Cancer Prevention Research

Published by American Association for Cancer Research
Online ISSN: 1940-6215
Armstrong and colleagues report the result of a large Phase IIb randomized trial evaluating the effectiveness of a preparation of the Bowman Birk Inhibitor compared with an oral placebo in reversing the extent of oral leukoplakia as measured visually by pathology or a battery of intermediate end points. In this editorial, we review the report of this negative clinical trials result to highlight the clinical trial process used in evaluating this previously promising chemoprevention agent. Publishing this report is important to address concerns with publication bias. The challenges in running a chemoprevention trial are reviewed with suggestions to enhance progress going forward. Conceptually, developing drugs to intercept the early stages of carcinogenesis is very attractive, but progress in this area has been slow. Two opportunities to overcome this reality are discussed. These measures include the broader use of neoadjuvant, window-of-opportunity trials with new candidate chemoprevention agents to get more textured information about the mechanistic impact of the drug exposure in previously untreated early tumor tissue. In addition, we discuss the use of new intermediate end point markers such as with optical imaging tools to obtain a more objective and quantitative assessment of drug response. Cancer Prev Res; 6(5); 371-4. ©2013 AACR.
Despite advances in screening and treatment, colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) are deregulated in colorectal cancer by silencing of the Cdk inhibitor p16(Ink4a) and other mechanisms. We tested whether the small molecule Cdk inhibitor SNS-032 (formerly BMS-387032), which targets Cdk2, Cdk7, and Cdk9, can prevent intestinal tumorigenesis in mouse models. We generated mice with high intestinal tumor loads by combining the multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mutation with Ink4a/Arf mutations and inducing colitis with dextran sulfate sodium. p16-null Min mice (n = 17) began dextran sulfate sodium treatment at week 5 and i.p. injection of carrier or SNS-032 at week 6. Mice were sacrificed at week 12. SNS-032 was well tolerated and reduced colon tumor burden to 36% of that in carrier-treated mice (P < 0.001). We then extended the study to Ink4/Arf-null Min mice (n = 14) and increased the drug dose frequency. SNS-032 treatment reduced the intestinal tumor number to 25% and intestinal tumor burden to 16% of carrier-treated mice (P < 0.0001). DNA synthesis in non-neoplastic and tumor epithelial cells, detected by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, was modestly reduced by acute SNS-032 treatment. The mitotic index, detected by histone H3 phosphorylation, was distinctly decreased (P < 0.03), and apoptosis, detected by caspase 3 activation, was increased (P < 0.005). These results show the chemoprevention of intestinal tumorigenesis by SNS-032. Our findings support further study of Cdk inhibitors for chemoprevention and therapy of colon cancer.
Photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 Hairless Mice by Downregulating Agonist, Inhibits Skin β Erb-041, an Estrogen Receptor
Estrogen receptors (ERs) including ERα and ERβ are known to regulate multiple biological responses in various cell-types. The expression of ERβ is lost in various cancers. ERβ-agonists were shown to modulate inflammation, cancer cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive properties of Erb-041, an ERβ agonist employing a model of UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 mice. Erb-041 significantly reduced UVB-induced carcinogenesis. Tumor numbers and volume were reduced by 60% and 84%, respectively in Erb-041-treated group as compared to UVB (alone) control. This inhibition in tumorigenesis was accompanied by the decrease in PCNA, cyclin D1, VEGF and CD31; and increase in apoptosis. The lost ERβ expression in SCCs was significantly recovered by Erb-041 treatment. Additionally, the UVB-induced inflammatory responses were remarkably reduced. Myeloperoxidase activity; levels of cytokines IL1β, IL6 and IL10; and expression of p-ERK1/2, p-p38, p-IκB, iNOS, COX-2 and nuclear NFκBp65 were diminished. The number of tumor-associated inflammatory cells (GR-1+/CD11b+ and F4/80+) was also decreased. Tumors excised from Erb-041-treated animal were less invasive and showed reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The enhanced expression of E-cadherin with the concomitantly reduced expression of N-Cadherin, Snail, Slug and Twist characterized these lesions. WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, which underlies pathogenesis of skin cancer was found to be down-regulated by Erb-041 treatment. Similar but not identical changes in proliferation and EMT regulatory proteins were noticed following treatment of tumor cells with a WNT-signaling inhibitor XAV939. Our results show that Erb-041 is a potent skin cancer chemopreventive agent which acts by dampening WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway.
MiR-100 and miR-125b are lost in many cancers and have potential function as tumor suppressors. Using both primary prostatic epithelial cultures and laser-capture-microdissected prostate epithelium from 45 patients enrolled in a vitamin D3 randomized trial, we identified miR-100 and -125b as targets of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D). In patients, miR-100 and -125b levels were significantly lower in tumor tissue than in benign prostate. Similarly, miR-100 and -125b were lower in primary PCa cells than in cells derived from benign prostate. Prostatic concentrations of 1,25D positively correlated with these miRNA levels in both PCa and benign epithelium, demonstrating that PCa patients may still benefit from vitamin D3. In cell assays, upregulation of these miRNAs by 1,25D was vitamin D receptor-dependent. Transfection of pre-miR-100 and pre-miR-125b in the presence or absence of 1,25D decreased invasiveness of cancer cell, RWPE-2. Pre-miR-100 and pre-miR-125b decreased proliferation in primary cells and cancer cells respectively. Pre-miR-125b transfection suppressed migration and clonal growth of PCa cells while knockdown of miR-125b in normal cells increased migration indicates a tumor suppressor function. 1,25D suppressed expression of previously bona fide mRNA targets of these miRNAs, E2F3 and Plk1, in a miRNA-dependent manner. Together, these findings demonstrate that vitamin D3 supplementation augments tumor suppressive miRNAs in patient prostate tissue, providing evidence that miRNAs could be key physiologic mediators of vitamin D3 activity in prevention and early treatment of PCa.
The lack of treatment for worried-well patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia combined with issues of recurrence and hormone resistance in prostate cancer survivors remains a major public health obstacle. The long latency of prostate cancer development provides an opportunity to intervene with agents of known mechanisms at various stages of disease progression. A number of signaling cascades have been shown to play important roles in prostate cancer development and progression, including the androgen receptor (AR) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. Crosstalk between these two pathways is also thought to contribute to progression and hormone-refractory prostate disease. Our initial investigations show that the naturally occurring organoselenium compound selenomethionine (SM) and the synthetic 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) can inhibit human prostate cancer cell viability; however, in contrast to SM, p-XSC is active at physiologically relevant doses. In the current investigation, we show that p-XSC, but not an equivalent dose of SM, alters molecular targets and induces apoptosis in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent LNCaP C4-2 human prostate cancer cells. p-XSC effectively inhibits AR expression and transcriptional activity in both cell lines. p-XSC also decreases Akt phosphorylation as well as Akt-specific phosphorylation of the AR. Inhibition of Akt, however, does not fully attenuate p-XSC-mediated downregulation of AR activity, suggesting that inhibition of AR signaling by p-XSC does not occur solely through alterations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt survival pathway. Our data suggest that p-XSC inhibits multiple signaling pathways in prostate cancer, likely accounting for the downstream effects on proliferation and apoptosis.
It is commonly agreed that there is an association of chronic inflammation with tumorigenesis. COX-2, a key regulator of inflammation-producing prostaglandins, promotes cell proliferation and growth; thus, overexpression of COX-2 is often found in tumor tissues. Therefore, a better understanding of the regulatory mechanism(s) of COX-2 could lead to novel targeted cancer therapies. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of microRNA-101 (miR-101)-regulated COX-2 expression and the therapeutic potential of exogenous miR-101 for COX-2-associated cancer. A stably expressing exogenous miR-101 prostate cancer cell line (BPH1(CmiR101)) was generated by using lentiviral transduction as a tool for in vitro and in vivo studies. We found that miR-101 inhibited COX-2 posttranscriptional expression by directly binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of COX-2 mRNA. The regulatory function of miR-101 was also confirmed by using antisense DNA. As a result, exogenous miR-101 is able to effectively suppress the growth of cultured prostate cancer cells and prostate tumor xenografts. The average tumor weight was significantly lower in the BPH1(CmiR101) group (0.22 g) than the BPH1(Cvec) group (0.46 g). Expression levels of the cell growth regulators, such as cyclin proteins, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), were also studied. In conclusion, COX-2 is a direct target in miR-101 regulation of posttranscription. Exogenous miR-101 suppresses the proliferation and growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that exogenous miR-101 may provide a new cancer therapy by directly inhibiting COX-2 expression.
Long-term exposure to estrogens including those in traditional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of developing hormone-dependent cancers. As a result, women are turning to over-the-counter (OTC) botanical dietary supplements, such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) and hops (Humulus lupulus), as natural alternatives to HRT. The two major mechanisms which likely contribute to estrogen and/or HRT cancer risk are: the estrogen receptor-mediated hormonal pathway; and the chemical carcinogenesis pathway involving formation of estrogen quinones that damage DNA and proteins, hence initiating and promoting carcinogenesis. Because, OTC botanical HRT alternatives are in widespread use, they may have the potential for chemopreventive effects on estrogen carcinogenic pathways in vivo. Therefore, the effect of OTC botanicals on estrogen-induced malignant transformation of MCF-10A cells was studied. Cytochrome P450 catalyzed hydroxylation of estradiol at the 4-position leads to an o-quinone believed to act as the proximal carcinogen. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis of estradiol metabolites showed that 4-hydroxylation was inhibited by hops, whereas black cohosh was without effect. Estrogen-induced expression of CYP450 1B1 and CYP450 1A1 was attenuated by the hops extract. Two phenolic constituents of hops (xanthohumol, XH; 8-prenylnaringenin, 8-PN) were tested: 8-PN was a potent inhibitor, whereas XH had no effect. Finally, estrogen-induced malignant transformation of MCF-10A cells was observed to be significantly inhibited by hops (5 μg/mL) and 8-PN (50 nmol/L). These data suggest that hops extracts possess cancer chemopreventive activity through attenuation of estrogen metabolism mediated by 8-PN.
