Business Management and Strategy

Published by Macrothink Institute, Inc.
Online ISSN: 2157-6068
Publications
Over the years, brand-building arguments have focused on process models; that is, brand-building and formation processes developed from historical and cultural foundations of the brand visionaries. They are then translated to the vision statements of corporate brands and the internalization of brand values in those who represent it. However, the question of meaning in the brand building process is often left out in the models spread across the extant literature. The authors, therefore, adopt a social constructionist approach as the theoretical basis for building the corporate brand. This attempt culminated in a proposed model embedding in social constructionist tenets and applied to corporate branding. In an attempt to validate the theoretical arguments, the authors carried out field interviews with brand custodians of two Nigerian banks. Semiotic analyses of samples of the banks’ print advertisements were also carried out to understand how the banks’ construction of meaning informs their brand building process. The findings revealed consistencies between the origin and socio-cultural derivations of meanings and brand communication as an important brand-building component. Recommendations on how this process can be adopted and operationalized in industry were therefore made.
 
Total Quality Management is a management theory that managers and companies talk about but know very little to implement. This paper takes a strong look at the history of Total Quality Management (TQM) from its origins to current successes in implementation. We look at how TQM has changed governments to increasing productivity and profits within organizations. This paper also looks into the strategic role that a company could take in order to see change to quality first. This requires a structure change in the organization from CEO down to front line workers. The practice of TQM can grow a company to have a sustainable competitive advantage in local and international markets.
 
Business Management and Strategy (BMS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether BMS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 13, Number 1Halimahton Borhan, Universiti Teknologi Mara, MalaysiaIman Aghaei, Cyprus International University, TurkeyIzabella Manukyan, Russian-Armenian University, ArmeniaJawon Kim, Chung-Ang University, KoreaPraveen Kumar S, Panimalar Engineering College, IndiaSoolakshna Lukea Bhiwajee, University Of Technology, Mauritius, MauritiusSulaiman Sheik Abdullah, Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar College, IndiaVenugopal Gubbi, RV Institute Of Management, India Jean LeeBusiness Management and StrategyMacrothink Institute*************************************Add: 5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.508E-mail1: bms@macrothink.orgE-mail2: bms@macrothink.comWebsite: http://bms.macrothink.org
 
SWOT Quadrant Scheme
SWOT Matrix from the research results (2021)
This study aims to find the strategy of developing MSMEs based on potential and opportunities in the period of covid-19. The research object is the MSME unit in Bandar Lampung City, especially MSME banana chips. This study used qualitative descriptive analysis with SWOT analysis. Based on the results it is known that the position of MSMEs is in quadrant I. The strategy of developing MSMEs is to increase the potential and take advantage of opportunities. One of the strategies is the utilization of information technology and social media in the development of MSMEs of the region's flagship banana chip products. The results of this research are expected to be useful as consideration for MSMEs to develop their businesses even during the COVID 19 pandemic. Likewise, for the government to actively socialize the use of digital media for MSMEs so that MSME development will increase. The limitation of this research is that it has not quantitatively calculated the role of social media and information technology in MSME development. This could be an opportunity for further research
 
As we all know, Chinese economy has achieved world-renowned success in the past five decades. This research will identify and analyze the development of Chinese economy from 1978 to 2022. There are four main stages of China’s economic process. Specially, the first stage is from 1970 until 2000, the second stage is from 2001 until 2007, the third stage is from 2008 until 2014, the fourth stage is from 2015 until now.
 
Purpose - This research aims to investigate the impact of the two main problems of Senior Independent Director’s evolving role, which includes the aspects under board leadership and board effectiveness proposed under the Malaysian Corporate Governance Code (Code) in contrast between 2012 and 2017 towards firm financial performance.Design/ methodology approach - For this analysis, a target list of the top 100 PLCs based on market capitalization was gathered from 784 Malaysian PLCs as of 14 August 2020. In the annual review of corporate reports, this research involves mean and standard deviation, analysis of the correlation and analysis of the materials published within the annual reports.Originality - This report is a comprehensive examination of the recent developments in Corporate Governance research in comparison between the Code in 2012 and 2017, which is also applicable to other PLCs other than the top 100 Malaysian PLCs scoring indices designed for the Senior Independent Director – Board Effectiveness and Board Leadership.
 
Purpose – This study investigates the impact of the two main determinants of strengthening the independence of the board through Independent Board of Directors and Board Tenure compared between pre and post MCCG 2017.Design/methodology/approach – The study will follow the purposive sampling method followed by descriptive statistics, regression analysis and content analysis derived from MCCG 2012 and MCCG 2017 together with previous studies to analyse the annual reports in order to explore the reporting of Board Independence and Board Tenure.Originality/value – This study is a systematic review of recent research developments in MCCG 2012 and MCCG 2017. The Board Independence and Board Tenure scoring index designed could also be applied to other PLCs other than the Malaysian oil and gas industry.
 
This research aims to investigate modern academic methodologies in business model innovation published 2015-2020. For this analysis a systematic literature review is conducted. As a result 14 academic methodologies are acknowledged and compared according to their process models. Moreover, the research takes a special focus on organizational mindset in business model innovation and how it is reflected in modern methodologies.The study reveals that all evaluated academic methodologies are different in accordance to their focus as well as their level of detail of their described process steps. Among other findings, the topic organizational mindset is mentioned in two out of the 14 academic studies as an important element for successfully implementing a business model innovation. This implicates that overcoming the organizational mindset of established companies as a main barrier in business model innovation is not systematically concerned in any of the selected modern studies.In summary, the findings of this paper point out that the current academic business model innovation methodologies are not appropriate and supplementary exploration has to follow. Thus, two research gaps are acknowledged. First, the lack of level of detail concerning the process steps. Secondly, the lack of systematic integration of organizational mindset in the business model innovation steps.
 
