Canadian Journal of School Psychology

Published by SAGE Publications
Print ISSN: 0829-5735
Examined the contributions of self-concept and intelligence to the prediction of academic achievement among a total of 121 4th, 6th, and 8th graders. The unidimensional Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale and the Multidimensional Self-concept Scale were used to determine which self-concept model would better predict educational achievement. Zero-order correlations between general self-concept and achievement were found. However, small but significant positive associations between academic self-concept and achievement were obtained. Results from regression analyses suggest that intelligence accounted for the most variance in achievement, and that academic self-concept added a small amount above intelligence. Correlations between both global and academic self-concept and achievement were similar across grade levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Investigated the influence of student homework time and parental time and involvement in helping activities on the academic performance of students in Grades 3 and 5. The investigation consisted of (1) a retrospective survey phase regarding homework behavior for 29 students in Grade 3 and 24 students in Grade 5; and (2) a 6-wk log-phase, in which parents of 16 3rd graders and 15 5th graders completed a log of their children's homework behavior and their own involvement. Homework time and parental helping time were found to be predictive of academic performance across grade levels, particularly for students in Grade 3. Students characterized as below average performers tended to spend more time and to receive greater parental help than did above average performers. The predictive strength of parental helping time differed for grade according to phase. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Prior research has not concurred on whether withdrawn children are at-risk for maladjustment, and therefore whether intervention is of value to them. The present study hypothesized that when assessing possible future maladjustment one must look not only at introversion but also emotional stability (neuroticism). Participants were 243 grade 7 and 8 students identified by self-report measures as stable introverts, stable extroverts, unstable introverts, and unstable extroverts. Results confirm that unstable introverts regarded themselves as less happy and popular than other subjects. They saw themselves as less academically self-efficacious than extroverts and emotionally stable, introverted adolescents. Introverts and unstable adolescents regarded themselves as less socially self-efficacious than extroverts or stable children. The results in general suggest that it is not simply introversion that determines negative social consequences, but that emotional stability or neuroticism must also be considered and that unstable introverts may be more likely than stable introverts to suffer from maladjustment. The findings may help psychologists, teachers, and counsellors determine which socially withdrawn children benefit from intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Surveyed 204 high school students to evaluate a peer helping program (PHP). Opinions from some school staff were also used. Results validated the basic assumptions on which PHPs are founded, i.e., that students most often seek out each other for help and that peers are thought to be capable of providing help. However, few students said they would seek help with a problem from a peer counselor. Students have confidence in peers' ability to help with school and relationship problems but not with more serious problems such as suicide, death, and pregnancy. This point emphasizes the difference between peer and professional counseling programs. It is proposed that for PHPs to grow the distinction between support and counseling must become clear in the minds of those running the program and that alternate methods for program selection and training should be explored. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Offers an alternative perspective to "doomsday" predictions on the future of school psychology. Among the issues addressed are paradigm shifts, training requirements, ideology–reality gaps, roles and functions, the need for a patient approach to change, and tolerance for diversity within the field. The author's concerns about doomsday impressions are associated with their lack of historical and contemporary perspective, their focus only on certain roles and functions, their false sense of empowerment, and the implication that all school psychologists need to change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined the association between (1) perfectionism and (2) indices of job stress and perceptions of organizational support in 62 teachers. Ss completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Teacher Stress Inventory, and the Survey of Perceived Organizational Support. Measures of job satisfaction, job expectancy, and absenteeism were also obtained. A pervasive positive association was found between socially prescribed perfectionism and various indices of teacher stress, including the intensity and frequency of professional distress, emotional manifestations, and physiological manifestations. A significant association was detected between socially prescribed perfectionism and low job satisfaction. Self-oriented and other-oriented perfectionism dimensions were not correlated significantly with the measures of teacher stress. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Discusses prevention and intervention programs for school violence. Children at risk for antisocial behavior are characterized by low tolerance for frustration, impulsivity, anger, attention deficit problems, academic frustration, poor problem solving strategies, and low expectations for nonaggressive means to resolve problems. Their families are characterized by poor parental management and communications, unclear family boundaries, inconsistent roles and rules of discipline, and contradictory behavioral standards. Lack of safety at school also contributes to the risk for violence. Prevention approaches include 3 types of interrelated programs. Primary prevention maximizes students' educational progress and personal development; secondary prevention improves behavior, and cognitive and affective skills of high risk children; and tertiary prevention is directed toward children with a history of repeated aggression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
In this article, the authors review the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales (RIAS; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2003), an individually administered test of intelligence for use with individuals between the ages of 3 and 94. The RIAS represents the newest intelligence test on the marketplace and incorporates the most current intelligence test theory and an expedient, user-friendly approach to test administration. The RIAS also incorporates a brief intelligence screening test, the Reynolds Intellectual Screening Test (RIST). The RIST uses two RIAS subtests and requires only 10 minutes to administer. Although the RIAS may be expediently administered, it provides a global measure of intelligence consistent with tests more than twice its length. The Professional Manual is instructive, and the discussion of reliability, validity, and subtest analysis is particularly informative. However, questions remain about the factor structure of the RIAS and whether it can be interpreted beyond a single factor. The authors recommend additional factor analytic studies of the standardization sample as well as studies on independent samples.
