Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement

Published by Canadian Psychological Association
Online ISSN: 0008-400X
Publications
Article
A mail survey of 810 Greater Vancouver Area residents investigated how the public's acceptance of a request for euthanasia was influenced by the method of death (e.g., lethal injection vs. withdrawal of life-support) and by the identity of the patient featured in a vignette (e.g., stranger vs. oneself). The study also identified considerations people found most important in deciding whether a patient's request for euthanasia was legitimate (e.g., patient's pain, chance for recovery). Life-support withdrawal was found significantly more acceptable (90% support) than a lethal injection (79% support), yet the identity of the person involved did not affect the acceptability of euthanasia. However, a factor analysis suggested that the decisions about oneself may be more complex and more closely scrutinized than decisions about others. The considerations rated most important by participants paralleled legal guidelines from the Netherlands and Oregon.
 
Article
The ethical codes of the Canadian Psychological Association and the American Psychological Association prescribe certain research practices (informed consent, stated permission to withdraw from the experiment, and debriefing) to reduce or eliminate ethical concerns in studies employing stressful stimuli and/or deception. APA has further recommended a cost-benefit analysis as the appropriate method of determining whether or not a study is ethically acceptable. In two experiments, 192 introductory psychology students, 22 senior undergraduate students, and 28 faculty gave their reactions to "proposed" research that varied orthogonally with regard to the use of stress, deception, informed consent/permission to withdraw from the experiment, and debriefing. All participants perceived the use of stress and/or deception as raising ethical problems; however, manipulation of ethical safeguards within the descriptions of these studies was found not to significantly alter the ethicality ratings for any of the subject populations. Both faculty and senior undergraduate students rated apparently innocuous studies as less troublesome than did introductory students. On the other hand, faculty and senior students gave more negative ratings to the combination of stressful stimuli and deception. The ethical review process is discussed in terms of the problems and methods of determining the ethicality of proposed research.
 
Descriptive Statistics of McGill Friendship Questionnaires in Study 1
Regressions of MFQ-RA Subscales (N = 246)
Descriptive Statistics of McGill Friendship Questionnaires in Study 2
Article
This research established the psychometric properties of 2 friendship questionnaires; the McGill Friendship Questionnaire–Respondent's Affection (MFQ–RA) taps respondents' feelings for a friend and friendship satisfaction, and the McGill Friendship Questionnaire–Friend's Function (MFQ–FF) taps respondents' assessments of the degree to which a friend fulfills 6 friendship functions (stimulating companionship, help, intimacy, reliable alliance, self-validation, and emotional security). Ss were 227 junior-college students (aged 16–21 yrs). Factor analysis supported the subscale structure of each questionnaire. The subscales showed high internal consistency, covaried with the duration of being a best friend and with a self-esteem subscale regarding close friends, but not with other self-esteem measures. Women reported higher positive feelings for their friend than did men and evaluated the friend higher on friendship functions. Finally, positive feelings and satisfaction covaried with each friendship function subscale. It is concluded that the MFQ–RA and the MFQ–FF, though brief and easy to administer, provide reliable and valid assessments of friendship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Although much work has been published on differences between the sexes in Western countries on tests of abilities, interests, and personality traits, little attention has been paid to comparing the organization or structuring of psychological variables among males and females. 198 male and 189 female Canadian 8th graders were given a battery of tests (e.g., the Safran Student's Interest Inventory and the Embedded Figures Test). Results indicate that the ability factors in the 2 sexes were closely similar, although their relations to age, artistic and scientific interests, social attitudes, personality tendencies, and other variables often differed markedly. For example, large sex differences in the psychological significance of field independence and of divergent thinking, and the organization of career and other interests indicate that mixed-sex studies should be discouraged. (French summary) (28 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In order to describe conceptions of health of male adolescents, structured interviews were individually conducted with 700 14–16 yr old boys from a disadvantaged urban environment. A classical content analysis of respondents' verbalizations was conducted and interrater reliability coefficients were calculated. Results indicate that being functional, lifestyle health behaviours, and to a lesser extent psychological well-being are the most important components of their conception of health. Adolescents emphasized vegetation, natural elements, and the absence of pollution in their