Hierarchical clustering analysis of miRNAs between cancer cell lines and normal keratinocytes derived from oral tissues. A total of 11 samples, including 6 oral cancer cell lines and 5 lines of normal oral keratinocytes, were analyzed with a 470 miRNA – based microarray assay (Agilent Technology). A, the mean intensities of 470 miRNAs in 5 normal oral keratinocytes ( x -axis) versus 6 oral cancer cell lines ( y -axis) are shown. Intensity below 100 was considered as a weak signal. B, hierarchical cluster analysis to show the similarity of 23 miRNAs between cancer and normal groups. After fi ltering out the weak signals in the samples, 190 miRNAs were selected. Using ANOVA with FDR < 0.1 and a greater than 2-fold change of expression as selection criteria, 23 miRNAs were found to have signi fi cantly different expression levels between normal and cancerous cells. 
Clinical characteristics of patients recruited in this study
Summary of the 23 miRNAs with relative fold changes and P values between 6 oral cancer cell lines and 5 lines of normal keratinocytes, as determined by miRNA array method
Positive regulation of miR10b on cell migration and invasion A, effects on cell migration as determined by in vitro wound-healing assay. Cells, either transfected with miR-10b antagomir (Anti-10b) or the scramble oligonucleotides, were seeded in an ibidi culture insert (Applied BioPhysics, Inc.) on the top of a 6-well plate for 8 hours. The culture insert was then detached to form a cell-free gap in a monolayer of cells. After changing to culture medium with 1% fetal calf serum, cell migration toward the gap area was photographed after 6 hours. B, the quantitative results of the in vitro wound-healing cell migration assay at 6 and 12 hours. C, effects on cell invasion as determined by Matrigel invasion assay. Cells, either transfected with miR-10b antagomir or the scramble oligonucleotides, were seeded on the upper wells of the Millicell chamber (Millipore) coated with Matrigel (Becton Dickinson Biosciences). The lower chamber contained complete culture medium, which included 10% FBS to trap invading cells. After incubation at 37 C for 16 hours, the number of cells invading to the outer surfer of the Matrigel was stained and photographed. D, the quantitative results of Matrigel invasion assay for 12 and 24 hours. The number of cells invading through the Matrigel to the lower chamber was determined. Each experiment was carried out in duplicate. SC, scramble.
The miRNA participates in a variety of biologic processes, and dysregulation of miRNA is associated with malignant transformation. In this study, we determined specific profile of miRNA associated with oral cancer by using miRNA array screening method. There were 23 miRNAs found with considerably differential expressions between six oral cancer cell lines and five lines of normal oral keratinocytes, in which, 10 miRNAs showed the highest significant difference after independent examination by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Eight molecules were upregulated, miR-10b, miR-196a, miR-196b, miR-582-5p, miR-15b, miR-301, miR-148b, and miR-128a, and two molecules, miR-503 and miR-31, were downregulated. The most upregulated miR-10b was further examined, and its functions were characterized in two oral cancer cell lines. The miR-10b actively promotes cell migration (2.6- to 3.6-fold) and invasion (1.7- to 1.9-fold) but has minimal effect on cell growth or chemo-/radiosensitivity. Furthermore, miR-10b was considerably elevated in the plasma of xenografted tumor mice (20-fold). This upregulation of miR-10b in plasma was further shown in the patients with oral cancer [P < 0.0001, area under curve (AUC) = 0.932] and precancer lesions (P < 0.0001, AUC = 0.967), suggesting that miR-10b possesses a high potential to discriminate the normal subjects. In conclusion, we have identified at least 10 miRNAs significantly associated with oral cancer, including the most elevated miR-10b. The miR-10b actively participates in cancer formation by promoting cell migration and invasion. Our study using clinical samples suggests that plasma miR-10b has high potential as an early detection marker for oral cancer.
Inhibiting effects of resveratrol on TCDD-induced CYP1B1 expression. The representative immunoblots show that anti-CYP1B1 antibody recognizes a single 60.8-kDa band. Each lane contains 30 μ g of the cell lysate. Intensity of the bands was quantified and normalized, as described in Materials and Methods ( n = 3). A, CYP1B1 expression in MCF-10F cells treated with increasing concentrations of TCDD for 72 h. B, cells were treated with 10 nmol/L TCDD with or without increasing concentrations of resveratrol (0-50 μ mol/L) for 72 h. 
Induction of NQO1 expression and activity by resveratrol. A, NQO1 expression in MCF-10F cells treated with increasing concentrations of resveratrol (0 – 100 μ mol/L) for 48 h. B, cells were treated with 0, 25, or 50 μ mol/L resveratrol for 24 to 72 h. Each lane contained 30 μ g of cell lysate. Intensity of the bands was quantified by Alpha DigiDoc 1201 and normalized to β -actin. The representative immunoblots (from three replicates) show a single band of NQO1 protein at 30 kDa in MCF-10F cells. C, resveratrol induced enzymatic activity of NQO1 in MCF-10F cells. Freshly made E 2 -3,4-Q was used as the substrate and NADH as the cofactor. The levels of reaction product, 4-OHE 2 , in treated cells are significantly different from the untreated cells ( P < 0.05, as determined by ANOVA). Recombinant NQO1 protein (10 units) served as the positive control. Dicumarol (10 μ mol/L) was used to determine whether resveratrol-induced NQO1 could be inhibited. Gray column , E 2 -3,4-quinone in buffer; white column , E 2 -3,4-quinone + NADH; dotted column , E 2 -3,4-quinone + recombinant NQO1 protein + NADH; striped column , 
Profile of E 2 metabolites and depurinating DNA adducts in MCF-10F cells pretreated with resveratrol and TCDD and treated with E 2. Levels of (A) unmetabolized E 2 , (B) 4-OHE 1 (E 2 ), and (C) 4-OCH 3 E 1 (E 2 ) in culture medium pretreated with 10 nmol/L TCDD with or without 25 μmol/L resveratrol for 72 h and then incubated with E 2 (0.1-10 μmol/L) for 24 h. D, levels of depurinating DNA adducts in culture medium of cells treated with TCDD and/or increasing concentrations of E 2 for 24 h with or without resveratrol. The levels of DNA adducts in resveratrol-treated cells are significantly different from those in the cells not treated with resveratrol (P < 0.05, as determined by ANOVA). The estrogen metabolite and DNA adduct levels were corrected for recovery and normalized to cell numbers. Columns, mean of triplicate cultures from three experiments; bars, SD.
Antitransformation effects of resveratrol on TCDD- and/or E 2 -induced transformation. Control and treated cells 
Exposure to estrogens is a risk factor for breast cancer. Specific estrogen metabolites may initiate breast cancer and other cancers. Genotoxicity may be caused by cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidation of catechol estrogens to quinones that react with DNA to form depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts. CYP1B1 favors quinone formation by catalyzing estrogen 4-hydroxylation, whereas NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) catalyzes the protective reduction of quinones to catechols. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces CYP1B1 expression through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Resveratrol has anticancer effects in diverse in vitro and in vivo systems and is an AhR antagonist that decreases CYP expression but induces NQO1 expression. The chemopreventive effect of resveratrol on breast cancer initiation was investigated in MCF-10F cells. Its effects on estrogen metabolism and formation of estrogen-DNA adducts were analyzed in culture medium by high-performance liquid chromatography, whereas its effects on CYP1B1 and NQO1 were determined by immunoblotting and immunostaining. The antitransformation effects of resveratrol were also examined. TCDD induced expression of CYP1B1 and its redistribution in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Concomitant treatment with resveratrol dose-dependently suppressed TCDD-induced expression of CYP1B1, mainly in the cytoplasm. Resveratrol dose- and time-dependently induced expression of NQO1. NQO1 is mainly in the perinuclear membrane of control cells, but resveratrol induced NQO1 and its intracellular redistribution, which involves nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. Resveratrol decreased estrogen metabolism and blocked formation of DNA adducts in cells treated with TCDD and/or estradiol. Resveratrol also suppressed TCDD and/or estradiol-induced cell transformation. Thus, resveratrol can prevent breast cancer initiation by blocking multiple sites in the estrogen genotoxicity pathway.
Baseline characteristics of participants in the study population (protocols 007, 013, and 015) 
Time-to-event curves for (A) CIN 2 or worse related to HPV 6/11/16/18 and (B) VIN 2/3 or VaIN 2/3 related to HPV 6/11/16/18 in the intention-to-treat populations of protocols 007, 013, and 015. 
Analysis of efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18-related high-grade cervical lesions (CIN 2 or worse) by categories of baseline covariates 
Analysis of efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18-related high-grade vulvar and vaginal lesions by categories of baseline covariates 
Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to provide protection from HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease through 3 years. We provide an update on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions based on end-of-study data from three clinical trials. Additionally, we stratify vaccine efficacy by several baseline characteristics, including age, smoking status, and Papanicolaou (Pap) test results. A total of 18,174 females ages 16 to 26 years were randomized and allocated into one of three clinical trials (protocols 007, 013, and 015). Vaccine or placebo was given at baseline, month 2, and month 6. Pap testing was conducted at regular intervals. Cervical and anogenital swabs were collected for HPV DNA testing. Examination for the presence of vulvar and vaginal lesions was also done. Endpoints included high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal lesions (CIN 2/3, VIN 2/3, or VaIN 2/3). Mean follow-up time was 42 months post dose 1. Vaccine efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18-related high-grade cervical lesions in the per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations was 98.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 93.3-99.8] and 51.5% (95% CI, 40.6-60.6), respectively. Vaccine efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18-related high-grade vulvar and vaginal lesions in the per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations was 100.0% (95% CI, 82.6-100.0) and 79.0% (95% CI, 56.4-91.0), respectively. Efficacy in the intention-to-treat population tended to be lower in older women, women with more partners, and women with abnormal Pap test results. The efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical and external anogenital neoplasia remains high through 42 months post vaccination.
