Canadian Journal of African Studies

Published by Taylor & Francis (Routledge)
Print ISSN: 0008-3968
Publications
Cet article se concentre sur les changements observés dans la politique contre les femmes dans le domaine de la production du mais entre 1880 et 1952 dans le district de Murang'a au Kenya. L'argument est que la promotion du mais par les autorités coloniales, pour satisfaire à une politique d'" Amélioration" (aujourd'hui appelée politique du "developpement"), parce que culture à la fois utilisable localement et échangeable, cette promotion donc a ouvert un espace politique pour l'intensification d'un combat visant à contrôler le travail des femmes. Ce combat était en revanche étroitement lié au combat pour le contrôle de la terre à un moment où les droits a la terre devenaient de plus en plus difficiles pour la majorité de la population. Ces arguments sont alors liés à la crise environnementale émergeant au Kenya. En effet, au niveau local, la nécessité de satisfaire aux besoins immédiats remplaçait l'investissement dans une exploitation du sol soutenable à long terme.
 
Investigates the impact of disease and hygiene on the lives and efficiency of the participants of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition to Africa (1887-1889) led by Henry M. Stanley. The need for such a study became apparent to the author when editing the diary of the Canadian explorer Captain William G.Stairs, who participated in the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. -Author
 
Cet article s’efforce d’explorer la garde du bétail comme un aspect essentiel de l’économie politique du Zululand rural au début du vingtième siècle. Examinant les facteurs politiques et les facteurs du marche qui ont transformé la garde de bestiaux, l’article montre comment les bergers africains se sont opposés à la pénétration d’une économie capitaliste dominée par les blancs et encouragée par l’état. Cependant, ce n’est pas là une histoire de “traditionalisme” réactionnaire; en fait, c’est plutôt une histoire d’Africains utilisant des moyens astucieux et efficaces pour adapter certains aspects de l’économie pré-coloniale au contexte capitaliste. L’économie politique du bétail dans le Zululand est très importante dans la mesure où elle nous permet de comprendre à la fois comment un cas d’accumulation pré-capitaliste s’articulant sur un marché plus vaste éclaire la persistance des économies de bestiaux en Afrique, et comment le Zulu rural en particulier a fait face aux exigences de l’état sud-africain avant l’application formelle de l’apartheid.
 
Cet article analyse les stéréotypes raciaux populaires utilisés contre les "gens de couleur" par les blancs d'Afrique du Sud. Pour cela, il examine le débat parlementaire sur la Loi sur les Alcools de 1928. L'article déclare que le contexte historique de l'époque a déterminé la compréhension contradictoire que les législateurs blancs avaient des caractéristiques raciales des "gens de couleur." La peur de désordres sociaux a incité certains membres du Parlement à dépeindre les "gens de couleur" comme naturellement enclins à l'intempérance et prédisposés à la violence et au crime. D'autres membres, pour des raisons économiques et politiques étaient peu disposés à limiter l'accès à l'alcool des "gens de couleur." Ces membres ont rejeté la notion de "couleur" des prohibitionnistes et l'a remplacée par une autre "non-raciale" qui servait leurs intérêts. Cet article conclut que David Goldberg a raison quand il affirme que le concept de race est fluide, historiquement spécifique et que sa forme est influencée par des facteurs sociaux.
 
S’il existe une littérature extensive sur les nombreux aspects de l’épidémie du VIH/SIDA en Afrique de l’est et du sud, en revanche on a très peu écrit sur les aspects géographiques de l’épidémie en Afrique de l’ouest. Largement fondé sur des données dérivées du Programme ghanéen de contrôle du SIDA et des Données du Sentinel Surveillance offerts par le Ministère de la santé, cet article explore les aspects géographiques de l’épidémie de 1986 à 1998. On observe des modèles significatifs basés sur l’âge, le sexe et la géographie. On identifie trois vagues de diffusion essentielles: un nombre initial élevé de cas de VIH déclarés dans la région est; la prédominance de la région Ashanti pour le nombre de cas de SIDA déclarés à la fin des années 1990; et une augmentation apparente dans le nombre de cas de SIDA déclarés dans la région nordest à la fin des années 1990. On en recherche les explications à l’intérieur de la structure de migration et de diffusion. On utilise les variations locales pour montrer l’interaction des causes posées en principe telles la pauvreté, la culture, la migration et le sexe commercial. L’article recommande des mesures d’intervention spécifiques à la région, visant les régions à haut risque comme un des moyens de réduire l’étendue de l’épidémie. En fin de compte, si les Ghanéens ne changent pas d’attitude vis-à-vis de la sexualité, le pays passera éventuellement le seuil des cinq pour cent considérés comme le début d’une explosion du SIDA.
 
