A recent review of Bignoniaceae for the "Catalogue of the vascular plants of Madagascar" has revealed new species in most of the genera present on the island. We provide descriptions of four new species in the genus Ophiocolea H. Perrier, a genus that is endemic to the Malagasy region: Ophiocolea ambrensis Callm. & Phillipson, Ophiocolea darainensis Callm., Phillipson & Nusb., Ophiocolea pauciflora Callm., Phillipson & Razan. and Ophiocolea ratovosonii Callm. & Phillipson. Field photographs and line drawings are provided for each of these four new species. Two species described previously, Ophiocolea decaryi H. Perrier and Ophiocolea velutina H. Perrier, are lectotypified. For all six treated species, we provide a short discussion on morphological affinities and eco-geography, and perform a conservation threat analysis based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.
Ramella, L. & P. Perret (ed.) (2012). Notulae ad Floram paraquaiensem, 112. Candollea 67: 187–189. In Spanish, French and English abstracts. Thirty-seventh installment of a series dedicated to the presentation of taxonomic, nomenclatural or floristic novelties in relation with the project “Flora del Paraguay” as well as complements to already published treatments. Organizational information and accounts on the advancement of the Flora are sometimes added by the editors. — Notula 112. Matelea balansae Morillo & Fontella (Asclepiadaceae), a new species for the flora of Paraguay, by Gilberto Morillo & Jorge Fontella Pereira.
RAMELLA, L. & P. PERRET (ed.) (2012). Notulae ad Flomm paraquaiensem, 112. Cando Ilea 67: 187-189. In Spanish, French and English abstracts. Thirty-seventh installment of a series dedicated to the presentation of taxonomic, nomenclatural or floristic novelties in relation with the project "Flora del Paraguay" as well as complements to already published treatments. Organizational information and accounts on the advancement of the Flora are sometimes added by the editors. - Nottila 112. Matelea balansae Morillo & Fontella (Asclepiadaceae), a new species for the flora of Paraguay, by Gilberto Morillo & Jorge Fontella Pereira.
Ramella, L. & P. Perret (ed.) (2013). Notulae ad Floram paraquaiensem, 116–117. Candollea 68: 73–85. In Spanish, French and English abstracts. Thirty-nineth installment of a series dedicated to the presentation of taxonomic, nomenclatural or floristic novelties in relation with the project “Flora del Paraguay” as well as complements to already published treatments. Organizational information and accounts on the advancement of the Flora are sometimes added by the editors. — Notula 116. Typifications and synonymy in the genus Crumenaria Mart. (Rhamnaceae) of the Flora of Paraguay, by Roberto D. Tortosa, Lorenzo Ramella & Patrick Perret. The authors present the typification of six names in the genus Crumenaria Mart. based on types collected in Paraguay; they lectotypify Crumenaria polygaloides subsp. paraguariensis Hassl. and Crumenaria polygaloides f. glabrata Chodat. They present the synonymy of Crumenaria lilloi Suess. including Crumenaria polygaloides subsp. paraguariensis Hassl. as a new synonym and of Crumenaria erecta Reissek with the specification of its correct date and place of publication. Notula 117. New records for the flora of Paraguay in the genus Mimosa (Mimosoideae, Leguminosae), by Matías Morales & Renée H. Fortunato. Mimosa dalyi Barneby, Mimosa dolens var. rigescens (Benth.) Barneby, Mimosa sensitiva L. var. sensitiva and Mimosa serra Burkart are mentioned for the first time for the flora of Paraguay. A short description of each taxon is provided with an illustration and comments about its morphologic variability, habitat and geographic distribution.
Pulvirenti S., M. M. Indriolo, P. Pavone & R. M. S. Costa (2015). Study of a pre-Linnaean Herbarium attributed to Francesco Cupani (1657–1710). Candollea 70: 67–99. In English, English abstract. The aim of this work is the study of one of the two pre-Linnaean herbaria belonging to the University of Catania, attributed to Francesco Cupani, a 17th century Sicilian botanist, specifically the volume with the inventory number “VII f2 Hortus Botanicus Catinensis”. The two collections were previously unknown and found in 1992 as a result of reorganising the Herbarium of Catania University. The volume examined comprises 164 pages with 1–12 specimens on each sheet. Most likely, some samples come from the Misilmeri Garden of the Prince of Cattolica, to which Cupani dedicated great commitment in its creation, while others may have been acquired from exchanges with contemporary scientists; this is testified by the presence of non-Sicilian or extra-European species and by the extensive correspondence between the Sicilian friar and many contemporary botanists. The material in the herbarium comprises phanerogams (610 angiosperms and 5 gymnosperms), along with a small number of cryptogams (14 pteridophytes, 9 algae and 1 lichen), and 4 marine animals are also present. Unfortunately, some samples are partially or entirely damaged or even missing; nonetheless it has been possible to identify most of them. The Cupani's herbarium is compared with some pre-Linnaean herbaria in order to highlight their main similarities and differences.
