Bulletin of Science Technology & Society

Published by SAGE Publications
Online ISSN: 0270-4676
Publications
Drinking likelihood estimated marginal means in response to specific Facebook cues.  
Article
Alcohol displays on Facebook are ever-present and can be socially desirable for college students. As problematic drinking is a concern for college students, this research sought to understand how different types of information on a Facebook page influence likelihood to drink. Telephone interviews were conducted with 338 incoming college freshmen from two large national universities. Data were obtained from a vignette prompt which presented a scenario in which a senior college student's Facebook profile displayed wall-posts, pictures, and status updates that were drinking-related or pro-social in nature. Participants were asked to report intention to drink alcohol with that student if together at a party. Findings supported the hypotheses: wall-posts were most influential (the stickiest), followed by pictures, followed by status updates. Findings provide additional empirical support for established online impression formation patterns, and additionally provide evidence that virtual cues are being ingrained as schema in interpersonal communication. These results are discussed in relation to the conception of "sticky cues" in impression formation.
 
Article
Nanotechnologies are technologies applied to a molecular level, which can be embedded in materials including human cells and atoms of mineral, chemical, or physical substrates. Nanotechnologies have been used in attempts to foster interactions between a multitude of products, production processes, and social actors. Just like bio, info, and cognitive science, nanotechnologies belong to the so-called converging technologies, which are expected to change main societal paths toward a more functional and coarser mesh. However, research, development, and di fusion of converging technologies depends on the adaptability of existing economic structures and on the social acceptance of products and services augmented by nanotechnologies. Because of these characteristics, externalities and the risk of systemic divergences caused by potentially noncontrollable or unwanted interactions between sectors, actors, and environments may arise and disturb the e ficiency of the innovation process. Converging institutions, however, aim to manage these market imperfections and social risks in the long run.
 
Article
Discussed is the image of the engineer as seen through popular fiction and film. The effects of these recent comic cultural caricaturization images of engineers upon young men and women making career choices are described. (KR)
 
Article
In September 1951, Radio Corporation of America chairman David Sarnoff celebrated his 45th year in the electronics industry by publicly challenging his research staff to develop three new technologies in time for his golden anniversary dinner 5 years later. This article considers the fate of one of these items, the “Magnalux” light amplifier, to explore how scientists, manufacturing personnel, and managers viewed the significance of fundamental research to technological innovation. Following a discussion of the content and context of Sarnoff’s request, the article focuses on the creation of two prototype light amplifiers to emphasize the contingency of technological success and failure and the centrality of commercial considerations in defining those categories. This case study reaffirms the value of historical methodologies to the social study of corporate science.
 
Article
Jacques Ellul’s book, The Meaning of the City, widely recognized as one of the most important twentieth century theological reflections on the city, was also one of his most controversial scholarly contributions. Many urbanists interpreted the book as demeaning the city and diminishing the importance of urban policy, planning, design, architecture, and activism at a time when cities around the world had experience profound crises. This article reexamines The Meaning of the City and its relevance to twenty-first century urbanism.
 
Deforestation Rates in Argentina
Resources in Global Lands and Their Limitations for Agriculture (percentage)
Nutrient Extraction From Soil During the Seasons 1970/1971 through 2004/2005 for Soybean in Argentina
Article
The economically successful model of industrial agriculture that is currently expanding throughout Argentina is leading to deep social, economic, environmental, and logistical changes that are seriously restricting the sustainability of the rural, urban and environmental systems. The transformation of activities, the arrival of new technologies, the arrival of organizations with large financial and technological capabilities, the displacement of hundreds of thousands of small-scale and medium-scale farmers and their reallocation to new productive functions are not only affecting the social sustainability of the rural sector but are affecting the urban communal plots of villages and towns located on the Chacopampeana Plain. Now, the production of agrofuels as a response to international global demand will promote the ecological and social depletion that Argentina has been facing from the beginning of the 1990s. We argue in terms of ecological economics that externalities should be included in the costs of companies, not just economic costs. (Contains 3 tables, 6 figures and 7 notes.)
 