Conceptual Framework -Board Nomination Committee Hypotheses of the study Hypothesis 1A: Board Nomination Committee -Role and Structure has impact on firm financial performance during the 2012 Code proxied by Return on Equity.
Purpose – This paper investigates the impact of the two main aspects on selecting the right Board candidate including best practices within the position and structure along with the recruitment activities proposed under the Malaysian Corporate Governance Code (Code) compared across 2012 and 2017.Design/ methodology approach - For this analysis, a target list of the top 50 PLCs based on market capitalization was gathered from 784 Malaysian PLCs as of 14 August 2020. In the annual review of the reports, this study includes statistical methods to quantify and interpret the disclosures.Originality - This study reviews the developments of the policies from the Code in 2012 to the Code in 2017. Also applicable to other PLCs other than the top 50 Malaysian PLCs would be the Board Nomination Committee – Role and Structure and the Board Nomination Committee – Recruitment Activities scoring indices designed.
 
A New Independent Board Audit Committee Scoring Index
Purpose – This study investigates the impact of the two main issues of the fortification of the Board Audit Committee which includes the effectiveness and independence factors practiced within the Audit Committee compared between the MCCG 2012 and the MCCG 2017 era.Design/methodology/approach –In order to review the performance of active and distinct Board Audit Committees, purposeful sampling approach is used, accompanied with regression analysis, content analysis, and systematic prior research, which evaluates the Annual Reports, Sustainability Reports and Integrated Reports.Originality/value – This study is a systematic review of recent research developments in MCCG 2012 and MCCG 2017. The Effective Board Audit Committee and the Independent Board Audit Committee scoring indices designed could also be applied to other PLCs other than the Malaysian oil and gas industry.
 
p>This study examines the effects of employee career management on organisational performance of selected banks in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Quasi-experimental research design was employed. Target population for the study consists of licensed commercial banks in Umuahia but accessible population consists of 10 banks. Simple random sampling was used. Sample frames of 213 bank workers were surveyed through questionnaire administration. Sample size is 134 using Taro Yamane formular. After data cleaning, a total of 91 copies were found useful for data analysis. Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Coefficient was used for data analysis with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings of the study show that employee career management is significantly associated with organisational performance. The study concluded that employee career management promotes organisational performance of banks. Drawing from the conclusion, the study recommended that financial institutions should encourage their employees by developing their career through training, seminars, conferences and educational advancement to update their knowledge in other to be competitive in the banking industry.</p
 
Three Dimensions of the Triple Bottom Line
The willingness to help youth
Youth is the most valuable asset of any developing country. Drug abuse is becoming a major problem among youth and has been an increasing concern for the Malaysian government. Literature alludes that the reasons for drugs consumption among youth have changed. Social pressure and the desire to be accepted by peers are among the current emerging trends surpassing domestic reasons, with minimal outside intervention such as family and home atmosphere as well as economic constraints. Out of 30,844 registered drug cases in Malaysia 10,610 are youth below 29 years old which is alarming. As the government prepares for the National Transformation Plan 2050 (TN50), issues related to drug abuse among youth is not only a concern for the government but also the community. TN50 sets a vision for the nation with an eye on the aspirations of the youth. To realise this vision, the community members including local organisations and institutions should establish a partnership in this social responsibility initiative of nurturing brilliant future leaders amongst the youth. The community should be given the mandate to tackle social problems and become the avenue to help the government and safeguard society members. This article illuminates how CSR initiatives can be used to cultivate and nurture values in facing issues related to drugs abuse among the youth in Malaysia. This article aligned the three core components of Triple Bottom Line (TBL) elements (Planet, People and Profit) for gauging the implementation of CSR in this partnership.
 
Restaurants have recently witnessed a fast growth in Saudi Arabia. Though this growth considers being relatively recent, it is widely observed by everyone. This case study illustrates the progress of restaurants in Saudi Arabia, factors influencing restaurants expansion, some strategic and tactical issues in managing restaurants, restaurants classification. Besides, it describes the key players’ restaurants, presents some new trends and challenges attached to their growth and finally where the restaurants are heading to.
 
Business strategy must be supported by appropriate organizational factors such as accounting information systems. Managers of businesses use accounting information to set goals for their organization. The fundamental purpose of management accounting is to help an organization achieve its strategic objectives. International management accounting is the practical application of management techniques to control and report on the financial resources of the business entities. With increasing globalization of the marketplace, international investors need access to financial information based on harmonized accounting methods and procedures. This study examines the impact of the adoption of international accounting standards on the management performance of businesses. The purpose of this study was the measuring the differences between the national rules and the international methods, the valuing and analyzing their effects on the business decisions. The result of this scientific research showed that the management performance indexes deteriorated especially regarding solvency and prosperity after adaptation of IFRS in the examined companies’ case. The practical results showed an unpleasant picture regarding solvency and profitability at the examined companies. The IFRS adaptation had an influence on decreasing income of business managers. The author can advise for international management researchers to employ these methods and measure their effects on practical management functions.
 