neighbourhood, as well as encouragements to engage in physical activity. Mothers and television are the main sources of health information. Respondents rarely mentioned issues related to leading health problems for adolescents: unintentional injuries, suicide, teenage pregnancy, and sexually transmitted disease. It is concluded that adolescents' conception of health may just mirror what the adults try to transmit to them in terms of health promotion or prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Administered Form A of the 16 PF to 567 undergraduates, and obtained correlations between all items. The present analysis concerns the number of significant interitem correlations. Of the 16,836 interitem correlations, 3,267 were significant at the .01 level. Of these 3,267, only 348 were intrafactor correlations out of 984 possible significant intrafactor correlations. The most homogeneous item groupings were found in surgency, parmia, and ergic tension. In general, this widely used personality test does not satisfy critical scrutiny at the item level. (French summary) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Argues that social psychologists in Canada have an important role to play in policy analysis and evaluation. The multiculturalism policy of the federal government is proposed as one policy area for which social psychological theory and research may be particularly relevant. The policy is outlined and a number of social psychological issues and assumptions in the policy are identified, including group maintenance and development, intergroup contact and sharing, and group acceptance and tolerance. Generally, the policy seems to be supported by theory and empirical findings, but there is a need to guard against possible countereffects. It is argued that more long-term programmatic research is required in social policy areas if social psychologists are to make a useful contribution. (French abstract) (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared D. W. Reid and E. E. Ware's (see record 1974-32481-001) 32-item locus of control measure to a shortened (18-item) version of the same scale, using data from 534 university students. Compared to the original instrument, the shorter measure had clearer dimensions and explained more of the variance while retaining similar reliability coefficients. Norms are provided for this shorter version in view of its usefulness as an economical measure of multifactorial locus of control. (5 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested a total of 96 18-, 24-, 30-, and 36-mo-olds on an apparatus that included 7 interchangeable slotted templates. In increasing complexity, the templates included a straight alley (training maze), 1 2-turn, and 1 5-turn T-maze, each in 2 forms, and 2 6-turn mazes (T-maze and D-maze). For 18- and 24-mo-old Ss mazes were presented in order of increasing complexity and for 30- and 36-mo-old Ss, half received the order 2-, 5-, 6-turn and the other half 2-, 6-, 5-turn. The experimenter assisted a child either after the same blind had been reentered 3 times or when a child refused to complete a trial. Results indicate that slotted mazes can differentiate among age groups. The inability of younger Ss to complete the mazes without assistance as complexity increased, a decrease in errors on any 1 level of maze complexity as age increased, and an increase in errors of 1 age group as maze complexity increased were evident. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the psychometric validity, the internal consistency, the factorial structure, and the discriminant properties of the Canadian-French version of an instrument designed to measure client satisfaction with psychotherapeutic services. Human subjects: 126 male and female French-Canadian adults (aged 19–67 yrs). All Ss had received treatment for dysthymic disorders, emotional problems, or mild personality disorders. Ss were interviewed by telephone during the week in which they initially sought treatment and at the end of treatment. During the course of treatment, the Questionnaire d'Auto-Évaluation de la Détresse Psychologique ("Self-Report Questionnaire of Psychologic Distress") (SCL-10) by T. D. Nguyen et al (1983) and the Psychiatric Symptom Inventory (1974) by L. Derogatis et al were administered. At the end of treatment, the Canadian-French version of the CSQ for psychotherapeutic services by Sabourin et al (1987) was administered during a telephone interview. The results were analyzed statistically according to client satisfaction, demographic factors, utilization of psychiatric services, and efficacy of treatment. The psychometric validity of the CSQ was determined. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses major eyewitness research findings regarding topics such as the relationship between accuracy and confidence, the identification of perpetrators from lineups, and the influence of misleading information on eyewitness memory and reports. It is contended that the debate regarding expert testimony (XT) has sharpened researchers' conceptions of generalization problems and the quality of jurors' knowledge about eyewitness accuracy and has raised concerns about the proper role of experimental psychologists in the legal system. It is proposed that the confusion and controversy over XT involves the fact that XT represents an attempt to provide services to the judicial rather than the evidence-production phase of the fact-finding process. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested 86 7-15 yr. old Canadian reserve Indian children on the D. B. Harris and F. L. Goodenough Draw-a-Man (see 25:4) and J. C. Raven's Progressive Matrices (1938) tests. The Draw-a-Man mean IQs were: girls 100, boys 113; a significant difference. The Raven mean IQs were: girls 79, boys 85; not significantly different. Tests were significantly correlated (raw scores, r = .67; IQs, r = .53). Older Ss had significantly lower IQs on the Raven only. Results caution against assuming that these tests, especially the Raven, are "culture free" measures of intelligence. (French summary) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The aim of this study was to validate a French-Canadian version of the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales (J. R. Rizzo et al, 1970). A sample of 470 Ss (mean age 39.4 yrs) was used to establish the psychometric properties of the instrument. The internal consistency coefficients were found to be .77 and .79 for the conflict and ambiguity scales, respectively. A confirmatory factor analysis supports the factor structure of the original version. Correlations between the role conflict and ambiguity scales with work satisfaction, role overload, and psychological distress provided some indication of construct validity. The two scales were weakly associated with social desirability. Future studies are needed to further investigate their construct validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Conducted a total of 7 surveys with 2 separate sample populations (310 English-Canadian residents and 595 Canadian college students) before, during, and after the Canadian kidnapping crisis of 1970, in which a militant French separatist group kidnapped 1 English and 1 Canadian official. While no long-term effects on opinions towards French Canadians or the government's use of restrictive measures were observed, results show considerable short-term changes in opinions during the height of the crisis. Ss increased their support of any action which was or could be taken by the government in order to deal with the crisis; they also tended to obscure differences between those directly or indirectly involved with the crisis. Other reactions to the crisis as well as the methodological implications of the study are discussed. (French summary) (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Modeling procedures are frequently used as remedial and instructional techniques with diagnostic groups such as autistic, mentally retarded, and learning-disabled children. The authors describe the theoretical underpinning of the use of modeling in these atypical groups and then consider the scientific merit of 65 studies in 10 diagnostic categories, analyzed from a research design-validity basis. In the analysis of experimental design requirements for remediation research, it was suggested that within-S procedures are essential for interpretable experiments with atypical groups, but no appropriate within-S designs were found in the corpus of studies analyzed. Of the relatively few between-S experiments in the corpus, most were found to be valid in terms of their including the manipulation of at least one modeling variable. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Analyzed relationships among reviewers' appraisals and editorial decision making for 120 manuscripts submitted to the Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science. Reviewers' ratings on 8 standard evaluation criteria were evaluated for interrater agreement. The same criteria were used to predict the same reviewer's overall recommendation, and the reviewers' ratings were used to predict the editor's final decision to accept, reject, or request revisions. Interrater agreement on specific indices of manuscript quality were quite low. A principal components analysis revealed that reviewers effectively evaluated 2 factors: internal validity and importance of scientific contribution. Reviewers' ratings on specific criteria were correlated with moderate strength to their own final recommendation, and their recommendations were predictive of the editor's decision, explaining 63% of the variance. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the relationship between perceived status in politics and judged physical stature. 177 Ss were interviewed. Comparison of estimated heights of Canadian federal party leaders before and after the 1988 federal election indicated that the losers, Broadbent and Turner, were judged to be shorter afterwards, while the winner, Mulroney, was judged taller. Although the relationship between status and judged height has previously been demonstrated, this result indicates that it is dynamic (i.e., election outcomes alter rated tallness). A gender effect also was noted. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Assessed attitudes toward aspects of multiculturalism (Multicultural Ideology, Perceived Consequences of Multiculturalism, and Multicultural Program Attitudes) and toward ethnic and immigrant groups, as well as Tolerance and Canadianism with 3,325 Ss. Attitudes toward multiculturalism were moderately positive, and tolerance moderately high; there was also a relatively high sense of attachment and commitment to Canada. Immigrant and ethnic groups of European origin were more positively evaluated than those of non-European origin. Variations in these attitudes by region of residence and ethnic origin revealed significant differences, as Ss of French origin living in Quebec tended to be less supportive than Ss of British and other origins living outside Quebec. Despite some signs of ethnocentrism, there are good prospects for achieving a diverse and tolerant society in Canada. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the extent to which cognitive and motivational factors influenced 123 undergraduates' consensus estimates for the 1992 Canadian Constitutional Referendum. A significant false consensus (FC) bias was observed in Ss' estimates of how Canadians would vote. Ss who planned to vote Yes (Yes-Voters [YVs]) estimated, on average, that 56% of the people across Canada would vote Yes, whereas students who planned to vote No (No-Voters [NVs]) estimated, on average, that only 51% would vote Yes. Subsequent analyses of the estimates of YVs revealed that selective exposure (a cognitive mechanism) and emotional involvement (a motivational mechanism) were significant predictors of higher estimates. Among NVs, attributional influence was the sole predictor of higher estimates. Results provide support for the influence of 3 mechanisms implicated in the FC effect and suggest that different processes were at work for YVs and NVs. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The widespread employment of the Beck Depression Inventory-1A ({bdi}-1{a}) has spawned a number of practices: (1) The employment of an unweighted total score as a measure of depression; (2) Its use in populations other than that in which it was normed; and (3) The employment of {bdi}-1{a} total scores in hypothesis tests about population differences in mean depression. A sequential procedure based on item response theory was employed to assess the validity of these practices for the case of 4 populations: clinical depressives ( n = 210), mixed nondepressed psychiatric patients ( n = 98), and students from 2 different universities ( n = 624). The findings suggest that the 1st practice was not justified for any of these populations, that the {bdi}-1{a} was employable only with clinical depressives and with 1 of the university populations, and that mean comparisons were not allowable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared the discriminative powers of (1) the mental and motor indexes of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) (N. Bayley, 1969), (2) the 5-cluster regrouping of the BSID by R. Kohen-Raz (1967), and (3) the 7-cluster regrouping of the BSID by L. J. Yarrow et al (1975). Ss were 29 3.5-mo-old, 53 6-mo-old, and 57 9-mo-old Haitian, Canadian, and Vietnamese infants. Ss' performances on the BSID were analyzed with the mental and motor scales of the BSID, the 5-cluster regrouping, and the 7-cluster regrouping. The 3 systems were compared with regard to their ability to detect age, gender, and cultural differences. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Although some studies suggest positive effects of treatment for sexual offenders, most studies have been hampered by the unknown influence of selective attrition (e.g., volunteers and drop-outs). In the 1980s, the Correctional Service of Canada began to require weekly community treatment sessions for all sex offenders released in the Pacific Region. This policy change provided a unique opportunity for comparing an unselected cohort of treated sex offenders (n = 403) to an untreated cohort (n = 321) released in earlier years. After an average 12-year follow-up period, no differences were observed in the rates of sexual (21.1% vs 21.8%), violent (42.9% vs. 44.5%) or general (any) recidivism (56.6% vs 60.4%) for treated and untreated groups, respectively. The outcome remained comparable after controlling for length of follow- up, year of release, age, and seven static risk factors coded from official criminal history records. Retrospective ratings of the treatment quality also showed no relationship to observed recidivism rates. The static risk factors coded in the current study accounted for considerable variance in recidivism and could easily be used to improve statistical controls in future evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Used questionnaire responses to select 200 undergraduates who did not hold extreme opinions on the topics of unidentified flying objects and ecology. Ss were assigned to 1 of 4 groups and heard a communicator deliver messages either for or against 1 of the 2 issues. One-half of the Ss in each of 4 conditions heard a message from a "maverick" who had quit an organization over the issue he was now discussing. The other 1/2 heard a person who was a member of an organization and who delivered a message in line with the official position of that organization. The "mavericks" were perceived as fairer and more trustworthy than the "nonmavericks," but not as more expert. The mavericks' conclusions were perceived as better justified by the facts, and more opinion change was elicited toward their positions, as measured by the percentage of Ss changing and by the pre-post communication position of audiences. (French summary) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