Article
Existing demographic analyses do not explain the negative relationship between population growth and life-support systems that are now emerging in scores of developing countries. The demographic transition, a theory first outlined by demographer Frank Notestein in 1945, classified all societies into one of three stages. Drawing heavily on the European experience, it has provided the conceptual framework for a generation of demographic research. During the first stage of the demographic transition, which characterizes premodern societies, both birth and death rates are high and population grows slowly, if at all. In the second stage, living conditions improve as public health measures, including mass immunizations, are introduced and food production expands. Birth rates remain high, but death rates fall and population grows rapidly. The third state follows when economic and social gains, including lower infant mortality rates, reduce the desire for large families. As in the first stage, birth rates and death rates are in equilibrium, but at a much lower level. The theorists do not say what happens when developing countries get trapped in the second stage, unable to achieve the economic and social gains that are counted upon to reduce births. Nor does the theory explain what happens when second-stage population growth rates of 3% per year continue indefinitely and begin to overwhelm local life-support systems. (BZ)
 
Article
Argues that Chinese students are being increasingly exposed to education for modernization while largely missing out on an education in the social criticism of technology that would allow them to make empowered decisions about the role of technology and progress in Chinese culture. (DDR)
 
Article
Reviews a science textbook entitled "Logical Reasoning in Science & Technology" which teaches traditional scientific facts, principles, and processes embedded in a social and technological context meaningful to an adolescent. Stresses critical-thinking and decision-making skills. Contains 28 references. (DDR)
 
Article
This article draws on the suggestion that modern technology is "autonomous," in that our social control mechanisms are largely ineffective to control technology, and instead merely adapt society to integrate new technologies. As social control mechanisms, our legal institutions can be examined for consistency with this suggestion. In this article, I raise a working hypothesis that judges, through various private law principles, tend systematically to support and legitimize novel technologies within society. I have selected three case studies to support this hypothesis by showing that courts sometimes (a) characterize harm as flowing not from a technology that actually alters the world but from a rejection of that technology, (b) require parties seeking compensation for serious injury to submit to medical technology that they do not wish to undergo for genuine reasons of fear or moral objection, and (c) whittle away at fundamental theoretical principles of the law in order to promote efficiency in mass production and distribution. Admittedly, I have selected only cases that support the hypothesis in one way or another, but having hopefully raised a question worthy of further study, I hope in future work to look for counter-examples and to conduct a more complete assessment of the hypothesis.
 
Article
"Technical developments have profound social and environmental impacts. Both are observed in the implications of regimes of instrumentality for commons access regimes. Establishing social, material, ecological, intellectual, and moral infrastructures, technologies are partly constitutive of commons access and may militate against governance according to principles of ecological justice. This article examines the relationship between regimes of instrumentality and commons access regimes, exploring the effects of bioprospecting on the biodiversity commons."
 
Article
Wind turbines produce sound that is capable of disturbing local residents and is reported to cause annoyance, sleep disturbance, and other health-related impacts. An acoustical study was conducted to investigate the presence of infrasonic and low-frequency noise emissions from wind turbines located in Falmouth, Massachusetts, USA. During the study, the investigating acousticians experienced adverse health effects consistent with those reported by some Falmouth residents. The authors conclude that wind turbine acoustic energy was found to be greater than or uniquely distinguishable from the ambient background levels and capable of exceeding human detection thresholds. The authors emphasize the need for epidemiological and laboratory research by health professionals and acousticians concerned with public health and well-being to develop effective and precautionary setback distances for industrial wind turbines that protect residents from wind turbine sound.
 
Article
Argues that weak student performance in science and mathematics can be attributed in part to a severe underrepresentation of women in science courses and careers. Discusses differential treatment as well as differences in science and mathematics instruction. (DDR)
 
Article
Industry and mainstream research and policy institutions often suggest that transgenic crop varieties can raise the productivity of poor third world farmers, feed the hungry, and reduce poverty. These claims are critically evaluated by examining global-hunger data, the constraints that affect the productivity of small farmers in the third world, and the factors that explain their poverty. No significant role is found for crop genetics in determining hunger, productivity, or poverty, casting doubt on the ability of new transgenic crop varieties produced by genetic engineering to address these problems. An examination of the special risks these varieties pose for poor farmers in the complex, diverse, and risk-prone environments that characterize peasant agriculture on a global scale suggests that transgenic crop varieties are likely to be more of hindrance than a help to the advancement of poor farmers.
 