Business Management and Strategy (BMS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether BMS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 12, Number 1Agha Usama Hasan, University of West London, United KingdomAnsar Abbas, Banking Officer, Muslim Commercial Bank Pakistan, PakistanChaminda Prasanna Karunarathne, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Sri LankaDio Caisar Darma, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Samarinda, IndonesiaEddie John Paul Fisher, Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, United KingdomGamlath Mohottige Mudith Sujeewa, University of Kelaniya, Sri LankaHalimahton Borhan, Universiti Teknologi Mara, MalaysiaIzabella Manukyan, Russian-Armenian University, ArmeniaJawon Kim, Chung-Ang University, Korea, Republic ofNicholas Renaldo, Institut Bisnis dan Teknologi Pelita Indonesia, IndonesiaOusman Jallow, Gambia Participates, GambiaShalini Sahni, Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Professional Studies (Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi), IndiaSteliana Rodino, National Institute of R&D for Biological Sciences / Institute of Research for Agriculture Economy and Rural Development, Bucharest, Romania, RomaniaSulaiman Sheik Abdullah, Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar College, IndiaVenugopal Gubbi, RV Institute Of Management, IndiaJean LeeBusiness Management and StrategyMacrothink Institute*************************************Add: 5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.508Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail1: bms@macrothink.orgE-mail2: bms@macrothink.comWebsite: http://bms.macrothink.org
 
Business Management and Strategy (BMS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether BMS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 12, Number 2 Agha Usama Hasan, University of West London, UKEddie John Paul Fisher, Universidad de Oriente, UKHalimahton Borhan, Universiti Teknologi Mara, MalaysiaIzabella Manukyan, Russian-Armenian University, ArmeniaJawon Kim, Chung-Ang University, KoreaPrince Ewudzie Quansah, Jiangsu University, GhanaShalini Sahni, Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Professional Studies, IndiaSoolakshna Lukea Bhiwajee, University Of Technology, Mauritius, MauritiusSulaiman Sheik Abdullah, Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar College, IndiaZheng Xu, Monash University, Australia Jean LeeBusiness Management and StrategyMacrothink Institute*************************************Add: 5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.508E-mail1: bms@macrothink.orgE-mail2: bms@macrothink.comWebsite: http://bms.macrothink.org
 
Business Management and Strategy (BMS) would like to acknowledge the following reviewers for their assistance with peer review of manuscripts for this issue. Many authors, regardless of whether BMS publishes their work, appreciate the helpful feedback provided by the reviewers. Their comments and suggestions were of great help to the authors in improving the quality of their papers. Each of the reviewers listed below returned at least one review for this issue.Reviewers for Volume 11, Number 2Eddie John Paul Fisher, Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, United KingdomPaulo Gonçalves Pinheiro, Beira Interior University, PortugueseChaminda Prasanna Karunarathne, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Sri LankaVenugopal Gubbi, RV Institute Of Management, IndiaSulaiman Sheik Abdullah, PASUMPON MUTHURAMALINGA THEVAR COLLEGE, IndiaAnsar Abbas, Banking Officer, Muslim Commercial Bank Pakistan, PakistanShalini Sahni, Banarsidas Chandiwala Institute of Professional Studies (Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi), India Jean LeeBusiness Management and StrategyMacrothink Institute*************************************Add: 5348 Vegas Dr.#825Las Vegas, Nevada 89108United StatesTel: 1-702-953-1852 ext.508Fax: 1-702-420-2900E-mail1: bms@macrothink.orgE-mail2: bms@macrothink.comWebsite: http://bms.macrothink.org
 
Training programmes for rice farmers is believed to be an activity leading to the improvement in yield if it is well managed and implemented. Japan International Corporation Agency (JICA) initiated a training programme for rice farmers in three regions in Northern Ghana. Indeed, the benefits of training could be social, cognitive, economic or both. The training was intended to help increase rice farmers yield leading to productivity and profitability. This study was set up to evaluate the extent to which the rainfed lowland rice training programme influenced changes and improvement in socio-economic status of the rice farmers. A sample of 257 out of the total population of 880 was selected across both sex for this study. The analysis showed that all participants in the training benefitted in the form of changes in their socio-economic statuses as well as cognitive improvement. Various assets were acquired from proceeds of excess rice sole after feeding their families. One asset the majority of the farmers acquired was cell phone with all the women farmers acquiring cooking utensils either for their domestic use or in preparation towards settling their daughters when they are due for marriage. It was established that the rice training programme was beneficial to farmers and therefore should be extended to cover all rice farmers in the three regions in particular and to rice farmers in Ghana in general.
 
This is a research paper that is focused on evaluating the effects of associated factors (Quality, Service and Environmental) that influence customer satisfaction at a small restaurant.This research uses a defined population of 500 restaurant members. The calculated sample size was 222 respondents chosen using systematic random sampling. Data analysis was conducted through SPSS, v23. Appropriate tests were applied to 4 variables determined as Customer Expectation, Perceived Quality, Perceived Value and customer satisfaction extracted from the ACSI index.The result shows that females are the target purchase group. Environmental factors respond mostly to Customer expectation and Perceived Quality; Quality and Environmental factors respond mostly to Perceived Value, Quality and Service; and Environmental factors influence Customer Satisfaction. From this study, Perceived Quality and Perceived Value are significantly positive for customer satisfaction but Customer expectation does not appear to positively affect customer satisfaction.The results indicate that customers focus on the actual experience achieved and overall feeling relating to the product and service experience - which together appears to support the ACSI theory. The assessment revealed that quality and service factors relating to Customer Expectation and Perceived Quality; Service/Environmental factors relating to Perceived Value need to be facilitated, as it can improve overall customer satisfaction for small restaurants. Moreover, it was realised that the demand for further examination related to the customer satisfaction is high and the need for developing more effective service delivery improvements centred on customer feedback.
 