The School Motivation and Learning Strategies Inventory (SMALSI) is a diagnostic tool that helps educators identify and measure strategies that are actively used by students for learning. It is a self-report inventory for use with students 8 through 12 years of age (SMALSI-Child Form) and also with older students aged 13 to 18 years (SMALSI-Teen Form). This article presents a general description of SMALSI and its technical adequacy. It is recommended to school psychologists as part of their standard battery of measurements for students who are referred for learning problems. It can also be used as pretest and posttest measures for intervention effectiveness. (Contains 1 table.)
"Differential Ability Scales," Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliott, 2007), was developed to measure the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents from age 2 years, 6 months to 17 years, 11 months. The test is designed to be individually administered, measuring general conceptual and reasoning ability ("g") as well as specific and diverse abilities. This information can yield a profile of relative strengths and weaknesses in cognitive functioning. The DAS-II is an updated version of the Differential Ability Scales (DAS; Elliott, 1990) and previous British Abilities Scales (Elliott, Murray, & Pearson, 1979) that include new norms of the current general population, added items and subtests, more attractive artwork, and increased ease of administration and scoring. These goals were developed based on feedback from school and clinical psychologists who had used the earlier edition. This article provides a detailed description of DAS-II and its technical adequacy.
Data from several psychometric variables was collected for 24 autistic children from a multidisciplinary center in Calgary, Alberta. The purpose of this study was to explore the underlying nature of autism. Variables were factor and duster analyzed to discover underlying structures of the disorder and to empirically derive homogeneous subtypes of children with a diagnosis of autism. Factor analysis indicated a 4 factor solution to account for the variance among variables. The groups were subsequently labeled Social Cognition, Language, Deviant Behavior, and Developmental. The clustering solution indicated the presence of two distinct groups labeled Low Functioning and High Functioning. Validity checks confirmed significance between group differences on measures of overall development, socinl functioning, and behaviors. The potential utility of empirical research is discussed along with limitations of the present study and suggestions for future research.
Factor Loadings of the Revised Self-Report Teamwork Scale 
Goodness-of-Fit Indices for One-through Four-Class LCA Models for the SJT Teamwork Scores 
Correlations between all Teamwork Scores Student Self-Report 
Teamwork Scores Compared by Latent Classes 
Various policy papers assert that teamwork is an essential skill for the 21st-century workforce. However, outside of organizational psychology research with adult populations, there are few reliable assessments of this construct with suitable validity evidence for test scores. To redress this issue, self-report, situational judgment, and teacher-report assessments of teamwork were developed for high school students. Various multivariate techniques were used to determine the structure of the scales, including factor and latent class analysis. Measures showed reasonable reliability and satisfactory validity evidence: Self-report, situational judgment, and teacher-report measures intercorrelated, and these measures also related to academic achievement. The advantages and disadvantages of each methodology are discussed, as are possible uses of this assessment system (e.g., evaluation of school-based programs that infuse curricula with modules on teamwork). (Contains 1 figure, 5 tables, and 1 note.)
This investigation explored the accuracy of six short forms of the WISC-III in estimating the Full Scale IQ of potentially gifted elementary students in Canada. Data from the WISC-III Canadian standardization study served as the analysis sample (n = 192), while WISC-III archival data obtained from a large urban school division in Western Canada was used for the cross validation sample (n = 1,058). When psychometric soundness and clinical utility were considered together with discriminating power, the Dumont-Faro short form (Information, Vocabulary, Picture Completion, Coding, Block Design) emerged as being the best short form for screening potentially gifted elementary students. The use of this short form would save time and resources without sacrificing accuracy. Recommendations for the practical application of the Dumont-Faro short form in school psychology practice are provided.