Participant Demographic Summary
Participant Analysis 
Article
This article examines the response of minority gamers as they adopt new innovations in Xbox Live. Using diffusion of innovation theory, specific attention is given to gamers’ rate of adoption of the new Xbox Live environment, which was a recent update to the Xbox Live interface. By employing virtual ethnography, observations, and interviews reveal that gaming duration and gender are significant factors in identifying a gamer’s successful rate of adoption of the new innovation. Female participants reveal that Xbox Live intentionally targets males as the default gamer and enact changes based on their needs. The research concludes with a plea to Xbox Live to acknowledge minority gamers such as women to incorporate their needs within the decision-making process of new innovations.
 
Article
Provides a rationale for and a brief description of an adjunct program that focuses on helping minority students identify and understand their experiences in crossing cultures as a means of helping them succeed in a science and society introductory course. (WRM)
 
Article
This paper first appeared in Modern Theology, Vol. 6, No. 3, July 1989. Copyright (c) Basil Blackwell Publisher Ltd., Oxford. Reprinted by permission.
 
Article
Video games have grown in number, variety, and consumer market penetration, encroaching more aggressively into the domestic realm. Within the home therefore, parents whose children play video games have to exercise mediation and supervision. As video games evolve, parental mediation strategies have also had to keep pace, albeit not always successfully. By transposing our appreciation of parental concerns over the historical development of video games, we propose an analytical framework identifying key affordances of video games, elucidating how their evolution has distinct implications for effective parental mediation. These affordances are portability, accessibility, interactivity, identity multiplicity, sociability, and perpetuity.
 
Article
This article is a theoretical and empirical exploration of the meaning that accompanies contractual agreements, such as the End-User License Agreements (EULAs) that participants of online communities are required to sign as a condition of participation. As our study indicates, clicking “I agree” on the often lengthy conditions presented during the installation and updating process typically permits third parties (including researchers) to monitor the digitally-mediated actions of users. Through our small-scale study in which we asked participants which terms of EULAs they would find agreeable, the majority confirmed that they simply clicked through the terms presented to them without much knowledge about the terms to which they were agreeing. From a research ethics standpoint, we reflect upon whether or not informed consent is achieved in these cases and pose a challenge to the academic research community to attend to the socio-technical shift from informed consent to a more nebulous concept of contractual agreement, online and offline.
 
Article
Described are the history of three German-heritage groups settled in Pennsylvania: the Solitary of Ephrata Commune, the Amish, and the Harmony Society. Suggested are pastoral, agrarian, and commercial agricultural analogs to life-support strategies of these groups respectively. Faustian agriculture emphasizing the connection of agriculture to society is discussed. (YP)
 
Fuel Comparison Chart 
Adoption of Genetically Engineered Corn Varieties in the United States Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture (2005). 
Tailpipe Emissions of Biodiesel Relative to Conventional Diesel Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2002) Note: NO x = nitrogen oxides; PM = particulate matter; HC = hydrocarbon. 
Article
The realization of dwindling fossil fuel supplies and their adverse environmental impacts has accelerated research and development activities in the domain of renewable energy sources and technologies. Global energy demand is expected to rise during the next few decades, and the majority of today's energy is based on fossil fuels. Alternative energy sources and technologies can play a vital role in lowering or eliminating our reliance on fossil fuels. However, such a transition will require a large investment and will not be reversible. The benefits of hydrogen and other liquid fuels as transportation fuels are not marginal, but the real urgency in greenhouse gas reductions and fossil fuel replacement should not be translated into an energy infrastructure based on unsustainable sources in the long run. It is wise to examine each option thoroughly and objectively now and discard those with little potential so our focus and effort may be placed elsewhere.
 
Article
Providing efficient and clean power is a challenge for devices that range from the micro to macro in scale. Although there has been significant progress in the development of micro-, meso-, and macro-scale power supplies and technologies, realization of many devices is limited by the inability of power supplies to scale with the diminishing sizes of CMOS-based technology. Here, the authors provide an overview of piezoelectric energy harvesting technology along with a discussion of proof of concept devices, relevant governing equations, and figures of merit. They present two case studies: (a) energy capture from the operation of a novel shear and elastic modulus indentation device subjected to applied voltage and (b) energy capture from vibrating commercial bimorph piezoelectric structures mounted on household appliances. Lastly, areas of development needed for realization of commercial energy harvesting devices are suggested. (Contains 6 tables and 7 figures.)
 
