Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society

Online ISSN: 0090-5054
Publications
Article
A recent paper by Paulus et al in The Bulletin has suggested that prisons are excellent mileus in which to study social phenomena such as crowding and its effects on behavior. We believe that such a suggestion is fraught with methodological and ethical pitfalls which are not discussed by Paulus et al. We believe that a short discussion of these pitfalls is necessary as a supplement to the Paulus et al paper.
 
Article
Obese and normal-weight Ss judged the duration of a 1,000-Hz tone at four standard intervals, 3, 8, 13, and 18 sec, using the method of production. Consistent with the prediction from Schachter’s (1971) stimulus-binding hypothesis, response accuracy, in terms of absolute error, was poorer for the obese than for the normals. This effect was notable predominantly at the longer stimulus durations. In general, the magnitude of absolute errors decreased over trials, even though explicit feedback regarding performance efficiency was not provided.
 
Article
This study tested the prediction, derived from the goal-setting hypothesis, that the facilitating effects of knowledge of results (KR) in a simple vigilance task should be related directly to the level of the performance standard used to regulate KR. Two groups of Ss received dichotomous KR in terms of whether Ss response times (RTs) to signal detections exceeded a high or low standard of performance. The aperiodic offset of a visual signal was the critical event for detection. The vigil was divided into a training phase followed by testing, during which KR was withdrawn. Knowledge of results enhanced performance in both phases. However, the two standards used to regulate feedback contributed little to these effects.
 
Article
Two short (16 item) forms of the Helmreich, Stapp, and Ervin (1974) Texas Social Behavior Inventory, a validated, objective measure of self-esteem or social competence are presented. Normative data and other statistics are described for males and females. Correlations between each short form and long (32-item) scale were .97. Factor analysis and part-whole correlations verified the similarity of the two forms. The utility of the scale in research is described.
 
Article
Two experiments were conducted to examine possible decrements in performance over time on two visual tracking tasks. In Experiment 1, six subjects tracked a horizontal, sinusoidally moving target in the picture plane for 6.5 min. In Experiment 2, six subjects tracked a target sinusoidally changing focus in the depth plane between 0 and 4 D over 6.5 min. Results indicated a linearly decreasing amplitude of both pursuit eye movements (.29 deg of visual angle per minute) and accommodation (.11 D/min). These visual fatigue effects are discussed in the context of several competing explanations.
 
Article
Replicated J. D. Bransford and J. J. Franks's (see record 1972-24191-001) 2nd experiment in as great a detail as the description of the original procedure would permit. Results with 14 undergraduate Ss are almost identical to those of Bransford and Franks: Ss frequently reported recognizing new sentences derived from the same complex ideas as sentences heard during acquisition, and their level of confidence in their reports of recognition increased as the complexity of the test sentences increased. These findings enhance the conclusion that Ss integrate complex semantic information as presented in related but nonconsecutively experienced sentences and do not simply memorize the exact sentences which they have heard. The procedures seem appropriate for use in the investigation of other hypotheses concerning semantic memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Asserts that, contrary to P. M. Merikle's (see record 1983-11755-001) implications, the case for unconscious perception does not stand or fall with evidence from the backward masking studies that are the focus of his criticisms. Evidence that the brain can respond to stimulus material of which the recipient remains unaware is provided. It is argued that, since the threshold-determining procedures employed in the backward masking studies were inappropriate, Merikle's particular criticisms of these procedures are irrelevant. (50 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
A mock crime—a mugging and purse snatch—was staged as representative of the usually difficult observation conditions present in crime situations. The film was shown on a TV newscast, and to 2,145 viewers (median age 26 yrs) in small audiences under more controlled conditions. A few moments after the crime, witnesses were shown a lineup and asked to identify the culprit. Of the TV respondents, 74% attempted an identification; only 19% were correct. The film audience witnesses were significantly better (24.8%) than chance. Analyses of recalled descriptions showed that most witnesses had seen and recalled little of the culprit's features, but they were motivated by the demand of the lineup situation to try to identify anyway. (11 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Before viewing an ambiguous picture which could be perceived into alternatives, an auditory stimulus was presented to a total of 146 undergraduates in 2 studies to effect perceptual set. It was found that both relevant verbal descriptions (Exp I) and music (Exp II) were effective in affecting Ss' responses. A short taped message, discussing the body dimensions and life conditions of various rats, generated significantly more rat responses in the experimental group where a rat-man drawing was shown. A horror music recording was also effective in significantly increasing the "old woman response" of an ambiguous wife-mother-in-law drawing. Results suggest a relationship between the nature of a drawing and the effectiveness of a set and that to effectively influence the perception of a drawing, a nondetailed yet related message is needed. The function of the auditory sets is interpreted to be the establishment of ill-defined categories which are powerful aids to perception-recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Explored the effects of voluntary wheel running on ethanol-induced sleep in C57BL/6J mice, an inbred strain used in alcohol research. 