1. Theoretical Framework of ICT adoption 
Regression Analysis
Information and communication technology (ICT) plays very crucial role to enhance sales, expand business, reduce operating cost, reduce operating procedure, improve product or company image and easy access for product information in today's competitive world. Although, the intention to use ICT is significantly depends on the attitude and social norms of executives towards ICT, especially in SME level. The main objective of the present article is to examine the determinants of ICT adoption among Malay based SMEs in Malaysia. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) has been employed to measure main factors that have effect on ICT adoption. The paper is based on review of literature and primary data. Data were gathered through questionnaire survey of 199 SMES in Malaysia. Hypothetical relationships were identified using multiple regression analysis in this research. The findings of this study are discussed and conclusion and policy implication are also addressed here.
 
Different places around the world attract the tourists by festivals and industrial, cultural and spatial characteristics. By festival marketing, they approach the tourists and can influence or change tourists’ impression and travel in the destinations. Hence, festival marketing activity becomes the important strategy to trigger regional economic development. However, can festival marketing activities held in the areas comply with the surrounding factors and integrate the factors to become characteristics and attract the tourists? It is the topic of this study which mainly explores the impact of festival marketing, landscape construction and regional characteristics on tourists’ value perception and revisit commitment. According to the findings, effect relationship path and relationship intensity of different types of festival marketing activities are different. It means that different areas should hold the unique and appropriate festival marketing activities in order to increase tourists’ value perception. It can significantly and positively influence tourists’ commitment. In addition, when planning festival marketing, local government and related industries should make sure that the content of festival marketing activities can make tourists happy and to reinforce their revisit commitment.
 
The model of adaptive WOM comments
The purpose of this research was to examine the strategies adopted by the word of mouth (WOM) dyad in seeker-initiated context. To examine this process, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 dyads. The result indicated that the WOM sender has two special motivations, risk aversion and egotism, found only in seeker-initiated WOM context. Since spreading WOM is sometimes a risk taking behavior, the sender uses different strategies in response to the seeker’s request. A preliminary model of this adaptive WOM communication was presented. The results can help us clarify the interaction between WOM dyad; moreover, it provides another perspective to look at this complicated and multifaceted behavior.
 
The study have proposed Adaptive Port Planning (APP) to be implemented in Casablanca Port according to regulate manner operation with a framework, an approach that bridges the gaps in the traditional practices of port planning by incorporating uncertainty and flexibility considerations. It provides a framework for the planner to generate plausible alternatives in the context of this planning objectives and definition of success; identify critical uncertainties (vulnerabilities and opportunities); and then, to explore, value, and incorporate flexibilities for handling these uncertainties. Then, actions can be taken either in the planning stage, or actions can be prepared in advance, and taken as events occur. Next, the planner evaluates the alternatives and makes a choice; the value of flexibility is included in his evaluation. During the implementation phase, actions are taken in response to triggers from a monitoring system set up for the selected alternative (which monitors the external environment for new developments and alerts planners of the need to modify or reassess the plan).
 
This paper discusses the strategies that are used by the unions to address industrial conflict at the National university of Lesotho (NUL). Content analysis was undertaken to understand the interviewee’s responses and the NUL policy documents. The strategies are analyzed within the policy context, pre-industrial action, industrial action and post-industrial action. The study also shows that unions at the higher education institutions consult with other unions in the sector and, where other strategies have failed, they resort to either industrial action or legal process to resolve conflicts at the workplace. The findings further show that unions employ widespread communication between their members to share new development in the negotiation process. The findings reveal that strategies which unions normally adopt at NUL are: constant consultations and joint decision making, strikes/industrial action, work to rule, negotiations, collective bargaining, taking legal process and communication of possible ideas and solutions.
 
p>The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of training programmes and opportunities for transfer of training on the performance of senior administrative staff of UCC. The descriptive survey design was employed for the study. The survey employed purposive and simple random sampling techniques in selecting a total of 158 respondents (senior administrative staff) for the study. The study revealed among others that training programmes are not administered regularly, perceptions/views of senior administrative staff about training programmes were not evaluated and their skills as well as behaviours were not assessed after training, there was inadequate practice during training and knowledge of staff were not measured after the training, the university does not place much emphasis on the application of training on the job and as well portals were not available to help store and share information with staff. The following recommendations were made; There should be regular training programmes for the senior administrative staff of UCC, more time should be allotted for practice during training, measures should be put in place by the university management to ensure that there is much emphasis on the application of knowledge acquired from training programmes, the perceptions/views of senior administrative staff about training programmes should be evaluated, skills and behaviour of senior administrative staff should be assessed/evaluated after training, an informational maps should be developed and published to be used by staff.</p
 
This paper addresses how entrepreneurial teams and governance influence the choice of a risky growth strategy—hypercompetitive strategy—adopted by privately-owned Chinese startups. Two specific entrepreneurial teams are analyzed: the nested entrepreneurial team and the emergent entrepreneurial team. In the context of Chinese privately-owned startups, the nested entrepreneurial team structure is more likely to support the choice of hypercompetitive growth strategy than the emergent structure. Two governance mechanisms are examined: ownership structure of the nested entrepreneurial team and board structure. The lead entrepreneur of the nested team has an incentive to acquire a dominant ownership stake in the team, which strengthens the relationship between the nested team structure and the choice of hypercompetitive growth strategy. Meanwhile, an independent board structure is likely to weaken this relationship.
 