Article
Community energy based on a mix of distributed technologies offers a serious alternative to the current energy system. The nature of community energy and the role that such initiatives might play in the general fabric of civic life is not, however, well understood. Community energy initiatives might involve only those citizens who prefer to be actively and continuously involved in intense, democratic debate. A more robust conceptualization of community energy might, on the other hand, be guided by Benjamin Barber’s notion of “strong democracy,” in which community energy initiatives would draw upon a much broader citizen base, involving people from many walks of life and from quarters not generally presumed to be part of a sustained democratic process. The history of community energy is explored and a number of case studies are presented to illustrate the problems, prospects, and limitations of a socially and technologically decentralized energy system.
 
Article
Although at one level Jean-Pierre Jeunets "Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain" is a sweet, attractive film about a young Parisian doing good deeds, it also offers a compelling analysis of the role of technology in our modern lives. The film paints a world where machines and a mechanistic worldview are appealing because humans have a desire to control their destinies but threatening because humans value freedom. The work of French social theorist Jacques Ellul is especially useful in analyzing these facets of the film as technology and freedom were consistent themes in his various books on the modern milieu.
 
Article
This article builds on conclusions drawn in the article “Eyeless in America,” by the same author and considers how 50 American films about the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan intended to function as what Jacques Ellul called “integration propaganda,” fared. This article considers and rejects a number of theories about why most feature war films failed between 2002 and 2012 and proposes what war films might look like in the near future.
 
Article
This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul’s theories set out in his book Propaganda, the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration propaganda. The article proposes six different tropes or common frames for understanding how the films avoid dealing with problems raised by the wars. Why the films failed, and what functioned as integration propaganda instead, is the subject for a second article titled “Eyeless in America, the Sequel.”
 
Article
"I know of no safe repository of the utlimate power of society but the people. And if we think them not enlightened enough, the remedy is not to take power from them, but to inform them by education." Thomas Jefferson, 1820
 
Article
Progress in the technical means of monitoring to verify compliance to arms control treaties is discussed in the following areas: Real-time surveillance with charge-coupled devices in the visible and infrared; image enhancement with digital 1 image processing and with adaptive optics; imaging with radars based on satellites and on the ground; seismic monitoring with high frequency discrimination and with unattended in-country seismic stations; and nuclear weapons test monitoring with the global positioning satellite system.
 
Article
The need for a citizenry capable of comprehending and tackling contemporary issues related to science and technology demands science education experiences that are fundamentally different from traditional experiences in school science. Argues that high school biology experiences organized around contemporary bioethical issues can meet this need. Describes a Science-Technology-Society approach using bioethical issues as organizers. Contains 42 references. (PVD)
 
Article
This study began with a fascination for the enigma of American artist Andy Warhol (1928-1987). I began to collect his words. I had been intrigued by German philosopher, literary critic, and essayist Walter Benjamin’s (1892-1940) philosophical snapshots and with the notion of an aura that could be pealed from objects by photography. And I was taken by French philosopher, professor of law, and theologian Jacques Ellul’s (1912-1994) claim that religion, philosophy, and aesthetics were mere ornaments that had gone the way of the ruffled sunshade on McCormick’s first reaper. Benjamin’s epistemological understanding of aura, the capacity of the object to look back and to direct the viewer in search for origins, fleshed out Ellul’s claim. The symbol had lost its symbolic dimension in the technical process where words became images and images became concepts; clichés were the nature of this productivity, which became more than tired expressions. The cliché is the machine in its new suit. This insight informed my reading of Warhol and Benjamin with Ellul. And, of course, my reading of Ellul has influenced my reading of Warhol and Benjamin.
 
Article
Contrary to the general belief that modernist art and architecture reflect the technological society, Jacques Ellul maintains in his L’empire du non-sens that they are justifications for the integration of humankind into what he called the technicist complex. Modernism in art and architecture meant that every product must be qualified by a technological character. This unassailable belief exerted some far-reaching influences on symbolic thought, on artistic expression, on architectural character. If imitation and invention were the two inseparable concepts through which art and architecture were produced and symbolized, it is because they operate on a certain transparency between an exemplar and a work of art. By contrast, in the mentality of technique, artistic production operates based on a certain opacity to meanings outside of itself. Imitation and invention were separated. Thus, one of the principal beliefs in modernism, that art and architecture symbolize the technological society is actually one of its weakest. In considering technology as both the symbol and the product, the artistic idea and its representation collapsed into each other.
 