64 mice were assigned to wheel or no-wheel conditions for 5 wks. At the end of the training period, the animals were removed from the exercise cages and tested for sensitivity to ethanol as assessed by loss-of-righting reflex (LORR). Exercised animals showed significantly longer latency to LORR (fall time) and shorter duration of LORR (sleep time). Results suggest that exercise training may be effective in reducing ethanol-induced sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated sex differences in cerebral lateralization for spatial abilities, using a dual-task paradigm with 21 male and 29 female right-handed undergraduates. Findings show that both males and females displayed similar cerebral lateralization patterns for manipulospatial processing of block designs across 2 levels of difficulty. There was no evidence of laterality effects in right- or left-hand tapping, but analysis of trade-off effects revealed that both males and females took significantly longer to solve the block designs when simultaneously tapping with the right hand and manipulating the block designs with the left hand. It is suggested that females used a verbal mediation strategy in manipulospatial processing insofar as interference effects were found during concurrent vocalization and manipulospatial processing in females. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Representative brains from each group and a metric scale. Brains are from Groups S+S (above), V+V (center), and S+B (below).
Article
Examined the effect of simultaneous and serial bilateral ablation of the goldfish ( Carassius auratus) telencephalon on the retention of an avoidance response with 18 Ss. Based on previous results with mammals (rats, cats, dogs, monkeys, and humans), it was expected that the serial procedure would produce significant savings in the retention of avoidance learning (serial lesion effect), which is otherwise significantly impaired after simultaneous bilateral ablations of the telencephalon. Results, however, reveal that the retention of the avoidance task learned prior to the ablations was unaffected by the serial procedure. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Continued fixation of a point of light in the dark moving concomitantly with the observer's head motion has been found to lead to motion adaptation. This adaptation is shown in that, following the adaptation period, a physically stationary object viewed with head movement appears to move concomitantly with a direction and phase opposite to those of the adapting stimulus. The present study with 48 undergraduates was concerned with identifying the conditions responsible for this adaptation. Of particular interest was whether the concomitant motion sufficient for adaptation is a physical or an apparent motion. Two kinds of concomitant motion were used as adaptation stimuli: a point of light in the dark that appeared to move concomitantly with the observer's head motion but was physically stationary and a point that physically moved concomitantly with the head but appeared stationary. Adaptation occurred in the 1st but not in the 2nd situation. This result indicates that perceived, not physical, concomitance is the condition required for adaptation. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied horizontality representation among 15 men and 18 women who completed a haptic version of a water-level task. Without seeing the display, Ss positioned a magnetic rod corresponding to the water line. It was found that the women performed as well as the men did, in contrast to the systematic male superiority under the standard visual version of the task. Similarly, there was no gender effect when Ss were instructed to set the rod horizontally in tilted containers. The absence of misleading visual information and the beneficial contribution of salient proprioceptive cues through haptic activity are suggested as possible determinants for the canceling of typical gender differences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Used operant conditioning and a psychophysical tracking procedure to measure auditory thresholds for pure tones in quiet and in noise for a male European starling. The audibility curve for the starling was similar to the auditory sensitivity reported earlier for this species using a heart-rate conditioning procedure. Critical ratios (signal-to-noise ratio at masked threshold) were calculated from pure-tone thresholds. Critical ratios increased throughout the starling's hearing range at a rate of about 3 dB per octave. This pattern is similar to that observed for most other vertebrates. Results suggest that the starling shares a common mechanism of spectral analysis with many other vertebrates, including humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In Exp I, 336 undergraduates tasted 10 ml of 15% sucrose and were asked to remember the strength of the solution. They were retested with 5, 10, 15, or 20% sucrose at 1 of 4 delay intervals (1, 5, or 15 min or 72 hrs). Ss reliably reported that 5% sucrose was less sweet and that 20% sucrose was sweeter. However, when