Cancer Causes & Control

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Online ISSN: 1573-7225
Print ISSN: 0957-5243
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Predicted prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation among U.S. adolescents age 9–17. National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES), 2011–2018
  • Ran Zhao
    Ran Zhao
  • Anna Prizment
    Anna Prizment
  • Shalini Kulasingam
    Shalini Kulasingam
Purpose To compare human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination initiation and completion between Asian American adolescents and their peers. Methods HPV vaccine initiation and completion of adolescents aged 9–17 years old were analyzed using the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data from 2011 to 2018. The outcomes were HPV vaccine initiation percentage among all adolescents and completion percentage among initiators. Odds ratios for initiation or completion among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians (referred to as racial/ethnic minorities) versus Whites were compared using logistic regression, adjusted for adolescent’s age, annual family income, parent education, and insurance coverage. Results From 2011 to 2018, overall initiation was less than 40% among U.S. adolescents. The initiation increased among boys (from 10% in 2011–12 to over 30% in 2017–2018) but not among girls. Compared to White girls, Black and Hispanic girls were more likely, while Asian girls were less likely to initiate vaccination. Although not statistically significant, Asian girls had ORs ranging from 0.65 to 0.99 for initiation compared to White girls in each of the four survey cycles. Black and Hispanic boys were more likely to initiate vaccination compared to White boys. Initiation among Asian boys increased to 39% in the 2017–2018 survey cycle. Racial/ethnic minority girls were less likely to complete the series compared to White girls, while the opposite was seen in Black boys. Conclusion HPV vaccination status varies among racial/ethnic groups. Future efforts should be made to achieve the Healthy People 2020 goal of 80% vaccination among U.S. adolescents and address the gap among Asian American girls.
Purpose By requiring specific measures, cancer endorsements (e.g., accreditations, designations, certifications) promote high-quality cancer care. While 'quality' is the defining feature, less is known about how these endorsements consider equity. Given the inequities in access to high-quality cancer care, we assessed the extent to which equity structures, processes, and outcomes were required for cancer center endorsements. Methods We performed a content analysis of medical oncology, radiation oncology, surgical oncology, and research hospital endorsements from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), American Society of Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer (CoC), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), respectively. We analyzed requirements for equity-focused content and compared how each endorsing body included equity as a requirement along three axes: structures, processes, and outcomes. Results ASCO guidelines centered on processes assessing financial, health literacy, and psychosocial barriers to care. ASTRO guidelines related to language needs and processes to address financial barriers. CoC equity-related guidelines focused on processes addressing financial and psychosocial concerns of survivors, and hospital-identified barriers to care. NCI guidelines considered equity related to cancer disparities research, inclusion of diverse groups in outreach and clinical trials, and diversification of investigators. None of the guidelines explicitly required measures of equitable care delivery or outcomes beyond clinical trial enrollment. Conclusion Overall, equity requirements were limited. Leveraging the influence and infrastructure of cancer quality endorsements could enhance progress toward achieving cancer care equity. We recommend that endorsing organizations 1) require cancer centers to implement processes for measuring and tracking health equity outcomes and 2) engage diverse community stakeholders to develop strategies for addressing discrimination.
Consort diagram of participants in the study of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) cohort
Purpose Improved life expectancy has increased the likelihood for long-term complications from chemotherapy among cancer survivors. One burdensome complication is chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). We evaluated rates of CIPN outcomes in the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivorship (ROCS) cohort. Methods The population included 1,034 African American (AA) survivors who received chemotherapy for breast, colorectal, lung or prostate cancer. CIPN prevalence was based on initial occurrence of worsening of self-reported pain, numbness or tingling after chemotherapy. Current CIPN included symptoms still present at the time of the survey, and persistent CIPN symptoms were present 12 or more months post-chemotherapy. CIPN severity was ranked as mild, moderate or severe. Logistic regression was utilized to evaluate sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the various categories of CIPN. Results CIPN prevalence was 68%, with 53% current and 52% persistent. The symptom severity distribution based on prevalent CIPN included 32.2% mild, 30.8% moderate, and 36.9% severe. Factors associated with prevalent CIPN (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval) included primary cancer site (breast: 3.88, 2.02–7.46); and (colorectal: 5.37, 2.69–10.73), lower risk for older age at diagnosis (0.66, 0.53–0.83) and divorced/separated marital status (2.13, 1.42–3.21). Current CIPN was in addition, associated with more advanced stage disease trend (1.34, 1.08–1.66) and greater number of co-morbid medical conditions trend (1.23, 1.09–1.40), as was persistent CIPN. Severity of prevalent CIPN was associated with history of arthritis (1.55, 1.06–2.26) and severity of persistent CIPN with higher BMI (1.58, 1.07–2.35). Conclusions CIPN is a common and persistent complication in AA cancer survivors. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of CIPN predictors in all groups of cancer survivors.
Purpose To investigate the association between alcohol intake over the lifetime and the risk of overall, borderline, and invasive ovarian cancer. Methods In a population-based case–control study of 495 cases and 902 controls, conducted in Montreal, Canada, average alcohol intake over the lifetime and during specific age periods were computed from a detailed assessment of the intake of beer, red wine, white wine and spirits. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk. Results For each one drink/week increment in average alcohol intake over the lifetime, the adjusted OR (95% CI) was 1.06 (1.01–1.10) for ovarian cancer overall, 1.13 (1.06–1.20) for borderline ovarian cancers and 1.02 (0.97–1.08) for invasive ovarian cancers. This pattern of association was similarly observed for alcohol intake in early (15– < 25 years), mid (25– < 40 years) and late adulthood (≥ 40 years), as well as for the intake of specific alcohol beverages over the lifetime. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that a higher alcohol intake modestly increases the risk of overall ovarian cancer, and more specifically, borderline tumours.
Purpose Specific oral health conditions may be risk factors for breast cancer. This study aimed to investigate the associations of oral health conditions with breast cancer risk. Methods A total of 234,363 women from the UK Biobank prospective cohort were included in this study. We examined the association of self-reported painful/bleeding gums, loose teeth, mouth ulcers, toothache, and use of dentures with the risk of breast cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the associations were calculated with adjustment for multiple confounders. Results No associations of self-reported painful/bleeding gums (HR = 1.04, 95% CI 0.98–1.10), loose teeth (HR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.82–1.02), mouth ulcers (HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.93–1.06), toothache (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.92–1.14), or denture use (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.91–1.02) with breast cancer risk were found. No statistical heterogeneity was observed in analyses stratified by baseline smoking and menopausal status. Conclusion We observed no association between self-reported oral health conditions with the risk of breast cancer. Additional research with clinical examinations or oral health biomarkers in diverse populations is warranted.
The cumulative incidence of specific causes of death of bladder cancer patients diagnosed from 2000 to 2017 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database are bladder cancer (blue line), heart disease (red line), other cancer (green line), and other cause of death (black line) with each tile corresponding to a race-sex subgroup, namely white male, white female, Black male, Black female, Asian or Pacific Islander male, and Asian or Pacific Islander female. (Color figure online)
Purpose: Previous literature shows that more bladder cancer patients overall die from causes other than the primary malignancy. Given known disparities in bladder cancer outcomes by race and sex, we aimed to characterize differences in cause-specific mortality for bladder cancer patients by these demographics. Methods: We identified 215,252 bladder cancer patients diagnosed with bladder cancer from 2000 to 2017 in the SEER 18 database. We calculated cumulative incidence of death from seven causes (bladder cancer, COPD, diabetes, heart disease, external, other cancer, other) to assess differences in cause-specific mortality between race and sex subgroups. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression and Fine-Gray competing risk models to compare risk of bladder cancer-specific mortality between race and sex subgroups overall and stratified by cancer stage. Results: 17% of patients died from bladder cancer (n = 36,923), 30% died from other causes (n = 65,076), and 53% were alive (n = 113,253). Among those who died, the most common cause of death was bladder cancer, followed by other cancer and diseases of the heart. All race-sex subgroups were more likely than white men to die from bladder cancer. Compared to white men, white women (HR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.23) and Black women (HR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.49-1.66) had a higher risk of dying from bladder cancer, overall and stratified by stage. Conclusion: Among bladder cancer patients, death from other causes especially other cancer and heart disease contributed a large proportion of mortality. We found differences in cause-specific mortality by race-sex subgroups, with Black women having a particularly high risk of dying from bladder cancer.
Participants’ barriers to HPV vaccination acceptance (n = 40)
Background Despite the disparate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates among sexually active Black young adults, HPV vaccine uptake remains low among this population. This study aimed to explore HPV beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge among Black young adults and provide recommendations on ways to improve vaccine uptake. Methods We used a mixed-method, convergent design to conduct five focus groups and administered a 40-item electronic survey that was developed with health belief model (HBM) constructs. We assessed HPV and vaccine knowledge, barriers, and attitudes toward vaccination. We analyzed quantitative data using descriptive statistics and bivariate methods. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Results were integrated to obtain a better understanding of the topic. Results Forty individuals participated in the study. The mean age was 22.2 ± 4.5 years and 55% identified as African immigrants. Integrated data revealed themes mapped to relevant HBM constructs. Almost one third (32.5%) of participants were unaware of their susceptibility to HPV infection and its severity. From focus group discussions, the majority (75%) believed that vaccines are beneficial. Major cues to action include promoting HPV vaccine uptake via community wide informational sessions, provider recommendation, and social and mass media campaigns. Conclusion Barriers to vaccine uptake, limited HPV knowledge, and lack of vaccine recommendation are important factors contributing to low vaccine uptake among Black young adults. Interventions to decrease barriers to HPV vaccination, increase HPV knowledge, address misconceptions, and unfavorable beliefs are needed to promote HPV vaccine uptake.