This empirical investigation aims to determine the factors leading to the adaptation of Taxi Hailing Mobile Apps among Malaysian consumers using the theory of Venkatesh et al. (2003) user theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). The adopted framework has four independent variables namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions. Dependent variables include behavioural intension and user behaviour. The study follows exploratory research design and quantitative research method. Primary data is collected using online Google survey questionnaire. The target population of this research study is international and local in Malaysia who makes use of taxi hailing app in order to satisfy their transportation needs. Convenience sampling technique is used to collect data from a sample of 202 respondents. Confirmatory Factors Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) are used in order to answer the research questions. Findings show that Performance expectancy, social influence and behaviour intension has positive influence on user behaviour while effort expectancy and behavioural intension has no influence. For scholars and researchers, understandably this research study opens the gate way of the application of UTAUT on information system (IS) apps that had been recently created.
 
Blockchain Technology Environment Analysis (Woodside et al., 2017)
Technological developments and industrial adaptations are leading to a fundamental change in how industries and strategy function in the world today. Disruptive technologies are forcing us to reconsider the way we make decisions, and the models that were previously in place for delivering products and services. Blockchain in particular has demonstrated its ability to completely upend industry as we know it. Its main strengths lie in the fact that it is decentralized, unchangeable, anonymous and auditable. In this paper, we present a comparative study on the Big Four accounting firms’ approach to Blockchain development and adoption. We first give an overview of the blockchain technology and key characteristics of the blockchain and its applications. Furthermore, we discuss some existing approaches for blockchain development and application in the Big Four accounting firms and highlight the opportunities and future prospects of blockchain technology that can be utilized by the four professional services conglomerates.
 
Adoption of Equity Financing in the Islamic MFIs in Malaysia
Regression Results
This paper aims to explore the perception of micro-entrepreneurs towards the adoption of equity-based financing models in Malaysia. The investigation has covered the following characteristics of equity-based financing such as fairness, partnership, risk sharing, business size, and MFI. The current micro-financial products in Malaysia are focusing more on debt-based financing, which is holistically increasing the financial risk level of entrepreneurs in the case of defaults. There is a dire need to identify the relevancy and viability of equity-based financing in Malaysia, it will ultimately reduce the financial risks of entrepreneurs in case of default. The Islamic financial concept offers a solution to this problem, Musharakah and Mudarabah are among the other Islamic products that offer equity-based micro-financing to entrepreneurs. However, its practical implementation is still vague. In relation to this, the study adopts a cross-sectional study with a sample size of 700 micro-entrepreneurs from the state of Selangor Malaysia. The results of this study found that micro-entrepreneurs tend to register a positive perception of the characteristics of equity-based financing and risk-sharing score as the highest factor towards the adoption of the proposed equity-based PLS model in Malaysia.
 
Response to Questions on Employee Recognition
Response to Questions on Employee Performance
Correlation Result
The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of recognition and career advancement on employee job performance in Nigeria Brewery Plc in Imagbon, Ijebu Ode, Ogun State. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The target population consists of 215 staff of Nigerian Brewery Plc. Imagbon, and sample size was 88. A Structured questionnaire was used as a research instrument in gathering the primary data used for the study. The data collected were analysed using mean, standard deviation and correlation analysis with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 23). The results and findings indicated that employee recognition (r-0.759, p- 0.029) and career advancement (r-0.594, p- 0.012) have significant and positive effects on employee job performance in Nigerian Brewery Plc Imagbon, Ijebu Ode, Ogun State. The research recommends that the management of Nigerian brewery Plc. should put a measure in place to ensure retention of younger employee that constitute the greater percentage of the brewery industry through adequate employee recognition programmes; and that management should be fully committed to employee flexible work schedule and provide an enabling environment for all and sundry within the organization.
 
Business Process Management or BPM is the blueprint of how work is performed in any organisation to deliver customer requirements. Sustainable Competitive Advantage or SCA pushes organisations to adopt flexibility and dynamism into their systems, processes and culture. A study was carried out to determine the influence of BPM on SCA, and to identify the antecedents of BPM in creating SCA. One of the antecedents’ of the study was IT capability. The study was based on organisations in Malaysia. The results from the study revealed that IT capability failed to observe significant relationship to BPM and SCA. In an attempt to understand further this phenomenon, a series of interviews were carried out on 3 companies representing the telecommunications, consulting and manufacturing industries. The findings revealed that while IT capability is a “must-have”, there are numerous factors that may influence or hinder the effectiveness of IT capability implementation.
 
