The aim of the present study has been to investigate the binding specificity of the soluble 14,000-dalton lectin of bovine heart muscle towards immobilised oligosaccharides in clustered form. To this end, chromatogram overlay assays and quantitative plastic-microwell-binding assays have been performed using several natural glycolipids and neoglycolipids containing one or more of the disaccharide units, beta-D-Galp-(1----4 or 3)-D-GlcNAc or beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-D-Glc and related structures. The microwell assay gave the most consistent results. It was observed that for binding by the soluble lectin the optimal sequence, which is beta-D-Galp-(1----4 or 3)-D-GlcNAc, must occur at the nonreducing end of longer oligosaccharides when linked to lipid. These oligosaccharides may be of poly(N-acetyllactosamine) type or they may be mono- or multi-antennary, complex-type chains in which the disaccharide is joined directly to a trimannosyl core. The lectin bound to such immobilised lipid-linked oligosaccharides on which the terminal D-galactosyl groups are substituted with alpha-L-Fucp-(1----2), alpha-D-Galp-(1----3), or alpha-NeuAc-(2----3) groups. However, no binding was detected if the terminal D-galactosyl groups were substituted with an alpha-NeuAc-(2----6) group or the subterminal N-acetylglucosamine units with an alpha-L-Fucp-(1----3 or -4) group. Internally located N-acetyllactosamine units where the D-galactose units are disubstituted by beta-D-GlcNacp-(1----3) and -(1----6) units, as in branched poly(N-acetyllactosamine) backbones were not bound by the bovine lectin. These results are in accord with previous observations on the bovine lectin and the corresponding human and rat lectins, using structurally defined oligosaccharides as inhibitors of binding. The results of comparative binding experiments using paragloboside and ceramide hexasaccharide which contain one and two N-acetyllactosamine units, respectively, joined in linear sequence to the lactosylceramide core, were equivocal with respect to the availability of the internal N-acetyllactosamine units for binding by the bovine lectin.
The concentrations of methyl glycosides, oligosaccharides, glycopeptides, and glycoproteins can be accurately determined by using calibration curves composed of the appropriate monosaccharide(s) obtained with a modified version of the colorimetric phenol-sulfuric acid method. Calibration curves of micrograms sugar vs. 490 nm for Man, Glc, or Gal are shown to provide reliable determinations (typically +/- 3-4%) of corresponding methyl glycosides and linear and branched-chain oligosaccharides containing the corresponding reactive hexose residue. For complex oligosaccharides containing a known mixture of reactive hexose units, the appropriate mixture of monosaccharides are shown to provide equally accurate calibration curves for concentration determinations. In the case of the soybean agglutinin, which is a tetramer possessing one Man9 oligomannose-type chain per subunit, the protein concentration was determined from the Man calibration curve which agreed with that obtained from the molar extinction coefficient of the protein.
One- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy was used to demonstrate the formation of inclusion cyclodextrin complexes with several A-007 prodrugs. These complexes are comprised from the encapsulation of the two phenol moieties of the A-007 prodrugs within the cyclodextrin cavity. Considering the size of the two phenol moieties of the A-007 prodrugs compared to the sizes of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrin cavities, we observed complementary binding of the A-007 prodrug with only beta-cyclodextrin, which was also demonstrated spectroscopically. The beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes increased the prodrug solubility and modified the prodrug half-life in water. Therefore, beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes can be used as an essential form of A-007 prodrug delivery.
Pseudomonas mendocina NK-01 can simultaneously synthesize medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA(MCL)) and alginate oligosaccharides (AO) from glucose under conditions of limited nitrogen. In this study, the PHA(MCL) synthesis pathway was blocked by a deletion of approximately 57% of the sequence of PHA synthase operon mediated by the suicide plasmid, pEX18TcC1ZC2Amp. Deletion of the PHA synthase operon in P. mendocina NK-01 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibiotic resistance assays to form the gene knockout mutant, P. mendocina C7. Shake-flask and 30 L fermentor cultures of P. mendocina C7 showed a 2.21-fold and 2.64-fold accumulation of AO from glucose, respectively, compared with the wild-type strain. Mass spectrometry and gel permeation chromatography characterization revealed that P. mendocina C7 and P. mendocina NK-01 produced AO were identical in terms of monomer composition and average molecular weight (M(W)). Thus, the mutant P. mendocina C7 has potential use in large scale fermentation of AO. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the PHA(MCL) and AO synthesis pathways compete for the use of carbon sources in P. mendocina NK-01.