Le 1 octobre 1994, un Hutu, le ministre de la Justice du gouvernement rwandais dominé par le FPR, a souhaité qu’une messe soit célébrée pour commémorer le génocide qui a eu lieu six mois auparavant. Le gouvernement a ignoré sa suggestion pour plutôt célébrer l’accession du FPR au pouvoir. Une initiative hutu pour commémorer l’extermination, dont les victimes étaient en majorité des Tutsi a été ignorée par un gouvernement contrôlé par des Tutsi. Du point de vue des relations inter ethniques, il se pose alors une importante question: était-ce le signe d’assouplissement des frontières entre les ethnies; un Hutu prenant l’initiative de commémorer l’extermination dont surtout les Tutsi ont été victimes? S’agit-il, au contraire, d’un renforcement des frontières ethniques, puisque un gouvernement dominé par des Tutsi a rejeté la proposition d’un Hutu? Cet article explore les ambiguïtés de l’ethnicité lors du génocide en situant les faits dans le contexte des événements qui l’ont précédé — le contexte qui a lui même mis en place les cadres ayant servi à définir l’ethnicité. C’est un lieu commun de dire que sur le plan abstrait l’ethnicité est définie dans le contexte. Le génocide, présenté par les médias comme “conflit ethnique” ou “guerre tribale,” était le cas classique d’une telle élaboration contextuelle de l’ethnicité. L’article analyse les facteurs instrumentaux de ce processus.
 
Studies the social history of northeastern Congo (Zaire) and the southern Sudan between 1892 and 1940 and the various ways in which Africans and Europeans reacted to sleeping sickness epidemics. Argues that studies of disease and medicine in Africa should incorporate the social, economic, and political responses of all the groups involved in order to understand the sleeping sickness epidemics early this century. -from Author
 
The comments on poor performance in making drugs widely available provide a context for the discussion of political-administrative relations in public drug procurement. Data from interviews, budgetary allocations, and national development plans are combined with an account of institutional structures and procedures in an explanation of the origins and limitations of the attempt to reform government drug purchasing. Additional policy changes are proposed that could build on this national formulary to enhance the availability of medicines to users of the public health system. -from Author
 
Reviews agroforestry practices in sub-Saharan Africa as seen from the farmer's perspective. Agroforestry offers one of the most promising technological options for reversing soil degradation, restoring tree cover, and improving agricultural productivity in Africa. The literature on agroforestry was reviewed in order to identify a limited number of successful experiences for further field study. Seven case studies were then conducted by an interdisciplinary team, covering indigenous and innovative systems found in the highlands of East Africa, the semi-arid zone, and the humid lowlands of West Africa. This review identified a number of issues that need to be considered in the design and implementation of agroforestry projects for Africa in order for them to be successful. Recommendations are made for the technical, economic, social, and institutional design of projects and for the direction of future research. -from Authors
 
"Since the early 1980s, almost all African governments have embarked on economic reform programs to reduce state intervention in the economy and to allow markets to play a larger role. In the agricultural sector these programs were designed to eliminate price controls on agricultural commodities, disband or privatize state farms and state-owned enterprises, reduce the heavy taxation of agricultural exports, phase out subsidies on fertilizer and other inputs, and allow greater competition in agricultural markets. These measures have been highly controversial. Proponents argue that the reforms have improved market efficiency, reduced budget deficits, stimulated export production, and increased the share of the final price received by farmers. Opponents argue that the reforms have destabilized agricultural prices, widened the income distribution gap, and reduced access to low-cost inputs. Reforming Agricultural Markets in Africa by Mylène Kherallah, Christopher Delgado, Eleni Gabre-Madhin, Nicholas Minot, and Michael Johnson, published by The Johns Hopkins University Press for IFPRI, reviews the experience of the last 20 years. It evaluates the degree to which the reforms have actually been implemented, their impact on agricultural production and prices, and the net effect on the well-being of African households." Author's Introduction.
 
This article examines the intensification of Gambian girls’ domestic and farm labour contributions as a result of the introduction of double-shift schooling. Drawing on fieldwork among female farmers and their daughters in Brikama the article puts forth the following arguments: double shift schooling facilitates the intensification and increased appropriation of surplus value from girls’ household and farm labour because girls are more readily able to meet gendered labour obligations that are central to the moral economy of the household and to the demands of agrarian production; secondly, double shift schooling highlights the paradoxical nature of development intervention where, on the one hand, legislation and policy call for a reduction in child labour by increasing access to school and, on the other, neo-liberal educational policy serves to facilitate the intensification of girls’ domestic and farm labour. It maintains that the intensification of girls’ work must be placed within a wider context where children’s, particularly girls’ cheap, flexible and/or unremunerated labour is central to the functioning of local and global processes of accumulation.
 