Six overarching themes identified among patients and providers around healthcare utilization before, during, and after diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)
Purpose Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the precursor of multiple myeloma. This qualitative study described patient (n = 14) experiences and healthcare providers’ (n = 8) opinions and practices concerning care for patients with MGUS in the US. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results We identified six overarching themes related to the care pathway for patients with MGUS: (1) Process of MGUS diagnosis, (2) Providers’ explanations, (3) Patients’ understanding, (4) Impact of the diagnosis, (5) Follow-up/management, and (6) Factors influencing healthcare utilization. Patients demonstrated a basic understanding of MGUS. However, some patients felt anxiety around the diagnosis, which may affect other aspects of their lives. Non-hematologist providers report having less MGUS-specific knowledge. Older age, high-risk MGUS, and insurance coverage/healthcare costs influenced healthcare utilization. Conclusion Patients with MGUS may have difficulty processing this premalignant diagnosis. Non-hematologist providers may have gaps in knowledge around specific care for patients with MGUS.
Purpose According to the recently implemented organized cervical cancer screening program in Germany, women older than 35 years with negative cytology but persistent high-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) infection > 12 months should be referred to colposcopy for further evaluation. This study aimed to present and dissect colposcopic and histopathological findings with particular focus on associated hrHPV genotypes. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of clinical data from 89 hrHPV positive patients with normal cytology who underwent colposcopic examination at a certified dysplasia outpatient clinic in Germany in 2021. Results While 38 (43%) women had a normal colposcopic finding, 45 (51%) had minor and 6 (7%) major changes. Thirty-one (35%) of the women were HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 positive and 58 (65%) women were positive for other hrHPV only. Among patients who underwent colposcopy with biopsies (in case of an abnormal finding or type 3 transformation zone, n = 68), eight (12%) had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 and six (9%) had CIN 2. The proportion of women diagnosed with CIN 3 varied among different hrHPV genotypes (HPV 16: 11%, HPV 18: 33%, HPV 31: 27%, HPV 33: 33%, HPV 52: 33%). Conclusion Persistently hrHPV positive women with negative cytology are at increased risk of being diagnosed with CIN 3. As CIN 3 prevalence seems to differ with regard to hrHPV strain, immediate HPV genotyping for risk stratification and subsequent early referral for colposcopy might constitute a feasible strategy.
Purpose The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) requires that states develop comprehensive cancer control (CCC) plans and recommends that disparities related to rural residence are addressed in these plans. The objective of this study was to explore rural partner engagement and describe effective strategies for incorporating a rural focus in CCC plans. Methods States were selected for inclusion using stratified sampling based on state rurality and region. State cancer control leaders were interviewed about facilitators and barriers to engaging rural partners and strategies for prioritizing rural populations. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes across states. Results Interviews (n = 30) revealed themes in three domains related to rural inclusion in CCC plans. The first domain (barriers) included (1) designing CCC plans to be broad, (2) defining “rural populations,” and (3) geographic distance. The second domain (successful strategies) included (1) collaborating with rural healthcare systems, (2) recruiting rural constituents, (3) leveraging rural community–academic partnerships, and (4) working jointly with Native nations. The third domain (strategies for future plan development) included (1) building relationships with rural communities, (2) engaging rural constituents in planning, (3) developing a better understanding of rural needs, and (4) considering resources for addressing rural disparities. Conclusion Significant relationship building with rural communities, resource provision, and successful strategies used by others may improve inclusion of rural needs in state comprehensive cancer control plans and ultimately help plan developers directly address rural cancer health disparities.
Incorporating health equity principles in cancer prevention and control research
Purpose Although there is national recognition for health equity-oriented research, there is limited guidance for researchers to engage partnerships that promote health equity in cancer research. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s (CPCRN) Health Equity Work Group developed a toolkit to guide researchers in equitable collaborations. Methods The CPCRN’s Health Equity Work Group collectively outlined health and racial equity principles guiding research collaborations with partners that include communities, community-based organizations, implementing partners in the clinical setting including providers and health care organizations, and policy makers. Using a network-wide survey to crowdsource information around ongoing practices, we leveraged and integrated the network’s experience and collaborations. Results Data from the survey formed the preliminary basis for the toolkit, with a focus on sharing fiscal resources with partners, training and capacity building, collaborative decision-making, community-driven research agenda setting, and sustainability. The final toolkit provides reflection considerations for researchers and collated exemplary resources, supported by the contemporary research. Conclusions The toolkit provides a guide to researchers at all experience levels wanting to engage in equitable research collaborations. Future efforts are underway to evaluate whether and how researchers within and outside CPCRN are able to incorporate these principles in research collaborations.
Putative mechanisms of how obesity, physical inactivity and excessive energy intake promote different kinds of pathways that lead to cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis in breast tissue
Background Obesity is known to stimulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and both obesity and the mTOR signaling pathway are implicated in breast carcinogenesis. We investigated potential gene-environment interactions between mTOR pathway genes and obesity in relation to breast cancer risk among Black women. Methods The study included 1,655 Black women (821 incident breast cancer cases and 834 controls) from the Women’s Circle of Health Study (WCHS). Obesity measures including body mass index (BMI); central obesity i.e., waist circumference (WC) and waist/hip ratio (WHR); and body fat distribution (fat mass, fat mass index and percent body fat) were obtained by trained research staff. We examined the associations of 43 candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 mTOR pathway genes with breast cancer risk using multivariable logistic regression. We next examined interactions between these SNPs and measures of obesity using Wald test with 2-way interaction term. Results The variant allele of BRAF (rs114729114 C > T) was associated with an increase in overall breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–2.99, for each copy of the T allele] and the risk of estrogen receptor (ER)-defined subtypes (ER+ tumors: OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.04,3.29, for each copy of the T allele; ER- tumors OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.03,4.45, for each copy of the T allele). Genetic variants in AKT, AKT1, PGF, PRKAG2, RAPTOR, TSC2 showed suggestive associations with overall breast cancer risk and the risk of, ER+ and ER– tumors (range of p-values = 0.040–0.097). We also found interactions of several of the SNPs with BMI, WHR, WC, fat mass, fat mass index and percent body fat in relation to breast cancer risk. These associations and interactions, however, became nonsignificant after correction for multiple testing (FDR-adjusted p-value > 0.05). Conclusion We found associations between mTOR genetic variants and breast cancer risk as well as gene and body fatness interactions in relation to breast cancer risk. However, these associations and interactions became nonsignificant after correction for multiple testing. Future studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm and validate these findings.
Forest plot displaying hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the relationships between BMI and mortality for overweight and obese participants relative to normal weight participants. Estimates from minimally adjusted models (adjusted for age and sex) are displayed in light gray, while estimates from fully adjusted models are displayed in dark gray. Point estimates are stratified into three groups: A the full at-risk cohort with t=0 at enrollment (Risk Factor Questionnaire receipt), B the incident cancer cohort with t=0 at enrollment (Risk Factor Questionnaire receipt), and C the incident cancer cohort with t=0 at diagnosis date. These results are further subdivided into kidney-cancer-specific mortality and all-cause mortality
Purpose Body mass index (BMI) and kidney cancer mortality are inconsistently associated in the scientific literature. To understand how study design affects results, we contrasted associations between pre-diagnosis BMI and mortality under different analytic scenarios in a large, population-based prospective cohort study. Methods Using data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (1995–2011), we constructed two cohorts: a “full at-risk” cohort with no kidney cancer history at baseline (n = 252,845) and an “incident cancer” subset who developed kidney cancer during follow-up (n = 1,652). Cox Proportional Hazards models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between pre-diagnosis BMI and mortality for different outcomes (all-cause and cancer-specific mortality), in the different cohorts (full at-risk vs. incident cancer cohort), and with different covariates (minimally vs. fully adjusted). For the incident cancer cohort, we also examined time to mortality using different timescales: from enrollment or diagnosis. Results In the full at-risk study population, higher pre-diagnosis BMI was associated with greater cancer-specific mortality in fully adjusted multivariable models, particularly for obese participants [HR, (95% CI): 1.76, (1.38–2.25)]. This association was less pronounced in the incident cancer cohort [1.50, (1.09–2.07)]. BMI was not strongly associated with all-cause mortality in either cohort in fully adjusted models [full cohort: 1.03, (1.01, 1.06); incident cancer cohort: 1.20, (0.97, 1.48)]. Conclusions Populations characterized by high adult BMI will likely experience greater population burdens of mortality from kidney cancer, partially because of higher rates of kidney cancer diagnosis. Questions regarding overall mortality burden and post-diagnosis cancer survivorship are distinct and require different study designs.