The O antigen obtained from the lipopolysaccharide of Yersinia ruckeri serotype 01, by mild acid hydrolysis, is composed of a branched tetrasaccharide repeating unit containing 2-acetamidino-2,6-dideoxy-L-galactose (L-FucAm), 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose (D-GlcNAc), and 7-acetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-5-(4-hydroxybutyramido)-D-glycero-L -galacto- nonulosonic acid (L-Sug). Partial hydrolysis of the O antigen with 0.1 M HClafforded a trisaccharide and a tetrasaccharide having nonulosonic acid at their reducing ends. Cleavage of the O antigen with anhydrous methanolic hydrogen fluoride afforded the methyl glycoside derivatives of a trisaccharide and a tetrasaccharide. 1H and 13C NMR analysis, including 1H-13C heteronuclear multiple bond correlation spectroscopy to locate the N-acyl substituents, together with mass spectrometric analysis of the above oligosaccharides, allowed the structure of the O-specific polysaccharide to be assigned as: [formula: see text].
Synthesis of the trisaccharide, allyl α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside related to O-chain glycans isolated from the deaminated LPSs of Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype 012, was achieved through condensation of suitably synthesized disaccharide, allyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-2-phthalimido-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-2,3-di-O-benzoyl-α-l-rhamnopyranoside and donor, ethyl 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-1-thio α-l-rhamnopyranoside starting from l-rhamnose and d-glucosamine hydrochloride. The trisaccharide can be utilized for the synthesis of neoglycoconjugates for use as a synthetic vaccine by coupling it with a suitable protein after deprotection. Various regio- and stereoselective protecting group strategies have been carefully considered, as protecting groups can influence the reactivity of the electrophile and nucleophile in glycosylation reactions on the basis of steric and electronic requirements.
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an amphiphilic polycondensate located in the cell envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, LTAs were isolated from the three bovine mastitis species Streptococcus uberis 233, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023, and Streptococcus agalactiae 0250. Structural investigations of these LTAs were performed applying 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments as well as chemical analyses and mass spectrometry. Compositional analysis revealed the presence of glycerol (Gro), Glc, alanine (Ala), and 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1. The LTAs of the three Streptococcus strains possessed the same structure, that is, a lipid anchor comprised of α-Glcp-(1→2)-α-Glcp-(1→3)-1,2-diacyl-sn-Gro and the hydrophilic backbone consisting of poly(sn-Gro-1-phosphate) randomly substituted at O-2 of Gro by d-Ala.
The structures of the cell-wall D-mannans of pathogenic yeasts of Candida stellatoidea Type I strains, IFO 1397, TIMM 0310, and ATCC 11006, were investigated by mild acid and, alkaline hydrolysis, by digestion with the Arthrobacter GJM-1 strain exo-alpha-D-mannosidase, and by acetolysis. The modified D-mannans and their degradation products were studied by 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. analyses. D-Manno-oligosaccharides released by acid treatment from the parent D-mannans were identified as the homologous beta-(1----2)-linked D-manno-oligosaccharides from biose to hexaose, whereas those obtained by alkaline degradation were the homologous alpha-(1----2)-linked D-mannobiose and D-mannotriose. The acid- and alkali-modified D-mannans lacking 1H-n.m.r. signals above 4.900 p.p.m. [corresponding to beta-(1----2)-linked D-mannopyranose units] were acetolyzed with 10:10:1 (v/v) Ac2O-AcOH-H2SO4, and the resultant D-manno-oligosaccharides were also analyzed. It was found that the longest branches of these D-mannans, corresponding to hexaosyl residues, had the following structures: alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-alpha-D-Manp-(1----2)-alpha-D-Manp+ ++-(1----2)-alpha-D-Manp- (1----2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1----2)-D-Man and alpha-D-Manp-(1----2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1----3)-alpha-D-Manp+ ++-(1----2)-alpha-D-Manp- (1----2)-alpha-D-Manp-(1----2)-D-Man. These results indicate that the D-mannans of C. stellatoidea Type I strains possess structures in common with the D-mannans of Candida albicans serotype B strain (see ref. 4) containing phosphate-bound beta-(1----2)-linked oligo-D-mannosyl residues.
The K3-antigenic capsular polysaccharide (K3 antigen) of Escherichia coli contains L-rhamnose, a 4-deoxy-2-hexulosonic acid, and an O-acetyl group in the molar ratio of 3:1:1. The backbone consists of a ----2)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----3)-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1---- repeating unit. Either one of the 3-linked L-rhamnopyranosyl residues of each repeating unit may be substituted at O-2 with a 4-deoxy-2-hexulosonic acid, an isomer of the furanosyl form of KDO, about 90% of which is acetylated at 0-6. The 4-deoxy-2-hexulosonic acid residue is linked to the L-rhamnan backbone in a very labile linkage which is split by 1% acetic acid (30 min, 100 degrees). The K3 polysaccharide has a molecular weight of approximately 38,000, corresponding to approximately 60 repeating units.