Modified STELA assay procedure  
Distribution of selected characteristics of EC cases and controls Variable Cases (n=94) Controls (n=94) P value
EC risk as estimated by telomere length Telomere length Cases, n (%) * Controls, n (%) * Adjusted OR ** (95% CI)
Shortened telomere length may cause chromosomal instability in Barrett's esophagus and thus promote tumorigenesis. However, whether short telomere length in all chromosomes or just some of them is associated with increased esophageal cancer (EC) risk is largely unknown. To address this question, we examined the overall and chromosome-specific telomere lengths of 17p, 12q, 2p, and 11q and assessed their associations with EC risk. In a case-control study with 94 EC cases and 94 matched controls, the overall telomere length and the chromosome-specific telomere lengths of 17p, 12q, 2p, and 11q in peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined by a real-time PCR and a modified single telomere length analysis assay, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between telomere length and EC risk. Compared with controls, EC patients had significantly shorter overall telomere lengths (P = 0.004) and chromosome-specific telomere lengths of 17p (P = 0.003) and 12q (P = 0.006) but not of 11q (P = 0.632) and 2p (P = 0.972). Furthermore, the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the short overall telomere length and chromosome-specific telomere lengths of 17p and 12q were associated with a dose-dependent increase in EC risk. Our study provides the first epidemiologic evidence that short telomere length of 17p and 12q plays an important role in esophageal carcinogenesis, suggesting that short telomere length of specific chromosomes is associated with the etiology of different cancer types.
No chemoprevention strategies have been proven effective for lung cancer. We evaluated the effect of 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), with or without α tocopherol, as a lung cancer chemoprevention agent in a phase II randomized controlled clinical trial of adult subjects at high risk for lung cancer as defined by the presence of sputum atypia, history of smoking, and airflow obstruction, or a prior surgically cured nonsmall cell lung cancer (disease free, >3 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 13-cis RA, 13-cis RA plus α tocopherol (13-cis RA/α toco) or observation for 12 months. Outcome measures are derived from histologic evaluation of bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by bronchoscopy at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcome measure is treatment “failure” defined as histologic progression (any increase in the maximum histologic score) or failure to return for follow-up bronchoscopy. Seventy-five subjects were randomized (27/22/26 to obervations/13-cis RA/13-cis RA/α toco); 59 completed the trial; 55 had both baseline and follow-up bronchoscopy. The risk of treatment failure was 55.6% (15 of 27) and 50% (24 of 48) in the observation and combined (13 cis RA plus 13 cis RA/α toco) treatment arms, respectively (odds ratio adjusted for baseline histology, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-2.66; = 0.95). Among subjects with complete histology data, maximum histology score in the observation arm increased by 0.37 units and by 0.03 units in the treated arms (difference adjusted for baseline, −0.18; 95% confidence interval, −1.16 to 0.81; = 0.72). Similar (nonsignificant) results were observed for treatment effects on endobronchial proliferation as assessed by Ki-67 immunolabeling. Twelve-month treatment with 13-cis RA produced nonsignificant changes in bronchial histology, consistent with results in other trials. Agents advancing to phase III randomized trials should produce greater histologic changes. The addition of α tocopherol did not affect toxicity.
Aberrant activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling has been implicated in the development and progression of multiple human cancers. During the process of skin tumor promotion induced by treatment with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), activation of epidermal Akt occurs as well as several downstream effectors of Akt, including the activation of mTORC1. Rapamycin, an established mTORC1 inhibitor, was used to further explore the role of mTORC1 signaling in epithelial carcinogenesis, specifically during the tumor promotion stage. Rapamycin blocked TPA-induced activation of mTORC1 as well as several downstream targets. In addition, TPA-induced epidermal hyperproliferation and hyperplasia were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner with topical rapamycin treatments. Immunohistochemical analyses of the skin from mice in this multiple treatment experiment revealed that rapamycin also significantly decreased the number of infiltrating macrophages, T cells, neutrophils, and mast cells seen in the dermis following TPA treatment. Using a two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) as initiator and TPA as the promoter, rapamycin (5-200 nmol per mouse given topically 30 minutes prior to TPA) exerted a powerful antipromoting effect, reducing both tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Moreover, topical application of rapamycin to existing papillomas induced regression and/or inhibited further growth. Overall, the data indicate that rapamycin is a potent inhibitor of skin tumor promotion and suggest that signaling through mTORC1 contributes significantly to the process of skin tumor promotion. The data also suggest that blocking this pathway either alone or in combination with other agents targeting additional pathways may be an effective strategy for prevention of epithelial carcinogenesis.
Telomeres play a critical role in maintaining genome integrity. Telomere shortening is associated with the risk of many aging-related diseases. Classic twin studies have shown that genetic components may contribute up to 80% of the heritability of telomere length. In the study we report here that we used a multistage genome-wide association study to identify genetic determinants of telomere length. The mean telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. We first analyzed 300,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 459 healthy controls, finding 15,120 SNPs associated with telomere length at P < 0.05. We then validated these SNPs in two independent populations comprising 890 and 270 healthy controls, respectively. Four SNPs, including rs398652 on 14q21, were associated with telomere length across all three populations (pooled P values of <10(-5)). The variant alleles of these SNPs were associated with longer telomere length. We then analyzed the association of these SNPs with the risk of bladder cancer in a large case-control study. The variant allele of rs398652 was associated with a significantly reduced risk of bladder cancer (odds ratio = 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.97; P = 0.025), consistent with the correlation of this variant allele with longer telomeres. We then conducted a mediation analysis to examine whether the association between rs398652 and reduced bladder cancer risk is mediated by telomere length, finding that telomere length was a significant mediator of the relationship between rs398652 and bladder cancer (P = 0.013), explaining 14% of the effect. In conclusion, we found that the SNP rs398652 on 14q21 was associated with longer telomere length and a reduced risk of bladder cancer and that a portion of the effect of this SNP on bladder cancer risk was mediated by telomere length.
Kaplan – Meier estimates of prevalent and incident oral HPV16 persistence in men ( n 1⁄4 23). 
Long-term persistence of prevalent and incident oral HPV16 infections in men (n ¼ 23)
Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 1-7. ©2014 AACR. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 can integrate into the host genome, thereby rendering the viral coding genes susceptible to epigenetic modification. Using bisulfite genomic sequencing, we determined the methylation status of all 110 CpG sites within the viral epigenome in advanced stage III/IV HPV-16-associated head and neck cancers. We found that the viral genome was hypomethylated in the majority of head and neck cancers, in particular within the viral regulatory region, long control region (LCR), which controls transcription of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. The hypomethylation status of LCR correlated with detectable levels of E6 and E7 expression, which suggests that the tumors may still be dependent on these viral oncogenes to maintain the malignant phenotype. In addition to the methylation status of LCR, we report other potential factors which may influence intratumoral E6 and E7 expression including viral copy number and integration site. We were able to detect the viral epigenetic alterations in sampled body fluids, such as serum and saliva, which correlated with the changes observed in the primary tumors. Because viral epigenetic changes occur in the setting of viral integration into the human genome, the detection of methylated HPV genes in the serum and/or saliva may have diagnostic potential for early detection strategies of viral integration and assessment of risk for cancer development in high-risk individuals. Our findings also support continued targeting of the E6 and/or E7 antigens through various vaccine strategies against HPV-associated cancers.
Differential methylation at 12 selected HPV16 CpGs in cervical cells from premalignant lesions with biopsy-confirmed diagnoses from our original study (34). The markers indicate cases diagnosed as CIN1 (open triangles), CIN2, or CIN3 (filled circles; A), and CIN2 (filled diamonds) and CIN3 (filled squares; B). A case was counted as methylated if it had any methylation at a given CpG. The methylation difference across the 12 CpGs was significant at P ? 0.0007 (A, Mann? Whitney test) and P < 0.0001 (B, Jonckheere?Terpstra test).  
Bisulfite PCR primers for amplification of the 12 CpGs in the HPV16 biomarker
ROC curves for the 12 CpG-based HPV16 methylation biomarker. The curves represent the discrimination between ICC and CIN1 (A), CIN3 and CIN1 (B), and CIN2 and CIN1 (C). Also shown are the AUCs and 95% CIs (in parentheses).  
Trend for increasing HPV16 biomarker methylation with increasing histologic severity
An accurate biomarker for the follow-up of women positive for human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) DNA may improve the efficiency of cervical cancer prevention. Previously we analyzed all 113 HPV16 CpGs in cervical cytology samples and discovered differential methylation at different stages of premalignancy. In the current study, we identified a methylation biomarker consisting of a panel of twelve HPV16 CpG sites in the E5, L2 and L1 open reading frames (ORFs), and tested whether it fulfilled three necessary conditions of a prospective biomarker. A total of 33 cytology samples from North American and West West African women with all grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) were analyzed by using DNA bisulfite-sequencing. The results showed (1) a highly significant trend for increasing HPV16 biomarker methylation with increasing histologic severity (P<0.0001), (2) 100% sensitivity for invasive cervical cancer (ICC) over a wide range of methylation cutoff scores; 80% detection of CIN3 at cutoff scores up to 39% methylation, and (3) substantially lower detection of CIN2, from 0% to 71%, depending on the cutoff score. Our results support the prognostic potential of the HPV16 methylation biomarker for the triage to colposcopy of women with HPV16-positive screening tests and, eventually, for the management of women with HPV16-positive CIN2.
Chemoprevention: From Mouse to Man  
The past decade has witnessed the unveiling of a powerful new generation of genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models of human cancer, which are proving to be highly effective for elucidating cancer mechanisms and interrogating novel experimental therapeutics. This new generation of GEM models are well suited for chemoprevention research, particularly for investigating progressive stages of carcinogenesis, identifying biomarkers for early detection and intervention, and preclinical assessment of novel agents or combinations of agents. Here we discuss opportunities and challenges for the application of GEM models in prevention research, as well as strategies to maximize their relevance for human cancer.