The contribution made by Martinus Houttuyn (1720-1798) to systematic botany has been widely underestimated. Fourteen volumes of the second part of his Natuurlijke Historie of Uitvoerige Beschrijving der Dieren, Planten en Mineraalen, published between 1773 and 1783, dealt with botany. Houttuyn popularized the Linnaean system and published more than 150 species and several genera. The historical context of this early botanical work is described. The history of the acquisition of Houttuyn's herbarium is outlined and an English translation of his auction catalogue is provided. We discuss Houttuyn's exotic herbaria from the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), Ceylon (Sri Lanka), Java (Indonesia), and Japan. Houttuyn did not go abroad to collect plants. His herbarium consisted of material from many collectors, with the vast majority of specimens collected by Thunberg, but collections were also made by Auge, Radermacher, Richter, and possibly von Wurmb, while material from unknown collectors is also present. The main set of Houttuyn herbarium, which proves to be present in the Geneva herbarium, was originally part of the Burman herbarium bought by Delessert in 1801 on the advice of Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle. It is now incorporated in the Pre-Linnaean herbarium (G-PREL). Much smaller sets from Java are present in Leiden (L) and Amsterdam (AMD, now in L). In many cases Houttuyn described new species on the basis of Thunberg specimens before Linnaeus f. or Thunberg did, whose identical but later names are based on the specimens in their own herbaria, and although some might consider these to be homonyms, we regard them as isonyms because their types are duplicates of the same gatherings. A selection of 111 names are discussed, most of which were published by Houttuyn in the Natuurlijke Historie. Others are linked to Burman, Thunberg, Linnaeus f. or A.-P. de Candolle. A total of 57 lectotypes and one epitype are designated.
The intensive geographical exploration of the world, starting in the mid eighteenth century, resulted in the discovery of numerous plant species new to science of which many were subsequently introduced into cultivation in Europe. Etienne-Pierre Ventenat (1757-1808) contributed widely to this process. After the end of his curatorial and teaching commitments at Sainte-Geneviève Abbey in Paris he became an active botanist following in the footprints of his mentor Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle (1746-1800). Ventenat was attracted by a trend of his period: publishing magnificent botanical books splendidly illustrated. He published three flower books from 1800 to 1808 on exotic plants recently brought to France from all over the world by various expeditions. Two flower books describe plants cultivated by Jacques-Martin Cels (1740-1806), an influential horticulturist who had built one of the most impressive plant collections of his period at Montrouge, just outside Paris. Another plant lover was Empress Joséphine (1763-1814). After her wedding with Napoléon Bonaparte (1769-1821), she bought in 1799 the splendid estate of Malmaison west of Paris. There the Empress assembled a remarkable collection of exotic plants, largely cultivated in her orangery and the "Grande Serre Chaude". She engaged Ventenat to describe her luxurious collection and the artist Pierre-Joseph Redouté (1761-1841), later known as the "Raphaël des fleurs", to depict the plants. This resulted in the famous flower book Jardin de la Malmaison, a masterpiece of botanical illustration. Ventenat, exhausted, passed away in 1808. His personal herbarium was bought in 1809 by Benjamin Delessert (1773-1847) whose herbarium was later donated to the City of Geneva in 1869. In his three flower books Ventenat treated a total of 343 plant names. A search in the herbaria of Geneva, Paris, Berlin and Madrid resulted in the finding of nearly all the original material relative to these names. A comprehensive list of names is provided here with comments on the origin of the plant material in the context of the explorations of this period, as well as information on typification and currently accepted names. In his three flower books Ventenat validated the names of 208 taxa (207 species and one variety) new to science: of these 67 are still accepted today as published while 52 are basionyms of names currently placed in another genera. Of these 208 names, lectotypification was not needed for 116 and the holotype has been found in G. For the remaining 92 names, 21 previous lectotypifications have been published but 5 of them needed a second-step lectotypification; 70 new lectotypes have been selected and one neotype. Further comments on the typification of ten species are also provided.