K. A. Brennan et al (1998) developed a measure known as the Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR) based on existing adult attachment questionnaires. The present article concerns the French translation of the ECR and proposes 2 validation studies carried out with French Canadian adults (N=329) and couples (N=316). The 1st study consisted of verifying the exploratory and confirmatory factorial validity of the French version of the ECR. The exploratory factor analysis showed that 18 items measure the avoidance dimension and 18 items measure the anxiety dimension. Results of the factorial confirmatory analyses demonstrated the value of a 2-stage model. This model included 8 1st-order attachment components that are related to 2 2nd-order dimensions, namely, avoidance of intimacy and anxiety over abandonment. The 2nd study served to counter-validate the 2nd-order model using a sample of couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Factor analysis of ability tests for Eskimo, White, and Indian-Metis 9-12 yr. old pupils indicated for each sample 2 highly correlated oblique factors labelled v:ed and reasoning from nonverbal stimuli. When native Ss were scored on white T-score norms, least ethnic differences and least decline with age relative to white Ss occurred in the latter abilities. Written memory was an outstanding exception. There were almost no sex differences for any of the samples. (French summary) (18 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated 3 hypotheses: that language and symbolic play are positively related in infancy, that the 2 are unrelated, and that early symbolic play predicts later language ability. 25 infants were observed in 2 free play sessions, at 12–14 mo (Session 1) and 20–22 mo (Session 2). Three symbolic play and object use measures were significantly and positively interrelated. Three language variables, measured at Session 2, were significantly and positively interrelated. There were no significant correlations between the language and play variables from either session, and a principal-components analysis confirmed this independence. The results best support the hypothesis that language and symbolic play abilities are unrelated in infancy. (French abstract) (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A total of 101 kindergarten and Grade-1 children from 4 isolated coastal communities in Labrador were given the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, and Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. The differential psycholinguistic profiles of the Ss are reported. These results offer support for the claim that ecological demands to some extent determine cognitive structures. Results also indicate that the Ss had abilities in a number of areas that were within 1 standard deviation of the mean for the normative sample. These suggest areas that could be capitalized upon in order to make the educational system more meaningful to these children. (French summary) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Used performance on a set of criterion logic tasks (multiplication classes, multiplication of relations, seriation, and transitivity) to assess the performance of 32 1st graders and 32 2nd graders on tests of mental processing capacity and of anticipatory and retroactive abilities, variables theoretically assumed as necessary for the attainment of logical competence. The logical tasks included measures which differentiated between figurative and operative response strategies. Findings are as follows: (a) A factor analysis indicated that the 1st 2 measures had high loadings only on the factor defined by the operative measures. (b) The measures of the M operator (J. Pascual-Leone, 1969) corresponded to previously obtained norms. (c) The relationship of this latter variable to the anticipation-retroaction and logical tasks confirmed its status as a necessary but not sufficient condition in the attainment of logical structures. Results are discussed in relation to the problems of defining the abilities that make up logical competence at the concrete-operational stage. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This report, a supplement to T. Gray and D. Mill (1990), is concerned with how readily 32 psychology graduate students recognize that crucial, control group type information is missing from brief abstracts that make a particular claim. Psychology students, like their counterparts in biology, do not, in general, spontaneously recognize weaknesses in the abstracts. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the predictive and incremental validity of three psychomotor ability measures (manual dexterity, finger dexterity, and motor coordination) in 209 Canadian Forces personnel being trained in technical and mechanical occupations. For both types of occupations combined, manual dexterity predicted training performance ( r=.18), as it did for the Technical ( r=.22) and Mechanical ( r=.17) families, separately Finger Dexterity ( r=.02) and Motor Coordination ( r=.05) did not predict training performance for either the combined group or for each family by itself. The addition of the three psychomotor measures increased validity beyond what was predicted by cognitive ability in the combined occupations (δ R²=.05); however, only Manual Dexterity (β=.26) made a significant contribution to the regression model. Similar, though nonsignificant, increases in predictive validity occurred within each family. The results from this study suggest that specific abilities, when determined through a job analysis, improve predictions based solely on cognitive ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Performance of the subjects in the four main conditions on the critical abilities test, the general reasoning test, and the Smedslund cue test. 