The extracellular polysaccharide obtained from slime-forming Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SBT 0495 is composed of D-glucose, D-galactose, L-rhamnose, and phosphate. Methylation analysis of the native and dephosphorylated polysaccharides provided information on the linkage of the sugar residues and the location of the phosphate group. N.m.r. spectroscopy confirmed the structure of the polysaccharide, which is assigned the following repeating-unit: [formula: see text]
The structure of an acidic exopolysaccharide of two strains of Pseudomonas marginalis, a bacterium which causes soft rots of various vegetables, has been determined to consist of a repeating unit of: ----4) beta-D-Manp-(1----3)alpha-D-Glcp-(1----4)alpha-L-Rhap-(1-. The glucose is pyruvated at O-4 and O-6 and the mannose is acetylated at either O-2 or O-3.
Three D-glucans were isolated from the mycelium of the fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 by sequential extraction with hot-water and hot aqueous KOH (2% w/v) followed by ethanol precipitation. Following their purification by gel permeation chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B, the structural characteristics of the D-glucans were determined by FT-IR and 13C NMR spectroscopy and, after methylation, by GC-MS. The hot-water extract produced a fraction designated Q1A that was a beta-(1-->6)-D-glucan with the following structure: [Formula: see text] The alkaline extract, when subjected to repeated freeze-thawing, yielded two fractions: K1P (insoluble) that comprised a beta-(1-->3)-D-glucan with beta-D-glucose branches at C-6 with the structure: [Formula: see text] and K1SA (soluble) consisting of a backbone chain of alpha-(1-->4)-linked D-glucopyranosyl residues substituted at O-6 with alpha-D-glucopyranosyl residues: [Formula: see text]
The chemical structure of the K14-antigenic polysaccharide (K14 antigen) of Escherichia coli 06:K14:H31 was elucidated by determination of the composition, 1H- and 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy, periodate oxidation, and study of the oligosaccharides obtained by partial hydrolysis. The polysaccharide consists of [O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-galactopyranosyl)-(1 leads to 5)-O-(3-deoxy-beta-D-manno-octulopyranosylonic acid)-(2 leads to 6)] repeating units, approximately 60% of the octonic acid units being O-acetylated and approximately 10% O-propionylated at O-8. The sequence of acetylated and propionylated residues is not known. The serologically-specific part of the K14 antigen residues in the polysaccharide part.
An effective synthesis of the mannose heptasaccharide existing in the pathogenic yeast, Candida glabrata IFO 0622 strain was achieved via TMSOTf-promoted condensation of a tetrasaccharide donor 13 with a trisaccharide acceptor 16, followed by deprotection. The tetrasaccharide 13 was constructed by coupling of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate (7) with allyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzoyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-(1-->2)-3,4,6-tri-O-benzoyl-alpha-D-mannopyranoside (10), followed by deallylation and trichloroacetimadation. The trisaccharide 16 was obtained by coupling of 6-O-acetyl-2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate with 10, and subsequent 6-O-deacetylation. The disaccharide 7 was prepared through coupling of perbenzoylated mannosyl trichloroacetimidate with 4,6-O-benzylidene-1,2-O-ethylidene-beta-D-mannopyranose, then simultaneous debenzylidenation and deethylidenation, and subsequent acetylation, selective 1-O-deacetylation, and trichloroacetimidation. The disaccharide 10 was obtained by self-condensation of 3,4,6-tri-O-benzoyl-1,2-O-allyloxyethylidene-beta-D-mannopyranose, followed by selective 2-O-deacetylation.
The structure of a major glycolipid isolated from the thermophilic bacteria Thermus oshimai NTU-063 was elucidated. The sugar and fatty acid compositions were determined by GC-MS and HPLC analysis on their methanolysis and methylation derivatives, respectively. After removal of both O- and N-acyl groups by alkaline treatment, the glycolipid was converted to a fully acetylated tetraglycosyl glycerol derivative, the structure of which was then determined by NMR spectroscopy (TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC). Thus, the complete structure of the major glycolipid from T. oshimai NTU-063 was established as beta-Glcp-(1-->6)-beta-Glcp-(1-->6)-beta-GlcpNAcyl-(1-->2)-alpha-Glcp-(1-->1)-glycerol diester. The N-acyl groups on the 2-amino-2-deoxy-glucopyranose residue are C15:0 and C17:0 fatty acids, whereas the fatty acids of glycerol diester are more heterogeneous including both straight and branched fatty acids from C15:0 to C18:0.