This bibliographic catalogue constitutes the first contribution towards the project Inventary of hepatics and mosses of Geneva. It presents, to the fullest extent possible, all the names of mosses from the canton of Geneva published between 1791 and 2001. The greatest majority of these records are from between 1791 and 1916. Little bryological research was carried out in the canton after this time and thus we have a large gap in our understanding of the local moss flora. This catalogue records 213 moss species from 102 genera and 34 families, this corresponds to close to 25% of the moss species present in Switzerland. Specimens were not verified for this work. The names of species as used in the old literature were updated according to modern species and nomenclatural concepts and were listed as they appeared in the original publication under each recognised species. Information on the collection locality, the collector and on the ecology, when given, were also included. Old place names have been updated to their modern use.
Thirty-eighth installment of a series dedicated to the presentation of taxonomic, nomenclatural or floristic novelties in relation with the project "Flora del Paraguay" as well as complements to already published treatments. Organizational information and accounts on the advancement of the Flora are sometimes added by the editors. - Notula 113. The collections of Johann Rudolph Rengger (1795-1832) in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. III. Typification of the names based on the Renggers' herbaria, by Lorenzo Ramella & Patrick Perret. The authors present the typification of 22 names whose type material was collected by J. R. Rengger and other collectors. To do this, they present an analysis of the geographical origin of the Renggers' collections and conclude that the majority of these were collected in Bahia (Brazil) and not Paraguay. For each name, the authors discuss the origin of the specimens and indicate the collections in which they are kept. The Rengger's type material consists of 31 specimens housed in the herbaria of P (21), US (7) and ZT (3). The types of 17 names (15 holotypes and 2 lectotypes ) are based on Renggers' collections and 5 on material of other collectors. Among the Renggers' collections, the types of 9 names have been collected in Brazil, the presence of these taxa in Paraguay requiring further confirmation. The origin of 8 other types have yet to be determined as well as the presence in Paraguay of the corresponding names. 4 lectotypes are designated for the following names: Fuirena haemaglottis Steud. (Cyperaceae), Panicům equinum Steud. (Gramineae), Pavonia sepium var. balansae Gurke (Malvaceae) and Nymphaea nervosa Lehm. (Nymphaeaceae). Finally, the authors confirm the presence in Paraguay of Cuphea pterosperma Koehne and Pavonia sepium var. balansae Gürke, but they exclude of the flora of Paraguay Nymphaea nervosa Lehm., Panicum cordifolium Steud. non Desv. and Panicum renggeri Steud. Notula 114. Ceiba samauma (Mart.) K. Schum. (Bombacaceae), a new record for the flora of Paraguay, by Juana De Egea, María Fátima Mereles & Gloria R. Céspedes. Ceiba samauma (Mart.) K. Schum. (Bombacaceae) is mentioned for the first time for the flora of Paraguay. Ecological observations, descriptions and images of diagnostic characters are included, as well as a key for the identification of Ceiba Mill, species existing in Paraguay. Notula 115. New combinations in the genus Euploca Nutt. (Boraginaceae) in Paraguay, by Rosa Degen Naumann & José Iranildo Miranda de Melo. The authors present 4 new combinations in the genus Euploca Nutt.: Euploca cerroleonensis (R. Degen) R. Degen, Euploca distantiflora (I. M. Johnst.) J. I. M. Melo & R. Degen, Euploca dunaensis (R. Degen) R. Degen and Euploca margaritensis (I. M. Johnst.) J. I. M. Melo & R. Degen.