The significance of innovative capabilities and new product development (NPD) in marketing and business strategy innovation has been recognised by researchers and management. Researchers and practitioners have explored and evaluated the organisational capabilities and knowledge management, too. This current paper, however, represents inadequacy of connection between organisational capabilities, innovative capabilities, new product development and integrated shared knowledge. Furthermore, there is insufficient knowledge and data on the effect and the involvement of organisational capabilities and integrated shared knowledge to company's success, performance, and sustainability. This paper aimed at determining whether there is a connection between organisational capabilities, innovative capabilities, new product development and integrated shared knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to investigate and explore how organisational capabilities and shared knowledge impact and contribute to innovative capabilities, new product development and innovative management. This paper has empolyed a qualitative multiple-site case study through conducting one-on-one (personal) interviews as well as conducting in-depth interviews with key decision makers from innovative and technology companies located in Texas State in the USA. This paper attempts to answer the following key research question, namely: How do organisational capabilities and shared knowledge that influence innovative capability and new product development contribute to the company’s performance, success, and sustainability? NVivo 11 Qualitative Data Analysis Software was used to import and analyse the respondent interviews. The software (NVivo 11) was also used to determine the study findings through theme analysis. The paper key finding is that organisational capabilities and shared knowledge are linked and crucial for the success of innovative capabilities and new product development. A set of recommendations for future researchers is proposed.
 
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is generally presumed to be associated with companies in the full sense of the word, overlooking the important role of other institutions and organizations in achieving the objectives of the concept of CSR. This study's goal is to scientifically evaluate the link between corporate social responsibility and a university's sustainable competitive advantage. A conceptual model was created based on strategic corporate social innovation literature. The research was quantitative, and the variables were measured using the literature guide to build the research questionnaire. The analysis used structural equation modelling and the result revealed that Corporate Social Responsibility in relation to Customers or/and Students (CSRCS), Employees (CSRE), Government (CSRG) and Social stakeholders (CSRS) has a major impact on a university's sustained competitive advantage. Management and employees at universities can learn how to apply differentiation techniques to address community issues related to healthcare, economic, sociocultural, and environmental. For quality research and community outreach that better fulfill social needs, innovative, quality-based approaches must be developed. The study extends the existing literature by empirically validating the relationship between CSR and a university's sustainable comparative advantage.
 
Demographic information
Measurement Items loading and Constructs Reliability
Path coefficient
Specific Indirect effect
The rising trend of “strategic human resource management practices” is significantly leading the way to enhance the performance and competitive advantages of the banking sector. Thus, the banking sector in developing countries still using traditional HRM practices to sustain the competitive advantages and to achieve the business goals. The current study investigates the influence of organizational culture, employees’ commitment, and sustainable competitive advantages on the strategic human resource management practices in the banking sector of Saudi Arabia. We applied a resource-based view to achieve the research objectives. “Structural equation modelling-partial least square” (SEM-PLS) technique were applied to investigate the relationship among constructs under study. A cross-sectional method was applied to collect data from 181 employees working in different banks in Saudi Arabia. We found organizational culture significantly influence employees’ commitment and sustainable competitive advantages. Hence, employees’ commitment does not influence strategic human resource management practices; merely, sustaining competitive advantages significantly influence strategic human resource management practices. Additionally, employees’ commitment not mediates the relationship between organizational culture and strategic human resource practices. Thereby, sustainable competitive advantages mediate the relationship between organizational culture and strategic human resource management practices. Finally, the present study will help the banking sector to unearth the best implication of strategic human resource management practices as they can sustain the competitive advantages and achieve the business goals.
 
The structure of Event Management of Body Knowledge (EMBOK) model. Source: Silvers (2009).
The EMBOK risk management model
Description of the two cases and the data material gathered from each case
Risk is inherent in adventure tourism. Without risk, adventure tourism will lose their excitement and uniqueness. Managing risk in commercial adventure tourism operation is essential for the safety of travelers. The improper risk management in this business may lead to some issues such as injury and accidents. Risks involved in adventure tourism are frequently highlighted by the media, usually after a reported accident of fatality. The increased in the number of reported accidents by media in the adventure tourism sector recently, may give significant effect and harmful impact on business as well as the whole tourism industry. Thus, it is important for the commercial adventure tourism businesses and company providers to have effective tools and model(s) in managing the risk effectively to avoid any circumstances that lead to accidents in order for the business to run smoothly with high reputation and confidence of customers. This study explores whether or not Malaysian adventure tourism businesses adhere to any risk management guidelines or models. Two preliminary case studies of adventure tourism businesses in Malaysia illustrated that these businesses have no specific guidelines and risk management models that adventure tourism businesses should adhere to. In addition, findings from this study also demonstrated that no specific regulations imposed by the government for adventure tourism businesses to comply to. This study advises on the application and implementation of the Event Management Body of Knowledge (EMBOK) model as part of Malaysian adventure tourism businesses risk management responsibilities.
 
Given the scant literature on the use of celebrity endorsements in advertisements targeting Middle East markets such as Saudi Arabia, this study is aimed at contributing knowledge through investigating the extent to which advertising agencies use this strategy to attract Saudi consumers. A qualitative content analysis of advertisements appearing in traditional print and visual media and on YouTube is conducted. Interestingly, the results show that none of the advertisements in traditional printed media utilize endorsements from Saudi celebrities. While a few Saudi celebrity endorsers appear in television and YouTube commercials, none is portrayed as an expert in the products advertised. In contrast, many embedded endorsements appear in YouTube shows targeting Saudi youths, and the celebrities in these shows are often YouTubers themselves. All three types of endorsements (explicit, implicit, and co-present) are used by these YouTubers, and they are all one-sided endorsements.
 