The structure of the O-polysaccharide of the smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by Escherichia coli O64:K99 was investigated by SDS-PAGE, composition, periodate oxidation, methylation, partial hydrolysis, and 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, made on the native o-chain and its reduction and periodate degradation products. The E. coli O64 antigenic O-chain was found to be a high molecular weight glycan composed of D-galactose, D-glucuronic acid, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose, and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-mannose (2:1:1:1) and was a polymer of branched pentasaccharide repeating units having the structure: [formula: see text]
The UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) is a promising target for the development of novel antibiotic substances against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. The C-aryl glycoside 3 was designed as conformationally constrained analogue of the potent LpxC-inhibitor CHIR-090. The chiral pool synthesis of 3 started with D-mannose. The C-aryl glycoside 8 was synthesized stereoselectively by nucleophilic attack of 4-iodine-substituted phenyllithium and subsequent reduction with Et(3)SiH. The ester 10 was obtained in a one-pot diol cleavage, CrO(3) oxidation, and esterification. A Sonogashira reaction of the aryl iodide 11 led to the alkyne 17 which was transformed with H(2)NOH into the hydroxamic acid 3.
The i.r. spectra of disaccharides differing in monosaccharide composition and in the position and configuration of the glycosidic linkage, and also those of raffinose and model saccharides, were studied in the region 1,000-40 cm-1. Two ranges may be of interest for structural analysis. The first, called "the anomeric region=, is suitable for the determination of the configuration of the glycosidic linkage. The spectra of the oligosaccharides in the second region, called "the region of crystallinity", depend upon the packing of the molecules in the solid. The reasons for the present impossibility of using the far-infrared region of the i.r. spectra of lower oligosaccharides for the determination of the position of the glycosidic linkage are considered.
The synthesis is described of highly acid-sensitive, 1,1-dialkyl-1-methoxymethyl glucosides (acetal-glucosides) as potential anti-cancer prodrugs. Reaction of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-1-O-trimethylsilyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (4) severally with various aliphatic and alicyclic ketones and methyl trimethylsilyl ether, in the presence of catalytic amounts of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate, afforded the corresponding acetylated acetal-beta-glucosides, e.g., acetone gave 1-methoxy-1-methylethyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7a). Likewise the alpha-anomer (8a) of 7a was obtained from the alpha-anomer of 4. Deacetylation of the tetra-acetates then gave the acetal-alpha- and -beta-glucosides.
1-Deoxy-1,1-bis(3-indolyl)alditols were synthesized by reacting 2.5equiv of indole with 1equiv of the following seven monosaccharides (D-galactose, D-mannose, D-allose, 2-deoxy-D-arabinohexose (2-deoxy-D-glucose), D-arabinose, L-arabinose, D-xylose), two disaccharides (D-lactose, D-maltose), and a trisaccharide (D-maltotriose) in 1:1 EtOH-H(2)O at room temperature, or at 40 or 50 degrees C, in the presence of 5 mol% scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate [Sc(OTf)(3)], in a one-pot reaction, in 36-95% yields.
The synthesis of 1,1-thiodisaccharide trehalose analogues in good to excellent yields by a Lewis acid (BF(3).Et(2)O)-catalysed coupling of sugar per-O-acetate with thiosugar is described. The reactivity of different sugar per-O-acetates and thiosugars is explored.
The non-reducing disaccharide beta-d-Glcp-(1<-->1)-alpha-L-Lyxp1 had been proposed to be an early intermediate during the biosynthesis of avilamycin A [Boll, R.; Hofmann, C.; Heitmann, B.; Hauser, G.; Glaser, S.; Koslowski, T.; Friedrich, T.; Bechthold, A. J. Biol. Chem.2006, 281, 14756-14763]. This work describes a comparison of two strategies for the synthesis of 1 and its 2-amino-2-deoxy analog with either the glucose or the lyxose moiety acting as the glycosyl donor. The best results in terms of stereoselectivity and yield were obtained with 2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-L-lyxopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate 13. Reaction of 13 with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-D-glucopyranose gave the disaccharide as mixture of 1beta,1'alpha and 1beta,1'beta isomers in a ratio of 10:1 and a yield of 50%. Reaction of 13 and 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-2-azido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose yielded the desired 1beta,1'alpha disaccharide as a single isomer in 72% yield. Interestingly, the formation of alpha-glucosides was not observed in any case, regardless of the use of glucose as glycosyl donor or acceptor.