In the late 18 th century, the Danish government planned to establish plantations in Danish Guinea (now southeastern
Ghana), and detailed botanical studies were initiated for this. Material of more than 600 species was collected, mostly
preserved at C, with duplicates at B, BM, FI-W, G, G-DC, K, LE, M, P-JU and S. Duplicates were distributed and
studied across Europe long before the publication of a treatment of the entire collection. Examples of research on
duplicates at B, C, G and G-DC illustrate how the material was sometimes described under different names during
this period, as when Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle in Geneva took up Thonning’s intended generic name Tricliceras
Thonn. ex DC. for a new genus, while Schumacher in Copenhagen named the same genus Wormskioldia Schumach. &
Thonn. This example also illustrates the contacts between Danish botanists and Candolle in Geneva, both directly and
via Marc Nicolas Puerari. A manuscript dealing with the entire Guinean collection was ready by 1819, but only published
when the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters took responsibility for it. Archival studies document that, on
30 June 1826, the Academy decided to publish Beskrivelse but not when and how a preprint became available. In a range
of libraries in Europe and USA there are copies of this preprint entitled Beskrivelse af Guineiske Planter and the year of
publication given as “1827 ”, while in the regular series of the Academy’s publications the first 228 pages of Beskrivelse
appeared in 1828 and the remaining 236 in 1829. The International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants
stipulates that the priority of all new names published in a work must be counted from the year indicated as the year of
publication on the work itself, unless this can be documented to be wrong, so 1827 must stand as the year of publication.
Soon after that, Beskrivelse became an important source of information on West African plants.
Less literature on liverworts and hornworts of the canton of Geneva is available than for the mosses. The only catalogue treating liverworts and hornworts for Geneva was published in 1888 by Dr. Henri Bernet. He recorded 43 species of liverworts from 27 genera, 22 families and one species of hornwort. In 1924 Charles Meylan added just a few more species in his flora Les hepatiques de la Suisse. Since then bryological activity in Geneva has been minimal. To provide a better understanding of the actual bryophyte flora of the canton, an inventory project was started at the Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Geneve. After the old taxonomic names were updated this catalogue provides a list of 48 liverwort species from 29 genera and one species of hornwort that have been recorded in the canton. The catalogue covers the period from the first record in 1838 up to the beginning of 2001. Seventy localities in the canton are mentioned in these records.
Lack, H.W. (2020). Theodor Kotschy in Iran, 1841–1843. Botanical collections and an early printed vegetation profile. Candollea 75: 31–43. In English, English abstract.
In 1841–1843 Theodor Kotschy travelled extensively in Iran and collected vast amounts of plant specimens. Edmond Boissier undertook the determinations of the material and validated numerous names new to science, often exclusively based on Kotschy's specimens. Subsequently Rudolf Friedrich Hohenacker arranged for the distribution of this material in two exsiccata series, which are today available for consultation in numerous herbaria. Kotschy's unknown botanical field book kept in the archive of the Herbarium Haussknecht in Jena is analysed for the first time and so is an exceedingly rare, printed vegetation profile published by Hohenacker in 1846, which summarizes Kotschy's pertinent sketches done in the field in southwestern Iran in 1842. Both documents are set into the context of their time and are shown to echo earlier works by Alexander von Humboldt done in tropical America. In addition, extensive information on Kotschy's travels in Iran is presented from Ludwig Ritter von Köchel's report as well as from archival material kept in the Herbarium Haussknecht and the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna.
Received: November 2, 2019; Accepted: February 4, 2020; First published online: March 24, 2020
Callmander, M. W., P. B. Phillipson & L. Gautier (ed.) (2012). Notes on the flora of Madagascar, 26. Candollea 67: 369–372. In English, English and French abstracts. Ongoing research on Madagascar's flora is revealing numerous taxonomic novelties and nomenclatural inconsistencies, and providing new data on species distribution. This is the fifth in a series of notes that aims to provide the botanical community working on the flora of Madagascar an opportunity to publish short communications on these topics, and in this issue comprises a single note. — Note 26. An endemic species of Rotheca Raf. (Lamiaceae) from Madagascar, by Martin W. Callmander & Peter B. Phillipson. A new combination is proposed for the only endemic species in the genus Rotheca Raf. (Lamiaceae): Rotheca nudiflora (Moldenke) Callm. & Phillipson. A generic key to Clerodendrum s.str. and its segregate genera: Rotheca and Volkameria L. is also presented.
