This paper provides a brief historical overview of the debate concerning animal research within psychology and seeks ground for consensus through an examination of varying assumptions and objectives. Premises of contributors are analysed without dichotomizing positions for or against. Rights and interests, the validity of cross-species ethical obligations, the status of moral judgement, means-ends issues, and the evaluation of practical benefits structure discussion. The foundation for limited consensus is constructed upon three broadly accepted propositions. First, that research has been beneficial for animals and humans; second, animals deserve humane treatment; and third, that psychologists share an interest in the advancement of science within sensible ethical boundaries.
Dans cet article, les auteurs mettent l'accent sur les aspects déontologiques et juridiques du problème que pose la confidentialité aux psychologues Canadiens en général, et aux psychologues clinicicns en particulier. Les concepts de confidentialité, de communication privilégiée, d'intimité et de vie privée sont clarifiés. On y présente la loi canadienne relative au concept de communication privilégiée. On y traite aussi des standards déontologiques, des lois provinciales et fédérales ainsi que de la jurisprudence qui ont un lien avec la question de la confidentialité dans l'exercice de la psychologic clinique. Certaines questions, telles que l'obligation de signaler les cas d'abus sur un enfant, l'obligation de protéger l'entourage d'un patient, le consentement éclairé, ainsi que l'accès d'un client ou d'une tierce personne aux dossiers psychologiques, sont explorés. Les auteurs proposent finalement quelques avenues qui aideront les psychologues à faire face aux problèmes reliés à la question de la confidentialité.
This paper discusses the history of assisted suicide/euthanasia and public attitudes in Canada; discusses depression in the terminally ill and the potential role of the psychologist in the assisted suicide/euthanasia process; and specifically addresses the importance of determining competence in terminally ill patients. One area in which the services of psychologists have not been used to their fullest potential is in the care of the terminally ill, particularly in helping them make end-of-life decisions. It is very important that individuals making end-of-life decisions be used to assessed for mental disorders in order to ensure that they are able to make competent decisions. If assisted suicide and euthanasia were to become legalized, psychologists should be involved in the assessment process in order to determine competency.
The Code of Ethics of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) is based on four ethical principles that are ranked in a hierarchy of importance. The code states that when these principles conflict, decisions should usually be based on relative rank order. A study was conducted to see whether pre-professional psychology students would endorse solutions to ethical dilemmas that were consistent with the ranking of principles recommended in the code. In response to a series of vignettes pitting the four CPA principles against one another, participants endorsed choices in a statistically significant pattern of decreasing frequency that was consistent with the ranking. Their was also considerable variation in responses to vignettes that pitted the same two principles against each other, indicating that context affects decisions about what is ethical. Results are discussed with regard to training in professional ethics.
The peer review process, whether formally applied in publication and grant review, or informally, such as exchange of ideas in scientific and professional newsgroups, has sparked controversy. Writers in this area agree that scholarly reviews that are inappropriate in tone are not uncommon. Indeed, commentators have suggested rules and guidelines that can be used to improve the review process and to make reviewers more accountable. In this paper, we examine the relevance and impact of ethical codes on the conduct of peer review. It is our contention that the peer review process can be improved, not by a new set of rules but through closer attention to the ethical principles to which we, as psychologists, already subscribe.
An ethical issue becomes a dilemma when the psychologist is pulled in different directions by competing values. This paper will focus on the conflict between experimental and ethical values inherent in field research. The problem has special significance in community psychology, which gives priority to studying, in natural settings, those affected by social problems. An example is given of research that required observation of family interaction in the homes of convicted child abusers. The case demonstrates that the value of ecological validity often conflicts with the need to protect privacy and obtain uncoerced consent. Other ethical constraints, including the duty to report lawbreaking and to protect the public from harm, may threaten research validity.
Over the past five years, the Canadian Psychological Association has been in the process of developing a new code of ethics for Canadian psychologists. Reasons for this effort are outlined, and the previously used American Psychological Association code is examined from the point of view of four main purposes of ethics codes: to help establish a group as a profession; to act as a support and guide to individual professionals; to help meet the responsibilities of being a profession; and to provide a statement of moral principle that helps the individual professional resolve ethical dilemmas. The objectives, methodology, and an outline of the new Canadian code are presented.