A number of studies report that from the first years of life, preterm children have more difficulty self-regulating and communicating in their social group. If these children show signs of difficulty adjusting socially, the question then is whether or not these problems continue and persist over time. The objective is to observe the combined effects of birth status and the passage of time on the resolution/persistence of the social problems. At age 7, the social adjustment of 96 extremely preterm (EP) children was assessed in a school setting, and 82 (85%) were followed at 11 years, and matched with three healthy term peers of the same sex and socioeconomic status (SES) recruited in the same classroom. A total of 375 children have been “casted” by their classmates in social roles through a sociometric interview at 7 and 11 years. The findings indicate a customary stability in term children but persistent or even increasing problems of victimization in EP children and a decrease of aggressiveness over time in the EP boys subgroup. Moreover, we found persistent social isolation problems in the subgroup of EP girls at 7 and 11 years. It can be concluded that prematurity is associated with a process of social marginalization that results from both the children’s very limitations and the resultant reputation effects. At these ages, any discrepancy is quickly judged as a weakness that children do not want to be associated with. Furthermore, the passage of time confirms this and reinforces the marginalization process.
BIMAS behavioral concern risk levels.
CRIES Subscale and BIMAS Behavior Concern Scale Scores, Overall and by Gender and Age (N = 2,310).
Correlations between the BIMAS Behavioral Concern Scales and CRIES Subscale Scores.
Students have been multiply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic: threats to their own and their family’s health, the closure of schools, and pivoting to online learning in March 2020, a long summer of physical distancing, and then the challenge of returning to school in fall 2020. As damaging as the physical health effects of a global pandemic are, much has been speculated about the “second wave” of mental health crises, particularly for school-aged children and adolescents. Yet, few studies have asked students about their experiences during the pandemic. The present study engaged with over two thousand ( N = 2,310; 1,288 female; M age = 14.5) 12- to 18-year-old Alberta students during their first few weeks of return-to-school in fall 2020. Students completed an online survey that asked about their perceptions of COVID-19, their fall return-to-school experiences (84.9% returned in-person), their self-reported pandemic-related stress, and their behavior, affect, and cognitive functioning in the first few weeks of September. The majority of students (84.9%) returned to school in person. Students reported moderate and equal concern for their health, family confinement, and maintaining social contact. Student stress levels were also above critical thresholds for 25% of the sample, and females and older adolescents (age 15–18 years) generally reported higher stress indicators as compared to males and younger (age 12–14 years) adolescents. Multivariate analysis showed that stress indicators were positively and significantly correlated with self-reported behavioral concerns (i.e., conduct problems, negative affect, and cognitive/inattention), and that stress arousal (e.g., sleep problems, hypervigilance) accounted for significant variance in behavioral concerns. Results are discussed in the context of how schools can provide both universal responses to students during COVID-19 knowing that most students are coping well, while some may require more targeted strategies to address stress arousal and heightened negative affect.
School psychologist job satisfaction during COVID-19. Note. Sample size for each response option; I am still satisfied with my job (N = 153), currently, I don't like my job (N = 146), Currently, I like working in this position (N = 144).
Participant Background.
In March of 2020, COVID-19 forced schools to close across Canada. While school psychologists typically work directly with students, teachers, and families, nearly all services had to be modified to accommodate the new circumstances. The following brief report presents a summary of the survey responses of 214 Canadian school psychology practitioners on their experience of the COVID-19 shutdown. Nearly all respondents indicated their work experiences had significantly changed since the start of the pandemic, notably through decreases in assessments and mental health interventions. Importantly, respondents also indicated significant decreases in their own mental health/well-being as compared to before the pandemic. Implications for professional practice are discussed.
Although many disciplines saw increases in manuscript submissions coinciding with lockdown measures, numerous studies have documented widening gender gaps in academic productivity. Chi-squared analyses of gendered trends in first author manuscript submission in three school psychology journals during the initial phase of COVID-19 compared to the same time frame in the preceding 3 years did not reveal any significant associations. There was a significant increase over time in the gender gap, with a trend of more female authors than male authors. Women school psychology researchers may not have experienced similar detriments to productivity as in other disciplines, or such detriments were not reflected in submission patterns during this time frame. Limitations of the study and implications for school psychology are provided.