The proton chemical-shift assignment of nystose (1) [beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-beta-D- fructofuranosyl-(2<==>1)-alpha-D-glucopyranoside], was determined by using two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectral methods, and corrections of, and additions to the previous 13C chemical-shift assignments were made. The 1H peak of H-1 of the D-glucosyl group was determined by its chemical shift. Signals from fructose-1 were distinguished by the observation of long-range C-H coupling between H-1 of the D-glucosyl group and C-2 of fructose-1. The distinction between fructose-2 and fructose-3 was made by the different 1JCH coupling patterns between C-1 and H-1. Assignments of 13C and 1H chemical shifts of the related dp 5 compound, beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-beta-D- fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2<==>1)-alpha-D-glucopyr anoside (1,1,1-kestopentaose, 2) are also reported here with comparisons of its spectral data with the data from 1-kestose, nystose and inulin. Based on differences in 13C chemical shifts, it appears that the chemical environment of inulin is not attained in nystose, and only partially attained in 1,1,1-kestopentaose.
The crystallographic structure of the complex formed by beta-cyclodextrin with 1,10-phenanthroline has been studied by X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the complex adopts an uncommon 2:3 stoichiometry in solid state, that is, every complex unit contains three 1,10-phenanthroline molecules and two beta-cyclodextrin molecules, where two 1,10-phenanthroline molecules individually occupy two cyclodextrin cavities, and the third guest molecule is located in the interstitial space between two head-to-head cyclodextrin molecules. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the adjacent complex units further link these individual monomers to a channel-type assembly. Furthermore, 1H and 2D NMR spectroscopy has been employed to investigate the inclusion behavior between the host beta-cyclodextrin and guest 1,10-phenanthroline in aqueous solution.
In aqueous sulfuric acid media, Cr(VI) oxidation of (-)-L-sorbose in the presence and absence of catalysts like 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,2'-bipyridyl (bipy) have been carried out under the conditions, [(-)-L-sorbose](T)>[Cr(VI)](T) at different temperatures. Under the experimental conditions, the monomeric species of Cr(VI) has been found kinetically active in the absence of phen and bipy catalysts, while in the heteroaromatic N-base catalysed path, the Cr(VI)-phen and Cr(VI)-bipy complexes have been suggested as the active oxidants. In the catalysed path, Cr(VI)-L complex (L=phen, bipy) receives a nucleophilic attack by the substrate to form a ternary complex which subsequently experiences a redox decomposition through two-electron transfer leading to the organic products and a Cr(IV)-L complex. Both the uncatalysed and catalysed paths show first-order dependence on [(-)-L-sorbose](T) and [Cr(VI)](T). The uncatalysed path shows second-order in [H(+)], while the catalysed path shows a first-order dependence on [H(+)]. The heteroaromatic N-base catalysed path is first-order in [phen](T) or [bipy](T). These findings remain unchanged in the presence of externally added surfactants. The cationic surfactant (i.e., N-cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC)) inhibits the rate in both the catalysed and uncatalysed paths, whereas the anionic surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) shows the rate accelerating effect for both the uncatalysed and catalysed paths. The observed micellar effects have been rationalised by considering the distribution of the reactants between the micellar and aqueous phases in terms of the proposed reaction mechanism.
The structure of the complex of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) with 1,12-dodecanediol has been determined at 173 K and refined to a final R=0.0615 based on 22,386 independent reflections. The complex crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1; with a=17.926(4), b=15.399(3), c=15.416(3) A, alpha=103.425(4), beta=113.404(4), gamma=98.858(4) degrees, D(c)=1.362 Mg cm(-3) and V=3651.4(13) A(3) for Z=1. One molecule of the diol is located as a guest in the hydrophobic cavity of a beta-CD-dimer, forming a pseudorotaxane. The guest molecule shows a disorder over two positions. The hydroxyl groups of the diol emerge from the primary faces of the beta-CD dimer and form several hydrogen bonds with water molecules lying in the interstitial space, similarly to dimeric complexes of beta-CD with other alpha,omega-bifunctional guests.
The structure of the complex of cyclomaltoheptaose (beta-cyclodextrin, betaCD) with 1,14-tetradecanedioic acid has been determined and refined to a final R=0.0693 based on 9824 observed reflections. Each diacid molecule threads through two betaCD monomers arranged in dimers thus, forming a pseudorotaxane. The end carboxylic groups of adjacent dimers, far apart and fully hydrated, are associated indirectly through water molecules. The positioning of the carboxylic groups with respect to the betaCD dimer and the H-bonds with water molecules are very similar to these of the corresponding complexes of the diacids with 12 and 13 carbon atoms. The bending in the middle of the aliphatic chain is more prominent, compared to that of the corresponding guests with less carbon atoms, thus the end carboxylic groups stay in the same height of the primary faces of the betaCD dimeric complex. As a consequence of the present structure, more close contacts are observed between calculated H-atoms of the guest and O-atoms of the host inside the cavity. This bending is allowed by the width of the betaCD dimer cavity at the secondary interface region.