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Northwestern University, 1979. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (p. 424-437). Typescript (photocopy).
 
Thesis (doctoral)--University of Uppsala, 1987. Includes bibliographical references (p. 372-391).
 
This report, the first in a new series, presents a methodology for analysing poverty under structural adjustment. It reflects the recognition that special measures are needed to protect the poor during the adjustment process, and that social dimensions should be incorporated into the design of programmes. It firstly examines the history of structural adjustment in the Ivory Coast, emphasising its effects on poverty and related social phenomena. The authors outline the policy issues for the coming decade and present the objectives for their analysis of poverty changes under adjustment. They then explain the methodology to be used in the analysis and examine the data available. -after Author
 
Analyzes the effectiveness of Mozambican and international relief efforts. The devastating rains and floods of early 2000 in southern Mozambique broke all records, killing 700 people, but a remarkable outpouring of domestic and international support saved 50,000 lives and prevented the disaster from turning into a catastrophe. Frances Christie and Joseph Hanlon examine the causes (both natural and human-made) of the floods and the nature of the relief effort. Asking what went right, what went wrong, and what lessons might be learned from this case, they find that the relief effort was largely a success of international cooperation. Mozambique and the Great Flood of 2000 probes the effectiveness of various forms of aid, the extent of cooperation among agencies and governments, the amount of money raised through international public appeals, the use of relief funds, and the effectiveness of initial efforts at reconstruction. Documenting the experience of the floods, the authors provide important insights for future emergency planning and management in Mozambique and elsewhere.
 
Incl. app., bibliographical references
 
"Over recent years there has been a growing interest in the field of administrative strategies for developing countries and development administration has become recognised as a valid academic discipline. Theoretical models of public administration have been developed to include the special circumstances which are encountered in the development environment. Riggs has emphasised the underdeveloped nature of society as a factor influencing administrative performance and has tried to explain administrative behaviour in the light of general social and political characteristics of that society. Others have emphasised the importance of the development of organisations and an administrative structure which are properly adapted to the problems of development in alternative circumstances. This report is not intended to add to sociological theory or to analyse its corresponding significance in differing development situations. It is more concerned with the need for fashioning new and more appropriate administrative approaches in underdeveloped circumstances, where rising expectations, limited organisational capabilities and severe shortages of resources characterise the bureaucracy."
 
A study compares the adult functional literacy campaigns and programs developed in seven African nations: the Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Burundi, Rwanda, Kenya, and Seychelles. After an introductory chapter outlining the background of African adult functional literacy efforts and some of the constraints on them, the second chapter gives an overview of 6 of the 7 countries' literacy activities. Chapter 3 describes a detailed longitudinal study of the literacy campaign in the Republic of Mali from its inception to the present, with projections into the future. The Mali program was chosen for an in-depth analysis because it has been considered one of the best organized, most efficiently functioning programs on the continent, having total government commitment and support. The fourth chapter analyzes the material presented in the previous chapters and offers some conclusions and implications for curriculum development and further research. (Author/MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)
 
As a lifelong radical and political activist, Ronald Aronson accepted an invitation to lecture in South Africa only after two years of deliberation. "Stay Out of Politics," which begins with the moral questions that Aronson confronted in his decision to go, is a reaffirmation of the necessity for majority rule and the abolition of apartheid. Amidst the pressure of widespread talk of an academic boycott of South Africa, Aronson decided to lecture there as a contribution to the struggle for majority rule. He decided to become mobilized as a philosopher and activist by engaging in the effort close at hand rather than settling for a distant and comfortable protest by avoidance. Along with his visa, Aronson was given the following warning by a consular officer: "Stay out of politics!" Believing that philosophy not only has a role to play but that it can, and must, involve itself in the vital social and political issues of our time, Aronson equally discovered that in South Africa politics is everywhere and inescapable. The lectures Aronson delivered focused on the meaning of progress and hope, on the threat—and experience—of disaster today, and on our responsibility to join the struggle for a humane and rational world. Two of the most provocative lectures are included here, the first a discussion of the Holocaust that has direct and intentional applications to the current situation in South Africa. The second lecture, in memory of the assassinated political philosopher Richard Turner, is a sketch of Aronson's philosophy of hope as seen from within the South African context. Despite the limitations of teaching under possible surveillance in a revolutionary situation, Aronson witnessed the social reality of apartheid and heard the voices of its victims. Aronson's love for the South African people motivated him to write this powerful account. He presents a lecturer's tour of South Africa: the experiences that both confirmed his belief in the urgent need for majority rule but also revealed the complexities of the society that seeks to continue apartheid through all reforms; and his philosopher's reflections upon returning to the United States on the irrationality of apartheid and the ambiguities of the struggle to end it. "Stay Out of Politics" is not only a powerful encounter with South Africa today, it is a provocative statement about philosophy—its nature, its tasks, its duty to understand and change the world in which we live.
 
