Cardiometry

Published by Russian New University
Online ISSN: 2304-7232
Publications
Article
It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis) pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardio-vascular system (CVS). We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydro-dynamic instability leading to the structurally stable swirled blood flow organization.
 
Article
Until now it was not a success to identify a universal triggering mechanism for the formation of the observed cyclon-anticyclon vortex asymmetry phenomenon or the corresponding breaking of chiral vortex symmetry in the rotating medium. In this paper the new linear universal instability mechanism of breaking chiral vortex symmetry due to the super threshold medium rotation frequence in the presence of linear Eckman friction is established. A new non stationary solution to the problem of the disc oscillations in fluid in the connection with experiments on the rotating superfluid helium-II has been found.
 
Chapter
Aims The interrelation between hemodynamic changes, functions of the cardiovascular system and biochemical reactions in the cells of the heart muscle is investigated in the present paper. Materials and methods Several methods were used to influence the metabolism processes in the myocardium. The changes in the phase functions of contraction of different cardiac muscles were recorded. In order to have comprehensive influence on the metabolism processes, normalization of the acid-base balance was performed. L-carnitine and octolipen were used to affect the lipid metabolism. Results Phase blood volumes that are characteristic of hemodynamics changed in the course of treatment to reach their nornal values. The ECG shape during the heart cycle phases also changed to reach the norm. The initial ECG shape describing Brugada syndrome almost reached its normal value. Extrasystole disappeared therewith. Conclusion The method of the heart cycle phase analysis enables monitoring any changes in hemodynamics and functions of the cardiovascular system. The method can be used for identifying the original cause of pathologies and efficient monitoring of the treatment progress.
 
Article
COVID-19, which also induced an economic downturn globally,has forced the organizations to suddenly implement remoteworking, creating many challenges for the employees. The fastspread of the virus may also create fear among the employees.It can have a detrimental impact on the mental well-being ofemployees. There exists inadequate research on this subject,which is not only new but also very important. The study aimsto assess the impact of a sudden transition to remote working,economic downturn, and the fear of virus transmission on themental well-being of employees in India, focusing on the triggersof anxiety & mental illness. The impact of anxiety-causingindependent factors, including organizational support, worklifebalance, isolation, fear of the virus, and recession, on mentalwell-being, was determined through a survey. The dependentfactor, i.e., the severity of anxiety, was measured using GAD-7questions. The independent factors were measured throughstructured questions. Statistical analysis of the data was carriedout on SPSS. There were no significant differences in genderbetween severities of anxiety. Logistic regression revealed thatOrganizational Support significantly influenced the anxiety ofemployees. It was found that there exists a significant associationbetween the severity of anxiety in Employee AssistanceProgram, Job Insecurity, Financial Impact, and Fear of gettingthe virus, Concern over Safety at Workplace, Home Environmentand Deterioration in team collaboration.
 
Article
This paper outlines computer modeling algorithms designedto predict and forecast a COVID-19. In this paper, we considera deterministic model. Theongoing COVID-19 epidemic quicklyspread across the globe. Significant behavioural, social initiativesto limit city transport, case identification and touch tracking,quarantine, advice, and knowledge to the public, creationof detection kits, etc. and state measures were conducted toreduce the epidemic and eliminate coronavirus persistence inhumans around theworld from stopping the global coronavirusoutbreak. In this paper, we propose a basic SIR epidemic modelto show a simulation, the MATLAB algorithm using bouncingdots to depict safe and sick people to simulate infection spread.The graphical model shown here is implemented using MATLABpackage version 3.0.In this paper, we discuss the importance of models becausethey help one explore what could happen. They demonstratehow different possible futures might be shaped by what weare doing now. We can examine the effects of specific interventionsin different ways such as quarantine or a lockdown &explore how simulations may predict, how infectious diseasesadvanced to show the possible result of an outbreak, and betterguide initiatives in public health regarding the pandemicresponse andpandemic past including an overview of the keycharacteristics of adverse pandemic consequences and epidemicoutbreak.
 
Article
This research aims to find out the status of trust the people of the world’s two prominent democracies – The United States of America, known worldwide as the most powerful democracy, and the Republic of India, known as the World’s Largest Democracy in the handling of the COVID-19 epidemic, that has gripped the entire world by storm. Also, the second objective of this study is to find out if the population of the two nations believe that their governments have actively used disinformation tactics – once thought to be used only by a despot or autocratic governments, on its populace to control the COVID-19 panic and hysteria surrounding it. This study also aims to understand the relationship between trust and disinformation, if any. The study aims to fulfill its objective via individual responses. The survey was conducted via Google Forms and was floated via social media apps like Face book, Linked In, Whatsapp, Instagram, and popular chat sites such as Omegle and Reddit.
 
Article
Coronavirus has become a global emergency and has left a strong impact on people all over the world. It has altered the way we live, the way we work, and the way we see the world around us. Ever since the virus escalated and with lockdown in place, a significant change has been reported in consumer’s online buying behavior. This research aims to provide implications from a consumer’s perspective, thereby helping brands to gain insight into this vulnerable and unreal environment. This change in consumer mindset is investigated with respect to the risk and trust perceptions of online buying behavior. During a lockdown, an increased purchase with regards to non-perishable items was observed. The lockdown has brought about positive changes in consumers in terms of food wastage. To test the proposed hypothesis, data was collected from 200 respondents through an online survey. The results provided strong evidence that was independent of the pandemic. However, COVID-19 has acted as an element that made consumers opt for the online channel.
 