the 2nd stimulus was equal to the standard, approximately 60% of Ss reported that it was sweeter, regardless of the delay interval between the 2 stimuli. About two-thirds of those tasting 10% sucrose reported that it was as sweet as or sweeter than the 15% standard. A similar finding from a procedure using magnitude estimation was reported in Exp II. The same pattern of results was also found for an olfactory memory test (Exp III). When asked to match either a 1.33- or a 5.0-ppm pyridine olfactory stimulus, Ss consistently picked a concentration weaker than the standard. Olfactory and taste stimuli are remembered as substantially weaker as soon as the memory for these stimuli can be tested. A memory model that posits a sensory store within which a taste or smell stimulus of a given intensity rapidly fades to a lower level of intensity is suggested. The new memory is then relatively unchanged for at least 3 days. (7 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Explored visual (V), tactual (T), and combined visual and tactual (VT) training and testing of abstract shapes in 3 experiments with a total of 42 male and 42 female undergraduates. In a recognition test, V and VT training were superior to T training. Visual and VT testing had a significant effect over T testing. A recall experiment showed that V training and VT training were both superior to T training. Exp III showed that Ss presented the V stimuli before the T stimuli recalled significantly more than those Ss presented the reverse order. Results indicate the superiority of V over T information processing. Concurrent V and T stimulation resulted in performance similar to that of exclusive V stimulation. Results replicate those of J. M. Fico and H. S. Brodsky (see record 1972-30304-001). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Mean number of correct recalls over successive trials.
Article
Presented 30 undergraduates with pictures, concrete nouns, or abstract nouns for a single learning trial followed by 3 forced recall trials. Performance improved with repeated recall for pictures (hypermnesic effect) but not for words. Memory of pictures was superior to recall of concrete nouns, which in turn was superior to recall of abstract nouns. Results support the hypothesis that qualitative differences in imagery, and not the dual encoding theory, account for the picture superiority effect. The dual encoding theory, however, can and does predict differences in word abstractness/concreteness recall. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Four gorillas were trained on 2-choice discrimination reversal (DR) problems. On meeting learning criteria, they were tested under various transfer conditions. Results suggest that during DR training, Ss learned an abstract strategy that was retained for at least 2.5 yrs. A further experiment showed that Ss' long-term memory was not due to the specific stimuli used. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the effects of gender and structure of accompanying music on the perceived structure of abstract paintings among 14 males and 14 females of college age. Ss saw a sequence of identical slides of abstract paintings. One group listened to avant-garde music while viewing the slides; the other group listened to minimalistic music. After the presentations, Ss rated each of the paintings on semantic-differential scales, assessing the dimensions of evaluation, potency, and activity. Significant effects of music condition were found for the evaluation and activities dimensions. There was a significant interaction between gender and music condition on the potency dimension, with females rating the paintings more like the music they had listened to and males showing the opposite tendency. This interaction is interpreted in terms of emotional differences between the sexes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
24 undergraduates rated a set of concrete and abstract sentences on comprehensibility. They were then given an unexpected memory test, involving recognition confidence ratings of a set of sentences (which included the same ones they had originally rated on comprehensibility), synonyms of those sentences, and new unrelated distractors. With comprehensibility equated, concrete sentences exceeded abstract in terms of confidence ratings for correct acceptance of same and correct rejection of new sentences. In addition, as predicted from a dual coding theory, concrete synonyms received higher false positive confidence ratings than did abstract synonyms. Dual coding and common code theories are discussed in the light of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Assessed the acquisition, utilization, and long-term retention of ill-defined categories in 12 5th graders, who initially classified 18 distorted form stimuli into 3 categories containing 3, 6, and 9 members and then received transfer tests immediately following classification, 1 wk later, and 1 mo later. On the transfer tests, old, new, prototype, and unrelated forms were presented, and the Ss had available an optional junk category. Results show that classification of new instances at all levels of distortion was unaffected by a month's delay, with classification of the prototype and new instances strongly facilitated by increases in category size. The acquired breadth of these concepts was stable across the month's delay. A comparison of the children's performance with adult performance in a highly similar task from a study by the 1st author and J. Cultice (see record 1984-16902-001) revealed no qualitative differences. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Evaluated relationships to academic performance of classroom seating location and initial class attendance in 9 psychology classes involving over 200 students at 2 universities. Data from final grade-report forms, attendance rosters, and classroom seating charts indicate that seating position was unrelated to performance, whereas initial attendance was strongly related. Findings were interpreted in terms of possible instructor or student biases, and several additional variables were suggested for expanded research. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied Ss with varying levels of academic training and nonacademic experience who adjusted the vertical lines of L-shaped and inverted- T figures and produced estimates of 1-inch lines in the vertical and horizontal planes. The adjustments and productions of the Ss who were experienced in working with lines of varying sizes and orientations, independent of education, were more accurate than those of Ss lacking such experience. Specialized academic training and hands-on experience were found to compensate for the robust tendency to overestimate the length of vertical lines. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Used 183 college students (aged 18–51 yrs) to examine the relationship among academic dishonesty, Type A behavior, and classroom orientation. Ss were administered the LOGO II, the Modified Jenkins Activity Survey, and a 7-item questionnaire on cheating. A positive association was found among learning orientation, Type A behavior, and lower levels of academic dishonesty. Grade orientation, Type B behavior, and higher levels of academic dishonesty were also positively associated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Laboratory research has established that face recognition memory performance for own-race faces is better than for other-race faces. Three studies are reported exploring the possibility that the other-race effect will generalize to voice recognition memory. Recognition memory performance for nonnative American speakers speaking both English and their native languages (Chinese and Spanish) was compared with memory for native American speakers. A total of 46 male and 129 listeners participated. With relatively long speech samples, accented voices were no more difficult to recognize than were unaccented voices; reducing the speech sample duration decreased recognition memory for accented and unaccented voices, but the reduction was greater for accented voices. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
12 undergraduates performed a lexical decision task in which target words were preceded by either semantically related words, nonwords in which the initial phoneme of the semantically related word was distorted by one phonetic feature, nonwords in which the initial phoneme of the related word was distorted by more than one phonetic feature, or unrelated words. Results show a monotonic relationship between phonetic distortion and lexical decision facilitation. Lexical access appeared to take into account possible noise or distortion of the speech signal, so that a nonword stimulus that was phonetically related to an actual lexical entry was in some sense normalized and processed as an actual lexical entry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
12 Spanish-English bilinguals (8 college students, 3 housewives, and 1 physician) were asked to determine whether a string of letters formed a word in their languages. Three conditions were used: 2 conditions blocked by language and a mixed-language condition. Some of the words were cognates (i.e., words with the same spelling and meaning in the 2 languages). Results show no differences between blocked and mixed conditions; cognates were responded to with equal facility in all conditions, and there was an interaction of Cognates and Noncognates by Weak and Strong Language. Results are interpreted as supporting a direct graphemic lexical access model. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
32 college students scoring high or low on the Self-Consciousness Questionnaire rated trait adjectives for self-descriptiveness, meaningfulness, and familiarity, and then were given an unannounced recall test. High self-aware Ss were faster at making self-descriptiveness judgments than low self-aware Ss, a difference that was not significant for meaningfulness or familiarity decisions. Results support the hypothesis that Ss who are more self-aware access personal information more rapidly than less self-aware Ss. There were no self-awareness differences in total recall or the organization of recall, apparently because 3 successive encoding tasks eliminated such differences. Self-reference decisions were faster than non-self decisions for high self-aware Ss, but slower for less self-aware Ss. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
This paper contains the remarks of the discussant in the symposium on social cognition held at the Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society in November 1989. Although much work in cognitive psychology and social cognition addresses categorization, these two areas of work currently exhibit little overlap. Whereas cognitive psychologists focus primarily on how people access categories, social cognitive psychologists focus primarily on how people draw inferences from categories. Cognitive psychologists have little to say about inference, often seeming to view categorization as an end in itself. Social cognitive psychologists typically ignore how people access categories for individuals, behaviors, and situations. Because access and inference are both intrinsic parts of categorization, complete theories of categorization must address both in a balanced and integrated manner.
