development opportunities. The control variables considered, age and education, are not significant in the relationships studied. Originality/value – An original and valued model is proposed to explain job dissatisfaction among employees with physical disabilities and the possibility of perceiving a dual disadvantage, in their possibilities for professional development. The model links together three variables that have not previously been linked all together in the literature – perceived inequity, perceived discrimination on the grounds of disability, and dissatisfaction – highlighting that perceived discrimination on the grounds of disability mediates the relationship between perceived inequity and dissatisfaction. This model can also examine whether a dual disadvantage is perceived owing to an individual's being a woman and having a disability, considering gender as a variable that moderates the relationship between perceived inequity and perceived discrimination on the grounds of disability.
 
Article
Purpose – The paper seeks to determine whether different aspects of migrant pre-migration characteristics (human capital and motivation to migrate) and post-migration behaviour (social integration and career self-management) predict migrants' post-migration career success. Design/methodology/approach – The research employed a survey questionnaire applied to a sample of 210 migrants who had migrated from Sri Lanka to New Zealand. Twenty-three independent and three dependent (career success – objective and subjective) variables were measured. Sequential multiple regression analysis was applied, mirroring the time-sequenced theory of career development. Findings – Overall, migrants' occupational status had declined markedly following migration. Variables representing human capital, social integration and career self-management perspectives all contributed substantially to explaining variances in career success, especially objective career success, but motivation to migrate did not. Human capital variables were especially influential in determining pre-migration success, acculturation in the host country and education in the host country in post-migration success. Effects of career self-management behaviours on success were relatively small. Research limitations/implications – A limitation is the cross-sectional design, and possible non-generalisability beyond a single migrant group and host country. Practical implications – The paper discusses implications for migrants, policy makers and future research. Originality/value – Migration, and interest in research on migrants' careers, is growing. This paper applies a wide range of predictor variables and a logical causal model to predicting migrant career success, indicates significant effects, and points to positive actions that may be taken by government, organisations and migrants.
 
Article
Today's boundary-less and knowledge-based economy with its focus on learning organization delivers a contradictory message to employees in managing their careers. On the one hand, contemporary organizations expect and demand that employees adopt a lifelong learning approach, be global-oriented, successfully manage the dynamics of diversity in the work and marketplace, work in self-directed teams, develop a feel for and rapid response to fast changing customer expectations and so on. On the other hand, organizations are silent on the question of who is going to bear the enormous cost of ongoing technical and behavioral training that the employees need to successfully manage in a global village. While today individuals accept the fact that they can no more expect the organizations to provide them lifelong, full-time and stable careers, they would certainly prefer not to work for organizations that adopt the “help us but help yourself” attitude to career management. This paper discusses the implications of this paradox on the career management process at the organizational level and reviews best practice scenarios. Yes Yes
 
Article
This study focused on the relationship between mentoring constellations and intrinsic career success. Hierarchical regression analyses on the data of 416 female and 594 male university members showed that mentoring was positively associated with intrinsic career success (i.e., career satisfaction and intrinsic job satisfaction. Several characteristics of developmental networking appeared to be associated with intrinsic career success, e.g. size of the advice network, range, emotional intensity, frequency of the contacts, and years acquainted. Moreover, some moderating effects of gender on the relationship between mentoring constellations and intrinsic career success were found, e.g. for size of the advice network, emotional intensity, and stability of the relationship. Implications of results and directions for future research are discussed.
 
Article
Abstract: Purpose – The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organisational support for career development (OSCD) and employees' career satisfaction. Based on an extended model of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and an integrative model of proactive behaviours, the study proposed that career management behaviours would mediate the relationship between OSCD and career satisfaction, and between proactive personality and career satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – Public and private sector employees (N=90) participating in career development activities completed a survey regarding their proactivity, OSCD, career management behaviours and career satisfaction. Findings – OSCD, proactive personality and career management behaviours were all positively related to career satisfaction and career management behaviours mediated the relationship between proactive personality and career satisfaction. There was no support for the career management behaviours mediating between OSCD and career satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – This study provided support for the extended SCCT model by testing a subset of its proposed relationships using a cross-sectional approach. The sample surveyed (employees participating in career development activities) and the large proportion of full-time employees, may limit the generalisability of the findings. Future longitudinal research could more fully test the relationships proposed by the extended SCCT model and include a greater representation of part-time and casual employees. Practical implications – The results suggest that there are benefits for organisations and individuals investing in career development.. First, from an organisational perspective, investing in OSCD may enhance employees' career satisfaction. Second, employees may enhance their own career satisfaction by participating in career management behaviours. Originality/value – This study integrated the predictions of two models (an extension of SCCT and a model of proactive behaviours) to test the influence of environmental (OSCD) and individual difference (proactive personality) variables on career satisfaction. Exploring how organisational and individual variables together influence career satisfaction provides a more balanced approach to theoretical development.
 