Callmander, M. W., P. B. Phillipson, T. Deroin & L. Gautier (ed.) (2013). Notes on the flora of Madagascar, 30–34. Candollea 68: 301–320. In English and French, English and French abstracts. Ongoing research on Madagascar's flora is revealing numerous taxonomic novelties and nomenclatural inconsistencies, and providing new data on species distribution. This is the seventh set of notes in a series that aims to provide the botanical community working on the flora of Madagascar an opportunity to publish short communications on these topics, and this issue comprises five notes. — Note 30. Nomenclatural notes on Cryptocarya R. Br. (Lauraceae) from Madagascar, by Henk van der Werff. Five species of Malagasy Ravensara Sonn. are transferred to Cryptocarya R. Br. following the merging of these two genera and the accepted conservation of Cryptocarya over Ravensara. This necessitates two new combinations and two new names. The fifth species is placed in synonymy. — Note 31. Further nomenclatural notes on Malagasy Diospyros L. (Ebenaceae): Goudot types in the Geneva herbarium, by George E. Schatz, Porter P. Lowry II, Cyrille Mas & Martin W. Callmander. Discovery of several Goudot collections of Malagasy Diospyros L. deposited in the Geneva herbarium clarifies the typifications of Diospyros leucocalyx Hiern and Maba madagascariensis A. DC. Resolution of the type of Diospyros leucocalyx requires that the long used name Diospyros megasepala Baker be placed into synonymy under Diospyros leucocalyx Hiern. Past confusion between the two Paris specimens Perrier de la Bâthie 700 and Pervillé 700, the former of which is the type of Dichapetalum thouarsianum var. pubescens Desc. and the latter of which was previously cited as the type of Maba madagascariensis, is also discussed and clarified. — Note 32. Hybrid origin of Arthropteris boutoniana (Hook.) Pic. Serm. (Arthropteridaceae) from Mauritius and Madagascar, by France Rakotondrainibe & Catherine Reeb. The study of the Arthropteris Hook. f. collections from the Malagasy Region undertaken as a part of the revision of Filicophyta from Madagascar currently in progress, has revealed the intraspecific morphological heterogeneity of Arthtropteris boutoniana (Hook.) Pic. Serm. and demonstrated its hybrid origin. The putative parents are Arthropteris monocarpa (Cordem.) C. Chr. and Arthropteris orientalis (J. F. Gmel.) Posth. var. orientalis. The hybrid Arthropteris ×boutoniana is characterized by its hairy indusia, and its reduced fertility with few or totally aborted sporangia. It has been reported from Mauritius and Madagascar. — Note 33. Lectotypifications and a new combination in Polygala L. (Polygalaceae) from Madagascar, by Gregory A. Wahlert, Peter B. Phillipson & George E. Schatz. Polygala longeracemosa var. retamoides H. Perrier, narrowly distributed on soils derived from marble and quartzite in the Ambatofinandrahana area, was found to be morphologically distinct from the nominate variety. The authors conclude that it merits recognition at the rank of species and provide the necessary new combination; they also designate lectotypes for both taxa, and provide a key, preliminary conservation assessments and a distribution map. — Note 34. Adieu Adelosa Blume (Lamiaceae): Further observations on Rotheca Raf. for Madagascar, by Martin W. Callmander, Peter B. Phillipson, James A. Wearn & Rogier P. J. de Kok. Adelosa microphylla Blume is equated with the widespread and variable Rotheca incisa (Klotzsch) Steane & Mabb., and the status of the poorly-known Clerodendrum mirabile Baker and Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) Steane & Mabb. are examined. Two new combinations in the genus Rotheca Raf. are proposed.
Bidault, E. & W.J. van der Burg (2019). Novitates Gabonenses 90: Palisota (Commelinaceae) revisited: description of eight new species from Central Africa and notes on the identity of P. satabiei and P. bogneri. In English, English and French abstracts. Candollea 74: 169–202.
A review of the taxonomy of Palisota Rchb. ex Endl. (Commelinaceae) in Atlantic Central Africa, as a precursor to preparing a treatment of Commelinaceae for the Flore du Gabon, results in the description of eight new species: Palisota akouangoui E. Bidault & Burg, Palisota alboanthera Burg & E. Bidault, Palisota cristalensis E. Bidault & Burg, Palisota fadenii Burg & E. Bidault, Palisota leewhitei Burg, O. Lachenaud & E. Bidault, Palisota plicata E. Bidault & Burg, Palisota repens E.Bidault & Burg, and Palisota stevartii Burg & E. Bidault. A discussion is provided on the relevance of several morphological characters and on the taxonomy and delimitation of two poorly known species, Palisota bogneri Brenan and Palisota satabiei Brenan. The new species are described and illustrated with line drawings and field photographs, accompanied by a distribution map. A key to the Palisota species in Atlantic Central Africa is provided. Preliminary risk of extinction assessments indicate that three of them are “Endangered”, three are “Vulnerable”, one is “Near Threatened”, and one species is “Least Concern”. Thirty-two species are currently recognized in Palisota, nineteen of which occur in Gabon.