Ratios of reproductive tissues/body weight of uninfected and H. pylori-infected mice with hormone treatment. A) Testes and epididymis/body weight ratios (g/g) in male mice. B) Uterus/body weight ratios (g/g) in female mice (UFT n=1 due to pellet loss). ***P<0.001. Error bars represent SD.  
Corpus pathology after 28 weeks of H. pylori infection and 12 weeks of hormone treatment. A) Cumulative histopathology score of male mice and B) female mice. C) Representative H&E-stained sections (Original magnification = 10×; bar = 200µm). *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001. Error bars represent SD.  
Individual histopathology scores for gastric lesions of the corpus after 28 weeks of H. pylori infection and 12 weeks of hormone treatment in infected male mice. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001. Error bars represent SD.  
Immune cell infiltration of A) MPO+ neutrophils and B) F4/80+ macrophages in uninfected and H. pylori-infected mice after E2 or TAM treatment. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001. Error bars represent SD.  
Serum levels of cytokines and chemokines in A) uninfected and B) H. pylori-infected untreated males, E2 males and untreated females. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001. Error bars represent SD.  
Helicobacter pylori infection promotes male predominant gastric adenocarcinoma in humans. Estrogens reduce gastric cancer risk and previous studies showed that prophylactic 17β-estradiol (E2) in INS-GAS mice decreases H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis. We examined the effect of E2 and tamoxifen (TAM) on H. pylori-induced gastric cancer in male and female INS-GAS mice. After confirming robust gastric pathology at 16 weeks postinfection (WPI), mice were implanted with E2, TAM, both E2 and TAM, or placebo pellets for 12 weeks. At 28 WPI, gastric histopathology, gene expression, and immune cell infiltration were evaluated and serum inflammatory cytokines measured. After treatment, no gastric cancer was observed in H. pylori-infected males receiving E2 and/or TAM, whereas 40% of infected untreated males developed gastric cancer. E2, TAM, and their combination significantly reduced gastric precancerous lesions in infected males compared with infected untreated males (P < 0.001, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). However, TAM did not alter female pathology regardless of infection status. Differentially expressed genes from males treated with E2 or TAM (n = 363 and n = 144, Q < 0.05) associated highly with cancer and cellular movement, indicating overlapping pathways in the reduction of gastric lesions. E2 or TAM deregulated genes associated with metastasis (PLAUR and MMP10) and Wnt inhibition (FZD6 and SFRP2). Compared with controls, E2 decreased gastric mRNA (Q < 0.05) and serum levels (P < 0.05) of CXCL1, a neutrophil chemokine, leading to decreased neutrophil infiltration (P < 0.01). Prevention of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer by E2 and TAM may be mediated by estrogen signaling and is associated with decreased CXCL1, decreased neutrophil counts, and downregulation of oncogenic pathways.
On April 20, 2009, we lost a true gentleman and cancer researcher with the passing of Dr. Bandaru S. Reddy. Bandaru was a dear friend and distinguished colleague of many in the scientific community. To those fortunate enough to be included among Bandaru's “second family” of postdocs and visiting
MicroRNAs (miRs) are promising predictors in colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated whether miRNAs could predict adenoma recurrence in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma (ACRA) after polypectomy. MiRNA expression profiling was performed by miRNA microarray to identify recurrence related miRNAs. Candidate miRNAs extracted from FFPE blocks of ACRA patients were measured using real-time PCR. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate whether validated miRNA expression profiles were independent from other known adenoma recurrence risk factors. The prognostic values of six miRNAs and three independent risk factors were assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The expressions of six candidate miRNAs were significantly decreased from levels in normal colorectal tissue compared to ARCA with adenoma recurrence (RACRA) in this retrospective cohort. However, only miR-194 emerged as a practical predictor. The sensitivity and specificity of miR-194 as a predictor were 71.0% and 78.0%, respectively, at a cut-off value of 0.1311 in the retrospective cohort. Sensitivity and specificity were 76.1% and 77.2%, respectively, in the prospective cohort using the same cut-off value. Low expression levels of miR-194, adenoma size ≥2 cm and ≥3 adenomas were independent risk factors for adenoma recurrence. Moreover, low expression of miR-194 was a better predictor of adenoma recurrence than the adenoma size and numbers according to ROC curve analysis. MiR-194 may be an independent predictor for adenoma recurrence in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma after polypectomy.
![Figure][1] On December 31, 2013, the scientific community lost Dr. John A. Milner, an internationally respected scientist known for his work in human nutrition and cancer prevention. John served as Chief of National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Nutritional Science Research Group in the
Lung cancer mortality is the highest of any cancer. Primary prevention has stalled, however, new lung cancer screening trials of low-dose computerized tomography (LDCT) have shown that the mortality from lung cancer can be reduced by up to 20% among current and former smokers. There are potential harms that must be taken into account when evaluating any screening program. With LDCT, there is a 90% rate of false positives and the potential for high doses of radiation from subsequent workup of benign lesions. The development of biomarkers that might refine the ability of screening to identify individuals at high risk for developing and dying from lung cancer is a ripe area for investigation. Sevilya and colleagues have developed a highly promising set of biomarkers of DNA repair capacity that may satisfy that goal. The large estimate of risk, the thoughtful combination of functional assays of DNA repair capacity, and the population-based design of the study make it reasonable to test these biomarkers in a larger study. Cancer Prev Res; 7(4); 1-3. ©2014 AACR.
(A) Representative images of human premalignant (MSK-Leuk1) and malignant (SCC) head and neck cells stained with antibodies against CYP1B1, ERα and ERβ. Secondary antibody alone was used as a negative control (not shown). Magnification 40×. (B) Detection of ERα, ERβ and CYP1B1 in MSK-Leuk1, HNSCC and MCF-7 cells by Western blot. (C) Expression of estrogen metabolism genes in cultured human premalignant and malignant head and neck cells. Values (2 −ΔCt ) represent transcript levels (± standard deviation), normalized to the internal control (TFRC).  
(A) Effect of E 2 (1 nM for 24 hrs) on the expression of ERβ, CYP1B1 and COMT in cultured human premalignant (MSK-Leuk1) and malignant (SCC) head and neck cells. (B) Time course of the effect of E 2 treatment (1 nM) on CYP1B1 transcript levels in MSK-Leuk1 cells. Cells were incubated in phenol red free (MSK-Leuk1 and HNSCC cells) and charcoalstripped serum supplemented media (HNSCC cells) for 3 days prior to E 2 exposure. Bars represent mean percent (± standard error) relative to vehicle-treated control (100%).  
Effect of E 2 and CYP1B1 on the proliferation and apoptosis of MSK-Leuk1 cells. Cells were incubated in phenol red free and serum free medium containing either 1 nM E 2 or vehicle (0.01% ethanol) for 72 h. (A) CYP1B1 deficiency inhibits proliferation of MSK- Leuk1 cells (total DNA). (B) Exposure to E 2 inhibits apoptosis of MSK-Leuk1 cells (annexin). (C) Fulvestrant (1 μM) restores E 2 -mediated decrease of apoptosis in MSK- Leuk1 cells. All bars represent the mean of 3 replicates, ± standard error.  
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the sixth most common type of cancer in the United States. The goal of this study was to evaluate the contribution of estrogens to the development of HNSCCs. Various cell lines derived from early- and late-stage head and neck lesions were used to characterize the expression of estrogen synthesis and metabolism genes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1, examine the effect of estrogen on gene expression, and evaluate the role of CYP1B1 and/or estrogen in cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Estrogen metabolism genes (CYP1B1, CYP1A1, catechol-o-methyltransferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, and glutathione-S-transferase P1) and estrogen receptor (ER) β were expressed in cell lines derived from both premalignant (MSK-Leuk1) and malignant (HNSCC) lesions. Exposure to estrogen induced CYP1B1 2.3- to 3.6-fold relative to vehicle-treated controls (P = 0.0004) in MSK-Leuk1 cells but not in HNSCC cells. CYP1B1 knockdown by shRNA reduced the migration and proliferation of MSK-Leuk1 cells by 57% and 45%, respectively. Exposure of MSK-Leuk1 cells to estrogen inhibited apoptosis by 26%, whereas supplementation with the antiestrogen fulvestrant restored estrogen-dependent apoptosis. Representation of the estrogen pathway in human head and neck tissues from 128 patients was examined using tissue microarrays. The majority of the samples exhibited immunohistochemical staining for ERβ (91.9%), CYP1B1 (99.4%), and 17β-estradiol (88.4%). CYP1B1 and ERβ were elevated in HNSCCs relative to normal epithelium (P = 0.024 and 0.008, respectively). These data provide novel insight into the mechanisms underlying head and neck carcinogenesis and facilitate the identification of new targets for chemopreventive intervention.
Obesity, an established risk factor for epithelial cancers, remains prevalent in the United States and many other countries. In contrast to positive energy balance states (overweight, obesity), calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to act as a universal inhibitor of tumorigenesis in multiple animal models of human cancer. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying the enhancing effects of obesity or the inhibitory effects of CR on cancer etiology remain elusive. Here, we evaluated the impact of dietary energy balance manipulation on epithelial carcinogenesis and identified several potential mechanisms that may account for the differential effects of obesity and CR on cancer. Obesity enhanced tumor promotion during epithelial carcinogenesis, in part, due to altered insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R)/EGF receptor (EGFR) crosstalk and downstream signaling to effectors such as Akt/mTOR. Obesity-induced changes in cellular signaling subsequently led to altered levels of cell-cycle proteins that favored enhanced epidermal proliferation during tumor promotion. In contrast, CR reduced susceptibility to tumor promotion, attenuated IGF-1R/EGFR crosstalk and downstream signaling, and altered levels of cell-cycle proteins that favored reduced epidermal proliferation during tumor promotion. Collectively, these findings suggest potential targets for the prevention of epithelial cancers, as well as for reversal of obesity-mediated cancer development and progression. Cancer Prev Res; 5(10); 1236-46. ©2012 AACR.