Average relevance of the nine equity principles for the CPCRN
Average application of the nine equity principles
Health and racial equity guiding principles for the CPCRN
Reflecting their commitment to advancing health equity, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) established a Health Equity Workgroup to identify and distill guiding principles rooted in health equity, community-engaged participatory research (CBPR), social determinants of health, and racial equity frameworks to guide its collective work. The Health Equity Workgroup utilized a multi-phase, participatory consensus-building approach to: (1) identify recurrent themes in health and racial equity frameworks; (2) capture perspectives on and experiences with health equity research among CPCRN members through an online survey; (3) engage in activities to discuss and refine the guiding principles; and (4) collect case examples of operationalizing equity principles in cancer research. Representatives from all CPCRN centers endorsed nine core principles to guide the Network's strategic plan: (1) Engage in power-sharing and capacity building with partners; (2) Address community priorities through community engagement and co-creation of research; (3) Explore and address the systems and structural root causes of cancer disparities; (4) Build a system of accountability between research and community partners; (5) Establish transparent relationships with community partners; (6) Prioritize the sustainability of research benefits for community partners; (7) Center racial equity in cancer prevention and control research; (8) Engage in equitable data collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination practices; and (9) Integrate knowledge translation, implementation, and dissemination into research plans. Dissemination products, such as toolkits and technical assistance workshops, reflecting these principles will foster knowledge transfer to intentionally integrate health and racial equity principles in cancer prevention and control research.
Purpose Canada was a major global asbestos producer and consumer. Geographic patterns of Canadian asbestos use and mesothelioma, a highly fatal cancer linked to asbestos exposure, have not been previously reported. This study summarized key trends in mesothelioma incidence by geography and time in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and British Columbia (BC), and explored how past workforce characteristics and geographic trends in asbestos production and use may shape variations in regional rates of mesothelioma. Methods We report trends in mesothelioma incidence (1993–2016) for Ontario and British Columbia using population-based incidence data that were age-standardized to the 2011 Canadian population. Historical records of asbestos production and use were analyzed to geo-locate industrial point sources of asbestos in Ontario and BC. The prevalence of occupations in regions with the highest and lowest rates of mesothelioma in Ontario and BC were calculated using labor force statistics from the 1981 Canadian Census. Results Regional mesothelioma rates varied in both provinces over time; more census divisions in both Ontario and BC registered mesothelioma rates in the highest quintile of incidences during the period 2009 to 2016 than in any prior period examined. Certain occupations such as construction trades workers were more likely to be overrepresented in regions with high mesothelioma rates. Conclusion This work explored how studying asbestos exposure and mesothelioma incidence at small-scale geographies could direct cancer surveillance and research to more targeted areas. Findings indicated that regional variations in mesothelioma could signal important differences in past occupational and potentially environmental exposures.
Percent of Utah cancer survivors who report being a current smoker (a), getting no regular physical activity (b), whose pain is under control (c), who report good, very good, or excellent health (d), who are dissatisfied with life (e), and who experience limitations due to physical, mental, or emotional problems (f)
Percent of Utah cancer survivors who report that their cancer treatment was paid for by health insurance (a), who participated in a clinical trial as part of their cancer treatment (b), and who received a survivorship care plan summarizing their treatment and follow-up care instructions (c)
Purpose The 2016–2020 Utah Comprehensive Cancer Prevention and Control Plan prioritized strategies to address cancer survivorship experiences. In this paper we present estimates for nine indicators evaluating these priorities, trends over time, and assess disparities in survivorship experiences across demographic subgroups. Methods We surveyed a representative sample of Utah cancer survivors diagnosed between 2012 and 2019 with any reportable cancer diagnosis. We calculated weighted percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each indicator. We assessed change over time using a test for trend across survey years in a logistic regression model and used Rao-Scott F-adjusted chi-square tests to test the association between demographic characteristics and each survivorship indicator. Results Most of the 1,793 respondents (93.5%) reported their pain was under control, 85.7% rated their overall health as good, very good, or excellent, but 46.5% experienced physical, mental, or emotional limitations. Only 1.7% of survivors aged 75 or older were current smokers, compared to 5.8% of 65–74-year-olds and 7.9% of survivors aged 55–74 (p < 0.006). No regular physical activity was reported by 20.6% and varied by survivor age and education level. The proportion who received a survivorship care plan increased from 34.6% in 2018 to 43.0% in 2021 (p = 0.025). However, survivors under age 55 were significantly less likely to receive a care plan than older survivors. Conclusion This representative survey of cancer survivors fills a gap in understanding of the cancer survivorship experience in Utah. Results can be used to evaluate and plan additional interventions to improve survivorship quality of life.
of PCPR development and pilot trial steps
PurposeNew federal legislation in the United States grants patients expanded access to their medical records, making it critical that medical records information is understandable to patients. Provision of informational summaries significantly increase patient perceptions of patient-centered care and reduce feelings of uncertainty, yet their use for cancer pathology is limited.Methods Our team developed and piloted patient-centered versions of pathology reports (PCPRs) for four cancer organ sites: prostate, bladder, breast, and colorectal polyp. The objective of this analysis was to identify common barriers and facilitators to support dissemination of PCPRs in care delivery settings. We analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from pilot PCPR implementations, guided by the RE-AIM framework to explore constructs of reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance.ResultsWe present two case studies of PCPR implementation – breast cancer and colorectal polyps—that showcase diverse workflows for pathology reporting. Cross-pilot learnings emphasize the potential for PCPRs to improve patient satisfaction, knowledge, quality of shared decision-making activities, yet several barriers to dissemination exist.Conclusion While there is promise in expanding patient-centered cancer communication tools, more work is needed to expand the technological capacity for PCPRs and connect PCPRs to opportunities to reduce costs, improve quality, and reduce waste in care delivery systems.
A flowchart showing inclusion/exclusion criteria
A conceptual framework adopted from Andersen’s Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization to investigate associations between food security status and breast cancer screening among women aged 50–74 years in the United States
Purpose To assess the impact of food insecurity on biennial breast cancer screenings (i.e., mammography or breast X-ray) among older women in the United States (US). Methods Data from the 2014 and 2016 waves of the Health and Retirement Study and the 2013 Health Care and Nutrition Study were used. The analyses were limited to a nationally representative sample of 2,861 women between 50 and 74 years of age, residing in the US. We employed a propensity score weighting method to balance observed confounders between food-secure and food-insecure women and fit a binary logistic regression to investigate population-level estimates for the association between food security and breast cancer screening. Results Food insecurity was significantly associated with failure to obtain a mammogram or breast X-ray within the past two years. Food-insecure women had 54% lower odds of reporting breast cancer screening in the past 2 years (adjusted OR = 0.46; 95% CI 0.30–0.70, p-value < 0.001) as compared to food-secure women. Additional factors associated with a higher likelihood of receiving breast cancer screenings included greater educational attainment, higher household income, regular access to health care/advice, not smoking, and not being physically disabled or experiencing depressive symptoms. Conclusion Results demonstrate a socioeconomic gradient existing in regard to the utilization of regular breast cancer screenings among women. Those who tend to have lower education, lower income, and lack of reliable healthcare access are more likely to be food insecure. Thus, more likely to face the financial, logistical, or environmental barriers in obtaining screening services that accompany food insecurity.
Study constructs adapted from the Consolidated Framework of Implementation Research (CFIR)
Purpose Despite the importance of engaging community members in research, multiple barriers exist. We conducted a mixed-methods evaluation to understand the opportunities and challenges of engaging community members in basic, clinical, translational, and population science research. Methods We designed a survey and an interview guide based on the constructs of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Surveys were distributed electronically to all cancer center investigators and interviews were conducted virtually with a select group of basic, clinical, and population science investigators. Survey data (n = 77) were analyzed across all respondents using frequency counts and mean scores; bivariate analyses examined differences in responses by research program affiliation, gender, race, and faculty rank. Interviews (n = 16) were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a reflective thematic approach. Results There was strong agreement among investigators that “Community engagement in research will help the SKCC address cancer disparities in the catchment area” (M 4.2, SD 0.9) and less agreement with items such as “I know how to find and connect with community members who I can engage in my research” (M 2.5, SD 1.3). Investigators mentioned challenges in communicating complex science to a lay audience but were open to training and workshops to acquire skills needed to integrate community members into their research. Conclusion Cancer centers should develop and promote training and collaborative opportunities for investigators and community members. Overcoming challenges will lead to more patient- and community-centered cancer research in the future.