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to introduce a collection of papers about careers in cross‐cultural perspective, which contributes to the growing body of literature that addresses careers from different locations around the world. Design/methodology/approach – Introduces the topic, providing some background and discussion of the main concepts. Findings – Briefly introduces the papers and their main findings – differences and similarities among careers and career attributes in different cultural and national contexts. Originality/value – Contextualizes the issue and extends the overall knowledge in the topic.
 
Article
Dr Bruce Lloyd, Principal Lecturer in Strategy at South Bank University, in discussion with Cathy Bereznicki, (now former) Chief Executive of Institute of Careers Guidance, about the challenges facing both the careers guidance industry in particular and its clients in general. These new challenges include the growing importance of lifetime learning, the impact of globalisation in many areas, more flexible working, changing expectations, increasing attention to the whole area of values and a greater emphasis on personal development. All these factors are likely to radically alter what we mean by a career in the years and decades ahead. This will have a far reaching effect on the nature and form of the support industies, such as those provided by the Institute of Careers Guidance.
 
Article
Within the general human resource management (HRM) literature, the devolution of HR tasks to line managers is often seen as a core element of an HR approach with a series of costs and benefits arising. However, concerns have arisen on the ability and willingness of line managers to carry out HR tasks properly including developing employees in their careers, the demands such changes make on line managers themselves, and how such changes alter their own career patterns. This article maps out a consideration of aspects of career development given the trend to line manager involvement in careers. The implications for employee career development are explored, as are those for line managers and HR professionals.
 
Article
This qualitative exploratory study investigated the career development experiences, concerns, and interests of hourly employees. The study, conducted in the USA, focused on satisfaction with work and careers and the potential role of career development activities in enhancing work life. Results revealed a range of needs and perspectives regarding career development and reinforced the importance of conducting further studies with this key population. While workplace research typically has highlighted managers and executives, hourly employees are essential to organizational output. Therefore organizations are urged to devote more attention to the career development of these often-overlooked employees.
 
Article
Describes the differences between “conventional” mentoring and peer mentoring. Highlights the increasing relevance and need for peer mentoring in changing organization structures where management support may be disappearing or non-existent. Outlines various approaches to establishing peer mentoring relationships, whether this is at the initiative of individuals or of the organization. Identifies some of the potential pitfalls, as well as the key benefits of peer mentoring relationships.
 
Article
Since separating from the AT&T Corporation in 1996, Lucent Technologies, Inc. has become one of the world’s leading designers, developers and manufacturers of communications systems, software and products. A key business imperative for Lucent Technologies is, of course, to keep abreast of its ever more aggressive global competition. The leadership of Lucent strongly believes that the core of its competitive advantage is the up-to-date skills, knowledge and commitment of its employees, worldwide. Consequently, the Learning and Performance Centre was created at the inception of the company and has been charged with providing the learning solutions that the individuals and organizations within the company need for success. This article describes the approach that has been adopted to link learning and development to business needs, to deliver learning opportunities where and when they are needed via technology, and to assess the impact of learning programs on business results.
 
Article
A personal view by a “new” managing director who describes his own experiences in taking on the challenge of a very different dual role in a new organization. He joined GHN, a specialist consultancy providing executive coaching and mentoring almost a year ago from a top position in the financial services industry, managing director of Prudential Life and Pensions. His changed role encompassed becoming a business coach and taking over the role of managing director from a charismatic co-founder. Looks at the benefit he received from being coached prior to taking up the job and the steps he was taken through to help him plan an effective entry into a changed role and a new organization.
 