School psychology journals yield hundreds of articles each year. As these journals are often evaluated based on the impact factors they produce, the aim of this study was to provide a historically complete record of the five impact factor values for the generalist school psychology journals that yield them. This study identified impact factors beginning in 1977, 20 years earlier than previously reported, and ending in 2019. Across all years and journals, the average Journal Impact Factor (JIF) was about 1.0, the average Immediacy Index was less than 0.4, the average 5-year Impact Factor was about 2.3, the average original CiteScore was 1.8, and the average new CiteScore was about 3.0. Increases in values were evident across time, and the highest recorded values across journals are held by the Journal of School Psychology (for the JIF, 5-year Impact Factor, and both CiteScore metrics) and School Psychology Review (for the Immediacy Index). Most impact factors, with the exception of the Immediacy Index, were moderately to highly correlated. The new CiteScore values were always the highest, and Immediacy Index values were always the lowest. School psychology has added journals to the list of those indexed by major databases, and these journals have increased their impact over time.
While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the Canadian Journal of School Psychology presented an earlier view of the state of school psychology in Manitoba. In this article, we build on and update those reviews in the specific areas of social and political environment, work environment, regulatory environment, and graduate education environment and provide our thoughts on the current and future state of the profession in Manitoba.
This article reports on the status of school psychology in Ontario. School psychology practice in Ontario has continued to evolve since the previous report was published in 2001. School psychologists have varied roles, and although the most prominent one remains as assessing students for entry into certain special education services, school-based psychology services in Ontario serve an advantageous role for district school boards as they offer all levels of service. As such, school psychologists are providing more mental health awareness, prevention, and intervention services than previously reported. Since 2013, every school board has a Mental Health Lead, and each district school board is required to produce a School Mental Health Strategy. The current five levels of service/intervention, registration requirements, and training opportunities as well as professional organizations for school psychologists are further discussed in the present report.
School psychology in New Brunswick experienced a surge of growth and development in the early part of the 21st century; however, dwindling numbers and recent government initiatives are presenting serious challenges to our ability to continue to provide the quality tiered services that we want to offer to the school community.
The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the extent to which students with Aboriginal status receive disproportionate rates of office discipline referrals (ODRs) and more severe administrative consequences relative to students without Aboriginal status. The participants were 1,750 students in five rural British Columbia and Alberta elementary and middle schools implementing Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS). Binary multilevel logistic regression was used to determine to what extent disproportionality was present. Contrary to hypotheses, students with Aboriginal status were no more likely to receive ODRs than students without Aboriginal status. Students with Aboriginal status were not statistically significantly more likely to receive suspensions and harsh administrative consequences from ODRs. Potential factors for these encouraging findings include the small sample, the Canadian context, and implementation of PBIS with culturally responsive adaptations for students from Aboriginal cultures. Results are discussed with respect to reducing disproportionate outcomes for Aboriginal students in schools.
The Mental Health Commission of Canada supported a comprehensive research project to determine the current state of mental health and substance use programs and practices in Canadian schools. The School-Based Mental Health and Substance Abuse Consortium is made up of a group of 40 leading Canadian researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. The Consortium systematically reviewed literature from around the world, conducted a program scan (147 programs) of current practices in Canadian schools, and distributed a national survey to school boards (n = 177) and schools (n = 643) seeking input on the state of knowledge and practice in child and youth mental health and substance abuse. This information is being shared with policy makers and school boards to help inform the delivery of future mental health services in Canada's schools.
This study examined the mediating role of student school motivation in linking student victimization experiences and academic achievement among a nationally representative sample of students in 10th grade. Structural equation modeling supported that there were significant associations between student victimization and academic achievement for high school students. Give these significant associations, identification of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie these relationships is critical to understanding the plight of repeated victims. Our results indicated that students who reported frequent peer victimization also reported reduced school motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation), resulting in lower achievement in both reading and math. These pathways existed after accounting for differences in achievement that may be due to socioeconomic status and gender.
This study examined the influence of student–teacher relationships on children’s anxiety and its differential association according to children’s sex and academic achievement. The sample included 350 third- and fourth-grade students and their elementary school teachers. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that student–teacher conflict at the beginning of the school year was associated with higher anxiety in students at the end of the year. The influence of conflict with teachers also varied for boys and girls, according to their academic achievement. Indeed, high-achieving girls reporting conflict with teachers presented more anxiety compared with boys and their low-achieving peers. This study highlights the influence of teachers on student anxiety, and brings attention to high-achieving girls, a group rarely considered at risk.