Article
Examined whether undergraduate courses in psychology research methods (RM) and statistics (STAT) improve general reasoning skills and scientific critical abilities. 76 students concurrently enrolled in introductory RM and STAT were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: a baseline group, a group that was tested after completion of RM and STAT, and a group that completed RM and STAT and also received 3 tutorial sessions. 19 students in a humanities program provided a comparison group. All Ss were assessed on tests of general reasoning and of critical abilities. Ss also completed a questionnaire that assessed their willingness to endorse scientifically unsubstantiated phenomena. The RM and STAT courses by themselves did not enhance Ss' general reasoning skills or critical abilities. The group receiving tutorial sessions in addition to the RM and STAT performed better than the baseline group. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared the responses of 96 Canadian graduate students in biology and English who were asked to read one of 3 abstracts that made a particular claim. The abstracts differed in their apparent scientific relevance, but none contained crucial, comparative, or control group type information. The Ss' readiness in recognizing that crucial information was missing was assessed. Although biology students in general required fewer cues, they did not perform significantly differently from the English students on the less scientific texts. There was a statistically significant relationship between performance on the critical abilities measure and strength of belief in paranormal phenomena. Part of the reason why people endorse belief in unsubstantiated phenomena may be a result of their critical ability skills being relatively domain specific. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Previous studies have emphasized the differential abilities of Inuit and White children, concluding that the Inuit have well developed spatial abilities and less well developed verbal-educational and inductive reasoning abilities when compared with White Ss. However, in many studies White and Inuit Ss have not been matched for either socioeconomic status or grade placement. The present study examined Inuit and White Ss from subsistence level fishing communities. Ss were 22 Inuit 1st graders with a mean age of 84.2 mo and White 1st graders as follows: 14 with a mean age of 89.4 mo, 16 with a mean of 83.1, and 22 with a mean of 86 mo. Vocabulary and arithmetic tests adapted from the Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence were utilized. There were no significant differences between Inuit and White Ss in spatial, verbal-educational, or inductive reasoning abilities. (French summary) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared the performance of 3 groups of 30 children each, matched on CA and IQ, on a variety of motor, psychomotor, language, and reasoning tests. 1 group had brain lesions, 1 had abnormal EEGs, and 1 had normal EEGs. Both of the EEG groups had adjustment difficulties, but no history of brain damage. The tests which best discriminated among the 3 groups were motor speed and resting steadiness. The abnormal-EEG group performed better than the normal-EEG group and the implications of this finding are discussed. (French summary) (22 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The labels that we use to identify groups may play a role in the attitudes that are expressed toward members of these groups. Based on a multicomponent model of intergroup attitudes, 108 university students responded to a questionnaire assessing attitudes toward Natives, as well as three important components of these attitudes: stereotypes (characteristics attributed to the group), symbolic beliefs (beliefs that the group promotes or threatens cherished values, customs, and traditions), and emotions. Five different labels were utilized for the group: Aboriginal Peoples, First Nations People, Native Canadians, Native Indians, Native Peoples. Results indicated that attitudes toward Natives were less favorable when the labels Native Canadians and First Nations People were utilized, and this effect was partially mediated by the symbolic beliefs that came to mind in response to these labels. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the dimensions of a brief French version of the WCQ (S. Folkman and R. S. Lazarus, 1988) in a sample of 506 married and cohabiting couples. Human Ss: 506 normal male Canadian adults (mean age 37 yrs). 506 normal female Canadian adults (mean age 36 yrs). Each S completed the WCQ, and data were treated with factorial analyses to identify strong and stable dimensions of marital coping. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined reports of discomfort and pain and decisions to discontinue accepting nonincremental electric shock in 48 undergraduate males who were exposed to models who simulated progressively greater discomfort, ostensibly in response to the same shocks the Ss were receiving. The shocks were of a constant, low amperage intensity that usually is accepted without expressions of discomfort. A strong propensity to match the model's ratings of the shocks as progressively more uncomfortable and eventually painful was observed, with the tendency more marked when a particular E was physically present rather than when the S was being run through automated procedures. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the effectiveness, in the absence of professional supervision, of standard token-reinforcement procedures used by a mother in treating her 13-yr-old mentally retarded son for dyslexia. This procedure followed a 7-mo period during which the S's reading ability had significantly improved. Then supervision was withdrawn and for 21/2 mo. the mother-son dyad worked well in a self-sufficient manner. During this period the S made 24,234 single-word reading responses, reading an average of 120 words/penny value of reinforcement. Results support the use of standard token-reinforcement procedures for amelioration of cognitive deficits, especially where professional help is limited for economic or social reasons. (French summary) (33 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This study examined the mediating role of attachment on the relationship between childhood physical abuse and perceived social support in adulthood. The 2 underlying dimensions of attachment, view of self and view of other, were both hypothesized to be potential mediators. Young adults, with and without a history of childhood physical abuse, completed a series of questionnaires inquiring about past abuse experiences and current levels of attachment and social support. Results indicated a robust mediational effect. Namely, both attachment variables were significant mediators in the relationship between childhood physical abuse and social support. In addition, the mediation occurred across all sources of social support, that is, social support from family/close friends, peers, and authority figures. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Assessed the links between adolescent behavioral problems and childhood sexual abuse in 3 groups of girls (aged 13–19 yrs). A set of questionnaires was administered to a control group ( N = 181) and 2 clinical groups, one ( N = 62) presenting with sexual behavioral problems and the other ( N = 107) with behavioral problems of a nonsexual nature. Girls in the clinical groups who disclosed sexual abuse had experienced frequent abuse, with penetration, at an older age. Abuse revealed in the control group was less frequent, involved fondling only, and occurred at an earlier age. Considering the clinical groups alone, sexually related behavioral disorders were associated with high frequency, severity, an adolescent abuser, and a reaction of fear. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Used a "community" approach to examine how an individual is recognized as having a problem with alcohol abuse. The norms governing normal and problem drinking were assessed in 3 socioeconomically different communities (lower-, middle-, and upper-middle-class) by having 128 respondents rate the average as well as minimum and maximum possible consumption of 4 "types" of drinkers (the respondent him/herself, social drinker, problem drinker, and alcoholic) in each of 4 social contexts (i.e., lunch/workday; evenings, with family; at a social event; while alone). Results indicate that the communities had both shared and idiosyncratic drinking norms. The communities agreed in defining a problem drinker's consumption levels as more dependent upon the social context than a normal drinker's, and differed over their expectancies of different drinkers' average consumption, as well as their ranges of possible consumption. These range differences are interpreted as reflecting the clarity of each community's articulation of its drinking norms, and as having significant implications for the recognition process. (French summary) (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Explores reasons for the inconsistent figures for the rate of sexual abuse in the general population by comparing the sampling techniques and methodology used by 4 major studies (R. Badgley, 1984; D. Finkelhor, 1979 and 1984; and D. E. Russell, 1984). In all 4 studies, information was gathered from adults about past experiences of sexual abuse during their childhood years. One study included information about experiences of current children. The need is emphasized for gathering information about the rate at which new cases are detected; characteristics of cases that influence how they are handled by authorities; the rate of sexual abuse in particular populations, especially troubled or deviant adult or adolescent groups; the ways in which long-term effects of sexual abuse are detected; and the use of statistical information for policy justification. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Children in shelters for battered women are at an increased risk of adjustment problems due to their family circumstances. Early intervention procedures that hold promise for promoting the child's recovery following family violence and disruption are discussed, with particular emphasis on methods that are sensitive to the child's developmental level and needs. It is argued that early intervention should focus on children's attitudes about aggression and family behavior as well as skills for resolving interpersonal problems. A study in which 10 weekly group-counseling sessions were held with 18 8–13 yr olds who were recent residents of shelters for battered women found that there was an attitude change concerning violence in most Ss after the sessions. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Discusses the impact of different forms of child maltreatment on children's normal and abnormal development in relation to the family context. The authors draw upon the theoretical structure of developmental psychopathology and mechanisms related to the formation of stress-related adjustment disorders in children to underscore the importance of the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral impact of family violence and abuse. Findings related to physically abused children, children of battered women, and sexually abused children are reviewed. It is concluded that behavioral problems often seen among these populations should be recognized as part of a pattern of behavior that emanates from children's attempts to adapt to inappropriate and extreme situational circumstances in their families. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Assessed the relative impact of 2 methods of education about sexual abuse prevention on parents' reactions to a hypothetical disclosure of abuse by their child. 376 parents of preschool-aged children were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 cells in a 3 × 2 design. Ss saw either of 2 popular prevention videotapes or none, either with or without a presentation/group discussion. Pre- and posttest measures asked Ss how they would respond if their child told them that a relative or someone the child knew well had been touching the child's genitals and body. Analysis indicated that Ss who participated in a group discussion were more likely to endorse appropriate actions (e.g., report it to the authorities) and supportive behaviors (e.g., refrain from confronting the offender) than were Ss who saw a videotape only. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined factors that were hypothesized to predict victim blame in the case of physical child abuse and in the case of rape. Questionnaires were completed by 897 college students. Results suggest that the defensive attribution hypothesis (particularly the notion of harm avoidance motives) was consistent with the current findings. In contrast, just-world theory was not supported. Victim blame in child abuse and victim blame in rape were predicted by similar factors. The factors that best predicted victim blame were empathy, locus of control, and prior physical abuse. Personal similarity was a significant predictor for both child blame and rape victim blame. Just-world beliefs had virtually no predictive power when other factors were taken into consideration. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Reviews 7 studies on the possible relationship between child abuse and learning disability. It is concluded that despite case reports linking child abuse with learning disability in some cases, there is no evidence either that abused children are more likely than nonabused children to have a learning disability or that learning disabled children are more likely than children without learning disabilities to be abused. The studies that have been done included diverse definitions, a variety of small and unrepresented samples, an absence group, and a lack of information about the children's pre-abuse characteristics. It is suggested that case studies may be the most useful method. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent suicidality in 195 women (mean age 27.4 yrs) presenting to the crisis intervention program of a community health center. As predicted, former sexual abuse victims were considerably more likely to have made at least 1 suicide attempt in the past (55% of the 133 Ss) than were nonabused clients (23% of the 62 Ss) and were more likely to report suicidal ideation upon intake. Sexual abuse was associated with suicide attempts that occurred in childhood or adolescence. Among former sexual abuse victims, greater suicidality was correlated with multiple perpetrators, concurrent physical abuse, and sexual intercourse. Childhood sexual abuse is hypothesized to result in lowered self-esteem, guilt and self-blame, perceived powerlessness, and interpersonal dysfunction—all of which may lead to increased self-destructiveness. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Although intervention for adolescents with concomitant conduct disorders and substance abuse must be adapted to the individual, familial and social characteristics of the adolescent, few studies have examined the characteristics specific to the concomitance of these problems. The objective of this study was to examine the differences between adolescents who present with one or both of these problems. The study sampled 486 teenagers (146 girls and 340 boys) divided into one of 4 groups on the basis of the presence or absence of conduct disorder and substance abuse. Results showed that girls with conduct disorder alone present problems as severe as those with concomitant conduct disorder and substance abuse but less severe than those with only substance abuse. For boys, those with the concomitant disorders appeared to have problems more servere than those with conduct disorders alone and less severe than those with substance abuse alone. These findings are discussed in terms of the need to tailor intervention to gender and presenting problem(s). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the relationship between abuse in the family of origin and adult emotional responses to family conflicts in 60 males (mean age 19.7 yrs) and 60 females (mean age 19.6 yrs). Ss were administered the Conflict Tactics Scale and the Adjective Checklist (AC) to assess the tactics used by them to solve their problems and their emotional state, respectively. Ss listened to conflict tapes and completed another AC along with a set of perceptual questions. Exposure to conflict tactics in the family of origin was associated with heightened emotional responses to anticipated conflict, the effects being continued into adulthood. Antecedents to conflict were also related to family of origin experience with withdrawal, verbal and physical abuse. There was no significant difference between identification with the mother and the child, and the Ss identified more strongly with the father than the child. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
Luc Pelletier
  • University of Ottawa
John W. Berry
  • Queen's University
Robert J Vallerand
  • Université du Québec à Montréal
Robert Gardner
  • The University of Western Ontario
Virginia IsabelI Douglas
  • McGill University