The introduction of VoIP telephony raises concerns about current regulatory practice. Access regulation has been designed for PSTN and the liberalization of the PSTN market. This paper explores the effects of access regulation of PSTN networks on consumers’ adoption of a new technology in the form of VoIP. It also discusses the link between access regulation and the incentives to invest in VoIP.
Many countries with generous social insurance are currently forced to cut back or modify their systems. At the same time many developing countries lack social insurance for large segments of the population. Health accounts may offer a way of implementing health insurance that keeps a lid on costs and provides better incentives than traditional public or private health insurance. This paper discusses health accounts and other savings-account based social insurance.
This paper uses repeated cross-section data ISSP data from 1989, 1997 and 2005 to consider movements in job quality. It is first underlined that not having a job when you want one is a major source of low well-being. Second, job values have remained fairly stable over time, although workers seem to give increasing importance to the more social aspects of jobs: useful and helpful jobs. The central finding of the paper is that, following a substantial fall between 1989 and 1997, subjective measures of job quality have mostly bounced back between 1997 and 2005. Overall job satisfaction is higher in 2005 than it was in 1989. Last, the rate of self-employment has been falling gently in ISSP data; even so three to four times as many people say they would prefer to be self-employed than are actually self-employed. As the self-employed are more satisfied than are employees, one consistent interpretation of the above is that the barriers to self-employment have grown in recent years.
Since the beginning of the new century harmonisation of company law has once again been on the European agenda. One of its most important aims is the protection of shareholders. This article addresses this aim from a leximetric perspective. At the outset, it will be explained what leximetrics is (namely a quantitative approach to legal analysis). Using this methodology, it will then be shown how different parts of shareholder protection (active shareholder, passive shareholder, boards) have developed in Germany, France, the UK and US in the last 35 years.
ealing with the premium risk problem is one of the main issues in private health insurance con- tracts in a long-term perspective. The premium risk problem is closely associated with the process of aging. Expected health care costs increase with age for two reasons. First, even low risks will experience a contin- uous deterioration of their health status. Second, the share of individuals in a birth cohort who have turned chronically ill and, thus, represent high risks, rises. If health insurance contracts are made on a short-term individual basis, a substantial and permanent deterio- ration of the state of health translates into a sharp increase of premiums. This uncertainty with respect to premiums is called the premium risk. Clearly, having no protection against the premium risk is associated with substantial welfare losses. Around the world, the premium-risk problem is tackled in quite distinct ways. Some of these methods give rise to the problem that leaving an insurance provider becomes quite costly or even impossible for middle-aged and old individuals. Thus, the question arises as to how an institutional framework would look that at the same time solves the premium-risk problem and makes it easy to termi- nate a dissatisfying relationship with an insurer. Surveys on private health insurance systems (OECD 2001, Mossialos and Thomson 2002) indicate that the approaches to solve the premium-risk problem vary with the role of the private sector in health insurance.
This study analyzes the effects of right-wing extremism on the well-being of immigrants based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the years 1984 to 2006 merged with state-level information on election outcomes. The results show that the life satisfaction of immigrants is significantly reduced if right-wing extremism in the native population increases. Moreover ; the life satisfaction of highly educated immigrants is affected more strongly than that of low-skilled immigrants. This supports the view that policies aimed at making immigration more attractive to the high-skilled have to include measures that reduce xenophobic attitudes in the native population. --
In summary, we started by noting that multi-jurisdictional competition policies make a lot of sense, even in the smaller open economies of the European economy. But the widespread differences in how these policies are implemented create pronounced distortions that probably affect the level playing field of competition in the EU. This apparently calls for more coordination among the member states, which is probably the case in the area of thresholds for merger review. But in the end, it may even be that coordinated behaviour, as with the exchange of information in leniency programmes, is not the best thing to do. This implies that for each and every aspect of competition policy, a precise answer can only be given after careful research has been conducted. Given the increased level of resources allocated to competition policies, such benchmarking against both academic research and international best practice really has become a priority.