This study examined the scoring errors across three widely used achievement tests (Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement–Second Edition [KTEA-2], Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Achievement–Third Edition [WJ-III], and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test–Third Edition [WIAT-III]) by novice examiners. A total of 114 protocols were evaluated for differences between the measures on the frequency and type of scoring errors. Within-measure analyses were also conducted to identify particular composites or subtests that might be more prone to error. Among the three measures, the WIAT-III was found to have the most scoring elements and was, therefore, the measure most susceptible to errors in scoring. Irrespective of the measure, more errors occurred on composites requiring greater examiner inference and interpretation, similar to previous studies on the propensity of scoring errors on cognitive measures. Results are discussed in relation to assessment fidelity and to assessment training practices.
Course grades, as an indicator of academic performance, are a primary academic concern at the secondary school level and have been associated with various aspects of mental health status. The purpose of this study is to simultaneously assess whether symptoms of mental illness (depression and anxiety) and mental well-being (psychosocial well-being) are associated with self-reported grades (in their primary language [English or French] and math courses) and education behaviors (school days missed due to health, truancy, and frequency of incomplete homework) in a sample of secondary school students across Canada ( n = 57,394). Multivariate imputation by chained equations and multilevel proportional odds logistic regressions were used to assess associations between mental health scores, academic performance and education behaviors. Lower depression and higher psychosocial well-being scores were associated with better grade levels in both math and language courses, as well as better education behaviors. In turn, better education behaviors were associated with higher course grades. Depression scores and psychosocial well-being scores remained associated with higher grades after controlling for education behaviors, however the magnitude of association was diminished. Results indicate that the effects of mental health factors were partially attenuated by education behaviors, suggesting while reduced class attendance and poor homework adherence were associated with both academic outcomes and mental health, they do not account entirely for the association between lower grades and worse mental health.
Mean (±SD) Scores for GPA, Academic Functioning, and Mental Health Pre and Post Intervention. N Pre (SD) Post (SD) 
Within-Participants Contrasts of Repeated-Measures ANOVAs. 
This study investigated the effectiveness of a combined academic and personal counselling initiative on student performance and emotional well-being outcomes of 289 at-risk students at a Canadian University. Criterion for risk included academic struggles, mental health distress, or both. The program was developed to be tailored to individual needs, and students participated in weekly counselling sessions over the course of 1 academic year. Results showed significant overall increases in student grade point average (GPA), academic functioning, and mental health well-being, demonstrating the program’s effectiveness in addressing the differential needs of students. Implications of the results are discussed.
This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with scales from the Teacher's Report Form assessing socio-emotional problems and adaptive functioning at school. Trait EI was positively correlated with aspects of children's adaptive functioning and academic achievement only in the 11- to 13-year-old but not in the 8- to 10-year-old group. Our results illustrate the importance of taking age into consideration when assessing the relationship between trait EI with socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. The consequences and limitations of these findings are discussed.
This study examined student perceptions of their school environment (specifically, safety and inclusion in the school, experiences being bullied, and clear expectations for behaviour) and their relation with academic achievement at the school level. Participants were students in 969 elementary schools and 73 middle schools who took part in a provincewide achievement test and student satisfaction survey in Canada. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the amount of variance in student achievement explained by student perceptions of the school environment when controlling for school-level poverty and accounting for nesting by district. Results showed that perceptions of the school environment were significantly associated with academic success, above and beyond effects of school-level poverty and district. These results are discussed with regard to critical targets for enhancing the school environment to maximize academic achievement.
Although there is much research on School-Wide Positive Behavioural Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in the United States, there is little such research in Canada. The purpose of the current study was to provide a case study example of the relation between implementing PBIS and student academic and behavioural outcomes, as well as student perceptions of the school environment. Data were collected in one school as it moved from partial to full implementation of PBIS. The results of the study indicated positive academic and behavioural outcomes for students, as well as increased perceptions of safety, understanding of school expectations, and decreased perceptions of bullying. The results of this study are discussed with implications regarding PBIS in Canada and the importance of fidelity of implementation of school-based interventions.
Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analyses for Academic Involvement.
Descriptive Statistics for All Study Variables.
Multiple Regression Analyses for School Belonging.