A Summary of Hypothesis Testing
The current study aims to investigate the relative effects of cause-related marketing (CRM) involving cause-brand alliance (CBA) while evaluate the relationship between the cause brand familiarity and personal relevance of the cause. A 2 X 2 (cause brand familiarity: high or low and personal relevance: high or low) experimental study examines the effects on attitudes toward ad, company, and cause-brand alliance (CBA). The overall findings attest to the main effects of cause brand familiarity, personal relevance of the cause, and the interaction effects of the familiarity and relevance. Theoretical and managerial implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.
 
A Social Constructionist Corporate Brand Development model 
First Bank of Nigeria plc print advert published in THE GUARDIAN newspaper (October 15th, 2010) 
Over the years, brand-building arguments have focused on process models; that is, brand-building and formation processes developed from historical and cultural foundations of the brand visionaries. They are then translated to the vision statements of corporate brands and the internalization of brand values in those who represent it. However, the question of meaning in the brand building process is often left out in the models spread across the extant literature. The authors, therefore, adopt a social constructionist approach as the theoretical basis for building the corporate brand. This attempt culminated in a proposed model embedding in social constructionist tenets and applied to corporate branding. In an attempt to validate the theoretical arguments, the authors carried out field interviews with brand custodians of two Nigerian banks. Semiotic analyses of samples of the banks’ print advertisements were also carried out to understand how the banks’ construction of meaning informs their brand building process. The findings revealed consistencies between the origin and socio-cultural derivations of meanings and brand communication as an important brand-building component. Recommendations on how this process can be adopted and operationalized in industry were therefore made.
 
Kendall's tau Correlation Coefficient matrix 
Kruskal Walli's test data 
Regression Coefficient Values 
p>The study objective was “An assessment of critical factors affecting quality performance of government financed construction projects in Tanzania ” . The study was initiated as much of government financed construction projects are executed with variations on delivering time, cost and quality. The study identified factors if not considered can lead to poor quality performance of projects. Closed end questionnaire consisting of 20 performance factors were issued to 80 respondents dealing with construction related activities, they were required to rank them on a 5 point Likert scale. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16 (SPSS). The findings revealed that the critical factors that have direct impact on quality performance of government financed construction projects are; project financing processes, experience of contractors in construction industry, project technology, availability of plant and equipment, procurement system and processes as well as the project manager knowledge and skills. A multiple regression model developed showed a positive linear relationship between project quality performance and the critical quality performance factors. All the critical quality performance factors had positive coefficients with an acceptable level of significance. The study recommends further studies on the economic and social factors that hinder women participation in construction relation activities and how training and learning opportunities for continuous improvement will have positive impact on the performance of construction projects.</p
 
Manufacturing and using counterfeit products has seriously damaged industries worldwide. Consciously complicity of consumers in buying these products is an interesting issue which on the light of its impression on economies and operation continuity of businesses, necessitates more investigation. Thus, thus study aims for investigating factors affecting consumer complicity in buying and consuming counterfeits. To this end, a questionnaire survey of students in management universities was conducted using random simple sampling. 385 questionnaires received and analyzed through descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling. Results showed that hedonic shopping experience and perceived quality affects positively consumer complicity. But collectivism and ethical consideration do not lay any influence on consumer complicity.
 
This study investigated the impact of core drivers of job satisfaction including promotions, increment and bonuses, supervisor’s’ support, career development and advancement opportunities and working conditions on two dependent variables i.e. job performance and employees retention. For this purpose a comparative study is conducted in education and banking sector of Karachi. A sample of 100 employees was collected from each sector then results were analyzed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. The results found both the education and banking sectors are different in terms of chosen human resource policies Secondly, it has been found that results are dissimilar for both sectors in terms of different hypotheses. Career development, compensation and promotions are insignificant key divers of job satisfaction for job performance. While, working conditions, compensations and co-workers are insignificant key divers of job satisfaction for employees’ retention. Result’s implication is different for banks’ managers and educational institutions’ managers based on significance of coefficients however human resource policies vary in different business settings. Indeed, more the job satisfaction better chance of good employees’ performance while it reduces the intention to switch and keep the human talent retained.
 
Research in the field of strategic management is intended to test and analyze the influence of the external and internal environment of the organization on the performance of construction service companies through the business strategy of construction service companies. This research uses balanced scorecard and Malcolm Baldrige integration approach. Innovation on performance merging as measured by Balanced Scorecard and Malcolm Baldrige performance. Variable research includes external environment variables, internal environment, business strategy and performance of construction company services. The method of analysis is done by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) model. The external environment influences the performance of construction services through business strategy, it shows that the dynamic influence of the external environment explores the macro strength and competition analysis it is necessary to apply the right strategy through business quality and partnership strategy then the performance of construction services will be increasing. Internal environment affects the performance of construction services through business strategy, it shows that the dynamic influence of the internal environment through the culture, structure and sources of the organization it is necessary for the implementation of appropriate strategies through business quality and partnership strategy so that the performance of construction services will getting up.
 