Article
The purpose of this research is to understand the changes in internship dynamics of MBA students in 2020 who undertook virtual full-time internships as compared to previous years when interns were required to be present physically. Sample was collected from two set of interns; one set interns were working through virtual internship and the second set were working on traditional model of on- site internship. For data collection, structured questionnaire was used. Data was collected on various parameters of internship processes and experience. The result from the current findings suggests that the experience of both set of interns differ significantly. This paper will essentially evaluate whether virtual full-time internships have been able to contribute, create & shape internship experience effectively for interns & understand which dimensions such as learning, productivity, communication, etc have seen changes due to the nature of work being changed. Research material in this area is limited, mainly due to students experiencing a remote working style in their internships for the first time which is why this research will be quite valuable for various stakeholders.
 
Article
In the present article the relevance of using DSS under the current conditions for image recognition and, as a more specific application, for the purpose of additional assistance rendered to medical experts (radiologists) in their decision-making and preparing findings upon assessment of X-ray images is considered. The paper analyzes the requirements for some expert DSS and their main characteristics that they should have; considered and selected is the necessary software for making rapid diagnoses of diseases of the thorax. All these modern requirements and characteristics are met by the Deep Learning Studio (DLS) software, which allows using deep convolutional neural network Inception V3 to teach this network and further obtain optimal results in the recognition and diagnosis of diseases of the thorax by assessing X-ray images. As a result of this study, a ready-made DSS intended for use by medical institutions for additional assistance to radiologists to prepare findings according to X-ray images has been obtained.
 
Article
The sudden breakout of COVID-19 has created a major crisis in almost every sector like Travel and Tourism, Entertainment, Sports, Corporates, Financials, Manufacturing, Education, and Service sectors. We cannot identify any sector which remained unaffected by the crisis. The magnitude of the impact may vary from sector to sector. The same happened to the Indian education system. It has faced a worldwide lockdown estimating to impact almost 320 million learners across the country. India has a robust education structure, with a huge chain of more than 1.4 million schools, 799 Universities, 39071 Colleges, and 11923 Stand Alone Institutions as per data available on the sixth report of ‘All India Survey on Higher Education on the web portal, are all affected by the pandemic situation. Our Indian education system was badly impacted due to pandemics, mostly based on traditional or classroom teaching. Though most of the school and colleges, for the benefit of students, had opted for online teaching, yet some of the low income private and government teaching institutes and students from a remote location could not opt to online teaching due to the unavailability of the internet, Laptop, Desktop or Smartphones persistent with a survey by EY-Parthenon.
 
Article
COVID-19 has not just affected the health of citizens. However, the world’s economic wheel stopped. All the import-export activities were sieged, schools, colleges, malls, and any other similar place, where there is a chance of gathering, has been locked down. A major section of the global economy was closed down for a period of two to three months. Still, they are operating with minimum permitted capacity. The service sector is opening up stage-wise, and people have started to work in their respective offices. Before this, most people, right from teachers to CEOs of top companies, worked from home. 100% of IT and ITES based organizations were working from their homes in the recent past; rather, these people were working from home before the COVID-19 situation. This present study will evaluate the interest areas of people working from home and try to evaluate the scenario of working from home even after the pandemic of COVID-19 is over.
 
Article
Background. Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is a fatal condition with a subsequent variety of complications. Recently, COVID-19 vaccine has become an essential precaution to avoid infection. However, it is uncommon for AMI to manifest as a result of the COVID-19 vaccination. Methods. Thirty-two years old man, previously healthy, come to the emergency department with a four-hour history of chest discomfort after Covishield (AstraZeneca) vaccination. He was neither hypertensive, diabetic, or smoker and lacked any other typical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Results. This case describes an adverse response to the COVID-19 vaccination that has the potential to be life-threatening. He had received his first dose of the Covishield vaccination five days prior. Extensive anterior STEMI was diagnosed post-cardiac arrest. He had primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to recanalize an occluded proximal LAD. Conclusions. Additional screenings for young individuals should be considered before administering the COVID-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine as a preventive step if reports of significant adverse events in older adults continue.
 
Article
The present era that we are living in is experiencing a globalcrisis due to a pandemic outbreak of COVID-19, whichhas affected millions around the world. The pandemic crisishas not only affected the physical forms of life but has alsobrought about a drastic change in the previously followedeconomic and social patterns. At present, there are somenorms that we are obliged to follow such as self-isolation,social distancing and restriction of several activities whichhas created a lot of confusion resulting in a huge hit on thesocioeconomic scenarios. The COVID-19 pandemic has notonly brought about fears in the life of the individuals buthas also created a panic due to which there has been an increasingdemand for medicine and consumable products asindividuals have resorted to stockpiling medical supplies andconsumer products, resulting in a huge socio-economic disparity‘with some getting all while the others get none.’. Theglobal scenarios and the symptoms of the COVID-19 havepaved a way for a comparison of the COVID-19 pandemicwith the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918. Several undertakingsare trying to implement strategies and successive methodsthat were learned in the past to restore normalcy in the socioeconomicconditions by providing individuals with variousforms of information to create awareness about COVID-19and to encourage the implementation of precautionarymethods for the same. This paper will help the readers tounderstand the similarities between the effects of COVID-19and the Spanish flu on India and will suggest the precautionarymeasures that must be taken to tackle the globalpandemically induced mishap.
 