 
Article
3 groups of 4 naive female albino rats were given access to water for 1 of 3 20-sec periods during the interpellet interval. Water intakes of all Ss in each group increased substantially relative to baseline conditions, with nonsignificant differences in water intakes between groups. Results suggest that although schedule-induced polydipsia develops under conditions of restricted water accessibility, the concept of reinforcement probability alone cannot adequately predict the relative degree of water intakes, but must be considered in relation to other potent variables. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
103 college students in 6 conditions (Exp 1) were either informed or uninformed about 12 to 13 ambiguous figures, and had either unlimited time or 30 sec in which to respond. In 2 of the conditions, head and eye movements were restricted, and in 1 condition, incidental learning was used. In keeping with an expectancy view, uninformed Ss saw fewer meaningful shapes than informed Ss did, and restricted eye/head movements played no role. However, in accord with a satiation view, most figures did shift for many Ss. In Exp 2, 59 uninformed Ss saw 2 ambiguous figures whose alternative shapes were physically emphasized in order to increase both attention and satiation. Contrary to satiation expectations, but supporting an expectancy position, Ss saw 1 shape as often as 2. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Proportion of Identifications of the Suspect and the Victim as a Function of Sex of Witnesses
Proportion of Identifications of the Suspect and the Victim as a Function of Witnesses' Attitudes Toward Rape
Article
48 male and female Ss (aged 16–44 yrs) observed a slide presentation of a sexual assault and implied rape. Following recall and identification tests, Ss completed the Attitudes Toward Rape scale. No differences were found in free recall, interrogatory recall for details of the crime, and identifications of either the suspect or victim by males and females. Similarly, no differences were found in memory between Ss categorized as strong or weak in antirape attitudes. Females made more false negative identifications of the suspect. That is, women more frequently reported that the suspect was not in the lineup when in fact he was. Males and Ss holding strong antirape attitudes were reliably more certain in their identification of the suspect and victim. However, certainty was not related to accuracy of identification. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested the memory of 18 university students for 194 common sounds recorded in high fidelity. Results of a confidence-rated "yes-no" recognition task show that recognition d' was about 1.74 for both individual and group presentation and test. Performance was equivalent to between 85 and 89% correct in 2-alternative forced-choice testing, a level considerably greater than J. D. Miller and D. C. Tanis's (see record 1972-26314-001) finding of 69%. Memory capacity for sounds is probably not exceeded with 194 items. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied 4 adult shooting archer fish in a captive situation. The accuracy with which they "shot" for prey and the sequences that they performed during shooting were analyzed. Ss were successful in shooting at suspended prey 25.5% of the time. Shooting was preceded by a series of 6 acts. The typical sequence, based on an analysis of transition probabilities, was Orient, Swim, Rotate Vertically, and Shoot. Leaping out of the water and a 2nd vertical rotation were also observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
To investigate the possible influence of the speed-accuracy trade-off on inconsistent results of numerous previous studies, the effect of stimulus probability on a naming task was studied under different instructional conditions. 12 paid university students in an accuracy condition and 8 Ss in a speed condition named digits as they appeared on a display screen. Findings indicate that when accuracy was emphasized, a significant effect of stimulus probability on reaction times was obtained. When speed was emphasized (through a response-time deadline procedure), a significant effect of stimulus probability on error rates was observed. It is concluded that stimulus probability does affect the time to name alphanumeric stimuli, that the effect can manifest itself in both reaction times and error rates, and that models predicting naming time to be independent of stimulus probability must be modified, possibly by elaborating the processing operations of the stimulus identification stage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
102 employment interviewers and 128 managers viewed a videotaped interview of an MBA applicant for a management position. Participants were assigned to the cells of a 2–3 factorial design with 2 levels of participants (interviewer, manager), 2 levels of concurrent note taking (required, forbidden), and 2 levels of interruption early in the interview (interrupted, control). The dependent variables were the score on a 25-item listening accuracy test based on the transcript of the interview, and the overall suitability evaluation of the applicant by the professionals. Results indicate no significant difference between participant groups and no significant effects on overall suitability judgments. Both the interruption and note taking had a significant impact on listening accuracy. The highest rate of accuracy (79%) was for the required note taking and no-interruption condition. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