Cancer is one of the major physical, social, and economic burdens and public health threats worldwide. Citizens everywhere face the challenge of dealing with the costs and devastation of this dreadful disease regardless of country of residence. In October 2009, a joint China-U.S. forum focusing on cancer prevention was held in Changsha, China. The goal of this timely joint conference was to provide a forum for the exchange of the most recent and relevant information on cancer control, translational cancer prevention research, and clinical trials in China and the United States. The scientifically driven symposium comprised didactic sessions that included discussions focused on identifying and validating effective chemopreventive agents and their molecular and cellular targets. A major highlight of the meeting was the participation of Chinese and American experts from Xiangya Medical School, Central South University and the Center for Health Policy and Management (China), and the National Institutes of Health (NIH, United States), who provided a unique insight into each country's public efforts and progress in cancer prevention. Participants clearly agreed that our current understanding of the many factors influencing cancer causation indicates that as much as two thirds or more of human cancers can be prevented. This perspective presents an overview of the progress being made in cancer prevention in China and the United States.
Bladder cancer is often associated with recurrence and progression to invasive metastatic disease that have palliative therapeutic options. The use of traditional chemotherapeutic agents for bladder cancer management often suffers from toxicity and resistance concerns. This emphasizes the need for development of safer, natural, nontoxic compounds as chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive agents. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a natural compound that has been known to possess anticancer properties in various cancers, including bladder cancer. However, the biological targets of curcumin are not well defined. Recently, it has been proposed that curcumin may mediate epigenetic modulation of expression of microRNAs (miRNA). In this article, we define for the first time, that curcumin directly induces a tumor-suppressive miRNA, miR-203, in bladder cancer. miR-203 is frequently downregulated in bladder cancer due to DNA hypermethylation of its promoter. We studied the functional significance of miR-203 in bladder cancer cell lines and found that miR-203 has tumor suppressive properties. Also, we define Akt2 and Src as novel miR-203 targets in bladder cancer. Curcumin induces hypomethylation of the miR-203 promoter and subsequent upregulation of miR-203 expression. This leads to downregulation of miR-203 target genes Akt2 and Src that culminates in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. This is the first report that shows a direct effect of curcumin on inducing epigenetic changes at a miRNA promoter with direct biological consequences. Our study suggests that curcumin may offer a therapeutic advantage in the clinical management of refractory bladder cancer over other standard treatment modalities.
Our previous study selected a promising chemopreventive agent 3,6-dihydroxyflavone (3,6-DHF), and found 3,6-DHF significantly up-regulates miR-34a and down-regulates miR-21 in breast carcinogenesis, yet the upstream and downstream events of the anticancer mechanism remain unclear. The present study showed that 3,6-DHF co-treatment effectively inhibits carcinogens-induced breast carcinogenic transformation in human breast epithelial MCF10A cells. The data revealed the significant down-regulation of miR-34a and up-regulation of miR-21 in breast carcinogenesis, which could be mitigated by 3,6-DHF treatment. Methylation-Specific PCR detections showed that 3,6-DHF inhibits the hypermethylation of the miR-34a promoter. Further studies indicated that 3,6-DHF is an effective methyltransferase (DNMT)1 inhibitor, docking to the putative cytosine pocket of the protein, and thus decreases the DNMT activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the ChIP-qPCR analysis for histone modifications showed that 3,6-DHF treatment significantly lowers the H3K9-14ac on the miR-21 promoter. Additionally, our study revealed that 3,6-DHF represses the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in breast carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of miR-34a or over-expression of miR-21 significantly reduced the effects of 3,6-DHF on Notch-1 and PTEN, and consequently weakened the suppression of 3,6-DHF on PI3K/Akt/mTOR. We concluded that 3,6-DHF up-regulates miR-34a via inhibiting DNMT1 and hypermethylation, while down-regulates miR-21 by modulating histone modification, and consequently suppresses the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in breast carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
ARHI is an imprinted tumor suppressor gene and is downregulated in various malignancies. However, ARHI expression, function, and mechanisms of action in prostate cancer have not been reported. Here, we report that ARHI mRNA and protein levels were downregulated in prostate cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Overexpression of ARHI inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, invasion, and induced apoptosis. Further studies on a new mechanism of ARHI downregulation showed a significant inverse relationship between ARHI and miR-221 and 222, which were upregulated in prostate cancer cell lines. Transfection of miR-221 and 222 inhibitors into PC-3 cells caused a significant induction of ARHI expression. A direct interaction of miR-221 or 222 with a target site on the 3'UTR of ARHI was confirmed by a dual luciferase pMIR-REPORT assay. Finally, we also found that genistein upregulates ARHI by downregulating miR-221 and 222 in PC-3 cells. In conclusion, ARHI is a tumor suppressor gene downregulated in prostate cancer, and overexpression of ARHI can inhibit cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. This study demonstrates for the first time that prostate cancer cells have decreased level of ARHI which could be caused by direct targeting of 3'UTR of ARHI by miR221/222. Genistein, a potential nontoxic chemopreventive agent, restores expression of ARHI and may be an important dietary therapeutic agent for treating prostate cancer.
CDDO-Im induces G2/M arrest in BRCA1-mutated cancer cells  
CDDO-Im activates DNA damage signaling in BRCA1-deficient cells A, UCN-01, a Chk1 inhibitor abrogated G2/M arrest induced by CDDO-Im. Flow cytometry analysis of synchronized W780 cells were released into the cell cycle in the absence or presence of 100 nM UCN-01 for 2 h pretreatment and/or 0.3 μM CDDO-Im for 24 h. The percentage of cells in different phases of the cell cycle was determined by using the Mod-Fit program (Materials and Methods). B, W780 cells were transfected with control or Chk1 siRNA. After serum starvation, flow cytometry analysis of synchronized W780 cells were released into the cell cycle in the absence or presence of 1 μM CDDO-Im for 3 h. The percentage of cells in different phases of the cell cycle was determined by using the Mod-Fit program (Materials and Methods). C, Chk1 siRNA abrogated G2/M arrest induced by CDDO-Im. Mean from three independent experiments; bars, SD. D, W0069 and W780 cells were exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 1 μM) of synthetic triterpenoids for 24 h and soluble protein extracts made were subjected to SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with the indicated antibodies. Representative immunoblots show the effect of synthetic triterpenoids treatment on the phosphorylation of Chk1 (Ser345), Chk2 (Thr168), and Cdc2 (Tyr15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 . α-Tubulin were used as a loading control.  
Triterpenoids induce ROS levels in BRCA1-mutated cancer cells A, W780 cells were treated 0 – 3 μM triterpenoids for 1 h, harvested, and loaded with H 2 DCFDA. The mean fluorescence intensity of 20,000 cells per group was detected by flow cytometry, and results are expressed as fold of control. EA, ethyl amide; Im, imidazolide; Me, methyl ester. B, Increased ROS by CDDO-Im were detected by flow cytometry in BRCA1-mutated cancer cell lines W780, W0069 and B8701. C, W780 and NIH3T3 cells were treated with 0 or 1 μM CDDO-Im for 1 h, harvested, and loaded with H 2 DCFDA. The mean fluorescence intensity of 20,000 cells per group was detected by flow cytometry, and results are expressed as fold of control.  
The induction of ROS generation is critically required for DNA damage by CDDO-Im and abrogated by loss of Chk1 A,W780 cells were incubated with an antioxidant, 1 mM uric acid for 1 h and treated with 0 to 1 μM CDDO-Im for an additional 1 h, harvested, and loaded with H 2 DCFDA. The mean fluorescence intensity of 20,000 cells per group was detected by flow cytometry, and results are expressed as fold of control. B, Comet assay expressed as average tail moment on W780 cells untreated, after incubation for 30 min in medium containing 100 μM H 2 O 2 in 4 °C, and after incubation for 1 h in medium containing 1 μM CDDO-Im with or without 1 mM uric acid for 1 h pretreatment. Measurement of mean tail moment was from 100 cells/slide from 15–20 randomly selected fields representing the whole area of each slide. Comet tail moments were determined using Comet Assay IV software. a, untreated; b, H 2 O 2 ; c, DMSO control; d, CDDO-Im; e, CDDO-Im + uric acid; f, uric acid alone. C, After transfection with control or Chk1 siRNA for 24 h, W780 cells were incubated with 1 μM CDDO-Im for 1 h, harvested, and loaded with H 2 DCFDA. The mean fluorescence intensity of 20,000 cells per group was detected by flow cytometry, and results are expressed as fold of each control. Mean from three independent experiments; bars, SD.  
Breast cancer-associated gene 1 (BRCA1) protein plays important roles in DNA damage and repair, homologous recombination, cell-cycle regulation, and apoptosis. The synthetic triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Imidazolide, CDDO-Im) is a promising anticancer and chemopreventive agent with potent antiproliferative and apoptotic activities against a wide variety of cancer types. However, the mechanisms responsible for the selective apoptotic effects of CDDO-Im in cancer cells remain elusive. In the present work, CDDO-Im induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis in BRCA1-mutated mammary tumor cell lines. Prior to the induction of apoptosis, CDDO-Im induced DNA damage and the phosphorylation of H2AX followed by activation of the DNA damage response. Moreover, CDDO-Im also induced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is associated with the induction of DNA damage, in both mouse and human tumor cells containing a BRCA1 mutation. The inhibition of ROS generation by uric acid prevented the induction of DNA damage by CDDO-Im. Furthermore, treatment with CDDO-Im did not induce ROS in nonmalignant MCF-10A breast epithelial cells or in E18-14C-27 breast cancer cells with wild-type BRCA1 genes and was not cytotoxic to normal mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, highlighting a selective therapeutic potential of CDDO-Im for BRCA1-associated breast cancer cells. Altogether, our results show that CDDO-Im induces ROS and subsequent DNA damage, thereby facilitating the activation of the DNA damage checkpoint, G2/M arrest, and finally apoptosis in BRCA1-mutated cancer cells. The particular relevance of these findings to the chemoprevention of cancer is discussed. Cancer Prev Res; 4(3); 425-34. ©2011 AACR.
