Background: Cervical carcinoma is the second utmost common malignant disease in women around
the world. HPV was officially designated as the causative agent of cervical cancer. Apart from HPV
16, 18 inflammation plays a major role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. IL-6 encodes a protein
that leads to inflammation and retains immune homeostasis. Therefore, this case-control study was
planned to validate whether polymorphism in inflammation related gene interleukin-6 is linked with
cervical cancer susceptibility. Subjects & Methods: We recruited 392 subjects, including 192
histologically validated cases with cervical cancer and 200 age, ethnicity matched healthy controls for
this study. IL-6 -174G>C polymorphism was genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction
fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) approach. The IL-6 genotype's frequencies were
determined using co-dominant, dominant, and recessive genetic models. The odds ratio (OR) and 95%
confidence interval were used to determine the strength of the associations (CI). Results: When
compared to controls, the IL-6 174G>C gene polymorphism was linked to a substantially increased
cervical cancer risk (OR: 1.854, CI: 1.188-2.895; P = 0.006). Similarly, the GC genotype was linked
to a higher cervical cancer risk with tumor stage (OR: 1.648, CI: 0.885-3.067; P = 0.115; OR: 1.963,
CI 1.202-3.209; P = 0.007). According to the results of a logistic regression study, the IL-6 -174C
allele was independently linked to increased cervical cancer risk (OR: 1.551, CI: 1.07-2.25, P = 0.02).
Conclusion: The increased occurrence of the C allele and G/C genotype in patients compared to
controls indicates that the IL-6 -174 G>C polymorphism may affect cervical cancer susceptibility.
Background: The coronavirus disease pandemic is still ongoing, and infection rates are still
fluctuating, despite a very effective vaccination campaign in Egypt. Although there is an
understandable and strong desire for "normality" to return, we must continue our efforts to increase
public acceptance of continuing preventative measures and reduce vaccine reluctance, therefore it is
crucial to measure the population's general knowledge, attitudes and practices about the disease.
Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among a sample of Egyptian adults
(516 persons). A web-based questionnaire designed by staff members; with a snowball sampling
technique, was used for data collection. Results: Two-thirds (65.1%) of respondents were women, and
aged 18 to 30. The majority of participants (83.9%) were graduates and 74.6% were not married. Urban
residents made up 72.3% of participants and almost half of the sample was unemployed (52.5%). Of
the 516 respondents, 92.2% were vaccinated and 51.4% did not get infected with covid-19. The tested
sample showed an overall 73% knowledge score and an overall 50% attitudes, and practice score. The
factor that was sustained through the multivariate regression analysis for the parameter affecting
knowledge was higher educational level, and married people and those with better knowledge score
for the practices and attitude. Conclusion: Amongst this escalating hazard of contagious viral diseases,
our study might provide a guide for health education during these critical chaotic situations. It is crucial
to increase the knowledge and to make the targeted community well-equipped, especially the less
educated ones, as the pandemic continues to evolve. To reach the rural residents, community
collaborative activities are needed.
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) is the most dangerous pandemic of the 21st
century and the main epicenter of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is Wuhan in the Hubei
province of China. Coronavirus is so-called because of the spike on its surface (corona= crown)
that belongs to coronvirinaesubfamily. There are mainly four groups like alpha, beta, gamma, delta
established on their genomic assembly. The review focuses on brief introduction to coronaviruses
discussing the role of rennin-angiotensin system in hypertensive and coronary vascular disease.
Based on the published evidence, we also discuss genetic risk of COVID-19. This review article
also highlights current developments in designing vaccines and therapeutics in the hope of
providing a reference for future studies and help for the prevention of the COVID-19 epidemic.
Keywords: COVID-19, Pandemic, SARS-CoV-2
Background: Old Date is an abundant source of underutilized food; syrup extraction represents potential by-products for human consumption. Objective: In this study we aimed to compare the antioxidant potential properties of fresh and old date syrup. Materials and Methods: To achieve the objectives of the study, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteu's assays were used to measure antioxidant activity and total polyphenolic contents. Results: The results showed that both fresh and old date syrup showed efficient radical scavenging activity. The DPPH radical scavenging activity and total polyphenolic contents were comparable without any significant differences, P>0.05. Conclusion: It is recommended that the underutilized old date can be further used as a syrup-rich natural antioxidant in the food industry during food manufacturing as a source of natural antioxidants.
Background: Adolescence is the transitional stage from childhood to adulthood and represents one the most critical stages in human lifespan because it is associated with several biological changes that affect adolescents' personal and social development, and self-esteem. Objective: In this study we aimed to investigate gender differences in self-esteem of Omani adolescents, and to explore the discrepancies on their self-esteem according to the level of their body mass index (BMI). Subjects and Methods: To achieve the objectives of the study, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (SES) has been administered on a sample consisted of 855 Omani adolescents (413 males and 422 females) with a similar average age (17.22 ± 1.26 years). BMI also measured using the equation (Weight/Height 2 expressed as kg/m 2). Results: The results also showed that the level of self-esteem varies according to the level of BMI, whereas healthier adolescents (BMI=18.5-25 kg/m 2) scored significantly higher on SES comparing to obese adolescents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2). Results were discussed in the light of the cultural determinants and the previous theoretical literature in this field. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that there were significant differences between healthy males and females in the level of self-esteem in favor of females.
Objective: Patients with panic disorder (PD) appear to be at a high-risk for developing a panic attack
when consuming caffeine. The purpose of this review was to explore the impact of consumption of
caffeine-containing foods in triggering panic attacks among adults diagnosed with PD. Methods: An
electronic search of PubMed/Medline and EMBASE databases was conducted. The keywords used
for the search were “caffeine”, “energy drink”, “tea”, “coffee”, “caffeinated drinks”, "caffeinated
beverages”, “anxiety”, “panic disorder”, ”panic attacks”, and “adenosine receptor agonist”. Studies
that reported the experience of caffeine-induced panic attacks among adult patients diagnosed with
PD and published in English peer-reviewed journals between January 1950 and December 2018 were
included. Each article was reviewed independently by at least two investigators. Panic attacks
induced by consuming caffeine-containing foods in PD patients were the primary outcome of
interest. Estimates were pooled using random-effects and meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis for sex,
age, and country variables was conducted as well. Results: The events of panic attacks among PD
patients after caffeine consumption were extracted from fifteen studies across four countries (K=15,
N=360). The overall pooled data showed that 48% (173/360 PD patients (95% CI 38.6%–57%)
experienced caffeine-triggered panic attacks. Conclusions: In this systematic review and metaanalysis, about half (48%) of adults with PD experienced panic attacks after caffeine consumption.
Further research is needed to examine the prevalence of panic attacks on a larger scale among
different regions, standardize the dosage of caffeine in the future experiment, as well as identify the
potential confounding factors.