Article
Described is a unit of study on nuclear weapons from a course on nuclear technology. Provided are the elements of first strike attack designed for invoking students' interest and an explanation of each. (YP)
 
Article
The governor of Colorado believes we cannot find solutions to today's problems because we are not asking the right questions. Questions dealing with the problems of resource management, energy, the elderly, economic development, immigration policy, medical policy, and political change are raised. (IS)
 
Article
This article attempts to assess the claim that the unum necessarium in our time is the general dissemination of scientific knowledge because liberal civilization or the “good society” cannot be had in the presence of traditional religion and “metaphysics.” The paper attempts to place this claim in the context of continuing globalization and related questions such as 9/11, Fundamentalist Islam, Sino-Western relations, “pop” atheism and the prospect of a “post-human” future. The paper describes the continuance of pre-Enlightenment traditions and beliefs even as constant globalizing influences with their attendant secularism, atheism and technologism make their presence felt. The paper canvasses the views of Chet Raymo, C.S. Lewis, Bryan Appleyard, Werner Heisenberg, Stanley Rosen, Henry Adams, Friedrich Nietzsche Martin Heidegger and Francis Fukuyama as a means of assessing the claim that an education rooted in a simple commitment to scientific progressivism will be inadequate to the demands of the 21st Century.
 
Article
This article considers the interplay between intellectual property rights and classic property rights raised by Hoffman v. Monsanto Canada and advances the idea that intellectual property law can serve as its own source of liability for intellectual property owners. This article suggests a theoretical framework to support the idea that intellectual property law, and patent law, in particular, are an autonomous source of liability for intellectual property owners and intellectual property law itself is a source of internal limits on intellectual property rights. It develops the conceptual advantages of demarcating physical and intellectual properties and allocating rights and responsibilities based on the respective property sphere, using the exhaustion doctrine under intellectual property law as illustration. It then turns to develop a theoretical basis to derive continuing duties on the patentee based on patent law through a Hohfeldian framework, in which the grant of a positive limited term monopoly right entails a corresponding duty on the patentee. While the orthodox version of patent law constructs it as a bargain between the patentee and the public, in which the quid pro quo (or Hohfeldian duty) for the patentee is public disclosure, under the theory introduced here of intellectual property as an autonomous source of rights and duties, the reciprocal duties corresponding to the patent rights could be more far reaching than public disclosure. The paper serves as a prolegomena to a detailed matrix of those rights and duties within intellectual property law and introduces the theoretical basis for establishing such internal limits within intellectual property. This matrix of rights and duties under intellectual property law could set up patent law as an alternative legal framework to tort law to address harms caused by inventions.
 
Article
With widespread advances in the diffusion and application of medical technologies, the phenomena of misuse and overuse have become pervasive. These phenomena not only increase the cost of health care systems and deplete the accessibility and availability of health care services, they also jeopardize patient autonomy. From a literature review on this aspect of medical technology, an impact on patient autonomy is found in almost all cases, with the exception of philosophical or ethical writings, in which there is not much practical application for health policy and law. In this article, the major finding is that in the area of patient autonomy, it does not matter much whether the “physician decides” or the “patient decides” in the current “disease care” health system, where most of the doctors focus only on disease treatment using aggressive medical technologies. It is also our “disease care” system that ensures that the patients, the health care professionals, or the health care management cannot safeguard their autonomy. Only when the genuine health care system is restored will patient autonomy be protected.
 
Article
This article was prepared for a symposium issue on the topic of ‘Individual Autonomy, Law and Technology.’ How one thinks about the relationship between individual autonomy (sometimes referred to as individual willpower or human agency) and technology can influence the way legal thinkers develop policy at the intersection of law and technology. Perspectives that fall toward the ‘machines control us’ end of the spectrum may support more interventionist legal policies while those who identify more closely with the ‘we are in charge of machines’ position may refuse to interfere with technological developments. The concept of soft determinism charts a middle-ground between these two positions and could assist in the formulation of a general theory of the relationship between law and technology. Soft determinism maintains that technological developments are embedded in social, political, economic and other processes, and serve to guide and, potentially, configure future actions and relationships with these technologies, but individuals and groups can still exert control over technological developments.
 