The hypothesized research model 
Summary of standardized path coefficients for the modified partial mediation model (Model A1) 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the mediating roles of four aspects of work and family interface (WFI: work-to-family conflict, WFC; family-to-work conflict, FWC; work-to-family enrichment, WFE; and family-to-work enrichment, FWE) in a Chinese context in Taiwan. Included in the integral model are demands and resources from the work and family domains as antecedents, and role satisfaction and burnout as consequences. Design/methodology/approach – Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 499 full-time working Chinese parents in Taiwan. Findings – Structural equation modeling results showed that antecedents had cross-domain and within-domain effects on all aspects of the WFI; and conflict and enrichment also had cross-domain and within-domain effects on job satisfaction and family satisfaction, while influences from the work domain (WFC and WFE) had a significant impact on burnout. Overall, the partial mediation model was supported, showing that antecedent variables having both indirect (through the WFI variables) as well as direct relationships with the outcome variables. Originality/value – This is the first study testing a comprehensive model of the whole loop of antecedents-WFI-consequences with a non-Western sample. One unique contribution of the study is that the authors extended Western-based resources theories to Chinese employees, confirming that all four aspects of the WFI are important mediators linking up antecedents with consequences from both the work and family domains. Basing upon the findings, the authors suggests that both managers and employees should endeavor to break the destructive flow of conflict→dissatisfaction/burnout and to initiate the constructive flow of enrichment→satisfaction/free of burnout, by considering not only demands but also resources from both the work and family domains.
 
Article
The objective of the final plenary session of the 8th European Mentoring Conference was to establish a new understanding of mentoring through a collaborative approach to creating patterns of meaning about the subject. We wanted to use participants’ insights from the sessions they attended. Each insight could then be seen as an “ingredient” or as a “particle”, “cell” or “molecule” of meaning that, when seen in relation to other such “molecules”, would evoke a deeper insight into what we already recognise as a complex mentoring process. Clearly phrases such as “molecules of meaning” are relevant to approaching the science of making patterns of meaning and chosen because such expressions are not part of our everyday vocabulary. They have us stretch our attention and imagination, and are helpful in the stages of a methodology suggested to participants. This paper is an account of what participants did leading up to the final plenary, what we as facilitators did in preparation for this session, what happened during the plenary and what emerged as a result of collaborative sense making.
 
Moderating role of POS on the relationship between mentoring and team performance (panel A) and moderating role of support from collaborative relationships on the relationship between mentoring and team performance (panel B) 
Article
Purpose – The paper aims to follow social exchange theory and group social capital theory, to predict positive relationships between (informal) mentoring and various support resources for two types of performance (i.e. perceptions of individual and team performance). Design/methodology/approach – The associations of individual-level mentoring and team-level support with job performance were examined in a cross-level field study using data from 480 teachers working in 64 interdisciplinary teams. Findings – Multilevel analyses showed that after controlling for having a mentor, those teachers with more team-level support resources scored higher on self-reported job performance and perception of team performance. In line with expectations, the association between mentoring and individual job performance was stronger for teachers scoring high on team-level support (i.e. support from informal networks and support from team orientation). One basic assumption of the present study was a positive relationship between individual-level mentoring and job performance. Surprisingly, such a direct relationship between mentoring and job performance was not found: only the moderating relationships mentoring appeared to be associated with job performance. Research limitations/implications – In the present study, only a global measure of mentoring was used (only yes or no) and this measure did not differentiate between mentoring functions and/or outcomes. However, future research could benefit from including more differentiated measures of mentoring to be able to predict more precisely how various support measures are linked with job performance. Originality/value – Typical dependent measures in mentoring research include career success, career satisfaction, income, promotions, etc. However, with increasing emphasis on working in teams, there is a need to expand the criterion domain and to include a team level measure. Therefore, a distinction was made between the perception of individual job performance of the respondents and the perception of team performance of the team where the respondent is working in.
 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to work-family literature by examining antecedents and outcomes of work-family and family-work conflict (FWC) in an under-researched post-socialist country. Building on the conservation of resources theory and identity theory, the conceptual model tests relationships among occupational and marital commitment, two types of work-family conflict (WFC) and FWC, and domain satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected using a self-report survey filled out by married top and middle managers from Slovenia, a Central and Eastern European country. Hypotheses were tested with structural equation modelling. Findings – While occupational commitment was positively related to perceived time- and strain-based WFC, no support was found for the path between marital commitment and the two types of FWC. The results further reveal that although time- and strain-based FWC were related to career satisfaction, only time-based WFC was associated with marital satisfaction. Research limitations/implications – A cross-sectional research design and the validation of the model using a managerial sample limit generalizability. The study points to the relevance of the institutional and cultural context regarding interpretation of links between established concepts. Originality/value – The study advances knowledge concerning WFC and FWC in a country that has undergone a process of transition from a socialist regime to a free-market economy. It adopts an integrative perspective and encompasses managers’ professional, as well as personal domains. The study tests how theories developed with samples from traditional capitalist countries apply to post-socialist countries, characterized by disparate values, norms, and societal expectations.
 