Article
The topicality of the understanding and knowledge of the impact of the COVID-19 virus infection on the human organism is obvious. In this connection, all aspects are important: diagnostics, making decision on therapy, monitoring of the effectiveness of the administered therapy and prediction of the patient condition development. In the spring of 2020, the authors hereof obtained evidence data covering a group of patients diagnosed with the COVID-19 infection who were in the Red Zone of the inpatient treatment in one of the Moscow clinical institutions
 
Article
The purpose of this work is to identify neuropsychiatric functions in patients at Department No. 1 responsible for medical care of patients with a new coronavirus infection at the Samara City Hospital No. 7. Appropriate scales and questionnaires were used for this purpose. Cognitive impairments were found in 86% of the cases, emotional-affective impairments of varying severity in half of the subjects, an increase in reactive and personal anxiety was revealed, and vegetative disorders were observed in 78% of the subjects. Based on these data, it can be assumed that the new coronavirus infection affects the functioning of the nervous system of patients.
 
Indian tourism and hospitality industry is a mixture of 5 different forces.
The purpose of tourists visiting India in the year 2019
Article
The coronavirus, which causes COVID-19 disease, has unimaginably affected every industry. Among all industries, the tourism and hospitality industry is considered the worst-hit industry, contributing 9% of India’s total GDP; this paper presents an overview of the Indian tourism and hospitality industry before COVID-19. While sending out survey forms, we included general questions like gender, occupation, age, level of education, yearly income, what used to be their choice of location for a holiday before COVID-19, how much they yearly spent on holiday, how they plan their holiday trip, to understand the basic details and reliability of participants, also we did not ask the name of a participant to maintain the anonymity and privacy of a participant, which helped us to get an accurate data. How customers’ changed mindsets different priorities forced the tourism and hospitality industry to change the way of providing service also how the changed time has forced businesses to look for other opportunities to survive in the industry, Moreover here we have test different Sanitization and safety measurements using Friedman test to understand what are the factors that can affect the business of tourism and hospitality industry after the COVID-19 pandemic, as observed by Assaf & Scuderi.
 
Article
This paper aims to comprehend the change & impact on students’ behavior during the COVID-19 Lockdown in India. The research is conducted by surveying to assess the different behavioral changes due to the COVID-19 spread. Novel coronavirus pandemic started from Wuhan, China, on 31/12/19. It spread across the globe affecting 1,00 000 people within the span of two to three months. People across the globe were affected not just in terms of physical health but also mental & psychological health, resulting in major changes in their behavior. The digital questionnaire assessed the status of pupils’ mental and psychical nature while the COVID-19 lockdown was on. The questions were framed to answer how students felt about the pandemic and how it has affected their day-today life. The results of the survey revealed the measure of the anxiety level of the students. The survey results are analyzed on SPSS, and Pearson Coefficient is the method used for statistical analysis. The survey results revealed that 74.2% of the respondents favored cleaning their hands more often due to the COCID-19 pandemic. In the same way, an overwhelming number of student respondents have become aware that wearing masks is crucial to prevent the spread, and 95.9% of student respondents have favored wearing masks if they decide to step outside of their house. Student respondents are more worried about the possibility that their family members will catch the COVID-19 virus than the concern of themselves catching the virus. The student respondents showed clear signs of worry and unpredictability due to the COVID-19 spread. More than have 37.6% have responded that they are in a constant state of worry during the lockdown. The paper states varied responses from the students on the anxiety levels and that they have been experiencing high anxiety levels during the lockdown. The measurement and correlation between emotional & preventive behavior can provide viable options to reduce the outbreak and further control it.
 
Article
COVID has posed several challenges for higher education. There is a rise in blended teaching and learning models that can improve the quality of education, observed Raman. Classroom interaction vital in quality of education is affected by power distance between the teacher and students, states Kasuya. Much research has been done on blended learning but hardly any on the role of power distance in blended learning in higher education, specifically post COVID. Keeping in mind the growing significance of blended learning shortly, it becomes strategically important to understand the role of power distance in blended learning in higher education post-COVID-19. This research paper tries to address the research gap. The study is exploratory, exploring the role of power distancing in blended learning formats during post-COVID-19. The findings indicate that there is a relationship between power distance and the autonomy of an individual. The higher the power distance between a teacher and a student from the teacher’s perspective, it becomes teacher-centred learning. So blended learning with the best of low power distances in terms of the media and delivery mechanism of offline and online ensures the mitigation of power between the teacher and the taught. The research will help the universities create a perfect blended learning format that enhances the quality of higher education. Due to the paucity of time and resources and a ban on respondent interaction due to pandemics, this research is based on secondary data analysis.
 
Article
COVID-19 brought the whole world to a halt suddenly and forced it to go on social distancing & lockdown. COVID-19 has impacted every industry worldwide differently and mostly negatively, so we wanted to look at its impact on the ‘esports industry,’ especially in the Indian context. To understand the impact, we did a detailed literature review of academic papers, articles, industry reports to determine the current trend and predict possibility in the future. Our findings indicate that although the industry is facing issues, COVID-19 actually might have helped the esports industry in the long term and expedite its progress among the young generation. Once everything was done, we analyzed the complete literature review, and based on that; we listed out our findings, and based on our findings, we did a final evaluation. We reviewed the existing work of academicians, business reports, industry reports, trends captured by news/media organizations, and the current state of video games to find the trends & reasons which could help us solve our question.
 