Article
Considering the relationship between human autonomy, law and technology has deep origins. Both technology studies and legal theory tell origin stories about human autonomy as the prize from either a foundational technological or jurisprudential event. In these narratives either law is considered a second order consequence of technology or technology is revealed as a second order consequence of law. In the alternative what is suggested is a foundation story drawing upon human autonomy as human responsibility for law and technology and for the stories told about them. Yes Yes
 
Article
This article explores the social and historical conditions under which “people changing technology” overshadows that of “technology changing people” through its influence on human life, society, and the biosphere. Social construction and determinism are thus two sides of the same coin. However, both ignore the inseparability of thoughts and action from lives, lives from communities, and communities from their historical journeys. This hides from view the possibility of technology becoming a secular myth, in the sense of cultural anthropology. The current discipline-based intellectual and professional division of labor treats the living world as if it were structured the way technology is. As a result, human life has become “digitized,” since the process of industrialization transformed human life and society to make the computer and information revolution both possible and necessary. It has also misdirected our sense of responsibility for technology.
 
Highest Frequency Skills Used Overall in Fable III Skills Category
Highest Frequency Thought Processes Used Overall in Fable III Thought processes Category
Article
This study investigates how players make ethical decisions in Fable III, a video game, with consideration to avatar gender. Thirty males, 18 to 34 years old, were recruited; 20 were assigned to play Fable III, with half assigned to play as a male avatar (Condition 1), and half assigned as a female avatar (Condition 2). Any ethical thinking skills and thought processes used were identified using a researcher-developed coding scheme. Analysis suggests that all game players, regardless of avatar gender, practiced ethical thinking—35 skills and 19 thought processes were identified and categorized. There were few differences found between conditions; however, when gender was a salient factor in a decision, this affected ethical decisions more frequently. Those in Condition 1 more frequently reported a personal connection to their avatar, and Condition 2 participants reported that gender factored into decisions more at the beginning of the game rather than at the end.
 
Article
"This study examines the role that community networks can take in fulfilling McQuail's call for a more democratic participant form of media. Community networks, which are grassroots organizations designed to promote local community initiatives, increased their presence on the Internet in the 1990s. However, in recent years their number has declined. Research suggests that community networks fail because they lack a unified identity, have not determined their specific purpose on the Web, and do not provide relevant information to network members. Findings suggest that community networks wishing to achieve sustainability should concentrate their efforts on developing social capital and fostering strong democracy on their sites. The extent to which existing community networks are working toward developing such content is assessed"--Abstract. Typescript. Thesis (M.S.)--Rochester Institute of Technology, 2006. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 38-41).
 
Article
With the rise of the so-called military-entertainment complex, critical scholars note with alarm the integration of the political economies of entertainment companies and the military, in particular its potential influence on millions of young people who consume its concomitant films, toys and especially video games. Seen from a broad perspective, a potentially productive means of understanding the complexities of this sphere is through the lens of Michel Foucault’s notion of governmentality—a concept that ties together the actions and preferred outcomes of the modern surveillance state with the microlevel actions of individual behavior. In this analytical framework, social norms are inculcated through subtle forms of coercion, where the state establishes the field of action in which state subjects ultimately perform self-discipline. This article argues that the first person shooter genre inculcates what I refer to as the governmentality of battlefield space: a form of discipline in which players adhere to gamic norms of performance—efficiency, proficiency, and masculine performativity—which are delineated by ludic structures and largely understood on terms which originate within the social ecology of gaming. The genre accomplishes this though disciplinary techniques such as informational verisimilitude, statistics, and masculinized “gamer” discourse, particularly during multiplayer instances, in which players constitute social understandings of what is “good” and “bad” play. It is on these terms that virtual combat performance and player performance become conflated in a kind of masculinized performance, which both adheres to and undermines traditional, hegemonic norms of (Western) military masculinity. This phenomenon transcends local social realities, and highlights the ways in which particular aspects of gaming and combat appear to have increasingly overlapping phenomenological and ontological qualities, working to produce a form of self-performance that may be required of tomorrow’s soldiers.
 