Psychologists are often insensitive to potential ethical concerns that arise in their practices. Awareness of this problem has led to an increased emphasis on ethics as part of in-service education and professional training programs. Psychologists need better guides and more practice in resolving ethical dilemmas. Part of the reason for a new Code of Ethics for Canadian psychologists was to meet this need. This paper explores the usefulness of the Code for the teaching of ethics in psychology, with a focus on ethics education and ethical decision making. Kitchener's "critical-evaluative" level of moral reasoning is recommended. Both the Code and its developmental process were found to foster such reasoning, and both are important new tools in class and workshop settings which emphasize ethics education.
The appearance of the prescription privileges debate in a recent issue of Canadian Psychology presents an opportunity to examine prescription privileges from a Canadian perspective. The principles of the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists (CCE) were applied to a number of key arguments offered in the debate and were found useful in evaluating their application to the Canadian context. The ethical principles provided direction in examining the full range of prescription privilege issues. The CCE may prove to be a valuable guide in providing a moral framework for the eventual development of Canadian policy on prescription privileges for psychologists.
This paper proposes a theoretical augmentation of the seven-step decision-making model outlined in the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists. We propose that teleological, deontological, and existential ethical perspectives should be taken into account in the decision-making process. We also consider the influence of individual, issue-specific, significant-other, situational, and external factors on ethical decision-making. This theoretical analysis demonstrates the richness and complexity of ethical decision-making.
This paper examines children's rights under the Charter, the law of consent, and the ethics associated with the consent to treatment issue. Consistent with the Charter, the common law recognizes the right of competent minors to consent on their own behalf. Decisions regarding competence to consent are made on the basis of cognitive capacity, and not age. In contrast, consent legislation is largely silent on the question of capacity and instead specifies arbitrary ages at which minors may consent. Considerable variation exists across provinces both in the legal age of consent and in the extent to which common law principles are reflected in consent legislation. As a result of the complexity and apparent contradictions of the law, the circumstances under which minors may consent remain unclear in the minds of many practitioners. Equally problematic from the perspective of the psychologist, is the fact that much of consent legislation is directed towards treatment in hospitals and/or treatment by physicians and dentists. It is argued that in the absence of relevant consent legislation, psychologists have both a legal and an ethical responsibility to determine their minor clients' capacity to consent. Revisions to the existing Code of Ethics that recognize the potential capacity of minors to consent are discussed.
Stereotypes are often accidents of history, based on passing configurations of groups' societal interdependence and status. This article overviews our framework for understanding all this: the Stereotype Content Model, focused on two fundamental dimension of intergroup and interpersonal cognition, perceived warmth (from interdependence) and perceived competence (from relative status); then it discusses immigrant images as a case study; next, the article focuses on the toxic and potentially curative effects of each dimension.
The implementation over the past year within Canadian universities of the new Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) ushers in a new era in the oversight of the ethics of psychological research in Canada. Although these new policies apply to all human research, our interest in how they apply to psychology, primarily to deception, undergraduate subject pools, and other continuing concerns. Why have the granting agencies decided that government regulation of research ethics is necessary and what is the relationship between federal regulations and discipline codes? The history of CPA's involvement in protecting psychology's interests in the final revisions to the TCPS is recounted. In spite of what has been achieved, many psychologists feel that the TCPS has created new concerns for the discipline. Although there is the potential for startup problems, it is in our collective and individual best interests to make the policy work, thereby ensuring that escalation of government regulation or legislation will not be pursued.
The professional literature on informed consent has been critically reviewed and its implications for clinical psychology practice are discussed. The legal and ethical rights of patients and obligations of psychologists are detailed. Specific examples of possible problem areas in professional practice are highlighted, and practical recommendations are suggested for guiding the practitioner through issues on which legal doctrine is sometimes vague, ambiguous, or yet to be established.
Psychologists have become more concerned with the ethical nature of their practices. In response to this concern psychologists have identified guides that can be used in ethical decision making. These guides have been integrated into an ethical decision-making model. The model is applied to one area of great concern to psychologists, that of deciding when a person is incompetent.
The discipline of psychology is moving beyond the myth of detached neutrality to discover virtue and to recognize politics as forces which determine ethical behaviour. Humankind has struggled over the centuries to discover the nature of good and evil and to define the rightness and wrongness of human behaviour. Psychology has a short history in formalizing codes of ethics and codes of conduct. Current and historical events, concepts and values, including those based on philosophy and religion, have influenced the development of psychology's scientific and professional codes. The ethical behaviour of psychologists may be inspired by values, regulated by rules, determined by external pressures, or any combination of these. Emerging issues and challenges in today's changing and turbulent society require an incorporation of moral principles in finding acceptable strategies to achieve acceptable goals. May virtue and politics go hand in hand in creating a better world.