Representative Staining for phosphorylated EGFR 
The soy compound genistein has been observed preclinically to inhibit bladder cancer growth with one potential mechanism being the inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation (p-EGFR). A phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigated whether daily, oral genistein (300 or 600 mg/d as the purified soy extract G-2535) for 14 to 21 days before surgery alters molecular pathways in bladder epithelial tissue in 59 subjects diagnosed with urothelial bladder cancer (median age, 71 years). G-2535 treatment was well tolerated; observed toxicities were primarily mild to moderate gastrointestinal or metabolic and usually not attributed to study drug. Genistein was detected in plasma and urine of subjects receiving G-2535 at concentrations greater than placebo subjects' but were not dose-dependent. Reduction in bladder cancer tissue p-EGFR staining between the placebo arm and the combined genistein arms was significant at the protocol-specified significance level of 0.10 (P = 0.07). This difference was most prominent when comparing the 300-mg group with placebo (P = 0.015), but there was no significant reduction in p-EGFR staining between the 600-mg group and placebo. No difference in normal bladder epithelium p-EGFR staining was observed between treatment groups. No significant differences in tumor tissue staining between treatment groups were observed for COX-2, Ki-67, activated caspase-3, Akt, p-Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), or p-MAPK. No significant differences in urinary survivin or BLCA-4 levels between treatment groups were observed. Genistein displayed a possible bimodal effect (more effective at the lower dose) on bladder cancer tissue EGFR phosphorylation that should be evaluated further, possibly in combination with other agents.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide, but it is truly a preventable disease. Both curcumin and boswellic acids are well-established dietary botanicals with potent anti-tumorigenic properties which have been shown to modulate multiple oncogenic pathways. Recent data suggest that the chemopreventive effects of these botanicals may in part be mediated through regulation of key cancer-related microRNAs (miRNAs) and their downstream gene targets. Here, we investigated the anti-tumorigenic effects of curcumin and 3 acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) on modulation of specific cancer-related miRNAs in CRC cells and validated their protective effects in vivo using a xenograft mouse model. Both curcumin and AKBA inhibited cellular proliferation, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in CRC cell lines, and these effects were significantly enhanced with combined treatment. Gene-expression arrays revealed that curcumin and AKBA regulated distinct cancer signaling pathways including key cell-cycle regulatory genes. Combined bioinformatics and in-silico analysis identified apoptosis, proliferation and cell-cycle regulatory signaling pathways as key modulators of curcumin and AKBA-induced anti-cancer effects. We discovered that curcumin and AKBA induced upregulation of tumor-suppressive miR-34a and downregulation of miR-27a in CRC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated in a mouse xenograft model that both curcumin and AKBA treatments suppressed tumor growth, which corresponded with alterations in the expression of miR-34a and miR-27a, consistent with our in vitro findings. Herein we provide novel mechanistic evidence for the chemopreventive effects of curcumin and AKBA through regulation of specific miRNAs in colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
MicroRNAs are potentially very useful biomarkers in the diagnosis of cancer. We sought to identify specific microRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) whose levels might facilitate diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). We investigated PBMC microRNA expression in three independent cohorts (healthy, benign pancreatic/peripancreatic diseases [BPD], and PC), comprising a total of 352 participants. First, we used sequencing technology to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in PBMC of PC, BPD and healthy controls (n=20 in each group). Then the selected microRNAs were analyzed using the quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays in the remaining 292 samples. The predictive value of the microRNAs was evaluated by logistic regression models and the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We found that miR-27a-3p level in PBMCs could discriminate PC from BPD with a sensitivity of 82.2% and specificity of 76.7% (AUC=0.840; 95% CI, 0.787-0.885). Combination of PBMC miR-27a-3p and serum CA19-9 levels provided a higher diagnostic accuracy with a sensitivity of 85.3% and specificity of 81.6% (AUC=0.886; 95% CI, 0.837-0.923).The satisfactory diagnostic performance of the panel persisted regardless of disease status (AUCs for tumor-node-metastasis stages I, II, and III were 0.881, 0.884, and 0.893, respectively). PBMC miR-27a-3p level represents a potential marker for PC screening. A panel combining serum CA19-9 and PBMC miR-27a-3p level could have considerable clinical value in diagnosing PC.
Effect of p28 on the development of mammary lesions in MMOC. A, effect of p28 on the development of MAL. Mammary glands were incubated either with DMBA alone or with DMBA and p28 or azurin for 10 d during the growth-promoting phase of MAL development. Glands were stained after 24 d of culture with alum carmine. a, control; b, azurin (50 μg/mL); c, p28 (12.5 μg/mL); d, p28 (25 μg/mL); e, p28 (50 μg/mL); f, p28 (100 μg/mL). A dose-related reduction in the number of MAL is observed in glands exposed to p28. B, effect of p28 on MDL in MMOC. Occluded mammary ducts (a) and normal histology of mammary ducts (b) in DMBA-treated glands exposed to p28. 
Effect of p28 and fenretinide on DMBA-induced mammary alveolar lesions in MMOC 
A, effect of the combination of fenretinide and p28 on MAL. B, effect of p28 and tamoxifen on MDL in MMOC. 
Effect of p28 and tamoxifen on DMBA-induced MDL in MMOC 
Azurin, a member of the cupredoxin family of redox proteins, preferentially penetrates human cancer cells and exerts cytostatic and apoptotic effects. Azurin and amino acids 50-77 (p28) of azurin also produce a dose-dependent reduction in the proliferation of human mammary cancer by increasing the level of the tumor suppressor protein p53 in the cancer cell nucleus. We show that the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hormone-dependent premalignant mammary ductal lesions and hormone-independent mammary alveolar lesions in mouse mammary gland organ culture is also significantly reduced by azurin and p28. The dose-dependent reduction in carcinogen-induced mammary cell proliferation by p28 was associated with an increase in the expression of p53. p28 also enhanced the inhibitory effect of a low dose of the antiestrogen tamoxifen on the development of hormone-dependent mammary ductal lesions, but did not enhance the inhibitory activity of fenretinide (N-4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide) on hormone-independent mammary alveolar lesions. These observations suggest that cupredoxins and fragments derived from them can exert a chemopreventive effect on carcinogen-induced mammary gland transformation, irrespective of hormonal environment, and enhance the inhibitory effects of tamoxifen in this model of preneoplastic mammary development.
The chemopreventive and antitumor properties of perillyl alcohol (POH) that were studied preclinically indicate that topical POH inhibits both UVB-induced murine skin carcinogenesis (squamous cell tumor models) and 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced murine melanoma (transgenic models involving tyrosinase-driven Ras). A previous phase 1 clinical trial in participants with normal-appearing skin showed that topical POH cream was well tolerated at a dose of 0.76% (w/w). Here, we performed a 3-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2a trial of two different doses of topical POH in individuals with sun-damaged skin. Participants applied POH cream twice daily to each dorsal forearm. Baseline and end-of-study biopsies were taken from each participant to evaluate whether the topical application of POH was effective in reversing actinic damage as evidenced by normalization of quantitative skin histopathologic scores and change in nuclear chromatin pattern as measured by karyometric analysis. There was a borderline reduction in the histopathologic score of the lower-dose POH group compared with the placebo (P = 0.1), but this was not observed in the high-dose group. However, in the high-dose group, a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of nuclei deviating from normal was observed by the use of karyometric analysis (P < 0.01). There was no statistical significance shown in the lower-dose group. No changes were observed in p53 expression, cellular proliferation (by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression), or apoptosis in either treatment group compared with the placebo group. These results suggest that whereas our karyometric analyses can detect a modest effect of POH in sun-damaged skin, improved delivery into the epidermis may be necessary.
The p75(NTR) functions as a tumor suppressor in prostate epithelial cells, where its expression declines with progression to malignant cancer. Previously, we showed that treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, induced p75(NTR) expression in the T24 cancer cell line leading to p75(NTR)-mediated decreased survival. Utilizing the indole moiety of indomethacin as a pharmacophore, we identified in rank-order with least efficacy, ketorolac, etodolac, indomethacin, 5-methylindole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-carbinol, and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) exhibiting greatest activity for induction of p75(NTR) levels and inhibition of cell survival. Prostate (PC-3, DU-145) and bladder (T24) cancer cells were more sensitive to DIM induction of p75(NTR)-associated loss of survival than breast (MCF7) and fibroblast (3T3) cells. Transfection of the PC-3 prostate cell line with a dominant-negative form of p75(NTR) before DIM treatment significantly rescued cell survival demonstrating a cause and effect relationship between DIM induction of p75(NTR) levels and inhibition of survival. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein prevented induction of p75(NTR) by DIM in the PC-3 prostate cell line. DIM treatment induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK as early as within 1 minute. Collectively, we identify DIM as an indole capable of inducing p75(NTR)-dependent apoptosis via the p38 MAPK pathway in prostate cancer cells.
Histo-Pathological Analysis No DIM-0ppm 5X Comparision of the cervical epithelium in wild type and transgenic mice receiving 0ppm DIM in the diet for 20 weeks. The wild type (left panel) shows a normal cervical epithelium. In the transgenic mouse (right panel) carcinoma in situ is illustrated.  
Histo-Pathological Analysis DIM-1000ppm 5X Comparision of the cervical epithelium in wild type and transgenic mice receiving 1000ppm DIM in the diet for 20 weeks. The wild type (left panel) shows a normal cervical epithelium. In the transgenic mouse (right panel) normal cervical epithelium is shown.  