PurposeAlthough much emphasis has been placed on the impact of ambiguity on cognitive processes, the impact of mental health disorder symptoms and racial/ethnic disparities in cancer perception of fatalism and ambiguity remains less explored. This study explored the association between mental health disorder symptoms and negative cancer perceptions. Also, we assessed differences in these outcomes within mental health disorder symptoms and racial/ethnic subgroups to investigate the association between cancer perceptions and the other covariates within the aforementioned subgroups.Methods We used the 2019–2020 Health Information National Trends Survey data (N = 9,303) to assess the perception of cancer fatalism and cancer communication ambiguity and employed weighted multivariable logistic regression to determine the effects of mental health disorder symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4) scale on these negative cancer perceptions among United States adults.ResultsPeople with moderate [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.58, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.09, 2.31] and severe anxiety/depression (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.12, 3.14) symptoms were more likely to have cancer fatalism perceptions than people with no anxiety/depression symptoms. People with mild (AOR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.69) or severe (AOR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.03, 3.16) anxiety/depression symptoms were more likely to perceive cancer communication as ambiguous compared to people who had no anxiety/depression symptoms.Conclusions The study showed that mental health status was associated with both cancer fatalism and perceived cancer communication ambiguity. This suggests that interventions aimed at reducing mental health disorder symptoms may potentially reduce these negative perceptions, thereby improving participation in cancer prevention programs.
Biological effects of the neighborhood environments that impact cancer outcomes for Black individuals. Created by
Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with early onset of chronic diseases and reduced life expectancy. The involvement of neighborhood-level factors in defining cancer risk and outcomes for marginalized communities has been an active area of research for decades. Yet, the biological processes that underlie the impact of SES on chronic health conditions, such as cancer, remain poorly understood. To date, limited studies have shown that chronic life stress is more prevalent in low SES communities and can affect important molecular processes implicated in tumor biology such as DNA methylation, inflammation, and immune response. Further efforts to elucidate how neighborhood-level factors function physiologically to worsen cancer outcomes for disadvantaged communities are underway. This review provides an overview of the current literature on how socioenvironmental factors within neighborhoods contribute to more aggressive tumor biology, specifically in Black U.S. women and men, including the impact of environmental pollutants, neighborhood deprivation, social isolation, structural racism, and discrimination. We also summarize commonly used methods to measure deprivation, discrimination, and structural racism at the neighborhood-level in cancer health disparities research. Finally, we offer recommendations to adopt a multi-faceted intersectional approach to reduce cancer health disparities and develop effective interventions to promote health equity.
PurposePhysical activity (PA) is associated with many health benefits. While PA has been associated with reduced mortality after breast cancer diagnosis in many studies, few studies have examined the role of PA in breast cancer survival among underserved and minority populations, including Black women. We investigated PA in association with mortality among Black predominantly low-income breast cancer survivors in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS). Methods Study participants were women diagnosed with incident breast cancer (n = 949) in the SCCS, which is a prospective cohort study of predominantly low-income adults aged 40–79 years recruited from 12 Southeastern states between 2002 and 2009. Participants completed a detailed baseline questionnaire, with annual follow-up for mortality via registry linkages. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of pre-diagnosis PA (measured via a validated questionnaire) with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. ResultsBreast cancer survivors had a mean age of 61.1 years and most (79.3%) had a household income of < $25,000. In adjusted models, higher levels of total PA (MET-hours/day) were inversely associated with all-cause mortality with HRs (95% CIs): 0.79 (0.59–1.06), 0.66 (0.49–0.90), and 0.60 (0.43–0.84), for Q2, Q3, and Q4 (reference: Q1), respectively, ptrend ≤ 0.01. A similar inverse association was found for breast cancer-specific mortality.Conclusion Higher levels of pre-diagnosis PA were associated with improved survival among low-income Black breast cancer survivors. Resources to reduce barriers to PA participation and increase support for education and intervention efforts to promote PA among Black women are needed.
PurposeWe estimated human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation coverage among American Indian adolescents and identified factors associated with HPV vaccination among parents of these adolescents.Methods We developed, tested, and disseminated a survey to a random sample of 2,000 parents of American Indian adolescents aged 9–17 years who had accessed Cherokee Nation Health Services from January 2019 to August 2020. We used log-binomial regression to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted weighted prevalence proportion ratios (PPR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for adolescent HPV vaccine initiation.ResultsHPV vaccine initiation coverage (≥ 1 dose) was 70.7% among adolescents aged 13–17 years. The prevalence of HPV vaccine initiation was higher among American Indian adolescents whose parents were aware of the HPV vaccine (adjusted weighted PPR 3.41; 95% CI 2.80, 4.15) and whose parents received a recommendation from their provider (adjusted weighted PPR 2.70; 95% CI 2.56, 2.84). The most common reasons reported by parents to vaccinate their children were to protect them against HPV-associated cancers (25.7%) and receiving a recommendation from a healthcare provider (25.0%). Parents cited vaccine safety concerns as the main reason for not getting their children vaccinated (33.2%).ConclusionsHPV vaccine initiation coverage among American Indian adolescents in Cherokee Nation was consistent with the national survey estimates. However, allaying parental concerns about vaccine safety and encouraging providers to recommend the HPV vaccine could improve coverage.
Conceptual model demonstrating the multi-level constructs examined in relationship to ovarian cancer survival
Baseline & Follow-Up Questionnaires
Kaplan–Meier Curves by Race, Age-Standardized to AACES Population, and restricted to survival ≥ 10 months, SEER 2008–2013
Initial patient identification and process of approval to be contacted by the central study team by site
Purpose The causes for the survival disparity among Black women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are likely multi-factorial. Here we describe the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES), the largest cohort of Black women with EOC. Methods AACES phase 2 (enrolled 2020 onward) is a multi-site, population-based study focused on overall survival (OS) of EOC. Rapid case ascertainment is used in ongoing patient recruitment in eight U.S. states, both northern and southern. Data collection is composed of a survey, biospecimens, and medical record abstraction. Results characterizing the survival experience of the phase 1 study population (enrolled 2010–2015) are presented. Results Thus far, ~ 650 patients with EOC have been enrolled in the AACES. The five-year OS of AACES participants approximates those of Black women in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry who survive at least 10-month past diagnosis and is worse compared to white women in SEER, 49 vs. 60%, respectively. A high proportion of women in AACES have low levels of household income (45% < $25,000 annually), education (51% ≤ high school education), and insurance coverage (32% uninsured or Medicaid). Those followed annually differ from those without follow-up with higher levels of localized disease (28 vs 24%) and higher levels of optimal debulking status (73 vs 67%). Conclusion AACES is well positioned to evaluate the contribution of social determinants of health to the poor survival of Black women with EOC and advance understanding of the multi-factorial causes of the ovarian cancer survival disparity in Black women.
Breast cancer incidence rates and trends in Hawaiʻi by race and ethnicity and age, 1990–2014
PurposeTo characterize breast cancer (BC) incidence by age at diagnosis and BC subtype among disaggregated Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) women and non-Hispanic White (NHW) women in Hawaiʻi.Methods Using 1990–2014 data from the Hawaiʻi tumor registry, we estimated age-adjusted incidence rates (AAIR) of BC and the annual percent change in BC incidence by age (<50 and ≥50 years) and BC subtype (hormone receptor [HR]+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]−, HR+/HER2+, HR−/HER2+, triple negative BC) for Filipino American (FA), Japanese American (JA), Native Hawaiian (NH), and NHW women.ResultsAmong young (<50 years) women, annual BC incidence increased 2.9% (1994–2014) among JA and 1.0% (1990–2014) among NHW women. Incidence was highest among young JA women (2010–2014 AAIR 52.0 per 100,000; 95% confidence interval [CI] 45.6, 58.9). HR+/HER2− BC, the major BC subtype, was similarly highest among young JA women (AAIR 39.5; 95% CI 33.9, 45.4). Among older (≥50 years) women, annual BC incidence increased 1.6% (1990–2014) among FA and 4.2% (2006–2014) for JA women. BC incidence was highest among older NH women (AAIR 137.6, 95% CI 128.2, 147.4), who also displayed highest incidence of two subtypes: HR+/HER2− (AAIR 106.9; 95% CI 98.6, 115.5) and HR+/HER2+ (AAIR 12.1; 95% CI 9.4, 15.1).Conclusion We observed high and increasing BC incidence among JA women ages <50 years and high incidence among NH women ages ≥50 years. These results highlight racial and ethnic differences in BC incidence among disaggregated AANHPI populations in Hawaiʻi by age and BC subtype.
PurposeThe incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is rising in people under age 50 (early-onset). Early-onset survivors face CRC during a critical point in their lives; many are establishing their families and careers. We sought to identify the unmet needs in a sample of early-onset CRC survivors and the resources they desired to address those needs.Methods We conducted a mixed methods study where participants completed the Cancer Survivors Unmet Needs (CaSUN) survey and a subsequent qualitative interview to expand on their unmet needs and desired resources.ResultsA total of 12 CRC survivors participated and 83% identified at least one unmet need, with an average of 13 unmet needs reported. Unmet needs were identified across every domain of the CaSUN measure, most commonly in the existential survivorship domain. Qualitative results demonstrated that survivors need more resources tailored for people their age and additional support for their families, including young children.Conclusion Early-onset CRC survivors’ needs are framed by the stage of their lives in which they are diagnosed, and the demand for interventions to support these survivors will continue to rise. The results of this study can inform future, tailored interventions for early-onset CRC survivors with substantial needs.