The attempted conversion, by treatment with CsF/TBFA in MeCN, of acetylated derivatives of 2-chlorodifluoromethyl-2-deoxyhexopyranoses into their corresponding 2-trifluoromethyl derivatives was always accompanied by an elimination reaction. Thus, representative educts with the D-gluco- and D-manno-configuration gave derivatives of 2,3-dideoxy-2-trifluoromethyl-D-erythro-hex-2-enopyranose and 1,5-anhydro-2-deoxy-2-trifluoromethyl-d-arabino-hex-1-enitol, respectively. X-ray analyses are given for 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-chlorodifluoromethyl-2-deoxy-alpha-D-mannopyranose and 4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-2-trifluoromethyl-alpha-D-erythro-hex-2-enopyranose.
Isolation of 1,2:3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-glucoseptanose and 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-β-D-glucoseptanose from the mother-liquors from commercial scale preparation of 1,2:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-glucofuranose is described.
The selectivity in the synthesis of 1,2-cis glycofuranosides from dithiocarbonates, dithiocarbamates and phosphorodithioates is improved by combined use of silver triflate and catalytic amount of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) under mild conditions.
Both thiosemicarbazone groups of the derivative 1 of 3-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose underwent, on acetylation, a heterocyclization process to give (5R,5'R)-2,2'-diacetamido-4,4'-di-N-acetyl-5'-(1-deoxy-2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-D-erythritol-1-yl)-5,5'-bis(1,3,4-thiadiazoline) (2) as a major product. The X-ray diffraction data of a single crystal of 2 indicated the R,R configuration for the stereocenters of the thiadiazoline rings (C-5 and C-5'). In the solid state, 2 adopts a sickle conformation (by clockwise rotation of the C-2-C-3 axis of the sugar chain) which has a S//O 1,3-parallel interaction. In solution, as determined by (1)H NMR spectroscopy which included NOE experiments, a similar sickle conformation was observed. From the reaction mixture of acetylation of 1 was isolated the bis(thiadiazoline) 3 as a by-product. The configuration of the C-5 and C-5' stereocenters of 3 were respectively assigned as S,R by comparison of the physical and spectroscopic data of this compound with those of 2.
Geometry optimizations at the B3LYP level and single point calculations at the MP2 level are reported for the 4H5 and 5H4 conformations of methyl 3,4-di-O-acetyl-1,2-dideoxy-d-arabino-hex-1-enopyranuronate (methyl 3,4-di-O-acetyl-d-glucuronal), and methyl 3,4-di-O-acetyl-1,2-dideoxy-d-lyxo-hex-1-enopyranuronate (methyl 3,4-di-O-acetyl-d-galacturonal). Energy and geometry parameters are presented for the most stable optimized geometries. Conformational analysis of the acetoxy and methoxycarbonyl groups as well as the 1,2-unsaturated pyranoid ring is performed. It is demonstrated that both the acetoxy and methoxycarbonyl groups are planar and prefer cis over trans orientations with respect to the CO-O bond rotations. With regard to the AcO-R bond rotations some of the orientations are forbidden. The 4H5⇌5H4 conformational equilibrium in both methyl 3,4-di-O-acetyl-d-glucuronal (shifted towards 5H4) and methyl 3,4-di-O-acetyl-d-galacturonal (shifted towards 4H5) is the outcome of the competition between the vinylogous anomeric effect and quasi 1,3-diaxial interactions. It is demonstrated that the orientation of the 4-OAc group influences the strength of the quasi 1,3-diaxial interactions between 3-OAc and 5-COOCH3 groups. Theoretical results are compared with assignments based on 1H NMR studies.
The title compound 1,2-di-O-acetyl-5-O-benzoyl-3-deoxy-L-erythro-pentofuranose (5), a useful precursor for the stereospecific synthesis of beta-L-nucleoside analogues as potential antiviral agents, has been synthesised by a multi-step reaction sequence from L-xylose with a 38% overall yield. The preparation involved conversion of L-xylose to 1,2-O-isopropylidene-alpha-L-xylofuranose which, upon selective 5-O-benzoylation and subsequent radical deoxygenation, provided the protected 3-deoxy sugar derivative. Finally, cleavage of the acetonide group gave the resulting 5-O-benzoyl-3-deoxy-L-erythro-pentose which was acetylated to afford crystalline alpha,beta-5.
1,2-Migration and concurrent glycosidation of ethyl(phenyl) 2,3-orthoester-1-thio-alpha-D- and L-mannopyranosides under the action of TMSOTf readily afforded the corresponding 2-S-ethyl(phenyl)-2-thio-beta-glucopyranosides, ready precursors to 2-deoxy-arabino-hexopyranosides (2-deoxy-beta-glucopyranosides).