Thirtieth installment of a series dedicated to the presentation of taxonomic, nomenclatural or floristic novelties in relation with the project "Flora del Paraguay" as well as complements to already published treatments. Organizational information and accounts on the advancement of the project are sometimes added by the editors. - Notula 95. Marathrum (Podostemaceae), a new genus for Paraguay, by Jose Luis Fontana. The author reports the presence of Marathrum azarensis Tur for the paraguayan flora, first citation of the genus Marathrum Bonpl. for that country.
Thirty-first installment of a series dedicated to the presentation of taxonomic, nomenclatural or floristic novelties in relation with the project «Flora del Paraguay» as well as complements to already published treatments. Organizational information and accounts on the advancement of the project are sometimes added by the editors. - Notula 96. Catalogus Hasslerianus. Catalogue of the collections from Paraguay and contiguous regions made by Emil Hassler and others collectors, keeped at the Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève, by Lorenzo Ramella, Patrick Perret & Monica Soloaga. The authors present the publication of the first part of the Catalogus Hasslerianus, as well as the context, methodology and standardisation. Notula 97. Project Flora del Paraguay: database, catalogue, checklist and Flora, by Lorenzo Ramella, Raoul Palese, Patrick Perret, Monica Soloaga & Pierre-André Loizeau. The authors review the database of the project Flora del Paraguay and its impact on the editorial process, the curation of collections, the production of data and the publications. The web interface of the project is presented.
Thirtieth installment of a series dedicated to the presentation of taxonomic, nomenclatural or floristic novelties in relation with the project "Flora del Paraguay" as well as complements to already published treatments. Organizational information and accounts on the advancement of the project are sometimes added by the editors. - Notula 95. Marathrum (Podostemaceae), a new genus for Paraguay, by José Luis Fontana. The author reports the presence of Marathrum azarensis Tur for the paraguayan flora, first citation of the genus Marathrum Bonpl. for that country.
A lectotype is designated for the name Hexacentris mysorensis Wight (basionym of the name Thunbergia mysorensis (Wight) T. Anderson) (Acanthaceae). The choice of the lectotype is discussed and a photograph is provided.
Callmander, M. W., E. A. Tripp & P. B. Phillipson (2014). A new name in Ruellia L. (Acanthaceae) for Madagascar. Candollea 69: 81–83. In English, English and French abstracts. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies showed that the endemic Malagasy Eusiphon Benoist is nested within Ruellia L. (Acanthaceae). The authors here propose a new name to replace an illegitimate later homonym for Eusiphon longissimum Benoist: Ruellia quartziticola Callm., E. Tripp & Phillipson. This striking species is rare in the wild and endemic to the quartzite veins of the Highlands of Madagascar. Following IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Ruellia quartziticola is considered to be “ Critically Endangered”.
Recent investigations in the field have allowed a better understanding of the family Pandanaceae in the high elevation northern mountains of Madagascar (Manorigarivo, Marojejy and Tsaratanana). A taxonomic and phytogeographic survey of the species of Pandanus sect. Acanthostyla from high elevation in the northern massif is provided. Two new species of section Acanthostyla are described: Pandanus marojejicus Callmander & Laivao and Pandanus kuepferi Callmander & al., respectively from the Marojejy and the Tsaratanana. Eight species are actually known. Nearly all are endemic from only one massif.
AESCHIMANN, D., N. RASOLOFO & J.-P. THEURILLAT (2011). Analysis of the flora of the Alps. 1: historical account and biodiversity. Candollea 66: 27-55. In French, English and French abstracts. First in a series, this paper statistically analyzes some of the data published in "Flora alpina", i.e. that relating to the nomenclature and to the chorology in the Alps. An historical account of the knowledge of vascular plants recorded in the Alps is given: numbers of described taxa and new combinations made over time (two periods highlighted), principal authors and books. Biodiversity is characterized: number of taxa per taxonomic category, country, geographic sector and administrative division. The average taxonomic richness of the Alps is estimated at about 2200 taxa per 10,000 km(2) and a map shows the values calculated for each region. Endemism is also evaluated: by family, genus, country, sector, regrouping of sectors, division and the regrouping of divisions. The southern end of the western Alps and the south-western part of the eastern Alps are confirmed as the Alpine regions where the density of endemics and taxonomic richness are the highest.