Article
The aim is to study the features of life and the incidence rate of anxiety and depressive disorders among medical faculty students studying remotely during the epidemic of a new coronavirus infection (Covid 19) at the Kabardino-Balkarian State University named after H.M. Berbekov. Materials and methods. We examined 335 students (34% males, 66% females) at the Faculty of Medicine in November-December 2020. The average age of the students examined was 20.3±2.3 years. The study included an anonymous mail survey to examine educational conditions, lifestyle, levels of anxiety and depression. Results. 43.8% of the students had insufficient sleep duration, 58.5% had low physical activity, in 24.8% of them we recorded high levels of situational anxiety and in 82.1% of them personal anxiety, in 7.1% of the students we recorded clinically expressed anxiety and 1.8% had clinically expressed depression. During the transition to remote learning, students increased the time use to prepare for classes (51.2%) and the duration of sleep (61.5%), while their physical activity decreased (76.5%). Statistically significant linear correlations were identified between the level of anxiety and depression and the duration of sleep, low physical activity, preparation time for classes, academic performance, and academic debt. Conclusions. The results obtained by us can be used to optimize the educational process, as well as to preserve the mental health of students during the transition to distance learning.
 
Article
Based on the analysis of 308 electronic medical records of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of a new coronavirus infection COVID-19, the features of the course of cardiovascular diseases at the regional level were studied. It was found that in patients with cardiovascular diseases, the severity of the course and mortality are higher than in patients without cardiac pathology.
 
Article
The aim is to study the incidence rate of anxiety and depressive disorders and their relationship with the everyday activity at the H.M. Berbekov Kabardino-Balkarian State University (KBSU) medical faculty students a year after the start of the Covid-19 pandemic. As a part of a cross-sectional observational study, a survey of 425 students at the Faculty of Medicine was conducted. The average age of the surveyed students was 20.9±2.1 years. The Spielberger-Khanin questionnaire, the HADS anxiety and depression scale, as well as a questionnaire specially developed by the authors to clarify some indicators of students’ activity were used. Results. The prevalence of high levels of situational anxiety (SA) was 1.4%, personal anxiety (PA) 30.8%, anxiety 29%, depression 21.6%. High levels of SA were statistically significantly more common among students with higher education (p = 0.0417), living in rented apartments (p = 0.0136), countryside residents (p = 0.0005), with debts (p = 0.0122 ); high levels of PA were identified among students who assessed their living conditions as satisfactory (p=0.0001). Clinically pronounced depression was statistically significantly more common among students with higher education (p=0.0258), who assess their living conditions as good (p=0.028), have debts (p=0.0001), employed (p=0.0001) and practiced low physical activity (p=0.0001). Associative relationships were detected between the levels of SA, PA, anxiety, depression and students’ activity parameters included in the study. Conclusion. The results obtained can be used to improve the academic process and preserve the mental health of the KBSU medical faculty students.
 
Article
Work life balance even though has been a contemporary topicin recent years but still there are organisations and job profileswhich do not allow a good work life balance. Most researchersfocused on female doctors or female nurses for their researchbut researchers have proved that work life balance impactequally irrespective of gender. During pandemic we are hearinga greater number of cases where medical professionals are workingin difficult conditions. Even during pandemic work life balanceshould be given importance. Questionnaire was circulatedthrough social media and 80 responses were received. Findingof this study reveals that medical professionals’ work life balanceis greatly affected by organisational factors as well as emotionaland physical wellbeing. This research will have social implicationsin terms of understanding challenges faced by medical professionalsin terms of managing their work- life–balance.
 
Article
BODY: Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a health crisis,which has almost impacted every industry, causing steep inroadsinto the global economy, and the pharmaceutical industryis no exception. Retail pharmacists are the most approachableand immediate healthcare aid to the general public. Pharmacistscan implement guidance and best practices in responseto the rapidly changing COVID-19 pandemic to ensure patientand staff safety and the approaches pharmacy teams acrossthe country. Social distancing and lockdown measures taken bythe Indian government have been greatly affected by the retailpharmacy industry, leading to disruption in the supply chainof medicines and other precautionary equipment. Medicationmanagement, necessary safety equipment, and preparednessfor handling drug shortages are the focus points for the retailpharmacy industry in these times of the pandemic. As the retailpharmacy comes under essential services and is operatingcontinuously during the lockdown period, there is a need tohighlight and gauge the preparedness and preventive measuresundertaken by pharmacists in India during this medicalemergency.AIM: This research aims to analyze the retail pharmacy administrationin India towards essential medication, to check adherenceto key preventative measures and activities performed ininpatient counseling for self-management and safe dispensingof medicines in COVID-19 & lockdown period and the barriersfaced/concerns towards these measures.METHODOLOGY: This study is based on methods of quantitativeanalysis from retail pharmacies in India. The survey questionnairewas drafted on Google forms and sent to various retailpharmacy outlets. The data pertains to various medications’storage and consumption pattern, concerns over day-to-dayactivities in the pharmacy, and preventive measures implementedby pharmacists towards COVID-19 preparedness.RESULT: 167 pharmacists addressed the questionnaire acrossvarious regions of the country by different types of pharmacy:community pharmacy (66.5%), retail pharmacy section in a private(14.4%) and public hospital (11.4%), and clinical pharmacy(7.8%). The statements developed for the study are closely related,and a good Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.881 was achieved.One-way ANOVA testing determined that out of 12 statementson the preparedness of pharmacy, nine statements showed asignificant difference concerning the types of pharmacy implementingthe preventive measures.
 