Many jurisdictions across North American have revised their civil commitment laws. In general, these laws have specified more concretely those conditions under which an individual may be involuntarily hospitalized, with the legislative intent of reducing civil commitments. The present study analysed the effects of similar reform on admission rates to Ontario Public Mental Hospitals and Public Psychiatric Hospitals. Results indicate that despite a significant trend toward a decreasing rate of involuntary hospitalization prior to legislative revision, there was a subsequent trend toward an increasing rate of civil commitments in the years following change in law. These results raise serious questions about the ability of lawmakers to legislate the practices of mental health professionals.
The Quebec health department's Psychological Distress Index (
IDPSQ-14) is widely used in dealing with adult populations. In this case, the reliability and validity of the instrument were assessed among adolescents (
N = 2248). The index was filled out by teenagers as part of an inquiry into the psycho-social experience of high school students. Analysis of the main components, with orthogonal rotation, showed that the index factor pattern comprises four intercorrelated dimensions: depressive state, anxiety state, irritability, and cognitive difficulties. This factor pattern recurred in all three independent samples selected from the investigation data. However, results per age group showed that the resultant factor pattern varied for the youngest group, aged 12 and 13 years, and produced a less differentiated model than that found for older teens. These results are in keeping with existing research into adolescent cognitive and psychosocial development. The index demonstrates considerable internal consistency (α = .83) and remains constant for both sexes and all age groups. Lastly, the results also substantiate the construct validity of the index. Generally speaking, the results confirm the index's psychometric attributes, previously reported for adult populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Histories of associationism and early psychology frequently refer to the writings of Juan Luis Vives (1492–2540) on memory and the flow of ideas. The present article includes a translation of the chapter on memory from Vives's
De Anima et Vita. The introduction preceding the translation places the chapter in its historical context, showing that much of it is based on a framework dating from the early Middle Ages. The introduction also points out some of the ways in which Vives was original and anticipated problems of memory that still concern modern researchers. (French abstract) (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The International Conference on the History of Social Psychology arose in part from concerns about social psychology's relative silence about socio-political events (e.g. in Eastern Europe), compared to a century earlier, when collective phenomena were central. A historical conference might refocus concern on the rebirth of nationalisms, racism, and mass citizens participation. In April 1991, 120 historians and (social) psychologists from 16 countries attended the Paris meeting, co-sponsored by 4 learned societies and 2 cultural agencies.
Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne and Sociétés contemporaines are each devoting special 1992 issues to "Social Psychology and Its History". (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses factors responsible for the late development of social psychology as an independent discipline in the US. These factors include (1) conflicts between the fields of psychology and sociology and (2) theoretical emphases within the field of psychology (e.g., hereditarism, functionalism, and behaviorism) that did not address the links between the individual and society. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The authors examined public and published archival documents and interviewed senior and retired Personnel Selection Officers, and influential Industrial/Organisational (I/O) psychologists in Canada to document the history of the Canadian Forces Personnel Selection Branch. The authors highlight the close working relationship between civilian and military I/O psychologists and suggest that they have been mutually influential in shaping the practise of I/O psychology in Canada. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses the origins of the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) and the contribution of its members to Canada's role in World War II 1939–1945. The war provided the motivational context for the creation of the Association and greatly affected the lives of many of its members. Psychologists who created the CPA and those who served Canada during the war were individuals of large vision, frequently with a humanitarian outlook. They believed that psychology had much to contribute to society and its institutions, and to human well-being. They believed that psychology, as a social science, had social responsibilities and that their own actions and initiative could bring about change and a better Canada. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
States that codes of ethics are historical products of the professionalization process; the form and content of codes of ethics develop within the specific historical context of the professionalization process of the occupational group for which they are written. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Canadian Psychological Association's (CPA) decisions regarding adoption of a code of ethics were centered on 2 major professionalization needs; namely, to secure a market niche for "psychologists" as this was defined by CPA, and to sustain this image as the basis for continuing funding for related psychological research. Different historical factors resulted in the decision by CPA, in the 1970s, to produce a made-in-Canada code of ethics. These were (a) the need of CPA to produce a document of professional self-regulation that recognized problems faced by psychological practitioners employed within various organizational structures, and (b) organizational problems of the CPA related to disciplinary unity and achievement of a national leadership role. The results of this critical historical analysis confirm the importance of codes of professional ethics as strategies of professionalization as hypothesized by J. Louw in 1990. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This obituary for Kenneth Dion (1944-2004) highlights his educational and professional career. Anyone who knew Ken admired his breadth of knowledge and command over the full range of the discipline. In this era of narrow specialization, Ken Dion was unique. He was a classic scholar who was as knowledgeable of the issues, methods, and results of related research as he was of his own specialty. He contributed to experimental social, cross-cultural psychology, dyadic relations, organizational psychology, and to group processes. In spite of this broad range, his research was always incisive, and helped to shape the research agenda on each topic. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examines the treatment of sensory deprivation research (usually referred to as the Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique or REST) in 185 introductory psychology textbooks published between 1956 and 1986. It is concluded that the research area has undergone many changes, moving from dramatic early findings that were widely publicized but proved unreliable, to systematic investigations and replications, to well-established applications in a number of fields including behavioral health. Most textbooks still describe results in terms of such largely abandoned issues as hallucinations, cognitive impairment, and high stress. The modal reference even in the mid-1980s is still to articles published in the mid-1950s. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews Canadian research on reading and word identification and examines W. Herons's (see record
1959-00387-001) scanning theory that accounts for visual hemifield differences in terms of a serial left-to-right attentional mechanism operating on the stimulus trace. Heron's model, and subsequent work by M. P. Bryden (see record
1967-06490-001), introduced an information-processing approach to the study of perception in Canada and raised questions about the nature of attention, visual persistence, and letter and word recognition. These topics have continued to be a focus for research during the past decade. It is concluded that current results suggest at least 3 attentional processes, 3 buffer stores, and the use of extensive orthographic knowledge in processing letters and words. (French abstract) (2½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Special attention is given to Canadian research on infant perception, cognition, learning, and social-emotional development. Selected papers on auditory sensitivity, visual processes, and vestibular stimulation are described to illustrate contemporary work on infant perception. Research on the object concept and a study of continuities in early cognitive development exemplified contributions to the understanding of early intellectual growth. Operant conditioning experiments analyzing social reinforcement effects are also described. Studies of infants' reactions to peers, strangers, and maternal separation demonstrate an active concern with social-emotional development. (French abstract) (82 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews research by Canadian psychologists on college and university teaching in 1970–1980. One group of studies investigated the effectiveness of various instructional innovations, ranging from the learning cell to educational TV. A 2nd body of research focused on the evaluation of effective teaching, especially the reliability and validity of teacher rating forms. A 3rd research approach examined the characteristics of learners, teachers, and courses, including such factors as the background and attitudes of both faculty and students, student achievement, personality and cognitive variables among learners, the training of teachers, and the content and structure of courses. Three general questions are discussed in the light of the available research evidence: whether Canadian research on college teaching can be considered unique, whether it is significant, and whether it has affected psychological theory or teaching practice. (French abstract) (70 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews research on 2nd-language acquisition and bilingualism conducted in Canada during the 1970's. Research concerned with the learning of a 2nd language has emphasized 3 topics: approaches to language instruction, individual differences and language acquisition, and effects of 2nd-language acquisition on individual characteristics. The research concerned with bilingualism tends to emphasize perceptual processes, the representation of experience, the consequences of bilingualism, and bilingualism in interpersonal communication. It is concluded that the Canadian social setting provides a natural laboratory for research on 2nd-language acquisition and bilingualism. (French abstract) (3½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Included are brief descriptions of investigations in electrophysiology, memory, aphasia, hemispheric asymmetries, developmental disabilities, learning disorders in children, hyperactivity and attentional disorders, and general neuropsychology. The work reviewed serves to illustrate the extensive commitment to research in human neuropsychology made by investigators in Canada. It is clear that continued Canadian leadership in this area can be expected to continue. (French abstract) (5 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Summarizes provincial developments under the following subtopics: universities and colleges; health, social service, and education settings; and organizations and interest groups. This paper is designed as a source document for those interested in an overview of the development and current status of behavior modification in Canada. (French abstract) (81 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Social Science Citation Index as a source for citation counts and publication counts to examine the activities (1977–1983) of the 25 most cited Canadian psychologists (stars) of the early 1970s. Most of these psychologists are still highly productive and highly cited. It is suggested that as scholars mature they shift their focus from empirical research to theoretical, conceptual, and integrative scholarly pursuits. Comparison of the publication records of these 25 psychologists offers support for this proposed maturity shift. It is suggested that the maturity shift necessitates the consideration of the scholarly contribution represented by books and book chapters in any evaluation of the contributions of mature scholars. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Two large-scale surveys were undertaken by Statistics Canada in 1978 to examine the employment experiences of 1976 graduates from Canadian universities (outside Quebec). The present report is based on secondary analyses of this data. It compares the experiences of psychology graduates with those from other fields and examines possible sex differences. In terms of full-time employment, salary, and relatedness of job to education and job satisfaction, the employment experiences of psychology graduates were positive. There were, however, consistent sex differences (in favor of males) in salary and, to a lesser extent, in full-time employment rate. Sex differences remained after controlling for several possible contributors, such as working experience, age, marital status, and, in the case of salary, for full-time employment. (French abstract) (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Conducted a survey of articles by Canadian-affiliated contributors on the subject of adolescence. 12 journals were reviewed, including 8 adolescent specialty journals, 3 general developmental journals, and the
Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. Results show considerable research on adolescents by Canadian investigators. An overall increase was found in the number and rate of publications since 1980. Although contribution rates were greatest in clinical/psychiatric journals, they were consistent in the adolescent and general journals. Publications were diverse in topics studied, orientation, and scope. 74% of studies were correlational, and nearly 33% utilized a developmental design. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Reviews research in organizational psychology (OP) conducted by Canadians and/or at Canadian institutions. Some of the major issues faced by organizational psychologists are identified. Discussion focuses on 2 major themes. First, although Canadians have made substantial contributions to the field of OP, there is a need for more research focusing on issues unique to Canadian organizations and employees. Second, much of the research in OP is being conducted in schools of business. Only recently have programs in industrial/organizational psychology been developed in departments of psychology. Given the nature of OP, there may be many benefits to collaborative efforts in research and training. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This article presents an overview of research activity in the field of human neuropsychology that has been carried out in Canada during the 1980s. Included are brief descriptions of investigations of many facets of the neuropsychology of both children and adults conducted by prominent researchers at major institutions across the country. The work reviewed herein serves to illustrate the rather extensive commitment to research in human neuropsychology that has been made by investigators in Canada. It is clear that Canadian leadership in this important area of scientific endeavour can be expected to continue.
Reviews recent Canadian research on women and work, with a focus on the following areas: stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination, workplace stress, and occupational choice and career development. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Comments on R. M. Cooper's original article, "The passing of psychology" (see record
1983-26906-001). According to Cooper, psychology has become fruitless, devoid of substance and honest accomplishment and the real productivity of science is to be seen in material accomplishments. According to the current author, a materialist view makes any step in the world of ideas pitifully small by comparison. Materialist "science" will seem awesome, while enlargement of understanding that does not have an immediate physical expression can only be trivial musing. This is an all too prevalent view of science. Psychology is not dead. The science and practice of psychology are blessed, as they have long been, with keen and competent minds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The 1986 recipient of the Canadian Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology as a Science is Dr. Ronald Melzack, Professor of Psychology at McGill University. Throughout his distinguished and prolific research career, Dr. Melzack has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of pain. Through careful experiment and innovative theory he has shown that the phenomenon of pain can be understood only in terms of the interaction between physiological processes, mental states, and social beliefs. He is perhaps best known for his "gate control" theory of pain, formulated in conjunction with Patrick Wall in 1965, which provides a theoretical basis for this interaction and which has exerted an immense influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In a valuable paper, Bagby, Silverman, Ryan, and Dickens (see record
1987-32403-001) analyzed rates of involuntary admissions to Ontario psychiatric facilities for several years before and after Ontario's civil commitment law was changed in November, 1978. Bagby et al.'s paper is timely and important because it is relevant to North America generally, as yet another instance of disparity between change in the semantic formulation of the law and the subsequent behaviour of the psychiatric establishment. It still remains entirely a separate ethical question as to what extent commitment criteria, if the notion is meaningful and enforceable at all, should in fact be as restrictive as Ontario appeared to have intended a decade ago. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Banff Seminar in Cognitive Sciences (BASICS) was founded in 1982 and has met each spring since then in Banff, Alberta. This year was therefore a special occasion marking the 10th anniversary of this conference where now more than 60 hour-long talks have been presented. Although the talks this year ranged from a discussion of the basic sensory processes involved in motion perception to the fallibility of the memory of eye witnesses, a common theme emerged this year which suggested that for all the sophisticated processes of human perception revealed by experimental psychologists, humans are less than perfect processors of information. The attendees to this year's BASICS conference were presented with a broad spectrum of exciting ideas in cognitive psychology and cognitive science. All of the talks demonstrate that despite our variety of perceptual, attentional, and memory mechanisms, humans often fail to gather complete and accurate input from their visual sensory modality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Banff Annual Seminar in Cognitive Science (BASICS) has met each year since 1982 in Banff, Alberta. BASICS is a small conference in which six invited speakers present full, colloquium-length talks, followed by extensive discussion and interaction with the other conference participants. The talks this year, as in previous years, coveted a wide range of issues, problems, and paradigms. However, a common thread can be identified in all of the presentations: Each speaker was concerned in one way or another with strategy and intention as an explanatory variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Canadian Psychological Association presented Dr. Barbara Wand the 1992 CPA Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology as a Profession for her outstanding contributions to the development of Psychology as a profession and a discipline in Canada. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Forensic psychology has gained momentum in North America in recent decades, and Canadian psychologists have made considerable contributions to the field. Strong student interest and a high demand for professionals, however, have not been sufficiently matched with the availability of formal forensic psychology graduate training, nor with sufficient scholarly discussion of this issue. The purpose of the current study was to update Simourd and Wormith's (1995) survey of forensic psychology training available in Canadian psychology graduate programs. Of the 39 universities with psychology graduate programs, 36 (92%) responded to the survey. Twenty-four universities (67%) offered some forensic opportunities for students, although there was considerable variability in the number of courses, students, and faculty members in the forensic psychology programs. Since Simourd and Wormith's (1995) survey, forensic training is available at 10 new universities. Of the 14 programs with forensic psychology content in 1995 and in the current study, however, more than half of them reported a decrease in the number of faculty and students working with forensic issues. Considering the continued demand for trained forensic psychologists in applied settings, further attention to the availability of both education and training in forensic psychology is therefore still needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
This paper first describes the growing pains and challenges of the positive psychology (PP) movement and identifies the four pillars of the good life as meaning, virtue, resilience, and well-being, which are all shaped by culture. I then introduce three issues that characterise the second wave of PP (referred to as PP 2.0). The first concerns the need for a comprehensive taxonomy of PP. The second involves the hypothesis that meaning-orientation and happiness-orientation represent two different visions of the good life with profound practical implications. Eudaimonia is viewed as meaning plus virtue. The third issue concerns a dual-systems model as a way to integrate the complex interactions between the negatives and positives to optimise positive outcomes in various situations. I conclude that PP 2.0 is characterised by a balanced, interactive, meaning-centered, and cross-cultural perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Our response to Romanow and Marchildon's article (see record
2003-09748-001) on the role of psychology in the Canadian health-care system focuses on two challenges that emerge from the article, namely the continuing marginalization of mental health services and the dominance of political considerations over compelling scientific evidence for the impact of psychological services on health and recovery from illness. We conclude our comment with calls for (a) continuing efforts to educate policymakers, the media, and Canadians about the value of psychological services and (b) active involvement from psychologists in efforts to develop new models of primary health care in Canada. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Responds to the comments by E. F. Loftus (see record
2003-07215-003) on the target articles by A. D. Yarmey (see record
2003-07215-001) and S. Porter et al (see record
2003-07215-002) which both examined the influence of memory (false memory and repressed memory) on adjudication. In Loftus' commentary on the Porter et al article, Loftus agreed with many of their conclusions concerning allegations in "he said, she said" legal cases. However, Loftus focused some criticism on their coverage of recovered memory evidence. It appears that the main difference in their perspectives was not related to the science of memory but rather was one of scientific education versus advocacy in the legal system. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada (CFHCC) is to be congratulated for addressing the tension among various levels of government regarding health-care funding. The CFHCC also took the progressive step of creating the National Health Council, a body charged with ensuring greater accountability in health care. Psychologists have argued for decades that treatment decisions should be guided by a consideration of what works for whom and under what conditions. In our response to Romanow and Marchildon (see record
2003-09748-001), we argue that funding of health services in Canada has failed to heed this recommendation and the scientific evidence in support of the efficacy of psychological interventions for a wide range of health conditions. Despite remarkable advances in healthcare delivery, Canada's health-care system continues to be funded based on an outdated model of disease and illness. Romanow and Marchildon are to be applauded for their broad conceptualization of health and the role of various health professionals in advancing the health of Canadians. Unfortunately, this recognition did not make its way into the report of the CFHCC to the extent needed to make Canada's health system truly progressive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)