Flow diagram shows selection of study cohort. aExcluded individuals diagnosed with in situ (n = 41) or advanced disease (stage III [n = 311] or IV [n = 165]), or unknown stage information (n = 492). MHOS Medicare health outcomes survey, HRQOL Health-related quality of life
Differences in weighted means with 95% CIs of SF-36/VR-12 A physical HRQOL T-scores for Adjuvant EBRT (index) vs Surgery alone (referent) and Adjuvant VBT (index) vs Surgery alone (referent), B mental HRQOL T-scores for Adjuvant EBRT (index) vs Surgery alone (referent) and Adjuvant VBT (index) vs Surgery alone (referent). Weighted using the estimated propensity score; Confounders include age at diagnosis, time from diagnosis to survey, year of diagnosis, race/ethnicity, marital status, education level, stage, grade, histologic subtype, lymph node assessment, comorbid conditions, and difficulty with activities of daily living. EBRT external beam radiation therapy, VBT vaginal brachytherapy, RT radiation therapy, SF-36 RAND Short-Form 36, VR-12 Veterans RAND 12
Purpose Radiation therapy (RT) has been associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in clinical trials of early-stage endometrial cancer (EC), but few studies have examined the association in real-world settings. We assessed HRQOL associated with adjuvant RT for older women with early-stage EC within a large U.S. population-based registry resource. Methods The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey linkage (1998–2017) was used to identify women with early-stage EC aged ≥ 65 years at survey who received surgery and were diagnosed ≥ 1-year prior (n = 1,140). HRQOL was evaluated with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) until 2006 and the Veterans RAND 12-Item Health Survey (VR-12) post 2006. Ordinary least squares regression was used to estimate mean difference (MD) in T scores and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing treatment groups (surgery alone, adjuvant external beam radiation therapy [EBRT], or adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy [VBT]) after accounting for confounders using propensity score weighting. Results Overall, RT was not associated with physical health (MD = 0.97; 95% CI = − 1.13, 3.07) or mental health (MD = − 0.78; 95% CI = − 2.60, 1.05) relative to surgery alone. In analyses by RT type, adjuvant VBT was associated with better general health on the SF-36/VR-12 subscale (MD = 3.59; 95% CI = 0.56, 6.62) relative to surgery alone. No statistically significant associations were observed for adjuvant VBT and physical or mental health, or for adjuvant EBRT and any HRQOL domain. Conclusion Older women with early-stage EC treated with adjuvant RT did not report worse physical and mental HRQOL scores compared to those treated with surgery alone, though relevant symptoms should be evaluated further to fully understand the disease and treatment specific aspects of the HRQOL.
Purpose: Recent meta-analyses suggest the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) increases high-grade prostate cancer (PC), although studies are inconsistent and few black men were included. We investigated MS and PC diagnosis in black and white men undergoing prostate biopsy in an equal access healthcare system. We hypothesized MS would be linked with aggressive PC, regardless of race. Methods: Among men undergoing prostate biopsy at the Durham Veterans Affairs Hospital, medical record data abstraction of diagnosis or treatment for hypertension (≥ 130/85 mmHg), dyslipidemia (HDL < 40 mg/dL), hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 150 mg/dL), diabetes, hyperglycemia (fasting glucose ≥ 100 ml/dL), and central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 40 inches) were done. Biopsy grade group (GG) was categorized as low (GG1) or high (GG2-5). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine MS (3-5 components) vs. no MS (0-2 components) and diagnosis of high grade and low grade vs. no PC, adjusting for potential confounders. Interactions between race and MS were also tested. Results: Of 1,051 men (57% black), 532 (51%) had MS. Men with MS were older, more likely to be non-black, and had a larger prostate volume (all p ≤ 0.011). On multivariable analysis, MS was associated with high-grade PC (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.21-2.48, p = 0.003), but not overall PC (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.88-1.57, p = 0.29) or low grade (OR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.62-1.21, p = 0.39). Results were similar in black and non-black men (all p-interactions > 0.25). Conclusion: Our data suggest that metabolic dysregulation advances an aggressive PC diagnosis in both black and non-black men. If confirmed, prevention of MS could reduce the risk of developing aggressive PC, including black men at higher risk of PC mortality.
Average annual number of adults treated with skin and non-skin cancers in the USA 2012–18. The values represent the mean estimates, and the vertical bars represent the 95% confidence intervals. M indicates million
PurposeWe report the prevalence and economic cost of skin cancer treatment compared to other cancers overall in the USA from 2012 to 2018.Methods Using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey full-year consolidated data files and associated medical conditions and medical events files, we estimate the prevalence, total costs, and per-person costs of treatment for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer among adults aged ≥ 18 years in the USA. To understand the changes in treatment prevalence and treatment costs of skin cancer in the context of overall cancer treatment, we also estimate the prevalence, total costs, and per-person costs of treatment for non-skin cancer among US adults.ResultsDuring 2012–15 and 2016–18, the average annual number of adults treated for any skin cancer was 5.8 (95% CI: 5.2, 6.4) and 6.1 (95% CI: 5.6, 6.6) million, respectively, while the average annual number of adults treated for non-skin cancers rose from 10.8 (95% CI: 10.0, 11.5) to 11.9 (95% CI: 11.2, 12.6) million, respectively. The overall estimated annual costs rose from $8.0 (in 2012–2015) to $8.9 billion (in 2016–18) for skin cancer treatment and $70.2 to $79.4 billion respectively for non-skin cancer treatment.Conclusion The prevalence and economic cost of skin cancer treatment modestly increased in recent years. Given the substantial cost of skin cancer treatment, continued public health attention to implementing evidence-based sun-safety interventions to reduce skin cancer risk may help prevent skin cancer and the associated treatment costs.
Overall Smoke/vape Shops Distribution
Smoke/vape Shops Distribution by Income Interval
Smoke/vape Shops Distribution by Race/Ethnicity
Purpose Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis is causally linked to cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Additionally, smoking, in particular after a cancer diagnosis, increases risk for poor therapeutic outcomes, chronic disease and even COV19 infection. Methods In order to better understand and address continued smoking among cancer patients, this research applied geospatial mapping analysis to explore the potential association of dedicated smoke/vape shops density and smoking among cancer patients. Results Our findings suggest that there is an association between dedicated smoke/vape shops density and continued tobacco product use among cancer patients who live in areas with greater numbers of smoke/vape shops and higher percentage of African Americans and low socioeconomic persons. In the City of Hope—Antelope Valley Center region with an average of 1.4 dedicated smoke/vape shops per sq ml, cancer patients continue to smoke at a rate of almost 10%. This rate is almost twice the 5.2% cancer patient smoking rate of the main cancer center with an average of < 1 dedicated smoke/vape shops per sq ml. Conclusion Our study may inform cessation-related research, practice and policies so that researchers, clinicians and policymakers are well-aware of these disparities in dedicated smoke/vape shops proliferation that is disproportionately affecting minority patient, in particular cancer population.
Purpose The incidence of endometrial cancer (EC) has been increasing faster among Black women than among other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Although the mortality rate is nearly twice as high among Black than White women, there is a paucity of literature on risk factors for EC among Black women, particularly regarding menopausal hormone use and severe obesity. Methods We pooled questionnaire data on 811 EC cases and 3,124 controls from eight studies with data on self-identified Black women (4 case–control and 4 cohort studies). We analyzed cohort studies as nested case–control studies with up to 4 controls selected per case. We used logistic regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We observed a positive association between BMI and EC incidence (Ptrend < 0.0001) The OR comparing BMI ≥ 40 vs. < 25 kg/m² was 3.92 (95% CI 2.91, 5.27). Abdominal obesity among those with BMI < 30 kg/m² was not appreciably associated with EC risk (OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.74, 1.99). Associations of reproductive history with EC were similar to those observed in studies of White women. Long-term use of estrogen-only menopausal hormones was associated with an increased risk of EC (≥ 5 years vs. never use: OR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.06, 4.06). Conclusions Our results suggest that the associations of established risk factors with EC are similar between Black and White women. Other explanations, such as differences in the prevalence of known risk factors or previously unidentified risk factors likely underlie the recent increases in EC incidence among Black women.
Population Attributable Fractions for Aging-related Disease Risks in B-NHL Survivors
Purpose It is unknown whether cancer treatment contributes more to long-term disease risk than lifestyle factors and comorbidities among B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) survivors. Methods B-NHL survivors were identified in the Utah Cancer Registry from 1997 to 2015. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated to assess the role of clinical and lifestyle factors for six cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal diseases. Results Cancer treatment contributed to 11% of heart and pulmonary conditions and 14.1% of chronic kidney disease. Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) at baseline contributed to all six diseases with a range of 9.9% of heart disease to 26.5% of chronic kidney disease. High BMI at baseline contributed to 18.4% of congestive heart failure and 7.9% of pneumonia, while smoking contributed to 4.8% of COPD risk. Conclusion Cancer treatment contributed more to heart disease, COPD, and chronic kidney disease than lifestyle factors and comorbidities among B-NHL survivors. High BMI at baseline contributed more to congestive heart failure and pneumonia than cancer treatment, whereas smoking at baseline was not a major contributor in this B-NHL survivor cohort. Baseline comorbidities consistently demonstrated high attributable risks for these diseases, demonstrating a strong association between preexisting comorbidities and aging-related disease risks.