Article
COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the tourism and hospitality sectors across the globe. Due to the increase in the number of COVID positive cases, governments of countries have imposed strict lockdown globally as a precautionary measure to control the spread of the coronavirus, which has led to restrictions on travel and mobility of individuals from one place to the other. One of the countries that have been severely affected due to the lockdown is the economy of Nepal. Being a tourist-friendly nation, every year, Nepal’s tourism and hospitality sector contributes significantly to its GDP. With a restriction on travel and cancellation of bookings, one of the most important departments under this sector, the hotel industry, is currently struggling to survive due to loss of revenue. The present study tries to understand the challenges and strategies planned by the hotel industry stakeholders in Nepal. A primary survey conducted with hoteliers from 10 hotels reveals major concerns about maintaining a steady financial performance and expectations for government aid to help this sector come back to normalcy.
 
Article
Over-the-top (OTT) services such as Netflix, Prime Video, Disney+ Hotstar, Zee5, etc., have changed consumers’ content consumption behavior. Globalization and Digitalization have encouraged consumers to have limitless access to the Internet for information, leisure, entertainment, and social interconnectedness. The increase in the availability of high-speed Internet, the latest smartphones, and breakthroughs in technology have created great opportunities for the OTT sector, with people preferring to consume content on-the-go digitally rather than traditional media services, such as cable television. The Covid’19 pandemic has seen an increase in viewership’s and subscriptions towards these streaming platforms, with people of different age groups adapting to changing viewership trends. This study aims to understand Generation X’s behavioral shift (Age 41 to 55) towards OTT during Covid’19 in India. The literature review talks about the Generation X cohort of consumers, their behavioral habits, and attitudes towards technology. It also discusses the changing trends of online content consumption and how Covid’19 has created a spark in viewership’s towards India’s online media services. The research study aims to perform explanatory research to establish a relationship between the increase in consumption and subscriptions of OTT services in India by Generation X and the impact of Covid’19 on the same. Data will be collected from consumer’s age amongst 41 to 55 in India via survey questionnaires, and linear regression tests will be performed to test the hypotheses and establish a correlation between the dependent and independent variables.
 
Article
On the morning of April 12th, 1961, the day of the first human space flight, I went to the Remote Space Communication Center located at 3 Stroiteley Street, in Leninsky Prospect. This is where first ever telemedicine session for receiving information on the cosmonauts’ physical condition during space flight was scheduled. Grigory Zlotin, a recognized expert in the field of telecommunications, founded the Cente and I, as a leader of our medical control team, was responsible for receiving the cosmonauts’ physical condition from space and then analyzing it. In essence, this was the first Space Flight Medical Control Center that led to the formation of the present-day medical control system for space missions. That day, we had an extremely critical task. We were responsible for monitoring the status of the medical equipment aboard the Vostok spacecraft, from the moment it was turned on when Yuri Gagarin entered the spacecraft in its ready-for-launch position and connected his spacesuit to the communication network. It was vital not only to assess the quality of the received information and possibilities of its analysis, but even more importantly, to continuously observe the cosmonaut’s physical condition during his space mission.
 
Article
Aim of the study is to analyze the mortality rates of the population of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic (KBR) from circulatory system diseases (CSD) for the period 2015-2019 to determine measures to reduce the mortality of the population of the Republic.
 
Article
The goals of this prospective observational study were to identify quantitative morphological factors that might aid in the prediction of PBMV outcome, as well as to define the function of 3D TEE in mitral valve evaluation. Material and Methods: The trial comprised seventy individuals who had isolated severe rheumatic Mitral Stenosis (MS) who were scheduled for PBMV between October 2017 and March 2021. Trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) was used for pre-procedural evaluation. Posterior to Anterior Leaflet Length Ratio (P/ALLR), Commissural Area Ratio (CAR), Doming Height (DH), and Calcification Score (Ca score) were also assessed using 2D and 3D-Trans-esophageal Echocardiography (TEE). Following that, all patients were monitored for three months. Results: We have had 50(71.5%) successful procedures and 20(28.5%) unsuccessful procedures. The additional parameters showed highly significant difference between successful and un-successful groups (P-value <0.001). The cut-off points that predict successful procedures were; P/A LLR >0.6 and >0.55 by 2-D and 3-D TEE respectively, CAR ≤ 1.28 and ≤ 1.25 by 2-D and 3-D TEE respectively, DH > 1.2 cm by 2-D TEE, and Ca Score ≤ 2. Conclusion: In our research, we discovered that these characteristics may predict the result of PBMV and contribute value to the semi-quantitative methodologies we adopted to use.
 
Disposition of the participants of satellite investigations from different regions in experiment Mars-500 according to risk categories.
Phase tracking of the 1.5-year dynamics of the functional state of the reference groupparticipants in Syktyvkar constructed according to results of the monthly HRV analysis.
Participants of experiment MARS-500
Probability estimate of functional states and risks of adaptation disorders of volunteers in different regions
Results of medical and ecological investigations in Yekaterinburg
Article
The paper presents the results of the long-term medical & ecological investigations conducted during the experiment Mars-500. Methodology of conducting the long-term medical & ecological investigations and the applied methods are considered. The results are presented in the materials of the research conducted in Russian Federation and Republic of Belarus (Moscow, Syktyvkar, Yekaterinburg, Izhevsk, Magadan and Minsk). For comparative evaluation of the functional state of different reference groups the notion of “ecological stress” was introduced. It depends upon the degree of dominance of the activity of the sympathetic member of the regulatory system over the parasympathetic member. Application of probabilistic approach to the assessment of the functional state and adaptation level with the FR (functional reserve) and the DT (the degree of tension) of the regulatory mechanisms proved the detected peculiarities of the heart rhythm vegetative regulation. Clear dependency of the functional state of the volunteers on geographic location of regions and climatic parameters is observed. Almost every HRV indicator is characterized by seasonal dynamics. Seasonal dynamics data is exemplified by the research conducted in Yekaterinburg and Syktyvkar. During the earth-bound experiment Mars-500 flight conditions to Mars were simulated. Results of the long-term medical & ecological investigations conducted simultaneously with the experiment Mars-500 showed that health changes in practically healthy people do not usually exceed the limits of the prenosological state.
 