Article
This year-long study has collected such evidence as is available from companies that there is a positive link between corporate community involvement and human resource issues; and devised new ways to manage, monitor and evaluate community involvement so as to identify and then quantify its impact. The study concentrated on skills development and staff motivation, while also addressing recruitment. It has found firm evidence from both companies and individual employees that community involvement can impact these business issues; however, many of the current evaluation techniques lack rigour and the data are often empirical, not confirmed objectively. Techniques to monitor and evaluate include: a competence matrix to identify specific competences which can be developed and a scoring system to measure the development gain; structured questions for staff attitude surveys, which can contribute to a morale index; various methodologies for cost comparison and cost/benefit analysis to evaluate alternatives; a matrix and scoring system to identify and evaluate the contribution to addressing strategic human resource objectives. Concludes that the contribution from community involvement can be best quantified through balanced business performance measurements that go beyond the bottom line.
 
The proposed mediation model (M8) 
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to add to the understanding of the qualitative job insecurity, i.e. the insecurity about the continuity of valued job aspects in future. Specifically, the paper examines whether qualitative job insecurity is related to counterproductive work behavior (CWB), both directed to the organization (i.e. CWB-O) and other individuals at work (i.e. CWB-I), and whether frustration of the basic psychological needs of autonomy, belongingness and competence, as defined in self-determination theory, may account for these relationships. Design/methodology/approach – The hypothesis were examined using structural equation modeling in heterogeneous sample of Romanian employees. Findings – Results support the hypotheses showing that feeling insecure about one's valued job aspects associates with high levels of need frustration and, therefore, also with both CWB-O and CWB-I. While each of the accounted for the associations of qualitative insecurity and CWB-O, only frustration of the need for autonomy explained its detrimental association with CWB-I. Originality/value – This study is innovative, as it integrates and extends three different fields and has high practical relevance. The authors detail qualitative job insecurity, an increasing, but understudied job stressor. The authors extend research on the antecedents of CWB by focussing on environmental factors. The authors develop need satisfaction, as integrative theoretical underlying mechanism.
 
Article
Sets out to provide and insight into crisis and share the experiences of others so that managers can develop their own crisis management programmes. Examines different types of crises before making suggestions about what to do when a crisis strikes.
 
Article
Online Recruitment is a new tool, at the disposal of the HR departments, which has known a phenomenal success in very short time. This paper presents the findings of some descriptive research, involving UK IT companies. The research tries to identify the effect that the perceived attributes of the practice have on the decision of companies to recruit through the Internet. The attributes tested are cost effectiveness; recruitment cycle time; response rate; quality of response; impact on the image of the company; targeting of specific niches; targeting of the passive job-seeker; worldwide coverage; necessary resources, time and effort to implement; attractiveness of the mean to the job seekers (especially IT professionals and young graduates); risk of overload of answers; and impact of the size and reputation of the company. The paper provides an insight on how the companies perceive and value online recruitment.
 
Top-cited authors
Evangelia Demerouti
  • Eindhoven University of Technology
Wilmar B Schaufeli
Yehuda Baruch
  • University of Southampton
Christina Maslach
  • University of California, Berkeley
Michael Leiter
  • Deakin University