PurposeThis study aims to examine the association of diabetes and breast cancer characteristics at diagnosis in Aotearoa/New Zealand.Methods Patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2005 and 2020 were identified from the National Breast Cancer Register. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of having stage III–IV cancer and the OR of having stage IV cancer for women with diabetes compared to those without diabetes. The adjusted OR of having screen-detected breast cancers for patients aged 45–69 years with diabetes compared to patients without diabetes was estimated.Results26,968 women were diagnosed with breast cancer, with 3,137 (11.6%) patients having diabetes at the time of cancer diagnosis. The probability of co-occurrence of diabetes and breast cancer increased with time. Māori, Pacific and Asian women were more likely to have diabetes than European/Others. The probability of having diabetes also increased with age. For patients with diabetes, the probability of being diagnosed with stage III–IV cancer and stage IV cancer was higher than for patients without diabetes (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.03–1.27; and 1.17, 95% CI 1.00–1.38). Women aged 45–69 years with diabetes were more likely to have screen-detected cancer than those without diabetes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.26).Conclusions The co-occurrence of diabetes and breast cancer is becoming more common. Overall there is a small but significant adverse impact of having advanced disease for women with diabetes that is found at the time of breast cancer diagnosis, and this may contribute to other inequities that occur in the treatment pathway that may impact on patient outcomes.
PurposeThis qualitative study aimed to explore Hispanic parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) perceptions of facilitators and barriers to their caregiving experience.Methods We conducted semi-structured phone interviews with 15 Hispanic/Latino parents (English and Spanish). Parents were recruited using a purposive sampling method in a safety-net hospital in Los Angeles County from July–September 2020. Interviews were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed in the language they were conducted. Two coders independently coded interviews following reflexive thematic analysis and elements of grounded theory methodology.ResultsMost caregivers were mothers caring for leukemia CCS who had finished treatment more than 2 years prior. Caregivers expressed gratitude to social workers for introducing and aiding with the application process for safety-net programs that enabled caregivers to focus on their child’s care and well-being. Caregivers revealed the importance of supportive communication with the medical team, particularly after their child’s treatment was considered complete. All caregivers found caring for a child with cancer overwhelming, and many described deteriorations in their health and well-being. Financial instability, transportation difficulties, and work disruptions were identified as barriers, resulting in caregiver distress. Caregivers also shared the challenges they experienced navigating the healthcare system, seeking care despite lack of legal residency, and staying afloat despite limited employment opportunities.Conclusion Improving navigation to resources and improving relationships with the medical team may reduce the perceived caregiving burden among Hispanic/Latino caregivers throughout their family’s cancer journey.
Consort diagram for the analytic sample of individuals who underwent BRCA1/2 genetic testing from 1 January 1999 through 31 October 2019 at the Karmanos Cancer Institute
Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants by cancer site. The number of individuals with personal cancer history who have no mutations (green bar), pathogenic variants (orange bar), or variance of uncertain significance (purple bar) in aBRCA1 and bBRCA2 by cancer site
Purpose The prevalence of pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in populations other than Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) is not well defined. We describe the racial and ethnic-specific prevalence of BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) among individuals referred for genetic testing in a large urban comprehensive cancer center over a 20-year period. Methods The population included 3,537 unrelated individuals who underwent genetic testing from January 1999 to October 2019 at the Karmanos Cancer Institute. We estimated the prevalence of pathogenic variants and VUS and evaluated associations with race and ethnicity for African American (AA), Arab, AJ and Hispanic individuals compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). We used multivariable models to adjust for other predictors of pathogenic variants. We also reported the most common pathogenic variants by racial and ethnic group. Results The racial and ethnic breakdown of our population was: NHW (68.9%), AA (20.3%), AJ (2.5%), Arab (2.2%), Hispanic (1.0%), Asian Pacific Islander, Native American/Alaskan Native (4.7%), and < 1% unknown. The overall prevalence of pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 was 8.9% and the prevalence of VUS was 5.6%. Compared to NHW, there were no racial or ethnic differences in the rate of pathogenic variants. However, AA individuals were more likely to have VUS in BRCA1 (adjusted OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.38–4.28) and AJ were more likely to have VUS in BRCA2 (adjusted OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.61–6.58). Conclusion These results suggest the continued need for genetic testing and variant reclassification for individuals of all racial and ethnic groups.
PurposeTo reduce lung cancer mortality, individuals at high-risk should receive a low-dose computed tomography screening annually. To increase the likelihood of screening, interventions that promote shared decision-making are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, usability, and preliminary effectiveness of a computer-based decision aid.Methods Thirty-three participants were recruited through primary-care clinics in a small southeastern-US city. Participants used a computer-based decision aid (“Is Lung Cancer Screening for You?”) during a clinic appointment. Paper surveys collected self-reported feasibility, acceptability, and usability data. A research coordinator was present to observe each patient’s and health-care provider’s interactions, and to assess the fidelity of shared decision-making.ResultsThe decision aid was feasible, acceptable for use in a clinic setting, and easy for participants to use. Patients had low decisional conflict following use of the decision aid and had high screening intention and actual screening rates. Shared decision-making discussions using the decision aid were nearly 6 min on average.Conclusion Computer-based decision aids are feasible for promoting shared lung cancer–screening decisions. A more robust study is warranted to measure the added value of a computer-based version of this aid versus a paper-based aid.
Genetic diagnostic pathway
AimLynch Syndrome (LS) individuals have a 25–75% lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy screening decreases this risk. This study compared the cost of Strategy 1: screening colonoscopy for 1st degree relatives of patients that met the Revised Bethesda Criteria (i.e., probands) to Strategy 2: screening colonoscopy for 1st degree relatives of probands with genetic mutations for Lynch Syndrome based in a resource-constrained health care system.MethodA comparative, health care provider perspective, cost analysis was conducted at a tertiary hospital, using a micro-costing, ingredient approach. Forty probands that underwent genetic testing between November 01, 2014 and October 30, 2015 and their first-degree relatives were costed according to Strategy 1 and Strategy 2. Unit costs of colonoscopy and genetic testing were estimated and used to calculate and compare the total costs per strategy in South African rand (R) converted to UK pounds (£). Sensitivity analyses were performed on colonoscopy adherence, relatives’ positivity, and variable discount rates.ResultsThe cost for Strategy 1 amounted to £653 344/R6 161 035 compared to £49 327/R 465 155 for Strategy 2 (Discount rate 3%; Adherence 75%; and Positivity rate of relatives 45%). Base case analysis indicated a difference of 92% less in the total cost for Strategy 2 compared to Strategy 1. Sensitivity analyses showed that the difference in cost between the two strategies was not sensitive to variations in adherence, positivity or discount rates.Conclusion Colonoscopy screening for LS and at-risk family members was tenfold less costly when combined with genetic analysis. The logistics of rolling out this strategy nationally should be investigated.
Flow diagram of participants
Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effectiveness of an educational intervention using a web-app to improve knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and symptoms and adherence to healthy eating and physical activity among women without breast cancer diagnosis in Asturias (Spain). Methods A pragmatic randomized pilot trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of a web-app-based intervention for women without breast cancer diagnosis. Women in the intervention group participated in a 6-month intervention web-app based on the Behaviour Change Wheel Model. The web-app includes information about breast cancer risk factors, early detection, physical activity and diet. Results Two hundred and eighty-fifth women aged 25–50 were invited to join the study. Two hundred and twenty-four were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (IG = 134) or control group (CG = 90) according to their place of residence. Adherence among women in the IG increased significantly from pre- to post-intervention for eight of the 12 healthy behaviors and for the identification of six risk factors and six symptoms compared to women in the CG and, among whom adherence only increased for two behaviors, the identification of one risk factor and 0 symptoms. The intervention significantly improved the mean number of risk factors + 1.06 (p < 0.001) and symptoms + 1.18 (p < 0.001) identified by women in the IG. Conclusions The preliminary results of this study suggest that an educational intervention using a web-app and based on the Behaviour Change Wheel model could be useful to improve knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and symptoms and to improve adherence to a healthy diet and physical activity in women without a previous breast cancer diagnosis.