Dans un contraste de plus en plus accusé entre le Nord et le Sud, qui met en relief deux sortes de sida - l'un traitable et en voie de stabilisation, l'autre incurable et en voie d'expansion -, des chercheurs francophones et anglophones en sciences sociales tentent de répondre ici à une double exigence. Travaillant en Afrique subsaharienne sur une épidémie qui représente 70% des cas mondiaux, ils entendent contribuer à rendre intelligible les programmes d'information et de prévention. Se démarquant nettement des stéréotypes par trop répandus d'un continent où les cultures immémoriables et une certaine "promiscuité sexuelle" seraient le terreau de l'épidémie, leurs diverses approches mettent l'accent sur les contextes de vulnérabilité économique, sociale et politique des populations africaines et sur la façon dont celles-ci interprètent l'épidémie au regard de leurs conditions concrètes d'existence et des multiples difficultés et tensions auxquelles elles sont confrontées. Non réductible à un problème sanitaire, le "phénomène sida" appelle des politiques publiques qui ne se contentent pas de délivrer des messages de prévention sur le préservatif ou la fidélité, mais qui diversifient leurs interventions en fonction des situations sociales et des significations auxquelles le sida a déjà donné lieu. Mais cette démarche analytique des chercheurs en sciences sociales est prolongée d'un point de vue plus critique : parler de politiques publiques, c'est d'abord, pour eux, refuser que perdure en Afrique l'image d'un sida incurable et que ne soient pas transférés les progrès thérapeutiques qui ont considérablement modifié cette image au Nord. C'est par conséquent au prix d'une mobilisation de la communauté internationale que les Etats africains seront amenés eux-mêmes à manifester une plus grande volonté politique et à faire en sorte que le sida devienne un sujet central du débat public. (Résumé d'auteur)
 
Many governments of sub-Saharan Africa introduced reforms during the 1980s to improve their economic policies. This report examines why some reform programs have succeeded, while others have failed. The author shows how the weak economic policies of the 1960s and 1970s led to the need for reforms in the 1980s. He examines how the reform policies were formulated and who played key roles in their design. The report presents three in-depth case studies of countries that reached various levels of success with their reform programs: Zambia - an unsuccessful reform program that was eventually abandoned; Malawi - a mixed outcome affected by external factors; and Mauritius - economic recovery resulting from early government action to deal with moderate policy problems. The report also looks at the policy experience of other African nations. -from Publisher
 
The structural adjustment policies now being implemented in over 30 African countries have generally included a rationalisation of public administration, leading to drastic wage cuts and staff reductions or freezes in recruitment. The author argues that too often there is a lack of good data available on which to make decisions on the content of reforms. This study provides an in-depth analysis of all the elements of wage systems to be found in the public administration of 22 African countries. It includes bonuses and fringe benefits as well as the role played by promotion. Changes at the lower and higher levels of the hierarchy are distinguished, showing a large compression of wage differentials between 1975 and 1985, particularly in English-speaking countries. The reform experience has been quite varied as to methods and effects, but the general trend has been towards lower wages. In some countries, wage levels and differentials are so low that there is a serious demoralisation of the entire administrative apparatus, threatening the chances of successful reform in the rest of the economy. -M.Amos
 
In this sophisticated study of power and resistance, Jean Comaroff analyzes the changing predicament of the Barolong boo Ratshidi, a people on the margins of the South African state. Like others on the fringes of the modern world system, the Tshidi struggle to construct a viable order of signs and practices through which they act upon the forces that engulf them. Their dissenting Churches of Zion have provided an effective medium for reconstructing a sense of history and identity, one that protests the terms of colonial and post-colonial society and culture.
 
Bibliography abounds in details about natural, technical and economical conditions of the development of the « Office du Niger' » lands. This article aims to show the human aspects of this enterprise and insists on the opposition between the wish of constituting a modern countrymen center and that of creating an area of intensive agricultural production. After a brief introduction in order to retrace the Office program since the twenties and progression of the main hydraulic works and steps together with the settlement of more than thirty thousand inhabitants, the author analyses the conditions leading up to the conflict opposing the tillers to the Office representatives. It's not the planning scheme which determined the creation of a new farmer's type, but the aspects of the colonization itself which ordered a reconsideration of the land reclaiming programs.
 
Top-cited authors
Jean Comaroff
  • Harvard University
David Hulme
  • The University of Manchester
Owen Crankshaw
  • University of Cape Town
Susan Parnell
  • University of Cape Town
Jo Beall
  • British Council and LSE