After 2 wks of teaching, a sudden disability made it impossible for an instructor to meet his classes; 28 of his undergraduate students were then questioned about his appearance by a replacement instructor. Questions were phrased either with an indefinite article or with a possessive pronoun that conveyed a false presupposition that the instructor possessed certain personal attributes. More incorrect and uncertain recollections were reported in response to questions containing false presuppositions than to questions phrased with an indefinite article. Results support and extend the existing literature on the suggestibility that characterizes eyewitness testimony. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Compared the relative accuracy of distance judgments obtained using both subjective pair-distance judgments and map sketching, either perceptually with the map in view or from memory following a study period. Six groups of 10 undergraduates were tested. The perceptual distance estimates were more accurate than those made from memory. When responses were made from memory, intersite distances on the sketched map were more accurate than the same distances estimated in the pair judgment task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined whether retrieval practice improves judgment-of-learning (JOL) accuracy when degree of learning is controlled in 50 undergraduates who were asked to learn a long list of unrelated facts. The repetitions of critical items were retrieval prompts for half of the Ss (study–test) and additional study presentations (study-only) for the others. Recall was comparable for once-presented items and repeated items across the 2 groups, but JOL accuracy was higher for repeated items in the study–test group. Retrieval practice enhances JOL accuracy even when degree of learning is controlled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Tested several hypotheses regarding the determinants of need for achievement (nAch) with 785 male and 307 female undergraduates. In addition to predicting sex differences, the study predicted that father's age would be inversely related to nAch. The effects of family size and birth order on achievement motivation were compared, and nAch was measured by the EPPS. Results indicate that father's age, sex, and family size were significantly related to nAch. Younger fathers, males, and smaller families were associated with higher nAch. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
The interrelationships between metamemory and metalinguistic development and their association with verbal intelligence (WISC—R Vocabulary subtest) and academic achievements (the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills and the Slosson Oral Reading Test) were examined for 80 children in 1st and 3rd grades (CAs 6.7 and 8.6 yrs, respectively). At both grade levels, metamemory correlated significantly with metalinguistic development. The moderate strength of the association was to be expected from a contrast of the 2 distinct theoretical constructs that are only indirectly linked within the more general concept of metacognition. For Ss of both ages, relationships between metamemory and metalinguistic level and those between a combined index of metacognition and achievement did not remain significant when the effects due to verbal intelligence were partialed out. The association between the combined index and a metareading assessment was significant for 1st-grade children, independent of verbal intelligence. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Examined short-term recall in 11 3rd- and 4th-grade children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 8 normally achieving children (matched for age and grade) on repetitive tasks involving auditory, visual, and combined distractions. Ss with ADHD performed more poorly in the middle and end (but not at the beginning) of a short-term recall task than did the normally achieving Ss. Both groups showed a decrement in performance on the short-term recall task from the beginning to the middle to the end of the task. However, the decrement in performance directly attributable to specific sensory distractions was relatively small and statistically nonsignificant in comparison with decreases in performance attributable to increasing proactive interference, increasing difficulty of the statements from beginning to end of a 30-statement set, and other factors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Demonstrated an orientation-contingent acromatic aftereffect. During a 20-min adaptation period, 4 male and 6 female Ss were exposed to alternating patterns of black horizontal bars on a light gray background and black vertical bars on a dark gray background. The appearance of the homogeneous gray background of the test figure was contingent on bar orientation: The background of the horizontal bars was reported as darker than the background of the vertical bars. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Studied the acquisition and extinction of sign-tracking (CS contact) and goal-tracking (food-site approach) responses in 14 male hooded Lister rats under partial (50%) and continuous (100%) Pavlovian appetitive reinforcement schedules. Using a retractable lever as the CS for food, partial reinforcement during acquisition training produced a higher asymptotic rate of sign-tracking than continuous reinforcement, whereas continuous reinforcement developed a higher asymptotic level of goal-tracking during CS presentation. However, extinction following partial reinforcement produced a resistance to extinction of goal-tracking but not of sign-tracking. This result suggests that although goal- and sign-tracking are both discriminated responses to the CS, they possess some different dynamic characteristics that possibly indicate sensitivity to different controlling variables. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
298 college students estimated the age-of-acquisition (AA) of the names of 456 colored picturable objects and gave their confidence in those estimates. From these stimuli, 414 with uncertainty values of 1 or less were used. When compared with males, females estimated that the picture names had been acquired at an earlier age, and they were more confident in their AA estimates. The earlier the estimated AA, the more confident both groups were in their estimations. Labeling performance of the same stimuli by 5-yr olds (J. J. Winters and M. A. Brzoska, 1975) was related to adults' estimated AA. Words that were labeled most efficiently by children were estimated to have been acquired earlier by adults. Sex differences are interpreted in terms of different strategies of estimating AA. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Investigated the effect of number of massed acquisition trials on extinction performance under conditions of goal shock. 54 female rats were given 6, 12, or 24 shock escape acquisition trials in a runway, followed by extinction in which they received no further shock anywhere in the alley or shock in the goalbox on 0%, 10%, or 100% of extinction trials. Percentage of shocked extinction trials affected extinction performance measures. In comparison with nonshocked controls, animals shocked on 10% of trials showed facilitation of extinction response measures. Extinction response measures for animals not shocked or shocked on 100% of trials were similar. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Evaluated the hypothesis that task attentional requirements vary inversely with increase in the efficiency of task performance. 17 male college students were required to learn a 2-hand coordination task (THC). To assess changing attentional demands at different levels of skilled THC performance, Ss simultaneously performed a random number generation task (RNG) on 2 or 4 trials of the THC task; these trials occurred during initial acquisition, during semiskilled performance, at performance asymptote, or after overlearning. The RNG index showed marked deterioration during initial acquisition, remained below baseline but improved during semiskilled performance, and partially and completely recovered to original baseline levels during the mastery and overlearning trials. The RNG procedure may provide a brief, sensitive, and consistent measure of attention deployment during the performance of tasks and in the learning and acquisition of complex skills. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
In rats, the baseline level of a nose-poke response was high and acquisition with food reinforcement occurred rapidly, particularly when compared with a leverpress operant response. A variety of control procedures clearly indicated that this response was acquired due to the contingency between nose pokes and food reinforcement. The response was sensitive also to manipulations of delay of reinforcement and food-deprivation level. Acquisition was slowed with longer delays of reinforcement and with decreases in deprivation level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Article
Previous work by the 2nd author and C. B. Sengstake (see record 1977-12132-001) has shown that the rate of extinction of a conditioned taste aversion by a male (but not a female) rat is affected by the state of fluid deprivation. In the present study, 24 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were either fluid deprived or nondeprived during acquisition of the conditioned taste aversion and then either fluid deprived or nondeprived during its extinction. The males that were fluid deprived during extinction showed a faster, female-like rate of extinction regardless of the deprivation state during acquisition. Results are related to previous work showing that the rate of extinction of a conditioned taste aversion is dependent on levels of testosterone. (13 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
 
Top-cited authors
James E. Cutting
  • Cornell University
Lynn T Kozlowski
  • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
Stanley Coren
  • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Thierry Hasbroucq
  • Aix-Marseille Université
Robert R. Provine
  • University of Maryland, Baltimore County