Consort diagram of clinical trials enrolling gynecologic cancer patients from
Clinical trials enrolling patients with gynecologic malignancies reporting on race or ethnicity between 2000 and 2018 on
Purpose Clinical trials advance the standard of care for patients. Patients enrolled in trials should represent the population who would benefit from the intervention in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess whether clinical trials enrolling patients with gynecologic cancers report racial and ethnic participant composition and to examine the level of diversity in clinical trials. Methods Using, we identified clinical trials enrolling patients with ovarian, uterine/endometrial, cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancers from 1988 to 2019. Race and ethnicity data were extracted from participant demographics. Descriptive statistics on race, ethnicity, cancer type, location, study status, and sponsor type were calculated. Among trials which reported race and/or ethnicity, sub-analyses were performed on composition of race and ethnicity by funding source, location, and completed study status. Results A total of 1,882 trials met inclusion criteria; only 179 trials (9.5%) reported race information. Of these, the racial distribution of enrollees was 66.9% White, 8.6% Asian, 8.5% Black/African American, 0.4% Indian/Alaskan Native, 0.1% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 1.0% more than one race, and 14.5% unknown. Only 100 (5.3%) trials reported ethnicity. Except for trials enrolling patients with cervical cancer which enrolled 65.2% White and 62.1% Non-Hispanic/Latino/a patients, enrollees in trials for other gynecologic cancers were over 80% White and 88% Non-Hispanic/Latino/a. Industry funded trials enrolled higher proportions of White (68.4%) participants than non-industry funded trials (57.5%). Domestic trials report race (11.5%) and ethnicity (7.6%) at higher rates than international trials (6.9% and 2.3%, respectively). Reporting of race (1.7% vs. 13.9%) and ethnicity (1.7% vs. 11.1%) has increased over time for patients enrolled in 2000 vs. 2018. Conclusion Less than 10% of trials enrolling patients with gynecologic malignancies report racial/ethnic participant composition on Accurate reporting of participant race/ethnicity is imperative to ensuring minority representation in clinical trials.
Consort diagram
hrHPV prevalence by age group by period 2010–2013 and 2014–2017
PurposePrevalence of cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection varies greatly. Data on distribution of hrHPV infection constitute important evidence for decision-making when implementing HPV testing into cervical cancer screening programs. We estimate the prevalence of cervical hrHPV infection in a large sample of women in a middle-income country and explore variation by age, community marginalization and region in women using public cervical cancer screening services.Methods Records covering 2010–2017 from a registry of hrHPV test results (Hybrid Capture 2 and polymerase chain reaction) in 2,737,022 women 35–64 years were analyzed. In this observational study, 32 states were categorized into five geographical regions and classified by degree of marginalization. We stratified by test type and estimated crude and adjusted prevalence and rate ratios and used Poisson models and joinpoint regression analysis.ResultsPrevalence was higher in women 35–39 years, at 10.4% (95% CI 10.3–10.5) and women 60–64 years, at 10.1% (95% CI 10.0–10.3). Prevalence was higher in the southeast, at 10.5% (95% CI 10.4–10.6). Women living in less marginalized areas had a significantly higher prevalence, at 10.3% (95% CI 10.2–10.4) compared to those in highly marginalized areas, at 8.7% (95% CI 8.5–8.7). HPV16 infection was detected in 0.92% (2,293/23,854) of women and HPV18 infection was detected in 0.39% (978/23,854) of women.Conclusion Understanding the distribution of HPV prevalence has value as evidence for developing policy in order to improve cervical cancer screening strategies. These results will constitute evidence to allow decision makers to better choose where to focus those resources that they do have.
Standardised survival estimates for First Nations peoples and other Queenslanders for urban (= major city) and remote (= remote and very remote) areas of Queensland, 1997–2016. Other population standardised to the First Nations population characteristics. Breast cancer is for females only. Green shaded areas represent overlapping 95% CIs
Standardised survival differences between First Nations peoples and other Queenslanders for urban (= major city) and remote (= remote and very remote) areas of Queensland, 1997–2016. Other population standardised to the First Nations population characteristics. Breast cancer is for females only. Grey shaded areas represent overlapping 95% CIs
Five-year comparative survival ratios by cancer type and remoteness, Queensland, 1997–2016. The comparative survival ratio is the standardised cause-specific five-year survival for First Nations people divided by other Queenslanders. A value of 1 means First Nations survival up to five-years is equivalent to other Queenslander survival. Capped lines show the 95% CI. Urban is the Major City remoteness area. Remote is the combined Remote and Very Remote remoteness areas. Breast cancer is for females only. Refer to Supplementary Fig. S3 for 10 year estimates
Purpose In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (First Nations population) often have low overall cancer survival, as do all residents of geographically remote areas. This study aimed to quantify the survival disparity between First Nations and other Queenslanders for 12 common cancer types by remoteness areas. Methods For all Queensland residents aged 20–89 years diagnosed with a primary invasive cancer during 1997–2016, we ran flexible parametric survival models incorporating age, First Nations status, sex, diagnosis time period, area-level socioeconomic status, remoteness categories and where appropriate, broad cancer type. Three survival measures were predicted: cause-specific survival, survival differences and the comparative survival ratio, each standardised to First Nations peoples’ covariate distributions. Results The standardised five-year cause-specific cancer survival was 60% for urban First Nations and 65% for other Queenslanders, while remote residents were 54% (First Nations) and 58% (other). The absolute survival differential between First Nations and other Queenslanders was often similar, regardless of remoteness of residence. The greatest absolute difference in five-year standardised cancer survival was for head and neck cancers, followed by cervical cancer. The five-year comparative survival ratio (First Nations: other Queenslanders) for urban cancer patients was 0.91 (95% CI 0.90–0.93), similar to outer regional, inner regional and remote areas. The greatest comparative survival differential was for oesophageal cancer. Conclusion First Nations’ survival inequalities are largely independent of geographical remoteness. It remains a priority to determine the contribution of other potential factors such as the availability of culturally acceptable diagnostic, management and/or support services.
Multivariable-adjusted risk of pancreatic cancer for former and never smokers, with current smokers as reference group, according to years since quit smoking overall and by race/ethnicity in the MEC, 1993–2017. Results were adjusted for age at cohort entry, sex, race/ethnicity, family history of pancreatic cancer, history of diabetes, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and red/processed meat intake appropriately. Circles, ≤ 10 years; squares, 11–20 years; diamonds, ≥ 21 years since quit smoking; stars, never smokers. Bars, 95% confidence intervals
Multivariable-adjusted risk of pancreatic cancer for former and never smokers, with current smokers as reference group, according to smoking status and years since quit smoking in subgroups by sex, alcohol drinking, and body mass index (BMI), in the MEC, 1993–2017. Results were adjusted for age at cohort entry, sex, race/ethnicity, family history of pancreatic cancer, history of diabetes, BMI, alcohol consumption, and red/processed meat intake appropriately. Circles, ≤ 10 years; squares, 11–20 years; diamonds, ≥ 21 years since quit smoking; stars, never smokers. Bars, 95% confidence intervals
Purpose To examine whether the detrimental smoking-related association with pancreatic cancer (PC) is the same for women as for men. Methods We analyzed data from 192,035 participants aged 45–75 years, enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort study (MEC) in 1993–1996. We identified PC cases via linkage to the Hawaii and California Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registries through December 2017. Results During a mean follow-up of 19.2 years, we identified 1,936 incident PC cases. Women smokers smoked on average less than men smokers. In multivariate Cox regression models, as compared with sex-specific never smokers, current smokers had a similar elevated risk of PC for women, hazard ratio (HR) 1.49 (95% CI 1.24, 1.79) and as for men, HR 1.48 (95% CI 1.22, 1.79) (pheterogeneity: 0.79). Former smokers showed a decrease in risk of PC for men within 5 years, HR 0.74 (95% CI 0.57, 0.97) and for women within 10 years after quitting, HR 0.70 (95% CI 0.50, 0.96), compared with their sex-specific current smokers. Both sexes showed a consistent, strong, positive dose–response association with PC for the four measures (age at initiation, duration, number of cigarettes per day, number of pack-years) of smoking exposure among current smokers and an inverse association for years of quitting and age at smoking cessation among former smokers (all ptrend’s < 0.001). Conclusion Although MEC women smoke on average less than their men counterparts, the smoking-related increase in PC risk and the benefits of cessation seem to be of similar magnitudes for women as for men.