The paper reports the tin(II) chloride catalyzed reactions of diazodiphenylmethane with the cis- and trans-1,2-cyclohexanediols and R,S-1,2-propanediol in 1,2-dimethoxyethane and the identification of the monodiphenylmethyl ethers formed. The catalyst is shown to work for both the cis- and trans-cyclohexanediols, but the catalyst is unstable at high reagent concentrations, especially in the case of the trans-isomer. Conditions where catalyst destruction is negligible show that the rate of the reaction with the trans-isomer is larger than with the cis-isomer. The reactions with 1,2-propanediol show small difference between the selectivity for the primary and secondary hydroxyl groups. This is in contrast with the tin(II) chloride catalyzed reactions of diazomethane and diazophenylmethane in methanol with carbohydrates, glycerol and ribonucleosides, where the primary hydroxyl group does not react.
A 1,2-alpha-D-mannosidase was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of Bacillus sp. M-90, which was isolated from soil by enrichment culture on baker's yeast mannan. The purified enzyme had M(r) 380,000 Da, and was comprised of two apparently identical 190,000 Da subunits. It had a neutral optimum pH (7.0) and an isoelectric point of 3.6. The enzyme was highly specific for alpha 1,2-linked D-mannose oligosaccharides. An N-linked high-mannose type oligosaccharide, Man9GlcNAc2, was a good substrate, yielding Man5GlcNAc2, and the alpha 1,2-linked side chains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan were also specifically hydrolyzed by the enzyme. p-Nitrophenyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside and 1,2-alpha-D-mannobiitol were not hydrolyzed at all. Calcium ion, 1-deoxyman-nojirimycin, and swainsonine had no effect on the enzyme, but the activity was completely inhibited by EDTA. The mode of action on alpha 1,2-linked mannotetraose indicated that the enzyme is an exo-1,2-alpha-D-mannanase.
The synthesis and conformational studies of (+/-)-3-O-acetyl-1,2:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-allo-inositol and (+/-)-3-O-acetyl-1,2:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-6-O-methyl-allo-inositol are described. Solid state conformations of the title compounds have been studied by solving their X-ray crystal structures. The inositol ring in both the compounds deviate considerably from the ideal chair conformation to flattened chair conformation in the solid state. Their conformations in solution were studied by the use of 1H NMR spectroscopy. These conformational analyses revealed that the title compounds adopt similar conformations in solid and solution states irrespective of the solvent polarity.
The biological activity and crystal structure of (+/-)-1,2:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-3,6-di-O-(2-propylpentanoyl)-myo-inositol have been investigated. This compound shows better anticonvulsant activity than valproic acid (VPA) in the MES test as measured in mice. Its structure, determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements, shows that the inositol ring deviates from the ideal chair conformation and that the two 2-propylpentanoyl groups are located on opposite ring positions. This molecular conformation lets carbonyl and hydroxyl oxygen atoms to be available for hydrogen-bonding interactions, hinders carbonyl carbon atoms, preventing metabolic enzymatic hydrolysis, and helps to rationalize the observed inactive profile in the PTZ test. The anticonvulsant activity profile suggests a mechanism different from that of VPA.
Mono- and di-O-isopropylidene-l-sorbofuranose derivatives are important starting materials for the synthesis of modified sugars and useful chiral compounds. However, several inconsistencies in the spectral data of these compounds and erroneous structural assignments have been noted in the literature. The unambiguous synthesis of 1,2:4,6-di-O-isopropylidene-α-l-sorbofuranose and derivatives of 1,2- and 2,3-O-isopropylidene-α-l-sorbofuranoses has been achieved and definitive spectral data on these compounds are provided.
The preparation of 3,5-(E)-dieno-3,5,6,8-tetradeoxy-(S)-1,2-O-trichloroethylidene-alpha-D-glycero-octo-1,4-furano-7-ulose starting from either 1,2-O-(S)-trichloroethylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranose (beta-chloralose) or 1,2-O-(S)-trichloroethylidene-alpha-D-galactofuranose (galactochloralose) and the preparation of methyl 3,5-(E)-dieno-3,5,6-trideoxy-(S)-1,2-O-trichloroethylidene-alpha-D-glycero-hepta-1,4-furano-uronate starting from beta-chloralose are described. Endocyclic double bond formations were realised by the elimination of 3-acetoxy groups using DMF-sodium bicarbonate. This elimination was not successful when the starting compound was 1,2-O-(R)-trichloroethylidene-alpha-D-glucofuranose (alpha-chloralose), where the trichloromethyl group occupies the endo position.