This study aims to examine customer experience marketing (CEM), customer satisfaction, consumer trust affects customer loyalty for star hotels in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study employs a causal and descriptive research using a survey research method. This study hypothesizes that (1) CEM has a significant effect on customer loyalty, (2) CEM has a significant effect on customer satisfaction, (3) customer satisfaction has a significant effect on customer loyalty, (4) customer satisfaction has a significant effect on customer trust and (5) customer trust has a significant effect on customer loyalty. The sample used is 200 respondents that were obtained from the star hotels’ guests in Jakarta. A structural equation modelling (SEM) is employed and the results reveal that only CEM has a significant impact on customer loyalty meanwhile customer satisfaction and customer trust have no impact on customer loyalty.
 
Participant Profile
In South Africa, women are grossly underrepresented in the Information Technology (IT) sector result of gender stereotyping and discrimination. According to the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA) Report (2017), only 21% of executives in the IT sector are women. This has caused high unemployment of women IT graduates. The purpose of this study therefore is to explore and investigate the antecedents that influence and impact the phenomenon of the gender digital divide in South Africa. The study explores new antecedents of the digital gender divide that influences motivation of women to participate in the IT sector. This study used a qualitative approach through in-depth interviews of South African women in the IT sector. The rich volume of data collected was analysed via a thematic analysis. The analysis confirmed existing antecedents gleaned from literature and also uncovered three new dimensions, namely, networking, impartial mentorship and HR as motivators for women in the IT sector. The findings of the study also provides for a better understanding on the barriers that perpetuate the unequal gender gap problem especially in managerial and leadership roles.
 
p>As the most important capital in today’s global economy, knowledge has replaced physical and financial capitals, and the knowledge-based business environment needs an approach that encompasses new intangible organizational assets. In fact, responses that organizations have given to today’s environments indicate that they must rely on intangible resources that were previously unattended. By asking whether the intellectual capital has an impact on business performance of travel agencies in Shiraz, we seek to prove the effect of intellectual capital components on the performance of these agencies. The required statistics and information were collected and analyzed on the basis of empirical research in Shiraz and using a sample size of 142. According to the findings of this study, there is a significant relationship between intellectual capital and business performance and its components, and all aspects of intellectual capital positively and significantly influence productivity, profitability and reputation of the companies. In fact, it can be said that being aware of the importance of intellectual capital will bring about productivity and a better performance, and on the contrary, not paying enough attention to this important issue will result in poor economic performance.</p
 
p>This study examines the behavior of aggregate dividends and earnings for 781 sample firms listed on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) in Indian capital market for a period from 1995 to 2013. Although the number of dividend paying firms decreased, the aggregate dividends have increased manifold over the last two decades. Further, we notice a significant variation in the level of aggregate dividends and earnings between the standalone and business group affiliated firms. This implies the relevance of corporate relationship of firms in explaining their dividend behavior. We find evidence for dividend and earnings concentration for entire sample firms and within a sample of Indian firms identifiable with organizational forms reflecting these corporate relationships, with fewer firms paying most dividends. The dividend paying firms exhibit two groups between which one group, with small number of firms having high earnings contributes major proportion of total earnings collectively and influences the aggregate dividend supply. Our analysis exhibits strong correlation between a firm’s earnings and its dividend payout, where, the firms with high level of earnings are more likely to pay dividends while the firms suffering from losses are most likely to cut or omit the dividends. Finally, we do not find any evidence in support of reduced propensity to pay dividends in Indian capital market unlike the declining propensity to pay in global trends. JEL classification: G35; G30</p
 
The conceptual model of agility
Research Model
Overview of the dependent and independent variables.
Flexibility and agility, which are closely interrelated concepts with organizations’ performance, have effects on managers’ decisions. In this context, this study aims to determine the effect of organizational flexibility on organizational agility and agility abilities in small medium and large enterprises. Two questionnaires were used to get data. The data were collected from 111 managers from 46 firms located in the West of Turkey. Regression analysis was used to depict the relations. The results showed that there is a positive and significant impact of organizational structure flexibility on the organizational agility and agility abilities; competency, flexibility, responsiveness and speed.
 
Fuzzy comparison measures
This paper presents an integrated fuzzy approach for selecting a marketing strategy. In the integrated approach, fuzzy concepts are used for decision-makers’ subjective judgments to reflect the vague nature of the selection process. Fuzzy AHP and VIKOR are included in the integrated approach. Fuzzy AHP is used to determine the fuzzy weights of criteria and sub-criteria because it can effectively determine various criteria’s weights in a hierarchical structure. VIKOR aims to rank strategies with respect to the sub-criteria. We apply the integrated approach in real case to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.
 
The average scores of factors related to interaction, navigation, performance and marketing features of international European airlines
The average scores of factors related to interaction, navigation, performance and marketing features of international Asian airlines
The average scores of factors related to interaction, navigation, performance and marketing features of selected international American, Australian and African airlines
Testing major hypothesis 2
Means of combined behaviors of interaction, navigation and performance
This article is an attempt to analyze the websites of a number of international airlines by adopting the functionalism approach. For this, designing and marketing features of these websites are compared. According to the functionalist approach, every website should have at least one specific function. This analysis is conducted by employing 12-factor website analysis criteria put forward by Bowman, Johnson, and Hodges (2001). The findings suggest that the success of each website is considerably translated into the success of the respective airline and vice versa. This is because the number of visitors of the website is positively correlated to the rate of customers of the airline.
 
Top-cited authors
Arash Shahin
  • University of Isfahan
Monireh Samea
Siti Aisjah
  • Brawijaya University
Djumilah Hadiwidjojo
  • Brawijaya University
Mohammad Rza Fathi
  • University of Tehran