Canada’s high school graduation rates are still low when compared to other members of the OECD. Previous studies have found academic involvement is associated with positive trajectories toward graduation, that social support promotes student engagement, and that school belonging could mediate this relationship. Still, little is known about the specificity of such mediation, especially in Québec. Therefore, this study examined the role of belonging as mediator of the relationship between social support and academic involvement. Participants ( N = 238) were high-school students from the Greater Montréal Area. All variables were measured by the School-Climate Questionnaire. Results from hierarchical multiple regressions indicated parental support had a direct relationship, whereas peer and teacher support had a mediated relationship by school belonging with academic involvement. Results highlight the critical role of school belonging in promoting academic involvement in relation to social support.
This study examined the relationship between parental involvement in education (PIE) and adolescent academic achievement in 99 adolescents with and without ADHD. PIE was measured by two parent-report questionnaires. A standardized test was used to measure academic achievement. Adolescent ADHD status predicted academic achievement. Maternal PIE did not predict adolescent achievement over and above adolescent ADHD status. Fathers’ self-efficacy, supportive involvement, and aspirations moderated the association between adolescent ADHD status and adolescent achievement. These PIE variables were positively associated with achievement in adolescents with ADHD. Paternal self-efficacy was not associated with achievement in adolescents without ADHD, and paternal supportive involvement and paternal aspirations predicted lower achievement in these adolescents. These results suggest the importance of paternal involvement in the learning of adolescents with ADHD and have implications for involving fathers in interventions aimed at improving their academic achievement.
Few effective school-based interventions that target social-communication skills are available for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The growing gap between interventions designed for use in research settings and the school environment is concerning for researchers and clinicians alike. Research methods that incorporate relevant stakeholders (e.g., educators, early intervention providers [EIPs]) throughout the process from intervention design to implementation help to bridge this gap. This study used content analysis of interview data to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a specific peer-mediated intervention (PMI) for school use for young children with ASD. We explored educators’ and EIPs’ perspectives on evidence-based practice (EBP), the components of the proposed intervention (using Pivotal Response Treatment, PRT), and the overall acceptability and feasibility of using the intervention at school, through interviews with 29 participants (24 elementary school educators and five EIPs serving children with ASD). Results indicated that stakeholders had some knowledge of PRT and found the PMI approach to be acceptable and feasible. Several potential challenges were identified with respect to typically developing peers as intervention agents. We discuss educators’ specific recommendations for intervention adaptation and provide a model for researchers and educators to collaborate in promoting optimal use of EBPs at school.
Teachers' and psychologists' ratings of three classroom interventions, a token economy, a response cost, and a response cost lottery, were compared under two levels of implementation support. The Behavior Intervention Rating Scale (BIRS), a measure of treatment acceptability and perceived effectiveness, was the major dependent measure. A directed inquiry questionnaire provided additional information concerning interventions and amount of implementation support. Results of a multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant effect for the within subject variable of intervention. However, there were no differences between the two professional groups or amount of support provided. Invert analysis indicated all three factors of the BIRS were significant for the method variable. Specifically, Scheffe's post hoc procedure indicated the token economy intervention was rated more acceptable and effective than the two variants of response cost. Chi Square analysis of directed inquiry questions indicated response cost and response cost lottery were not preferred interventions, nor considered the most effective or typically suggested for use. All three interventions, however, were considered usable in schools. A relatively low amount of implementation support was considered typical, whereas a relatively high amount of support was considered more reasonable and adequate. Past research, future directions, and implications for practice were discussed.
This study analyzes the self-perceptions of social competence in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It compares two groups of participants, children with ADHD ( N = 20) and children without ADHD ( N = 20) ages between 8 and 12 years old. Sociometric questionnaires were completed by two groups of participants and 707 peers, as well as a questionnaire that evaluates children’s behavior from parents’ and teachers’ perspectives. Results indicate that children with ADHD correctly perceive enmity, but incorrectly perceive friendship. Children with ADHD have low rates of positive reciprocity and qualities that indicate friendship differs considerably from the children without ADHD. The children with ADHD have a different profile of social self-perception than children without ADHD, especially regarding recognizing friendship. The results contribute to the understanding of perceptions of elements of peer relationship and friendships with strong ecological validity. This small scale study provides a proof of concept for improving ecological validity in the methods of evaluating social skills and social emotion learning programming for children with ADHD.
Top-cited authors
Wendy M Craig
  • Queen's University
Debra Pepler
  • York University
Shelley Hymel
  • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Paul L Hewitt
  • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Tanya N Beran
  • The University of Calgary