Oxidation of 5-acetamido-4,8-anhydro-1,2,3,5-tetradeoxy-D-glycero-D-ido-non-1-enitol [3-C-(2-amino-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1-propene] was studied to search for preparative routes to aminodeoxy didehydro nonulosonic acid derivatives. Since only moderate chiral induction was observed with osmium tetroxide dihydroxylation as well as with peracid epoxidation, the catalytic asymmetric dihydroxylation conditions were applied to give the stereocontrolled formation of 1,2-propanediol derivatives. The structures of these diastereoisomeric 1,2-propanediol derivatives were determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses. The formation of diastereoisomeric 1,2-propanediols also varied with the nature of 2-substituent on the aminodoexy glycosyl moiety. Thus 5-acetamido-4,8-anhydro-3,5-dideoxy-D-erythro-L-ido-nonitol [(2S)-3-C-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-1,2-propanediol] was obtained predominantly up to 70% from 3-C-(2-acetamido-2-deoxyglycosyl)-1-propene by the use of ADmixbeta reagent. The (2S)-propanediol derivative was transformed in a five-step reaction sequence to 2,3-didehydro-2,7-dideoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid.
Lewis acid-promoted reactions of peracetylated sugars (glucose, galactose, maltose, lactose) with omega-bromo-1-alkanols (C(8), C(12)) were investigated. ZnCl(2) was found to promote the 1,2-trans-glycosylation of the alcohols in toluene at about 60 degrees C in a stereocontrolled manner with better yields than commonly employed promoters such as SnCl(4). The omega-bromoalkyl acetylated glycosides were readily converted to omega-mercaptoalkyl glycosides, which are useful for the preparation of glycoclusters.
It has been shown that certain prokaryotes, such as Campylobacter jejuni, have asparagine (Asn)-linked glycoproteins. However, the structures of their glycans are distinct from those of eukaryotic origin. They consist of a bacillosamine residue linked to Asn, an alpha-(1-->4)-GalpNAc repeat, and a branching beta-Glcp residue. In this paper, we describe a strategy for the stereoselective construction of the alpha-(1-->4)-GalpNAc repeat of a C. jejuni N-glycan, utilizing a pentafluoropropionyl (PFP) group as a temporary protective group of the C-4 OH group of the GalpN donor. The strategy was applied to the synthesis of the hexasaccharide alpha-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-alpha-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-[beta-Glcp-(1-->3)]-alpha-GalpNAc(1-->4)-alpha-GalpNAc-(1-->4)-GalpNAc.
A highly stereoselective synthesis of C-vinyl furanosides through the S(N)2 inversion at the C-3 position of the 1,2-dideoxy-hept-1-enitols is disclosed. Treatment of the 1,2-dideoxy-hept-1-enitols with diphenylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate as the acid catalyst produced the C-vinyl furanosides (3,6-anhydro-1,2-dideoxy-hept-1-enitol derivatives) via a subsequent S(N)2 intramolecular debenzyloxyation-cycloetherification reaction at the C-3 position.
One of the hydrolytic products of leucogenenol was synthesized, thereby confirming a part of its structure.The monoethoxy derivative of 5-methyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione was reduced with lithium aluminum hydride to 5-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (2), which was then hydroxylated with permanganate, and the product condensed with acetone to yield the 2,3-O-isopropylidene derivative (3) of 2,3-dihydroxy-5-methylcyclohexanone; this was treated with diazomethane to form the corresponding 3-oxirane (4) of the 1,2-isopropylidene acetal of 5-methyl-1,2-cyclohexanediol. The oxirane ring was hydrolyzed in the presence of alkali to yield the 1,2-O-isopropylidene derivative of 3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-methyl-1,2,3-cyclohexanetriol, which formed a diacetate and a dibenzoate, both of which showed four compounds in t.l.c. and g.l.c. Two of the components of the diacetates and dibenzoates had the same retention times and RF values as the corresponding derivatives obtained by the reduction and condensation with acetone of the diacetoxy and dibenzoxy derivatives from the dione isolated from leucogenenol.In addition, the 1,2-isopropylidene acetal of 3-acetoxy-3-(acetoxymethyl)- and 3-benzoxy-3-(benzoxymethyl)-5-methyl-1,2-cyclohexanediol prepared from the dione isolated from leucogenenol had i.r. and n.m.r. spectra that were indistinguishable from the spectra of the corresponding synthetic compounds having the same RF values. Oxidation, with ammonium vanadate in dilute sulfuric acid, of a mixture of two of the isomers of synthetic 3-acetoxy-3-(acetoxymethyl)- and 3-benzoxy-3-(benzoxymethyl)-5-methyl-1,2-cyclohexanediol yielded diones whose i.r. and n.m.r. spectra, and m.p. of the bis(phenylhydrazone) of the benzoxy derivative, were indistinguishable from those of the corresponding derivatives of the dione prepared from leucogenenol.