Trends in pediatric hepatic tumor in the United States from 2000 to 2017. Trends were analyzed using the joinpoint regression analysis, with a maximum of 4 joinpoints (i.e., 5-line segments). NHW non-Hispanic white, NHB non-Hispanic black, NHAIAN non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native, NHAPI non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander, APC Annual percent change, AAPC Average annual percent change. *Indicates that the APC is statistically significantly different from zero at the level of α\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\alpha$$\end{document} = 0.05. Incidence rates are presented in per 100,000 person-years and age adjusted to the 2000 US Standard population
Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios of pediatric hepatic tumor by cancer type and race. 95% confidence intervals were obtained using the F-intervals test. NHW non-Hispanic white, NHB non-Hispanic black, NHAIAN non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native, NHAPI non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander. IRR incidence rate ratio
Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios of pediatric hepatic tumor by cancer type and sex. 95% confidence intervals were obtained using F-intervals test. NHW non-Hispanic white, NHB non-Hispanic back, NHAIAN non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native, NHAPI non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander, IRR incidence rate ratio
Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios of the pediatric hepatic tumor by cancer type and age. 95% confidence intervals were obtained using the F-intervals test. IRR incidence rate ratio
Objective Primary liver tumors are rare pediatric malignancies. Knowledge of the epidemiology of pediatric liver tumors is limited. This study aims to present the national incidence trends of pediatric liver tumors over 18 years, according to sociodemographic and histological subtype variation. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry was queried from 2000 to 2017 for 1,099 patients between ages 0 and 19 with liver tumors. Age-standardized incidence rates by age, sex, and race/ethnicity were examined among histological subtypes. Annual percentage change (APC) was calculated via joinpoint regression for various sociodemographic and histotype subgroups. Results An increase of age-adjusted incidence rate of pediatric hepatic cancers was observed between 2000 and 2017 (APC, 1.7% [95% confidence interval or CI: 0.6%–2.8%], p-value = 0.006), which may likely attribute to the increasing incidence of hepatoblastoma and mesenchymal tumors (APC, 2.5% [95% CI: 1.1%–3.8%], p-value = 0.001). The incidence trend of hepatocellular carcinoma remained stable in the study period. The non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander children and adolescents had a higher risk of hepatic tumors (incidence rate ratio or IRR, 1.42 [95% CI: 1.16–1.72], p-value = 0.0007) when compared with the non-Hispanic white subgroup, while a non-Hispanic black child was associated with a lower incidence rate (IRR, 0.64 [95% CI: 0.50–0.80], p-value < 0.0001). Significantly lower hepatic tumor incidence occurred in females than males, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.61–0.78; p-value < 0.0001). Hepatic tumor incidence was also significantly lower in those aged 1–4 years (IRR, 0.47 [95% CI: 0.40–0.54]; p-value < 0.001) and 5–19 years (IRR, 0.09 [95% CI: 0.08–0.10]; p–value < 0.001) when compared with the youngest age group aged less than 1 year. These significant differences were also detected for the subgroup of hepatoblastoma and mesenchymal liver tumors but less among hepatocellular carcinomas (all p-values less than 0.0001). Conclusion Continued increasing incidence of pediatric hepatoblastoma and mesenchymal liver tumors was discovered and warranted further investigation. Additional findings include a lower incidence of hepatic cancer among non-Hispanic black individuals and higher incidence of hepatic cancer in non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander, male, and aged 1–4-year children and adolescents.
Decision-making flowchart for screen and treat strategies at the program level.
Adopted from WHO (Guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention, 2013). Program managers and decision-makers can start at the top and answer the questions accordingly to determine which screen-and-treat option is best in the context where it will be implemented. It highlights choices related to resources, which can include costs, staff and training
Background Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting women worldwide with large geographic variations in prevalence and mortality rates. It is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Ethiopia, where vaccination and screening are less implemented. However, there is a scarcity of literature in the field. Therefore, the objective of this review was to describe current developments in cervical cancer in the Ethiopian context. The main topics presented were the burden of cervical cancer, knowledge of women about the disease, the genotype distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV), vaccination, and screening practices in Ethiopia. Methods Published literature in the English language on the above topics until May 2021 were retrieved from PubMed/Medline, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and the Google database using relevant searching terms. Combinations of the following terms were considered to retrieve literature; < Cervical cancer, uterine cervical neoplasms, papillomavirus infections, papillomavirus vaccines, knowledge about cervical cancer, genotype distribution of HPV and Ethiopia > . The main findings were described thematically. Results Cervical cancer is the second most common and the second most deadly cancer in Ethiopia, The incidence and prevalence of the disease is increasing from time to time because of the growth and aging of the population, as well as an increasing prevalence of well-established risk factors. Knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer is quite poor among Ethiopian women. According to a recent report (2021), the prevalence of previous screening practices among Ethiopian women was at 14%. Although HPV 16 is constantly reported as the common genotype identified from different grade cervical lesions in Ethiopia, studies reported different HPV genotype distributions across the country. According to a recent finding, the most common HPV types identified from cervical lesions in the country were HPV-16, HPV-52, HPV-35, HPV-18, and HPV-56. Ethiopia started vaccinating school girls using Gardasil-4™ in 2018 although the coverage is insignificant. Recently emerging reports are in favor of gender-neutral vaccination strategies with moderate coverage that was found superior and would rapidly eradicate high-risk HPVs than vaccinating only girls. Conclusions Cervical cancer continues to be a major public health problem affecting thousands of women in Ethiopia. As the disease is purely preventable, classic cervical cancer prevention strategies that include HPV vaccination using a broad genotype coverage, screening using a high precision test, and treating cervical precancerous lesions in the earliest possible time could prevent most cervical cancer cases in Ethiopia. The provision of a focused health education supported by educational materials would increase the knowledge of women about cervical cancer in general and the uptake of cervical cancer prevention and screening services in particular.
Breast Cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide with significant global disparities, particularly disadvantaging women of African Ancestry. Though the United States and Sub-Saharan Africa are seemingly very different settings, there are many important parallels between the experience of getting diagnosed and treated for breast cancer in these two geographic regions for women of African ancestry. This commentary explores the parallels and differences and proposes an agenda to move forward to narrow the disparities gaps for some of the worlds most vulnerable women.
Design of MrOS cytokine studies. The MrOS cohort consists of 5,994 men. Cauley et al. originally created the random sub-cohort to create a case-cohort design and oversampled fracture cases to study inflammation and fracture. The present study exclusively utilized the random sub-cohort to ensure a representative sample of the MrOS study
Purpose Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men, resulting in a large cancer burden given a relatively higher 5-year survival rate of patients after cancer diagnosis. The underlying etiology of prostate cancer is not well understood. Chronic inflammation plays a significant role in carcinogenesis overall and may be involved in the development of PCa, but immune-related biomarker studies in prostate cancer are limited. Methods The associations of serum concentrations of cytokines, systemic immune biomarkers, with risk of PCa were assessed in a randomly selected sub-cohort (n = 798, mean age = 73 years) of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study, a prospective cohort of older men. At baseline, we measured serum interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), soluble receptors (SR) of IL-6 (IL-6SR) and TNF (TNFαSR1 and TNFαSR2), and IL-10. The risk of PCa was calculated for higher tertile levels of measured individual cytokines relative to the lowest tertile using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results After an average 6 years of follow-up, 59 men developed incident PCa. Men in the middle or highest tertile of IL-10 had a statistically significant 50% lower risk of PCa compared to the lowest tertile (hazard ratio = 0.50, 95% confidence interval = 0.30–0.84). There was no significant association between any of the other cytokines measured and PCa risk. Conclusion IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was associated with lower risk of PCa. Further research of IL-10 and inflammation in relation to PCa development is warranted.
Purpose: Outdoor light at night (LAN) can result in circadian disruption and hormone dysregulation and is a suspected risk factor for some cancers. Our study is the first to evaluate the association between LAN and risk of endometrial cancer, a malignancy with known relationship to circulating estrogen levels. Methods: We linked enrollment addresses (1996) for 97,677 postmenopausal women in the prospective NIH-AARP cohort to satellite imagery of nighttime radiance to estimate LAN exposure. Multivariable Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for LAN quintiles and incident endometrial cancer overall (1,669 cases) and endometrioid adenocarcinomas (991 cases) through follow-up (2011). We tested for interaction with established endometrial cancer risk factors. Results: We observed no association for endometrial cancer overall (HRQ1vsQ5 0.92; 95% CI 0.78-1.08; p trend = 0.67) or endometrioid adenocarcinoma (HRQ1vsQ5 1.01; 95% CI 0.82-1.24; p trend = 0.36). Although body mass index and menopause hormone therapy were both associated with risk, there was no evidence of interaction with LAN (p interactions = 0.52 and 0.50, respectively). Conclusion: Our study did not find an association between outdoor LAN and endometrial cancer risk, but was limited by the inability to account for individual-level exposure determinants. Future studies should consider approaches to improve characterization of personal exposures to light.
Background We designed a process to increase tobacco cessation in an academic center and its widely distributed network community sites using clinical champions to overcome referral barriers. Methods In 2020 a needs assessment was performed across the City of Hope Medical Center and its 32 community treatment sites. We reviewed information science strategies to choose elements for our expanded tobacco control plan, focusing on distributed leadership with tobacco cessation champions. We analyzed smoking patterns in patients with cancer before and following program implementation. We evaluated the champion experience and measured tobacco abstinence after 6 months of follow-up. Results Cancer center leadership committed to expanding tobacco control. Funding was obtained through a Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I) grant. Multi-disciplinary leaders developed a comprehensive plan. Disease-focused clinics and community sites named cessation champions (a clinician and nurse) supported by certified tobacco treatment specialists. Patient, staff, clinician, and champion training/education were developed. Roles and responsibilities of the champions were defined. Implementation in pilot sites showed increased tobacco assessment from 80.8 to 96.6%, increased tobacco cessation referral by 367%, and moderate smoking abstinence in both academic (27.2%) and community sites (22.5%). 73% of champions had positive attitudes toward the program. Conclusion An efficient process to expand smoking cessation in the City of Hope network was developed using implementation science strategies and cessation champions. This well-detailed implementation process may be helpful to other cancer centers, particularly those with a tertiary care cancer center and community network.
Top-cited authors
Paolo Boffetta
  • Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
Anne Tjønneland
  • Danish Cancer Society
Briseis Aschebrook-Kilfoy
  • University of Chicago
Sabine Rohrmann
  • University of Zurich
Paul Brennan
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer