Canadian Studies in Population

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Online ISSN: 1927-629X
Print ISSN: 0380-1489
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Cumulative COVID-19 rates (per 100,000) by neighbourhood income
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic underscores the importance of place of residence as a determinant of health. Prior work has primarily examined the relationship between neighbourhoods’ sociodemographic traits and COVID-19 infection rates. Using data from the City of Toronto, Canada, we assess how the built environments of neighbourhoods, in conjunction with their sociodemographic profiles, shape the pattern of spread of COVID-19 in low-, middle-, and high-income neighbourhoods. Our results show that COVID-19 spread faster in neighbourhoods with a higher share of overcrowded households, large commercial areas, and poor walkability. The extent to which neighbourhood walkability is associated with a slower increase in COVID-19 infections varied by neighbourhood income level, with a stronger negative association in low-income neighbourhoods. Net of the share of overcrowded households, population density is associated with a faster increase in COVID-19 infections in low-income neighbourhoods, but slower increase in high-income neighbourhoods. More green space is associated with a slower increase in COVID-19 infections in low-income, but not higher-income, neighbourhoods. Overall, our findings suggest that post-pandemic urban planning efforts cannot adopt a one-size-fits-all policy when reconstructing neighbourhoods in ways that promote health and reduce their vulnerability to infectious diseases. Instead, they should tailor the rebuilding process in ways that address the diverse needs of residents in low-, middle-, and high-income neighbourhoods.
 
Percent female among STEM, health, and education professionals aged 25–54, by occupation
Mean remoteness score among STEM, health, and education professionals aged 25–54, by sex
Women’s mean annual wages and (unadjusted) female/male wage gap among STEM, health, and education professionals aged 25–54
Adjusted female/male wage differential, by occupation
Explained and unexplained components of the female/male wage differential, by occupation
This study examines gender, geographic, and earnings inequalities within and across 13 health, education, and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics and computer science) professions in Canada. Data from the 2006 and 2016 population censuses were pooled and linked to a continuous geospatial remoteness index for assessing trends in occupational feminization and associated employment earnings among degree-holding professionals aged 25–54. Linear regression and Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition methods were used to analyze how personal, professional, and socioenvironmental factors may attenuate or magnify wage differentials by sex. Results show the STEM professions tended to remain male-dominated, heavily urbanized, and subject to significantly lower earnings for women compared to men. Other historically female-dominated professions, notably nursing professionals and secondary school teachers, were characterized with geographic distributions most closely approaching the general population, relatively narrower gender wage gaps, but also lower average annual earnings. A significant gender wage differential was found in each profession, with women earning 4.6‒12.5% less than men, after adjusting for traditional human capital measures, social characteristics intersecting with gender, and community remoteness and accessibility. Residential remoteness and census period generally explained little of the gender wage gap. Despite decades of pay equity policies in Canada, women’s earnings averaged 2.3‒7.9% less than men’s due to unexplained factors, a finding which may be attributed, at least in part, to persistent (unmeasured) gender discrimination even in highly educated professions.
 
Mortality rates by census division for Canadians aged 65+ in 2002, 2010 and 2019. Note: Mortality rates by census divisions for Canadian males aged 65 and older in (a) 2002, (c) 2010, (e) 2019 and for Canadian females aged 65 and older in (b) 2002, (d) 2010 and (f) 2019. The census divisions coloured in red represent regions with higher than average mortality rates across the study period, whereas divisions coloured in blue correspond to regions with lower than average mortality rates. Coloured in white, the central value of this scale corresponds to the average mortality experience, as calculated by pooling the rates for each census division across the years and sexes together
Connectivity map of the census divisions in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Note: This contiguity based spatial weights matrix defines census divisions sharing a common land border to be neighbours and connects them with a line
LISA maps of mortality rates for Canadian women aged 65 and older. Note: (a) 2002–2006, (b) 2007–2011, (c) 2012–2016, and (d) 2017–2019. The census divisions coloured in red represent significant clusters with higher than average mortality rates, whereas divisions coloured in blue correspond to clusters with below average mortality rates
LISA maps of mortality rates for Canadian men aged 65 and older. Note: (a) 2002–2006, (b) 2007–2011, (c) 2012–2016, and (d) 2017–2019. The census divisions coloured in red represent significant clusters with higher than average mortality rates, whereas divisions coloured in blue correspond to clusters with below average mortality rates
While studies of mortality have been gaining research attention worldwide, little attempt has been made to understand Canadian mortality rates from a spatial perspective. The objective of this research was to detect patterns in the spatial distribution of mortality rates for the sixty-five and older age group at the Canadian census division level. Specifically, the spatial patterns of mortality rates for Canadian males and females were examined using Moran’s I statistics, local indicators of spatial association, and cluster maps. The global Moran’s I tests of spatial autocorrelation suggest that Canadian mortality rates are spatially clustered, and further revealed the extent to which these spatial patterns remained consistent across the years in the study. These results were validated by local spatial modeling techniques, which were able to detect several areas in Canada where the mortality rates are clustered. This exploratory study revealed several regions of Canada which experience elevated mortality rates compared to the rest of the country, and provides a starting point for more nuanced investigations of mortality in Canada.
 
Proportion of children who have experienced parental separation or divorce in their lifetime, by age, Canada, 2019
In recent years, a lack of relevant contemporary Canadian data sources has led to a gap in our understanding of the experience of parental separation or divorce among children. Using the 2019 Canadian Health Survey on Children and Youth, we aim to update our understanding of this topic. Through cross-sectional analysis, we estimate the prevalence of the experience of parental breakup among children and describe the characteristics that correlate with this experience. Among children who have experienced parental breakup, we detail the prevalence of various types of parenting time arrangements as measured through the type of contact with the other parent not living in the surveyed household (equal, regular, irregular, remote only, none). Finally, a series of logistic regressions are employed to estimate the differential probability of children exhibiting mental health or functional difficulties according to (a) having experienced parental separation or divorce and (b) their subsequent type of contact with the other parent. Findings indicate that 18% of children aged 1–17 in Canada in 2019 had experienced the separation or divorce of their parents. The most common subsequent parenting time arrangement was to have regular visits with the other parent. Children who had experienced parental breakup were found to have significantly higher odds of exhibiting mental health or functional difficulties. Following parental breakup, the relative odds of having mental health or functional difficulties was highest among children who had irregular contact with the other parent. Dans les dernières années, le manque de données canadiennes contemporaines et pertinentes a nui à notre compréhension de l’expérience de la séparation ou du divorce des parents chez les enfants. En utilisant l’Enquête canadienne sur la santé des enfants et des jeunes de 2019, notre objectif est de mettre à jour notre compréhension de ce sujet. Grâce à des analyses transversales, nous estimons la prévalence de l’expérience de la rupture parentale chez les enfants et décrivons les caractéristiques qui sont corrélées avec cette expérience. Parmi les enfants qui ont vécu une rupture parentale, nous détaillons la prévalence de divers types d’arrangements du temps parental, mesurés par le type de contact avec l’autre parent ne vivant pas dans le ménage enquêté (égal, régulier, irrégulier, à distance seulement, aucun). Enfin, une série de régressions logistiques est utilisée pour estimer la probabilité différentielle que les enfants présentent des problèmes de santé mentale ou des difficultés fonctionnelles selon (a) qu’ils ont vécu la séparation ou le divorce de leurs parents et (b) le type de contact qu’ils ont eu avec l’autre parent par la suite. Les résultats indiquent que 18% des enfants âgés de 1 à 17 ans au Canada en 2019 avaient vécu la séparation ou le divorce de leurs parents. L’arrangement de temps parental le plus courant par la suite était d’avoir des visites régulières avec l’autre parent. On a constaté que les enfants qui avaient vécu une rupture parentale avaient significativement plus de chances de présenter des difficultés de santé mentale ou fonctionnelles. Après une rupture parentale, les enfants qui avaient des contacts irréguliers avec l’autre parent étaient les plus susceptibles d’avoir des problèmes de santé mentale ou des difficultés fonctionnelles.
 
There is a rich body of literature on equalities in the period life table, which also can be interpreted as a stationary population, and a smaller, but no less rich, body on inequalities. The latter is important because it provides information on health disparities and, like the equality literature, serves as a foundation for formal mortality analysis. We straddle both of these bodies by reconciling a known inequality such that a new mathematical equality emerges in the period life table. We then show that this new equality links life expectancy at birth (mean age at death) directly to the average lifespan of the living members of a stationary population. This linkage represents a second newly identified equality in this paper that has the potential to yield useful insights because it links the average lifespan of the living members of a stationary population directly to elements that are central to the dynamics and structure of a stationary population, life expectancy, and variance in age at death.
 
Net migration on reserve by age group and sex for the Indigenous population between 2011 and 2016
Map of reserves indicating net migration status for the Indigenous population between 2011 and 2016
Distribution of reserves according to Indigenous in-migration and out-migration rates estimated between 2011 and 2016
The impact of migration on the sizes, composition, and well-being of First Nations communities and the motivations that triggered such migrations have long been a topic of interest among researchers. Exploiting a new data source, linkages of consecutive censuses, this study aims to portray migration into and out of Indian reserves, with a focus on the Indigenous population. Between 2011 and 2016, migrations into and out of reserves resulted in net losses for reserves. These migratory losses, however, did not prevent the population on reserve to continue growing. From a socioeconomic point of view, migrations had a net positive impact on reserves by contributing to increase the proportions of individuals who are employed, with relatively high incomes or relatively high education. Looking at the determinants of migration, and taking advantage of a multilevel framework, it is found that migration into and out of reserves is multidimensional, being influenced by factors at both individual and community levels. Out-migration seems to be governed mainly by the propensity of individuals at certain stages of life to leave the reserve, permanently or not. In contrast, in-migration appears more influenced by reserves’ characteristics, and its prevalence varies greatly from one reserve to another.
 
In China, a continuously abnormal sex ratio at birth is producing a severe marriage squeeze, with far more marriageable men than women. In this study, we propose a new index to measure the intensity of the male marriage squeeze. This index captures the intensity of the marriage squeeze overall, but can also be used to identify patterns across different age cohorts and between rural and urban areas. Data from China’s Sixth census in 2010 are used to observe the marriage squeeze in China from 2010 to 2019, then population forecasts are used to predict the male marriage squeeze over the next 30 years. There are three main findings. First, China’s marriage squeeze intensity will continue to rise until it peaks in 2043. Second, the age distribution of China’s marriage squeeze is clustered within specific age intervals. Third, the male marriage squeeze is significantly greater in rural areas than in urban areas. Uncovering these patterns is critical for a better understanding of the male marriage squeeze and devising effective solutions.
 
Teen motherhood is associated with a variety of adverse consequences in prior literature, even after controlling for selection into teen motherhood. The experience of parenthood, however, is highly gendered, suggesting that the consequences of teenage parenthood might differ for teen mothers and teen fathers. This paper examines gender differences in the long-term human capital, health, and wellbeing consequences of teen parenthood in Canada. OLS and logistic regression models with inverse-probability of treatment weights were estimated using pooled data from the 2006, 2011, and 2017 Canadian General Social Surveys. Models estimate the approximate causal consequences of teen motherhood and fatherhood for measures reported between the ages of 30 and 49. We find that becoming a parent as a teen is similarly detrimental for both women and men in terms of high school completion, postsecondary attendance, personal income, self-reported health, and life satisfaction, even 10 to 35 years after becoming a teen parent. These results, however, should be interpreted with caution because they may be affected by the underreporting of children by men. The findings highlight the importance of considering both teen mothers and teen fathers in efforts to isolate the adverse effects of teen parenthood, and that in Canada, teen fathers face similar disadvantages as teen mothers in these outcomes in their early adulthood to midlife.
 
Using data from the 2008 to 2018 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), we explore compositional differences between single, common-law, and married individuals by sexual orientation in Canada. Specifically, we focus on how single versus partnered lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals differ in sociodemographic characteristics, education, hours worked, and health relative to their heterosexual counterparts. While same-sex unions and parenthood have increased considerably over the last two decades, LGB individuals are less likely to be married or to live in a household with children under the age of 12, relative to heterosexuals. Heterosexual men benefit the most from marriage, whether through productivity, positive selection, or cultural norms of the ideal worker. This is especially the case in terms of employment and earnings. Having children under the age of 12 in the household was strongly correlated with partnership for all LGB people, especially for married gay men. Overall, there were fewer correlates of partnership for LGB people than heterosexuals, suggesting greater diversity in who is partnered and to whom, within the LGB community, than for heterosexuals.
 
In this paper, we compare estimates of population attraction and retention, or rather, internal migration, based on three datasets: the long-form Census of Canada, the Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD), and the Medicare Client Registry. We find that the administrative data sources (especially the LAD) produce much higher rates of internal migration than the Census, and that the Census and Medicare Client Registry are more closely aligned when it comes to estimating internal migration. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach and conclude with some recommendations for appropriate usage of all three files.
 
The new coronavirus (COVID-19) is having a major impact on mortality and survival in most countries of the world, with Mexico being one of the countries most heavily impacted by the pandemic. In this paper, we study the impact of COVID-19 deaths on period life expectancy at birth in Mexico by sex and state. We focus on the loss of life expectancy at different ages as a geographically comparable measure of the pandemic’s impact on the population in 2020. Results show that males have been affected more than women since they have lost more years of life expectancy at birth due to COVID-19, and they have also experienced a high variation of life expectancy loss across states. The biggest life expectancy loss concentrates in the Northeastern, Central, and Southeastern (Yucatan peninsula) states. Considering the likely undercount associated with COVID-19 deaths, sensitivity analysis suggests that the new coronavirus is having a much larger impact on life expectancy in Mexico than the official government data appears to indicate. Continuos assessment of the pandemic will help state governments quantify the effect of current and new public health measures.
 
Determinants of health related to COVID-19: a working framework
There is growing evidence that the risk and burden of COVID-19 infections are not equally distributed across population subgroups and that racialized communities are experiencing disproportionately higher morbidity and mortality rates. However, due to the absence of large-scale race-based data, it is impossible to measure the extent to which immigrant and racialized communities are experiencing the pandemic and the impact of measures taken (or not) to mitigate these impacts, especially at a local level. To address this issue, the Ottawa Local Immigration Partnership partnered with the Collaborative Critical Research for Equity and Transformation in Health lab at the University of Ottawa and the Canadians of African Descent Health Organization to implement a project to build local organizational capacities to understand, monitor, and mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on immigrant and racialized populations. This research note describes the working framework used for this project, proposed indicators for measuring the determinants of health among immigrant and racialized populations, and the data gaps we encountered. Recommendations are made to policymakers, and community and health stakeholders at all levels on how to collect and use data to address COVID-19 health inequities, including data collection strategies aimed at community engagement in the collection of disaggregated data, improving methods for collecting and analyzing data on immigrants and racialized groups and policies to enable and enhance data disaggregation. Résumé Des plus en plus d’études montrent que le risque et le fardeau des infections à la COVID-19 ne sont pas également répartis dans la population et que les communautés racialisées connaissent des taux de morbidité et de mortalité disproportionnellement plus élevés. Cependant, en raison de l’absence de données ventilés selon le statut ethnique, il est impossible de mesurer comment les communautés immigrantes et racialisées vivent la pandémie et quel est l’impact des mesures prises (ou non) pour atténuer ces effets, surtout à un niveau local. Pour résoudre ce problème, le Partenariat local pour l’immigration d’Ottawa (PLIO) s’est associé au Laboratoire de recherche critique collaborative pour l’équité et la transformation en santé (CO-CREATH) de l’Université d’Ottawa et l’Organisation de la santé des Canadiens d’ascendance africaine (CADHO) aux fins de mettre en œuvre un projet visant à renforcer les capacités organisationnelles locales pour comprendre, surveiller et atténuer l’impact de la pandémie de la COVID-19 sur les populations immigrantes et racialisées. Cette note de recherche décrit le cadre de travail utilisé pour ce projet, les indicateurs proposés pour mesurer les déterminants de la santé chez les populations immigrantes et racialisées, et les lacunes que nous avons identifiés dans les données existants. Des recommandations sont faites aux décideurs politiques et aux acteurs communautaires et de la santé à tous les niveaux sur comment collecter et utiliser les données pour remédier aux inégalités en matière de santé liées à la COVID-19. Ces recommandations font référence aux stratégies de collecte de données visant à impliquer les communautés, à l’amélioration des méthodes de collecte et d’analyse des données sur les immigrants et les groupes racialisés, et aux politiques nécessaires pour permettre et améliorer la désagrégation des données selon le statut ethnique.
 
The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to excess mortality across the globe, and Canada has been no exception. Nonetheless, the pandemic experience has been very different across provinces, and the objective of this paper is to investigate these differences focusing on two extreme cases. We contrast the mortality experience of British Columbia with that of Québec to understand how large differences in mortality during the first wave of the pandemic emerged across these two provinces. We find that most of the differences can be found in excess mortality in institutions (nursing homes) and that travel restrictions, differences in how deaths are recorded, differences in the seasonality of the flu, or differences in how the pandemic spread across different economic segments of the population are unlikely explain these large differences. We document that the reported death toll from COVID-19 is about 30% larger than excess mortality in Quebec due to lower mortality from other causes of death, in particular malignant tumors, heart disease, and respiratory problems. We do not find evidence of an income gradient (measured by postal code level income) in relative excess death for the first wave.
 
Men’s perpetration of violence against their female partners is widely recognized as a serious social problem. Yet research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has been primarily focused on women’s exposure and not on men’s perpetration. This paper fills this gap and explores the intensity of and the factors associated with men’s perpetration of violence against their intimate partners. In 2013, a cross-sectional survey with multistage sampling approach was conducted in seven states of India, including 9,135 men. The study adapted the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) tool. This paper analyses data from 6,081 currently married men included in the survey. Multinomial and logistic regression were applied to determine factors associated with the intensity of physical violence perpetration in the men’s lifetime and perpetration in the past 12 months, respectively. Over one-third of the men reported ever perpetrating physical violence (15% often and 19% moderately), and almost half of them (48%) had perpetrated physical violence in the past 12 months. Education, substance abuse, and experience of violence (including bullying) during childhood stand out as the most important factors associated with violence perpetration among men.
 
Employment income by age, First Nations, 2010.
Source: 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, calculations by authors
Employment income by age, Métis, 2010.
Source: 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, calculations by authors
Employment income by age, Inuit, 2010.
Source: 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, calculations by authors
Employment income by age, non-Indigenous, 2010.
Source: 2011 National Household Survey, calculations by authors
Research has shown a strong link between the acquisition of human capital and success in the labour market as measured through employment income. While this relationship has been demonstrated for the non-Indigenous population, it is not clear whether it necessarily holds true for the Indigenous peoples of Canada. This paper examines the returns to education (as a component of human capital) for the three Indigenous groups in Canada—First Nations, Métis and Inuit. The results of multivariate regression models constructed using data from the 2011 National Household Survey and the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey show that the returns to post-secondary education for Indigenous peoples are significantly positive and, in some instances, comparable to those for the non-Indigenous population.
 
We use a 20 percent longitudinal sample of Canadian personal income tax returns to explore patterns and changes in marital status, with a focus on cohort behaviour. We define five different cohorts, each with a different starting age in 1995, and follow each over a 20-year data period. We consider and compare the changes in cohort patterns, giving special attention to the stability of married and common law unions, and for that purpose distinguishing unions with the same partner from those with a different one. Comparisons of cohort patterns show a shift toward an increased proportion reporting themselves as single or living in a common law union and a decreased proportion reporting married. The proportion married to the same partner declines, and the proportion married to a new partner increases, implying some reduction in marriage stability. Common law unions, more common at younger ages, appear unstable, but much of the apparent instability is removed when common law unions that would transition to married unions with the same partner are taken into account; common law as a premarital first stage appears to be increasingly common. At older ages the death of a partner is the major terminating factor at the end of a marriage, most prominently among males: widowhood (death of a partner) accounts for a much larger fraction of marriage terminations for women, death a much larger fraction for men, reflecting differences in life expectancy and the younger age at marriage of women, on average.
 
Trends of the mean age at first marriage over time and by birth cohort
Probability of being sent down to rural areas, by birth cohort
Average age at first marriage by birth cohort. Notes: Data sources: China Census 2005 and author’s calculations. The predicted value* is obtained by regressing age at first marriage on time trend, ethnicity, female, and adding regional fixed effects (using as control group those who were not born between 1946 and 1961). Deviation* is the residual of this regression. The predicted value** is obtained by regressing age at first marriage on time trend, ethnicity, female, and adding regional fixed effects (using the overall sample). Deviation** is the residual of this regression
Average age at first marriage by birth cohort (2010 CFPS)
Distribution of year at first marriage for the sent-down youth
This paper empirically studies the impact of the exposure to the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976) on the timing of first marriage in China. We find that the first marriages of cohorts born in the 1946–1961 period were delayed, on average, by 1.2–2 years. We also find heterogeneous effects across population subgroups because of various historical events such as school closures, the Sent-Down Movement, and class discrimination. People affected by these circumstances showed greater delays in first marriage than those who were not. In addition, women in urban areas faced particularly substantial delays in the timing of first marriage. These findings are robust to different identification strategies and model specifications.
 
This study draws upon data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) to examine self-reported substance use (alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) among immigrants and the Canadian-born population, and whether usage rates are affected by mental health issues, socio-economic status, and other demographic factors. Analysis of the data indicated identified the Healthy Immigrant Effect (HIE), also known as the “Immigrant Paradox,” in relation to mental health issues and substance use among immigrants. Both immigrants and natives with mental health issues were more likely to consume more cigarettes and marijuana. In addition, the relationship between mental health issues and substance use among immigrants may suggest that they underutilize mental health services. The results of this study also reveal that language preference and gender both influence substance use among immigrants. Furthermore, socio-economic status was found to partially account for marijuana, alcohol, and cigarette use among immigrants. Although mental health issues may not necessarily predict increased alcohol use among immigrants, alcohol is the most frequently consumed substance. The connection between mental health issues and marijuana and cigarette use among immigrants highlights the need for more culturally safe and language-sensitive programs aimed at raising awareness regarding substance-related risks.
 
Maps of the state of São Paulo showing the spatial distributions of mortality rates from A infectious and parasitic diseases, B neoplasms, C respiratory, D cardiovascular, E external causes, and F all other causes. Source: Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) 2014–2016. Source: Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) 2014–2016
Observed (log) mortality by age for the different causes of death in the state of São Paulo 2014–2016. Source: Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) 2014–2016
Estimated nonlinear effects of age for each of the five causes of death, taking mortality from all other causes as the reference group. Source: Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) 2014–2016
Estimated nonlinear interactions effects showing the varying relationship between gender and age each of the five causes of death, taking mortality from all other causes as the reference group. Source: Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) 2014–2016
Residual spatial effects of mortality from A infectious and parasitic diseases, B neoplasms, C respiratory, D cardiovascular, and E external causes. Note: mortality from all other causes was taken as the reference category. Source: Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) 2014–2016
This study examines the possible clustering in the residual spatial variations of five mortality causes, classified by the tenth ICD, among 644 municipalities of the Brazilian state of São Paulo, after accounting for individuals' demographic characteristics and place of death. Mortality data by cause of death for 2014–2016 were sourced from the Brazilian Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade. We applied a Bayesian model that assumes a multinomial distribution for the polytomous outcome, classifying the causes of death into six categories, namely, infectious diseases, neoplasm, respiratory, cardiovascular, external, and other causes, and simultaneously estimates the spatial patterns, accounting for explanatory variables for the first five causes, taking the other causes as reference. The results show that, relative to the causes in the reference group, there is clustering of high relative risks among the municipalities for all the causes of mortality. The relative risks of death from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases were lower among men relative to women but much higher for external causes. The identified spatial clustering can be useful in identifying appropriate cost-effective strategies suitable for addressing issues of human well-being in the specific municipalities of the state.
 
Mean yrs lived + mean years remaining by age: 1990 US life table (stationary population)
Mean years lived (μl x ) and mean years remaining (μr x ) by age, 1990 US life table (stationary population)
Mean years lived (μlx) and mean years remaining (μrx) by age, 1990 US life table (stationary population)
This paper discusses known mathematical equalities and inequalities found within life tables and proceeds to identify two new inequalities. The first (theorem 1) is that at any given age x, the sum of mean years lived and mean years remaining exceeds life expectancy at birth when age is greater than zero and less than the maximum lifespan. The second inequality (theorem 2) applies to the entire population and shows that the sum of mean years lived and mean years remaining exceeds life expectancy at birth. Illustrations of the two inequalities are provided as well as a discussion.
 
Marginal effects from the model predicting immigrant emotional/mental health in the subsequent wave based on the frequency of their religious participation, by gender
Empirical studies on how religiosity relates to immigrant mental health are limited and most have been set in the American context. To what extent the positive relationship found among immigrants in the United States can be generalized to other countries is unknown. The current study fills a gap in the literature by using nationally representative data on immigrants to Canada to examine the long-term effect of religious participation on emotional/mental health. The existing literature on the relationship between religious involvement and emotional/mental health has largely used cross-sectional data. By using longitudinal data, the current study tackles the issue of reverse causality which more commonly exists in studies using cross-sectional data. Results from panel regression analyses showed that participating in religious activities frequently (i.e., daily or every two to three days) reduces the odds of having emotional/mental problems at a later time. However, this association can be moderated by gender. Compared to those who did not participate in religious activities, female immigrants fared worse if they participated regularly (i.e., weekly or two to three times a month), whereas male participants did not differ in their emotional/mental health regardless of frequency of religious participation.
 
New data linkages between censuses show that migration flows between Indian reserves and off-reserve areas from 2006 to 2011 and from 2011 to 2016 resulted in negative net migration for Indian reserves, meaning that—overall—more people left Indian reserves than entered them. These results differ from the portrait shown by the retrospective information from the 2011 and 2016 censuses, which indicates positive net migration for Indian reserves. A comparison of the information in the two sources revealed two types of inconsistencies that contributed to the observed differences: (1) inconsistencies in migrant status, and (2) inconsistencies in the origin location of migrants, i.e., the retrospective information about a migrant’s place of residence 5 years earlier does not match the place where the migrant was enumerated in the previous census. Results from this paper suggest that there are limitations to using retrospective information on the place of residence 5 years prior to a census to derive estimates of internal migration flows for small geographic areas, such as Indian reserves. New data linkages are a source of information that can be used to validate and improve these estimates, as well as to derive alternative estimates. However, data linkages also have limitations and require careful preparation before use, particularly when it comes to calculating weights to accurately account for unlinked records.
 
Median annual employment income of low-status migrant women in Canada 1993-2015
Predicted annual employment income by time in the Canadian labour market for low-status migrant women—intended care workers vs. intended non-care workers (dichotomous measure)
Predicted annual employment income by time in the Canadian labour market for low-status migrant women—intended care workers vs. intended non-care workers (categorical measure)
Predicted annual employment income by time in the Canadian labour market for low-status migrant women—LCP vs. non-LCP, four intended care work occupations
Canada has long relied on women from poorer countries to fill gaps in its paid care market. Yet little is known about the upward or downward trajectories of immigrant women who arrive intending to work in lower status jobs in care. Using a unique administrative dataset (the Longitudinal Immigration Database), the author estimates a series of growth curve models of employment income for 220,265 non-professional, non-managerial immigrant women working in Canada between 1993 and 2015. Results reinforce prior suggestions of a "care [wage] penalty", as all intended care workers, besides nurse aides, fare worse over two decades in the labour market than comparable intended non-care workers. Yet entry class is also found to play a role. Women who arrive to Canada though the Live-in Caregiver Program-which has the explicit goal of providing in-home care for children, the elderly, and people with disabilities-have higher employment income than comparable immigrant women reporting the intention to work in homecare who entered via the family reunification and economic immigration streams.
 
Neonatal (NMR) and post-neonatal mortality rates (PNMR) by maternal age
Maternal age is one of the strongest predictors of infant mortality. Despite the relatively high prevalence of childbearing at younger and advanced ages and high infant mortality rates in India, systematic studies on the relationship between these variables are lacking. This study fills this gap by analyzing the data obtained from 2015-16 India’s National Family Health Survey. The analysis is based on a sample of 230,475 children born in the 5 years preceding the survey. We find that, generally, there is a mild U-shaped relationship between maternal age and mortality risk in the first year of life, with children born to mothers in their teens and late 30s and beyond being most at risk and those born to mothers aged 25–29 being least at risk. In addition, we find that socioeconomic, biodemographic, and other health-related factors account for some, but not all, maternal-age effects on mortality, suggesting that maternal age is an independent risk factor for both neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. While biodemographic and other health-related factors play important roles in explaining why children born to mothers at both ends of the reproductive-age spectrum are at significantly increased risks, the effects of socioeconomic factors are relatively modest, and that is the case among children born to mothers at advanced ages only. The results underscore the importance of maternal and child health care policies, which can help teenage mothers postpone having children until their late 20s, not have a child shortly after the preceding birth, and continuously monitor the health conditions of low-birthweight children.
 
This study examines ethnic differences in the age at first sexual intercourse in Ghana. Analysing data from Ghana’s 2014 Demographic and Health Survey, we use ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to examine how ethnicity is associated with the age at sexual debut, net of socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The results show that the patrilineal Mande, Grusi and Mole-Dagbani ethnic groups initiate sex at a later age than all of the other patrilineal groups and also than the majority matrilineal Akans. However, there are no significant differences in the age at first sexual intercourse between the patrilineal Ga Dangme, Ewe, Guan and Gurma ethnic groups compared to the Akans, once we control for socio-demographic characteristics. The results also indicate that for the Mande, Grusi and Mole-Dagbani groups, gender moderates the association between ethnicity and age at first sexual intercourse. The potential reasons for these ethnic group differences are explored.
 
Male-female gender ratio by community type
Gender ratios for reserves and nearest service centers
Male-female ratio by age group
First Nations women and men migrate off (and on) First Nations reserves at different rates and at different ages, and these differential flows may result in gender imbalances on reserves. We document significant gender imbalances in favor of men and show that nearly 50% of First Nations reserves have male-female gender ratios greater than 1.5 compared with only 5% of non-reserve communities. Divergence in gender ratios on reserves begins around the ages of 15 to 19 and persists well into late adulthood. We examine how this gender imbalance varies by age, geographic location, and economic environment.
 
Since the early 1990s, persistently low fertility in Mediterranean countries has attracted the interest of empirical research aimed at identifying factors associated with demographic change in what were traditionally high-fertility contexts. Most of these studies have been carried out at the national scale, while spatial analyses of sub-national patterns remain mostly absent. The present study aims to fill this gap, investigating the spatio-temporal changes in local fertility in Spanish municipalities over a 16-year period that covers consecutive waves of economic expansion (2002–2009) and recession (2010–2017). The analytical framework is grounded on descriptive statistics, spatial statistics (that is, Global Moran’s I and Local Indicators of Spatial Association) and non-parametric inference testing the pair-wise correlations between fertility levels and contextual variables (including population density, topography, accessibility and distance from central locations). Results of this study reveal a fertility decline in most areas of the country—especially in depopulated districts. The highest fertility is observed in Southern Spain, along the Mediterranean coast, and around the main cities. With recession, spatial heterogeneity emerges as the main trend characterizing regional fertility—a finding in line with research from other Mediterranean countries. Local fertility rates were less spatially clustered in the recession than in the expansion period, with a progressive shrinkage of high-fertility districts. A persistent decline in local fertility may be considered an early-warning indicator of depopulation in Spain’s rural districts and can be used to delineate demographically fragile areas.
 
Single parents and seniors are believed to encounter more food insecurity due to a complex web of disadvantages and discrimination. We carried out a community-based cross-sectional survey of single parents and seniors in an urban population to explore the level of nutritional awareness, household meal practices, challenges, and their coping strategies. The survey questionnaire was adapted from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Fifty single parents and forty-eight seniors were interviewed in the city of St. John’s, Canada. Findings indicate that single parents were more disadvantaged than seniors and more vulnerable to food insecurity. For seniors, in addition to poverty, existing physical disabilities and loneliness limit the use of public transportation to grocery stores and affect their ability/motivation to prepare balanced home-made meals. The jobs of single parents result in time constraints, which limit the attention they can give to the quality of their children’s diets and to accessing information about cheap yet healthy diet alternatives. We conclude by strongly advocating for improving the social safety net, particularly for single parents, for instance by promoting financial security, skill development, flexible working hours, and affordable childcare. Seniors need interaction with peers to encourage the eating of balanced meals, along with the increased promotion of healthy foods.
 
Predicted probabilities of very good or excellent self-reported health based on the interaction between age and perceived age discrimination
Predicted probabilities of high levels of life satisfaction (8-10) based on the interaction between age and perceived age discrimination
Ordered logistic regression models of self-reported mental health on perceived age discrimination, age, gender, and control variables: Canadians aged 45+, 2013
Ordered logistic regression models of life satisfaction on perceived age discrimination, age, gender, and control variables: Canadians aged 45+, 2013
Ordered logistic regression models of mental health and life satisfaction on perceived age discrim- ination, age, and control variables by gender: Canadians aged 45+, 2013
This study examined the relationship between perceived age discrimination and subjective well-being in middle and later life in a Canadian context. Data were drawn from the 2013 Canadian General Social Survey Public Use Microdata File (N = 15,759 aged 45 and older). Ordered logit regression analyses addressed the main and interactive effects of age and perceived age discrimination on self-reported mental health and life satisfaction. Our analyses revealed a negative association between perceived age discrimination and both outcome measures. In addition, middle-aged adults were found to be more vulnerable than older adults to the negative mental health and well-being implications of perceived age discrimination. However, in gender-stratified models, this finding was observed among both men and women for mental health but only among women for life satisfaction. From these findings, we conclude that perceived age discrimination appears to be a risk factor when it comes to mental health and life satisfaction in middle and later life and appears to be particularly problematic for the subjective well-being of middle-aged adults.
 
In this paper, we investigate the impact of adult child migration on the health of elderly parents left behind in the context of China. To control the potential endogeneity problem of migration, we use a system generalized method of moments estimator to estimate a dynamic panel data model. We have three key findings. First, as a whole, adult child migration has positive effects on the physical health and negative effects on the mental health of the elderly parents left behind. Secondly, the patterns of children’s migration matter to the health of parents. A higher percentage of children or more children that migrated out has stronger effects on the health of elderly parents left behind. Finally, while we do not find that the effects are systematically different between rural and urban areas and between genders, we find heterogeneous effects across age groups.
 
Number of Canadian women by age and parity (in thousand)
Proportions of Canadian women by age and parity
Early population projections described future changes in total population and could foresee unsustainable population growth. Age-specific population projections could identify trends in population ageing and demographic dividends, and they have been widely used in recent decades owing to the efforts of collecting and estimating demographic data by age. In recent years, data are becoming available to allow for population projections by age and birth parity, which could help understanding future changes in family structures. To take advantage of the opportunity created by these increasingly accessible data, this paper extends the cohort component method to project populations by age and birth parity and provides an application for Canada.
 
Estimated difference in the probability of having a son at second birth, by gender of the first child, and months elapsed between the first and second birth (relative to non-South Asian immigrant women with two sons born 15 months or less apart). Estimates from the model in the second column in Table 2A in the electronic Appendix. The sample includes all immigrant women with at least two children, all Canadian-born. Data Census 2001 and 2006. ***p < 0.01; **p < 0.05; *p < 0.1
Estimated difference in the probability of having a son at second birth within South Asian immigrants at the same time elapsed between the first and second birth by gender of the first child. Estimates from the model in the last two columns in Table 2A in the electronic Appendix. The sample includes all South Asian women with at least two children. Data Census 2001 and 2006. ***p < 0.01; **p < 0.05; *p < 0.1
We use the 2001 and 2006 Canadian Census to study sex ratios at second birth among South Asian migrants, conditional on both the spacing between the first two children and the gender of the first-born. We find that South Asian women have an abnormally high share of boys after a first-born girl. Their sex ratio at birth is particularly skewed when the time span between the first two births is short. Several mechanisms may explain this finding. Couples with strong son preferences may attempt to conceive a boy fairly soon after a girl is born Sex-selective abortion may also happen more frequently after conceptions that occur fairly close to the birth of a first girl, because couples may limit the number of repeated abortions later in the interval. Even if sex ratios decrease over time within the birth spell, they still remain somewhat higher for live births spaced three years or longer.
 
Map of Charlottetown geographies
Many-to-many DA boundary splits (2001 Census)
Many-to-many DA boundary splits (2006 Census)
Small cities across North America are experiencing rapid changes, but methodological obstacles hamper researchers’ ability to analyze them. This research note explores some of the methodological challenges faced by researchers and offers solutions. Using Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, as a case study, we show that a major challenge lies in choosing meaningful geographic units for small city neighborhoods; we evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of several geographical options. Another major challenge is that the boundaries of existing units change between census years, demanding an approach to reconstruct them and allow for analyses over time. We propose two feasible solutions for re-creating neighborhood geographic units over time: “moving forward” and “going backward.” Both involve selecting units from a particular census year to serve as a fixed point of reference for the re-creation of boundaries across multiple census years. We conclude by cautioning that studying changes in small cities over longer time periods in Canada is not feasible because of the extensive and complex boundary changes that have occurred between census years. Nonetheless, we offer an approach for looking at shorter time periods.
 
Rapid assessment scoring result
Structure of vital statistics within the MOH
Process of birth and death record registration
Despite a long history, the Civil Registration System (CRS) in Iraq had never been the subject of a formal evaluation prior to 2012 when, in compliance with a request by the World Health Organization, this study was conducted. Stakeholders from different national agencies met on December 16–17, 2012, and used the WHO’s Rapid Assessment (RA) tool to identify areas that require improvement and prioritize actions. The results of this assessment show that Iraq’s CRS is not functioning adequately. Notably, completeness of birth and death registration and the practices affecting the quality of cause of death data were rated as “Weak,” and most other aspects of the CRS were rated as functional, but inadequate. For this reason, a comprehensive assessment of Iraq’s CRS is needed.
 
Due to an unfortunate turn of events this article was published without the below information which as such should be regarded as part of the article by the reader.
 
Counts and percentages of participating employers by NAICS industry
The Canadian parental leave policy has evolved over the last 50 years to provide more flexibility and meet the changing needs of families. In December of 2017, the federal government announced an extension of parental leave from a maximum length of 35 to 61 weeks. However, the Employment Insurance (EI) total payment will remain the same, just spread over 61 weeks. Structured interviews with 46 Canadian employers were conducted to understand their perception of the parental leave extension, its impact on their employees and their organization, and to clarify how they have adapted their internal policies to the new legislation. Employers reported low employee uptake of the 61-week parental leave option, citing the affordability of lower EI payments over the longer leave. Employers expressed concerns related to backfilling, employees reintegrating after long absences, and the potential extra costs associated with top-ups and benefit-cost sharing. Only a few employers recognized the strategic importance of offering supplemental programs for recruitment, retention, and satisfaction of employees.
 
Baseline characteristics of children, youth and female spouses in CAF families living in five geographic regions of Ontario
Adjusted comparisons of mental health services use among spouses in CAF families stratified by geographic region in the province of Ontario (reference = Champlain LHIN)
Mean number of mental health and addictions outpatient physician visits for children and youth and female spouses in Canadian Armed Forces families in those who had at least one visit, stratified by their region of residence in the province
Median time to first mental health and addictions specialist visit for children and youth (n = 514) and female spouses (n = 141) in Canadian Armed Forces families in those who had at least one visit, stratified by their region of residence in the province
Being a member of a Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) family includes frequent geographic relocations, which may affect the use of mental health and addictions (MHA) services. This was a retrospective cohort study to examine intra-provincial variation in MHA services among CAF children, youth, and spouses posted across the province of Ontario using administrative datasets. Our sample included 5478 CAF children and youth, and 3358 female spouses who were relocated to Ontario between 2008 and 2012. CAF family members were assigned to one of five regions of the province based on their postal code. Publicly funded, physician-based MHA services included related visits to family physicians, paediatricians, and psychiatrists and emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations. Adjusted comparisons, including age, sex, and income, were made using linear, logistic, and modified Poisson regression. We found that the majority of our sample did not use MHA services following relocation. Among those who did so, we documented a small amount of intra-provincial variation. Children and youth living in the South East and “other” regions were less likely to see a family physician than in the Champlain region. Children and youth living in the North Simcoe region were more likely to have an MHA specialist visit and less likely to have an MHA ED visit than in the Champlain region. Female spouses living in the North Simcoe and “other” regions were more likely to have an MHA family physician visit than in the Champlain region. Our findings suggest that additional MHA support may be required to meet the needs of military families, in particular when relocated to MHA resource-poor areas of the country.
 
In this research note, we review available concepts and statistics for Indigenous families and households. We show how there is currently a knowledge gap concerning the composition of Indigenous households and their evolution over time, which is essential to improve our understanding of their social organization and its relationship to well-being, and thus to develop appropriate policies.
 
Using retrospective biographical data from the 2011 GSS, we examine regional variations in multiple-partner fertility in Canada. We document its prevalence across regions from both a cross-sectional and a longitudinal perspective. Furthermore, we analyse regional disparities in the family trajectories that lead to multiple-partner fertility (MPF), focusing on the conditions surrounding the first birth. While we find no significant differences across regions in the occurrence of multiple-partner fertility among fathers, our analysis shows striking variations in the prevalence and timing of MPF among mothers. Women living in the Atlantic provinces, in the Prairies and, to a lesser degree, in British Columbia experience a higher rate of multiple-partner fertility than those living in Ontario and Quebec. Regional differences in the divergent pathways leading to MPF partly contribute to explaining the observed variation across the country. Giving birth at young ages and in non-residential partnerships is associated with a higher likelihood of multiple-partner fertility, while repartnering after the break-up of the union in which the first child is born is more common in provinces where it is less prevalent.
 
An estimated 17% of the Canadian labor force engage in complex/extended employment-related geographical mobility ranging from extended daily commutes to regional, interprovincial and international mobility. The opportunities and challenges of particular types of mobility for family lives have been studied most often in isolation (i.e. daily commutes, fly-in/fly-out or international migration), and attention to mobility is largely absent from the work-family literature. Drawing on presentations and discussions at two recent conferences with a focus on families, work and mobility in Canada, this Research Note highlights some of the gaps in existing knowledge about families, work and mobility and some family-related challenges associated with extended/complex mobility for work from the standpoint of those living it, those studying it and those striving to serve and support these workers and their families. Examples discussed here encompass families where members are employed offshore, in other provinces and in the military. The impact of mobility on the family lives of temporary foreign workers is also discussed. We conclude with a few policy recommendations related to helping workers and their families deal with extended/complex mobility.
 
Percentage of adults aged 20 and above who are currently divorced (and not cohabiting). Data: Statistics Canada: Table 17-10-0060-01 population estimates as of July 1, by marital status or legal marital status, age, and sex
Weighted percentage of the total population that is currently divorced (and not living in common law) by age and birth cohort. Data: Statistics Canada: Table 17-10-0060-01 population estimates as of July 1, by marital status or legal marital status, age, and sex (years: 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001, 2011)
Graphical results from regressions in Table 4. a Predicted percentage point difference in low-income status for divorced men and women relative to their married counterparts. b Predicted percentage point difference in employment for divorced men and women relative to their married counterparts. c Predicted percentage point difference in logged earnings for divorced men and women relative to their married counterparts. d Predicted difference in income (2015$) for divorced men and women relative to married men and women
This paper examines three key changes in the divorced population in Canada. First, we document rapid growth in both the percentage and number of currently divorced (and un-partnered) adults in Canada. We focus on divorced adults without a new live-in partner on which to rely, because these adults do not enjoy the economic advantages associated with cost-sharing and economies of scale that are afforded by cohabitation or remarriage. All of our analysis regarding the currently divorced population is examining those who have experienced a divorce and are not currently living common law (cohabiting) or remarried. In 1971, 1.4% of the adult population was currently divorced, and this increased steadily to 6.7% in 2011 and then has plateaued through 2018. Because of population aging and population growth, the number of divorced adults has increased even more steeply. The number of currently divorced adults has increased tenfold between 1971 and 2018, with greater increases for women than for men during this time period. In 2018, there were 1.9 million divorced (and not currently cohabiting) adults in Canada. Second, we examine gender inequality in economic disadvantage experienced by divorced men and women. We show a declining gender gap in some measures of economic disadvantage but little decline in others. Last, we highlight how the divorced population has been changing relative to the legally married population. We see that the small improvements in the economic well-being of the divorced population were far surpassed by much greater improvements among the married population. Our findings highlight the increasing economic vulnerability of divorced adults in Canada, especially relative to the married population, and point out how divorced adults may have risk profiles that deserve more attention.
 
Average time in minutes spent on different activities by living arrangements among adults aged 65+, General Social Survey 2015
Subjective feelings about time use by living arrangements among adults aged 65+, General Social Survey 2015
Living alone is very common among older Canadians, where 25.8% of adults 65 and above lived alone in 2016. The rise of living alone around the world has prompted debate about whether solo living has negative implications for older adults’ well-being, health, and social integration. We contribute to this debate by examining whether older adults living alone have different patterns of time use and subjective evaluations of their time. Using the Canadian General Social Survey (2015), we find that older adults living on their own do not seem to be socially isolated in our objective or subjective measures of time use. Those living alone spend more time communicating with others than older adults in other living arrangements and spend comparable amounts of time eating/drinking to most other groups. Older adults living alone had similar time on self-care to most other groups, and much less time on caregiving for others than those in all other living arrangements, and significantly less time on housework than those living with just a spouse. We find few differences in time spent on leisure by living arrangements. In terms of subjective time use, older adults living alone are no more likely than those living with others to feel like they do not spend enough time with family or friends. In addition, older adults living alone were much less likely than other groups to feel pressed for time, feel rushed, or feel stressed out about not having enough time.
 
Top-cited authors
Zheng Wu
  • Blue Mountains International Hotel Management School
Christoph M. Schimmele
  • Statistics Canada
Blossfeld Hans-Peter
  • European University Institute
Melinda Mills
  • University of Oxford
Jenna L. Hennebry
  • Wilfrid Laurier University