Energy Ratio (ER) and Net Energy Ratio (NER) From the U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Energy, and Other Sources. Examples From the U.S. Department of Agriculture (supporting ethanol from corn) 
Main Components of Sustainable Development (SD)  
Subsystems of Sustainable Development (SD)  
Article
The ISA, based on system theory, is the best way to organize knowledge and exchange it. It depends on defining every system through its boundary, main processes within this boundary, and exchange with the environment through this boundary. It relies upon thermodynamics and information theory and is, therefore, applicable to all kinds of systems, which makes it most suitable for cross-disciplinary investigations and innovation. SD is complex and cross-disciplinary by its very nature and, therefore, the ISA is the best way to investigate its different subsystems. Among the most important subsystems of SD are integrated bio-refineries and bio-fuels, both of which are investigated in this article.
 
Article
As the sciences of biotechnology, synthetic biology and nanotechnology develop, questions about liability for harms caused by self-replicating inventions will arise increasingly often. Although negligence, nuisance and other torts may be relevant in such cirumstances, trespass may be the more appropriate cause of action. In the first section of this paper, I explore doctrinal hurdles facing plaintiffs alleging biotrespass. To overcome concerns about the meta-physicality of molecular biotrespass, I draw analogies to "cybertrespass." To confront the problem of suing patent licensors for the actions of their licensees, I make reference to principles of landlord-tenant law. Well-established laws concerning wandering animals shed light on the policies underlying biotrespass. In the second part, I examine such policies in further detail, and consider the purpose of transporting property metaphors into bio/nanospace. The paper concludes that biotrespass can be a viable cause of action, if crafted carefully and understood properly.
 
Article
From all directions comes confirmation that technology, information technology above all, is radically transforming today’s business. All observers predict that this technologizing of business will continue in the 21st century with major consequences. This article argues that business ethics cases (the most popular way of approaching business ethics) as well as the broader corporate cultural values (a less popular but equally important focus for business ethics) are inexorably affected by the technological revolution in business. But of 29 business ethics textbooks published in the past 5 years, only 4 show any awareness of the new configuration of hard ethics cases, and only 2 of those 4 go beyond the case approach to examine the changes in corporate cultural values. If this technological blind spot in business ethics is not corrected, the business ethics guild will have radically failed its calling and responsibility. The consequences of technological blindness and naivete in business ethics are potentially dire because of the massive power of our technologies.
 
Article
After touching on the three most common misconceptions regarding boomerangs, the author goes on to explain why a boomerang is crescent shaped.The author explains, using the principle of precession motion, why a boomerang turns leftward and why it falls sideways; and he performs a comprehensive analysis through the “right-hand rule,” using the example of a gyro top.The author also explains how to make and fly the boomerang he invented—one that can fly inside a room and come back correctly.
 
Article
“Unraveling Braid” analyzes how unconventional, non-linear narrative fiction can help explain the ways in which video games signify. Specifically, this essay looks at the links between the semiotic features of Jonathan Blow’s 2008 puzzle-platform video game Braid and similar elements in Georges Perec’s 1978 novel Life A User’s Manual, as well as in other puzzle-themed literary precursors. Blow’s game design concepts “dynamical meaning” and “game play rhetoric” are explained in relation to a number of Braid levels; along side this analysis is a parallel examination of the relationship between puzzle-makers and puzzle-solvers in Life A User’s Manual, revealed from a close reading of textual and organizational elements of Perec’s novel. Ultimately, Braid and Life A User’s Manual are shown to draw upon the same signifying processes, which are understood by their authors to operate within an implicitly communicative model. “Unraveling Braid”develops this model by positing a theory of storytelling in the imperative mood, in which the representation and arrangement of objects in the visual/organizational space of the text or game world becomes a fundamental rhetorical technique and meaning-maker.This technique signal show the reader/player is meant to progress through the work and interpret it as narrative, telling the reader/player what to do (but not necessarily how to do it). An understanding of “imperative” storytelling, this essay concludes, allows for a discussion of games and other media that denies neither the importance of player interactivity nor that of authorial design.
 
Top-cited authors
Anabel Quan-Haase
  • The University of Western Ontario
Alyson Leigh Young
  • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
S.E. Dreyfus
  • University of California, Berkeley
Zeynep Tufekci
  • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
danah boyd
  • Microsoft