Concentrations of DIM in Transgenic and Wild type Mice From Each Dose Groupg  
The human papilloma virus is the major cause of cervical cancer. Viral infection initiates cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, which progresses through several stages to cervical cancer. The objective of this study is to identify the minimum effective dose of diindolylmethane that prevents the progression from cervical dysplasia to carcinoma in situ. We document cervical histology in K14-HPV16 mice receiving different doses of diindolylmethane. Urinary diindolylmethane concentrations are reported. Diindolylmethane could enhance the efficacy of human papilloma virus vaccines, creating a new therapeutic use for these vaccines in women already infected with the virus. Five doses (0-2,500 ppm) of diindolylmethane were incorporated into each mouse diet. The reproductive tract was serially sectioned and urine was obtained for analysis of urinary diindolylmethane. The results indicate that 62% of mice receiving 1,000 ppm diindolylmethane remained dysplasia-free after 20 weeks compared with 16% of mice receiving no diindolylmethane and 18% receiving 500 ppm; 1,000 ppm of 3,3'-diindolylmethane in the diet completely suppressed the development of cervical cancer. Urinary diindolylmethane levels increased significantly as diindolylmethane in food increased. These findings imply usefulness for diindolylmethane in the search to prevent cervical cancer when used in combination with prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines.
Butyrate is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and has been extensively evaluated as a chemoprevention agent for colon cancer. We recently showed that mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene confer resistance to HDAC inhibitor-induced apoptosis in colon cancers. Here, we show that APC mutation rendered colon cancer cells resistant to butyrate-induced apoptosis due to the failure of butyrate to down-regulate survivin in these cells. Another cancer-preventive agent, 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), was identified to be able to down-regulate survivin in colon cancers expressing mutant APC. DIM inhibited survivin mRNA expression and promoted survivin protein degradation through inhibition of p34(cdc2)-cyclin B1-mediated survivin Thr(34) phosphorylation. Pretreatment with DIM enhanced butyrate-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells expressing mutant APC. DIM/butyrate combination treatment induced the expression of proapoptotic Bax and Bak proteins, triggered Bax dimerization/activation, and caused release of cytochrome c and Smac proteins from mitochondria. Whereas overexpression of survivin blocked DIM/butyrate-induced apoptosis, knocking down of survivin by small interfering RNA increased butyrate-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. We further showed that DIM was able to down-regulate survivin and enhance the effects of butyrate in apoptosis induction and prevention of familial adenomatous polyposis in APC(min/+) mice. Thus, the combination of DIM and butyrate is potentially an effective strategy for the prevention of colon cancer.
The migratory and invasive potential of the epithelial-derived tumor cells depends on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as the reorganization of the cell cytoskeleton. Here we show that the tricyclic compound TBE-31 directly binds to actin and inhibits linear and branched actin polymerization in vitro. Furthermore, we observed that TBE-31 inhibits stress fiber formation in fibroblasts as well as in non-small lung cancer cells during TGFβ-dependent EMT. Interestingly, TBE-31 does not interfere with TGFβ-dependent signaling or changes in E-cadherin and N-cadherin protein levels during EMT. Finally, we observed that TBE-31 inhibits fibroblast and non-small cell lung tumor cell migration with an IC50 of 1.0 and 2.5 µM, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that TBE-31 targets linear actin polymerization to alter cell morphology and inhibit cell migration.
P-S alone and in combination with DFMO inhibits colon cancer growth in a xenograft model A-Chemical structure of phospho-sulindac (P-S; OXT-328). B-D-HT-29 cells (2 × 10 6 ) were injected subcutaneously into the right and left flank of nude mice. Drug administration was started one week prior to tumor injection. Animals were gavaged with 100 mg/kg P-S once a day for 18 days. DFMO 2% (w/v) was dissolved in water. B-Body weight progression over the course of the study for vehicle control (◇), P-S (■), DFMO (▲) and P- S/DFMO (○) treated mice. No significant differences in body weight were observed among the various groups. C-Tumor volume growth over time for vehicle control (◇), P-S (■), DFMO (▲) and P-S/DFMO (○) treated mice. *Significantly different from all the other groups (p<0.01, one way ANOVA test). # Significantly different compared to P-S/DFMO group (p<0.05, one way ANOVA test). D-Tumor mass of the dissected tumors. Mean tumor size in mice treated with P-S, DFMO and the combination of the two was smaller than that of vehicle. All values: mean±SEM, *p<0.05.  
P-S/DFMO decreases proliferation, induces cell death by apoptosis, and reduces polyamine levels in human colon xenografts in mice  
P-S/DFMO decreases Trx-1 and TrxR expression levels in tumor xenografts in mice Tumor tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained with Trx-1 and TrxR. A. Representative images of Trx-1 for the various groups. The consecutive section was stained with isotype IgG as negative staining control. The number of Trx-1 positive cells was scored and ranked according to its intensity of each field. Trx-1 was expressed as IHC rank number of cells in the field. *Significantly different from control group (p<0.02, one-way ANOVA test; IHC staining, ×20). B. Tumor tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained with TrxR. Representative images of TrxR for the various groups. The consecutive section was stained with isotype IgG as negative staining control. The number of TrxR-positive cells was scored and ranked according to intensity of each field. TrxR was expressed as IHC rank number of cells in the field. *Significantly different from control group (p<0.01, one way ANOVA test; IHC staining, ×20). C. The association between tumor volume in HT-29 xenografts and TrxR expression score of all the study groups; R=0.85, p<0.01.  
Effect of P-S and DFMO on COX-2 and NF-κB in human colon xenografts A-P-S/DFMO decreases COX-2 expression levels in tumor xenografts in mice. Tumor tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained with COX-2. Representative images of COX-2 for the various groups. The consecutive section was stained with isotype IgG as negative staining control. The number and intensity of COX-2 positive cells were scored and ranked according to intensity of each field. COX-2 was expressed as IHC rank number of cells in the field. *Significantly different from control group (p<0.03, one-way ANOVA test; IHC staining, ×20). B-P-S/DFMO does not inhibit NF-κB activation in tumor xenografts in mice. Tumor tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained with phospho-NF-κB p65 (Ser276) antibody. Representative images of phospho-p65 for the various groups. The number of phospho-p65 positive cells were counted and expressed as percentage of the total number of cells in the field. (IHC staining, ×20). C. Scheme illustrating the molecular effectors affected by P-S/DFMO combination (highlighted in red), that lead to an increase in apoptosis and decrease in cell proliferation, finally culminating with a decrease carcinogenesis.  
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac and the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antagonist difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), individually and together, are effective inhibitors of colon carcinogenesis. However, chronic use of sulindac is associated with significant side effects. We evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of phospho-sulindac (P-S, OXT-328), an apparently safe derivative of sulindac, together with DFMO, in HT-29 human colon cancer xenografts. Nude mice were divided into four groups as follows: group 1 received vehicle (corn oil); group 2 received P-S (100 mg/kg/d) by oral gavage; group 3 received DFMO (2% in drinking water); and group 4 received P-S (100 mg/kg/d) by gavage plus DFMO (2% in drinking water; P-S/DFMO). Eighteen days after implantation, compared with controls, tumor volume was inhibited 65.9% by P-S, 52.9% by DFMO, and 70.9% by P-S/DFMO (P < 0.01 for all). P-S/DFMO reduced cell proliferation 27.1% and increased apoptosis 38.9% compared with controls (P < 0.05 for both). Compared with controls, P-S reduced the levels of thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), whereas DFMO reduced polyamine content (putrescine and spermidine) and TrxR levels. Importantly, P-S/DFMO decreased putrescine and spermidine levels and the expression of Trx-1, TrxR, and cyclooxygenase (COX) 2. Of these molecular targets, TrxR most consistently correlated with tumor growth. Study results show that P-S/DFMO is an efficacious drug combination for colon cancer prevention and also show the safety of P-S, which may overcome the limiting side effects of conventional sulindac. P-S/DFMO has an intricate mechanism of action extending beyond polyamines and including the thioredoxin system, an emerging regulator of chemoprevention. P-S/DFMO merits further evaluation.
We conducted this meta-analysis to examine the association between Helicobacter pylori and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We searched the PubMed database, the ISI database, and the references of the selected articles. Case-control or nested case-control studies were selected if they used serology or endoscopic methods to detect H. pylori in the stomach and if control subjects were not restricted to upper gastrointestinal tract cancer or peptic ulcer disease patients. A total of 19 studies were used for this analysis. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using the DerSimonian-Laird method. Q statistics and I(2) statistics were calculated to examine heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were conducted by CagA status. For EAC, the summary OR (95% CI) was 0.56 (0.46-0.68). There was little heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 15%). Further analysis showed that colonization with CagA-positive strains was inversely associated with EAC risk (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.28-0.62) but colonization with CagA-negative strains was not (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.76-1.53). For esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, the summary OR (95% CI) was 1.10 (0.78-1.55). However, there was substantial heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 73%), with statistically significant associations in both directions. Our results suggest an inverse association between CagA-positive H. pylori colonization and risk of EAC. The prominent decline of H. pylori colonization in the past few decades may be partly responsible for the recent increase in EAC incidence in Western countries.
Chemoprevention is a practical approach to control colorectal cancer, which is one of the major causes of cancer mortality in the United States. Based on our recent silibinin efficacy studies in human colorectal cancer cells, we investigated the effects of its dietary feeding on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and associated biomarkers in male Fisher 344 rats. Five-week-old male Fisher 344 rats were fed control or silibinin-supplemented (0.033%, 0.1%, 0.33%, or 1%, w/w) diet. After 2 weeks, AOM was injected once a week for 2 weeks while silibinin treatments were continued. In another protocol, identical silibinin treatments were done but started 2 weeks post-AOM initiation. All rats were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and colon samples were evaluated for ACF, followed by proliferation, apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, by immunohistochemistry and/or immunoblotting. Silibinin significantly (P < 0.001) reduced dose-dependently the number and multiplicity of AOM-induced ACF formation. Silibinin feeding in pre- and post-AOM initiation decreased mean number of ACF by 39% to 65% and in post-AOM initiation by 29% to 55%. Silibinin dose-dependently decreased AOM-induced colonic cell proliferation, evidenced by proliferative cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining, and induced apoptosis in these colon tissues, evidenced by terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, silibinin significantly decreased AOM-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase- and cyclooxygenase-2-positive cells in colon tissues. The present findings show possible beneficial activity of silibinin at least in early stage of colon tumorigenesis, suggesting that silibinin might be an effective natural agent for colorectal cancer chemoprevention.
Genetic changes observed in each histologic group on the 3p arm. Significant differences in the frequency of 3p alterations between LGDs and HGDs (P = 4.60 × 10 -4 ) and between HGDs and OSCCs (P = 0.025) were observed.  
The study of oral premalignant lesions (OPL) is crucial to the identification of initiating genetic events in oral cancer. However, these lesions are minute in size, making it a challenge to recover sufficient DNA from microdissected cells for comprehensive genomic analysis. As a step toward identifying genetic aberrations associated with oral cancer progression, we used tiling-path array comparative genomic hybridization to compare alterations on chromosome 3p for 71 OPLs against 23 oral squamous cell carcinomas. 3p was chosen because although it is frequently altered in oral cancers and has been associated with progression risk, its alteration status has only been evaluated at a small number of loci in OPLs. We identified six recurrent losses in this region that were shared between high-grade dysplasias and oral squamous cell carcinomas, including a 2.89-Mbp deletion spanning the FHIT gene (previously implicated in oral cancer progression). When the alteration status for these six regions was examined in 24 low-grade dysplasias with known progression outcome, we observed that they occurred at a significantly higher frequency in low-grade dysplasias that later progressed to later-stage disease (P < 0.003). Moreover, parallel analysis of all profiled tissues showed that the extent of overall genomic alteration at 3p increased with histologic stage. This first high-resolution analysis of chromosome arm 3p in OPLs represents a significant step toward predicting progression risk in early preinvasive disease and provides a keen example of how genomic instability escalates with progression to invasive cancer.
The Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) contributes centrally to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been suggested that the transcriptional activation of cyclin D1 by HBx is implicated in the development of HCC. However, numerous studies have shown that overexpression of cyclin D1 alone is not sufficient to drive oncogenic transformation. Herein we investigated whether HBx can stabilize cyclin D1 and induce cyclin D1 protein nuclear accumulation, and thereby accelerate hepatocarcinogenesis. The effects of HBx on cyclin D1 stabilization were assessed in cell-based transfection, western blot, immunoprecipitation, immunocytofluorescence staining and flow cytometry assays. The results demonstrated that ectopic expression of HBx in HCC cells could extend the half-life of cyclin D1 protein from 40~60 minutes to 80~110 minutes. HBx stabilized cyclin D1 primarily in the S phase of cell cycle, in a manner dependent on the inactivation of GSK-3β which was mediated by ERKs activation. HBx also prompted the nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1, and co-transfection of the constitutively active mutant of GSK-3β along with HBx could reverse the nuclear accumulation and subsequent cell proliferation induced by HBx. Further, a positive correlation between HBx and nuclear cyclin D1 level was established in HCC specimens detected by immunohistochemistry assay. Taken together, our results indicated that HBx could stabilize and increase cyclin D1 nuclear accumulation through ERKs-mediated inactivation of GSK-3β. This HBx-induced cyclin D1 up-regulation might play an important role in HCC development and progression. Copyright © 2015, American Association for Cancer Research.
To develop a relevant mouse model for prostate cancer prevention research, we administered a dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), to CYP1A-humanized mice. In comparison with mouse Cyp1a2, human CYP1A2 preferentially activates PhIP to a proximate carcinogen. Following a single oral dose of PhIP (200 mg/kg body weight), we observed inflammation, atrophy of acini, low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN; after 20 weeks), and high-grade PIN (HgPIN; after 30 to 50 weeks) in dorsolateral, ventral, and coagulating anterior prostate glands of these mice. These lesions were androgen receptor positive and featured the loss of expression of the basal cell marker p63 and the tumor suppressor PTEN. Similar to human prostate carcinogenesis, glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) expression was lost or partially lost in HgPIN. E-Cadherin expression was also lost in HgPIN. The expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 was elevated, possibly to enhance promoter hypermethylation for the silencing of GSTP1 and E-cadherin. Prostate carcinogenesis was promoted by a high-fat stress diet, resulting in HgPIN that developed earlier and in advanced lesions displayed features consistent with carcinoma in situ. This dietary carcinogen-induced prostate cancer model, recapitulating important features of early human prostate carcinogenesis, constitutes a new experimental system for prostate cancer research.
In humans, genetic variation and dietary factors may alter the biological effects of exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), one of the major heterocyclic amines generated from cooking meats at high temperatures that has carcinogenic potential through the formation of DNA adducts. Previously, we reported grilled red meat consumption associated with PhIP-DNA adduct levels in human prostate. In this study, we expanded our investigation to estimate the associations between beverage consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate for 391 prostate cancer cases. Of the 15 beverages analyzed, red wine consumption had the strongest association with PhIP-DNA adduct levels showing an inverse correlation in both tumor (P = 0.006) and nontumor (P = 0.002) prostate cells. Red wine consumption was significantly lower in African American compared with white cases, but PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate did not vary by race. In African Americans compared with whites, however, associations between red wine consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels were not as strong as associations with specific (e.g., SULT1A1 and UGT1A10 genotypes) and nonspecific (e.g., African ancestry) genetic variation. In a multivariable model, the covariate for red wine consumption explained a comparable percentage (13%-16%) of the variation in PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate across the two racial groups, but the aforementioned genetic factors explained 33% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in African American cases, whereas only 19% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in whites. We conclude that red wine consumption may counteract biological effects of PhIP exposure in human prostate, but genetic factors may play an even larger role, particularly in African Americans.
CDB-4124 (Proellex or telapristone acetate) is a modulator of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling, which is currently employed in preclinical studies for prevention and treatment of breast cancer and has been used in clinical studies for treatment of uterine fibroids and endometriosis. Here we provide evidence for its action on steroid hormone-signaling, cell cycle-regulated genes and in vivo on mammary carcinogenesis. When CDB-4124 is given to rats at 200 mg/kg for 24 months, it prevents the development of spontaneous mammary hyperplastic and premalignant lesions. Also, CDB-4124 given as subcutaneous pellets at two different doses suppressed, dose dependently, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The high dose (30 mg, over 84 days) increased tumor latency from 66 ± 24 days to 87 ± 20 days (P < 0.02), decreased incidence from 85% to 35% (P < 0.001), and reduced multiplicity from 3.0 to 1.1 tumors/animal (P < 0.001). Tumor burden decreased from 2.6 g/animal to 0.26 g/animal (P < 0.01). CDB-4124 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MNU-induced mammary tumors, which correlated with a decreased proportion of PR(+) tumor cells and with decreased serum progesterone. CDB-4124 did not affect serum estradiol. In a mechanistic study employing T47D cells we found that CDB-4124 suppressed G(1)/G(0)-S transition by inhibiting CDK2 and CDK4 expressions, which correlated with inhibition of estrogen receptor (ER) expression. Taken together, these data indicate that CDB-4124 can suppress the development of precancerous lesions and carcinogen-induced ER(+) mammary tumors in rats, and may have implications for prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.
Oral administration of licochalcone E (LicE) decreases the levels of IL-1ra, MMP-9, and MCP-1 in the lungs of 4T1 tumor-bearing BALB/c mice 
Oral administration of LicE inhibits solid tumor growth and lung metastasis in BALB/c mice injected with 4T1 cells. 4T1 cells (5  10 4 cells suspended in 0.1 mL Matrigel) were injected into the inguinal mammary fat pads of female BALB/c mice. One week after the injection, the mice were subjected to oral gavage with corn oil (vehicle) or LicE (7 or 14 mg/kg body weight/day) for 25 days. A, the tumor volume (mean AE SEM, n ¼ 15) was measured using calipers and calculated using the formula (0.52  long diameter  short diameter 2 ). à Significantly different from the vehiclefed group, P < 0.05. B, 32 days after the injection, all mice were sacrificed, and the tumors were excised from the mice and weighed. C and D, lungs were fixed in Bouin's solution. The numbers (C) and volumes (D) of tumor nodules in the lung were determined. Each bar represents the mean AE SEM (n ¼ 15). Means without a common letter differ, P < 0.05.
Oral administration of LicE increases apoptosis in 4T1 mammary tumors in BALB/c mice. Apoptotic cells were identified by TUNEL staining of tumor sections. Tumor sections were stained with an antibody raised against Bax, Bcl-2, or cleaved caspase-3 and counterstained with hematoxylin. A, representative images of TUNEL and the IHC staining are shown. B, the TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells were counted. C, the staining intensity of Bax, Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 was quantified. Each bar represents the mean AE SEM (n ¼ 5). Means without a common
We investigated whether licochalcone E (LicE), a phenolic constituent of licorice, inhibits mammary tumor growth and metastasis using animal and cell culture models. 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells were injected into the mammary fat pads of syngeneic BALB/c mice. Starting 7 days after the injection the mice received LicE (7 or 14 mg/kg body weight/day) via oral gavage for 25 days. LicE suppressed solid tumor growth and lung metastasis, but did not exhibit kidney or liver toxicity. In tumor tissues, LicE treatment induced a reduction in the expression of Ki67, cyclins, and cyclin-dependent kinases and stimulated apoptosis with increased expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 but decreased expression of Bcl-2. Additionally, LicE decreased expression of CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and C, VEGF-receptor 2, lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor-1, CD45, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and hypoxia inducible factor-1α in tumor tissues. In lung tissues, LicE reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis/metastasis-related proteins. In mammary cancer cell cultures, LicE (5-20 mumol/L) dose-dependently inhibited cell migration and invasion. LicE inhibited secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and VEGF-A, and stimulated secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, LicE inhibited tube formation of vascular endothelial cells. We demonstrate that LicE administration suppressed tumor growth and lung metastasis in the mouse model in conjunction with LicE inhibition of cell migration, invasion and tube formation in vitro. Reduced tumor growth and metastasis in LicE-treated mice may be, at least in part, attributed to reduced inflammation and tumor angiogenesis.
Top-cited authors
Kotha Subbaramaiah
  • Weill Cornell Medical College
J. Jack Lee
  • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Levy Kopelovich
  • National Institutes of Health
Chung S Yang
  • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Danielle K Turgeon
  • University of Michigan