520-days experiment Mars-500 participants.
«Long-term medical and ecological investigations» project web page.
Article
Research methodology and methods used in experiment Mars-500 held at the Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2009-2011 are considered. 6 volunteers were isolated during 520 days in a sealed ground-based facility simulating space ship. Along with studies of the Martian crew, a number of satellite research were also carried out, which were devoted to the long-term program of medical and ecological investigations. This program was aimed at the study of the dynamics of adaptation abilities of the organism during its long stay in the natural social, living and industrial environments. For physiological investigations in experiment Mars-500, including the main experiment in a sealed ground-based facility and parallel long-term medical and ecological investigations in different regions of the world, the specialized hardwaresoftware complex "Ecosan-2007" was used. The methodology was based on the principles of prenosological diagnostics that have been further developed in the concept of adaptation risks and in the probabilistic approach to their evaluation. For evaluation of various components of the autonomous regulation state the method of heart rate variability (HRV) was used. It was concluded that the most important field in experiment Mars-500 was the investigation of the methodology of prenosological diagnostic in the preparation of a space mission to Mars.
 
Dynamics of HRV spectral components (highfrequency (HF) oscillations, low-frequency (LF) oscillations and very-low-frequency (VLF) oscillations)
Phase tracking of functional state of the Martian crew under conditions of isolation and confinement.
Mean values of HRV parameters for the group during the 520 day isolation.
Dynamics of some HRV parameters at main stages of the experiment (М±m)
Article
In order to evaluate the vegetative regulation of blood circulation and assess individual health risks under conditions of the 520 day isolation, used was an analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV). The most significant changes in the HRV values against the background data were reported in the second half of the said experiment. At that time, the heart rate (HR) values showed some reductions, the standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (SDNN) was increased, and the simultaneous activation of all regulation members (pNN50 – parasympathetic regulation, IC and VLF – the sympathetic and neurohumoral regulation) occurred. The period of “the Mars orbiting”, the time of the crew dividing and “the landing to Mars” featured the highest level of the tension of the regulatory systems and the significant increase in the health risks. An assessment of the functional state of the organism and the adaptation level according to the degree of the tension (DT) of the regulatory systems and their functional reserve (FR) made it possible not only to confirm the presence of the changes identified by the commonly used HRV, but to make them more apparent as well. An assessment of group risks of adaptation disorders at all stages of the experiment provided support that on the average the risk category did not exceed the safe levels, and the functional state of the crew individuals remained within the zone of the physiological norm. Reported were a minor reduction in the functional reserves and a minor increase in the degree of tension.
 
Article
The precocious knowledge on reckoning schemes scientifically and technically was replaced with the rapid amelioration in medicinal contrivance systems and treatment information registers. On average the management accomplishes hospital information system (HIS) and picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) using digital entities to maintain medical examinations, images and statements. Such systems even though are much helpful for the hospital staff, doctor away from the hospital have lot of difficulty to access the patient data during risk facing situations. To iron out the above-mentioned complications, a new idea of the proposed framework has been disseminated for medical descriptions to the doctors at inaccessible areas. This organization requires a hand-hand PDA’s that adopts CDMA techniques with mobile networks. This arrangement requires a server and PDA for its implementation. This model supports the entire reports of the patient to the doctors located even at remote location with accessibility and doctor information reliable for patients. PDA created will disclose the inmate’s medicinal reports and scans over an outlying network. To corroborate or validate user data, remote data approach is applied by PDA that connects the server directory and for relegation of information from the server, uses file transfer protocol. From testing, observations show ninety seconds to convey thirty images with a fineness of 832 x 488, intensity of 24 bits and magnitude of 0.37 Mb. This idea proposed using bitmap image acquiring technique demonstrates no difficulty for distant doctors to collect and examine the sufferer images right away at the time of crisis or urgencies, which is completely subjective analysis based on doctor’s point of view.
 
Article
The paper presents the blood picture patterns in female students with different average academic performance grades in their record book. An improvement in the academic performance of female students is accompanied by a significant decrease in the concentration of neutrophils, a significant increase in the level of lymphocytes and minor changes in other blood parameters. Thus, the level of neutrophils experiences a gradual decrease, reaching its minimum of 57.7% (P <0.02) in girls who has performance grade A and 66.2 in case of grade C. The number of lymphocytes in girls with the highest academic performance grades in the record book is recorded to be 33.6% (P <0.05), while in those with the minimum acceptable performance grade it is found to be 26.1%. The level of platelets increases up to 320.8 thousand per microliter (mcL) of blood in the girls with academic performance grade B, decreases to 296.4 in case of grade A, and it is reported to reach 287.0 for those with academic performance grade C.
 
Article
Russian Academician Vasily V. Parin was one of the leading world scientists in the field of physiology of blood circulation. In this article his role in the development of the space cardiology, an important area of space medicine, is considered. The development and use in space flights of such methods as the analysis of heart rate variability and seismocardiography, creation of the onboard medical equipment is connected with the name of Vasily V. Parin. The monography “Space cardiology” issued in 1967 by Vasily V. Parin with co-authors has dictated and governed the development of this key area in science for many years ahead. The article presents the basic results of cardiological researches in space in the 70-90-s and in the beginning of the 2000s when the space cardiology made its progress keeping the tendencies and traditions created by Vasily V. Parin in the 60s.
 
Article
AR, VR has introduced a new set of interfaces that can potentially transform the way humans interact with their surroundings completely. AR/VR can be used in airlines’ manufacturing, supply-chain, and pilot training to enhance the passenger experience. This research focuses on the use of VR and AR in enhancing passenger experience would affect the customer’s decision to travel through flights and, on that basis, analyze whether it is a good opportunity to invest in these technologies. Customer satisfaction is what every business targets to achieve. Moreover, the same goes for airlines too. The research scope includes both in-flight as well as terminal experience. AR/VR technologies would focus on Entertainment, Ease of use, and navigation purpose in the complex structure of airports. The methodology includes a structured interview in the form of a survey of 60 people who have traveled via flights. T-test analysis has been used to find out the significance of the above-mentioned variables. The purpose of this paper is to find out whether users prefer the use of AR/VR technology when it comes to boost their passenger experience, and based on the result to know whether it is a good investment for the airlines or not.
 
Article
Aim. The purpose of the study was to reveal the effectivenessof the Cytochrome C drug in the early stages of the Pliss lymphosarcomagrowth in white outbred rats.Material and methods. The studies were included white outbredmale rats with an initial weight of 180–220 g (n = 40) withsubcutaneously inoculated Pliss lymphosarcoma. Rats in themain group received the Cytochrome C intraperitoneally in asingle dose of 1.6 mg/kg 1 hour after the tumor inoculationand then until death; animals with tumors in the control groupreceived saline instead of the studied drug in the same way andin the same dosage.Results. Subcutaneous tumors appeared in the control groupin 100% cases, in the main group in 55% cases; tumors werenot detected in 45% of animals in the main group. In rats ofthe main group receiving experimental treatment, tumors regressedwith time: in 73% cases with complete recovery of rats,in 27% cases animals died.Conclusions. The Cytochrome C in a therapeutic and prophylacticregimen had a pronounced antitumor effect. Perhaps theeffectiveness of the drug can be improved using an inert carrierwhich will protect the protein from proteolytic cleavage whenit enters the bloodstream, together with detoxification agents.
 
Article
The aim of this research work has been to investigate thestructural organization of solid films made from blood plasmataken from patients with secretory multiple myeloma (MM)and identify some specific markers of the tumor process inthem, when conducting selective plasma exchange and medication.Using the methods of wedge- and edge-shaped dehydratation,we have completed morphological screening of solid samplesof blood plasma in 25 patients primarily diagnosed withmultiple myeloma (MM).The obtained results are characterized by profound disordersin the processes of self-organization with predominance ofsome pathological morphotypes of facias having systemic andlocal signs of intoxication and paraproteinemia, which correlatewith their equivalents revealed in the respective biochemicaltests. It has been found that development of multiple myelomais accompanied by formation of some oncomarkers specific tothis sort of oncopathology. The identification of the oncomarkershave been confirmed by the formation of the pathologicalaggregation of anisotropic micro- and macrospherolytes, whichhave demonstrated degenerative transformations upon completionof chemotherapy: they have been shaded because ofproducing complex compounds with chemotherapy drugs ormetabolites of the latter.Conclusion. By this means the cascade of the pathologicalevents have been reflected in our screening morphologicalassays of blood plasma that is of great prognostic value andmay be used in evaluation of efficacy of treatment of multiplemyeloma.
 
Article
One of the cancer prevention measures involves the correctionof the altered functions of the body’s regulatory systems. Manymalignant tumors are accompanied by the thyroid system dysfunction.The aim of our study was to reveal an effect of an iodine-containingdrug on the development of a tumor process in thelungs and the level of thyroid hormones in blood and the thyroidgland in male rats.Material and methods. Outbred white male rats were dividedinto the following groups: a group of intact animals (n=7); acomparison group – 5 weeks after an intravenous inoculationof sarcoma 45 (S45) at 2*106 (n=7); a main group – 5 weeks afteran intravenous inoculation of S45 and intragastric administrationof Stellanin at a single dose of 0.4 mg/kg within an hourafter the inoculation (n=10). RIA was used to determine levels offree (F) and total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) in theblood serum and the thyroid.Results. The lungs of rats in the comparison group were totallyaffected by the tumor, and the thyroid gland showed asharp decrease in the levels of all hormone forms: T4 – by 18.7times, T3 – by 8.5 times, FТ4 – by 8.1 times, FТ3 – by 21.3 times,while only FТ4 and FТ3 decreased in blood by 2.5 and 1.5 times,respectively (p<0.05). No tumor lesions were detected in thelungs of rats of the main group, and the hormone levels exceededthe levels in the comparison group: in the thyroid, FT4by 3.7, T4 by 15.0 and T3 by 6.0 times; in blood, FT4 by 3.3 andFT3 by 1.7 times.Conclusions. The effect of Stellanin inhibiting malignantgrowth of S45 in the lungs is accompanied by the restoration oflow levels of thyroid hormones in the thyroid and blood.
 
Article
At present, to develop new, scientifically justified, technologiesof an accompanying therapy to improve the oncological situationis a challenge to health care. A therapy to accompany aspecific cancer treatment in case of a malignant process in anorganism is dictated by the necessity to raise the nonspecific resistanceof the organism in cancer patients. In this case, originalmethodological approaches to initiate the mechanisms of thenonspecific resistance have been developed on the basis of thetheory of the adaptational reactions. Within the framework ofthe above theory, some concepts of relationship between thespecific and nonspecific anti-tumor processes have been extensivelydeveloped that may be successfully applied to solvingtasks of the National Health Care Program.Aim. The aim hereof is to introduce the theoretical basics ofthe nonspecific adaptation regulation and control by a tumor-bearing organism into practice for an integrated treatmentof malignant tumors with the use of the activation therapy technologies.Materials and methods. Our research work has involvedclinical data on 1310 patients, who have been diagnosedwith cancer of different localization: breast cancer (n = 170),cervical cancer (n = 60), lung cancer (n = 760), bladder cancer(n = 120), brain gliomas of high grade of malignancy andmetastatic damage (n = 170) and extended colorectal cancer(n = 30) and who have completed their treatment at the NationalMedical Research Centre of Oncology of the Ministry ofHealth of the Russian Federation.
 
Article
We conducted a study of the state of intracardiac hemodynamics in elderly patients with hypertension in the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, taking into account age, gender and geographic climatic differences.
 
Article
Aims The aim of our research work was to investigate the state of the lipid peroxidation system – the antioxidant protection system (LPO-AOS) in heart tissue in rats received either Doxorubicin alone or in combination with Preductal premedication. Materials and methods Our experimental studies were carried out in mature male albino rats from outbread stocks (the cohort covered 50 animals) with an individual body mass from 150 to 160 g. The cohort included the following groups of the rats: the reference group covered 10 intact animals; group 1 (20 rats) received dosage of Doxorubicin of 2mg/kg, five times, up to a cumulative dose of 10 mg/kg; group 2 (20 animals) medicated as follows: the 5-day introduction of Preductal with dosage of 35 mg/kg followed by Doxorubicin medication according to the same schedule used in group 1. MDA, levels of the A & E vitamins, SOD and catalase activity, Total Peroxidase Activity (TPA), the ratios E/A, SOD/TPA and SOD/catalase were assessed in heart tissue. Statistics data were processed with original software Statistica 6,0. Results The Doxorubicin medication results in a decline in antioxidant protection components: reported are a decrease in SOD by 38,7%, catalase by 23,1%, TPA by 31,3%, and the levels of vitamins of A and E by 21% and 39%, respectively. We also noted a SOD/catalase ratio decline by 21,3% and a reduction in the SOD/TPA ratio by 27% with an increase in the E/A ratio by 30.8%. The above mentioned condition of the components of the antioxidative protection of cardiomyocytes was accompanied by an accumulation of MDA therein, the level of which was reported to be 28% higher as compared with that in the intact animals. In rodents of group 2, the use of Preductal induced the normalization of activity of SOD, catalase, TPA, levels of vitamins A and E, coefficients of activity of antioxidant ferments and vitamins. The MDA level was found to be the same as it was the case with the intact rats, but at the same time it was by 31,3% lower as compared with the data recorded in the group 1 animals. Conclusion The Doxorubicin medication leads to a disorder in the performance of the physiological cascade of antioxidative ferments and vitamins in the heart tissue; it is accompanied by activation of lipid peroxidation. The target of the action of Preductal as cytoprotection is the antioxidation protection cascade as a whole that contributes to suppression of Doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in the heart muscle.
 
Ionic composition of used physiological solution
The action of Picrotoxin and RU­1205 on the pacemaker pulse activity of the neuron in the Roman snail. Legend: ADevelopment of the background epileptiform activity in the previously silent neuron, detected upon expiration of 135 minutes from adding of Picrotoxin (0,747 mM) to the washing solution. B, C-Appearing episodes of the blockade of the Na+ potential­ dependent channels with the blockade of the sodium spikes (the lines are markers of the blockade) upon expiration of 10 and 67 minutes, respectively, from the time of adding of RU-1205 to the washing solution, under maintenance of the К+ and Са2+ oscillation. D-The permanent blockade of the Na+ channel and subsequently of the K+ and Ca2+ channels (the line indicates the block) upon expiration of 77 minutes from the time of adding of RU­1205 to the washing solution. 
A change in the AP firing rate of the neurons as effect upon the 10­second exposure to blue light with a wavelength of 440­460 nm. An arrow indicates the beginning of the exposure session. 
Dynamics of data on spatial synchronization for the alpha­ (a) and beta­ (b) rhythm upon ULF MF exposure. Legend: F1, F2, T1, T4, C3, C4, O1 and O2 are points of EEC recording. Solid line indicates a reliably higher enhancement of synchronization of biological rhythms among the recorded regions of EEC in the main test group versus the reference group (р<0,05); dashed line marls a higher level of changes in synchronization of biological rhythms of the brain sections in the main test group versus the reference group, at the level of tendency (р<0,1). 
Article
Subjects of our experimental studies were neurons in the snail Helix Pomatia, from which continuous intracellular recordings according to our specific microelectrode recording technique were produced.
 
Top-cited authors
Mikhail Rudenko
  • Russian New University
Galina Vitalievna Zhukova
  • Ministry Of Health Of The Russian Federation
Elena Sheiko
  • Oncology research institute, Rostov-on-Don, Russia
Tatiana P. Protasova
  • Rostov Scientific Research Institute of Oncology, Russia
Sergey Rudenko