The article is devoted to the study of indicators of function of the autonomic and cardiorespiratory systems in children. A study was conducted of 43 children of 11-14 years, including 19 children with scoliosis, and 24 practically healthy peers. The purpose of the study was to study the dynamics of individual indicators of the function of the autonomic nervous and cardiorespiratory systems of children aged 11-14 years with scoliosis compared with their almost healthy peers from secondary school. Analysis of the dynamics of the test of physical performance of children aged 11-14 years showed that the need for myocardium in oxygen both during rest and during exercise, as well as the first and second rest was the same among practically healthy children and boys and girls with scoliosis. During physical activity, myocardial oxygen demand increased sharply and equally both among girls and boys of 11-14 years of age as in the control group and in experimental control group without significant gender difference. There were no gender differences in the Kerdo index in the group of almost healthy adolescents of 11-14 years and adolescents with scoliosis of the same age. However, when comparing between observation groups, one immediately draws attention is that several times exceeding the value of the Kerdo index in the group of children with scoliosis, and this pattern is characteristic for both girls and boys. The determined fact indicates that the extremely powerful activation of the sympathetic nervous system is found in children with scoliosis also persists in adolescence. During physical activity the same tendency persists in the distribution of the parameter of the Kerdo index: a significant excess of the index in the group of girls and boys aged 11-14 years with scoliosis compared with the control group. Determination of the degree of training of the cardiovascular system on the basis of the calculation of the endurance coefficient allowed us to establish that the corresponding coefficient was not significantly different among the groups under study in the state of rest and physical activity, as well as the first and second rest from the physical activity. Analysis of the systolic heart rate according to the Robinson index showed that in the rest state the highest index was found in almost healthy adolescent girls, although statistically significant difference was found only among the girls of the experimental and control groups. The best energy potential of the body of adolescents with scoliosis in comparison with almost healthy adolescents persists since childhood. The Robinson index increased while physical activity, with a statistically significantly higher index in the experimental group of girls compared to male adolescents. The same tendency was found both during the first and the second rest. The highest maximum stroke volume of blood at rest was found in adolescent girls with scoliosis. Moreover, this indicator statistically significantly exceeded both the corresponding value in boys with scoliosis and the stroke volume of blood in almost healthy boys and girls. The value of minute volume of blood at rest and during the first and second rest was not significantly different among almost healthy children aged 11-14 years compared with their peers with scoliosis. During physical exercises a statistically significant lower value of minute blood volume was observed only in adolescent girls with scoliosis compared to adolescent boys in the study group. Conclusions. Thus in the result of our study it was found that children with scoliosis are behindhand their almost healthy peers in terms of autonomic nervous function and cardiorespiratory systems. Myocardial oxygen demand at rest, during physical activity and during restitution was lower in scoliosis children than in practically healthy ones. The Kerdo index in children with scoliosis before, during and after exercises was higher than in practically healthy ones. Children with scoliosis had lower Robinson’s index. Prospects for further research were to study the dynamics of autonomic nervous and cardiorespiratory function in adolescents aged 15-17 years with scoliosis compared with their relatively healthy peers from secondary school.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is an embryonal tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, which causes 15% of pediatric cancer deaths. NB cells with MYCN amplification is one of the most aggressive NB subgroups that comprises 20-25% of all primary tumors and is associated with tumor progression with poor prognosis. 1p36 deletion is a frequent chromosomal abnormality observed in NB cell lines and primary tumors; 11q deletion is one of the most frequent events that occurs during NB aggressive development. The aim is to determine the frequency of MYCN gene amplification occurrence; also to describe the rearrangement of chromosomal region 1p36 and 11q in pediatric patients with NB; and then to investigate its association with
the effectiveness of treatment.
Paraffin-embedded tumor tissues of 103 patients, from 2 months old to 16 years old (54.5 ± 4,2 months), with verified NB were used in the study. All samples were analyzed on MYCN amplification and rearrangements of chromosomal regions 1p36 and 11q. Tumor samples were obtained prior to chemotherapy treatment. MYCN amplification was analyzed by FISH microscopy and real-time PCR, and deletions of 1p36 and 11q chromosomal regions were determined by FISH microscopy.
In tumor tissues, 11q deletion was determined in 3.9% (4/103) of patients with NB. Deletion of the chromosomal region 1p36 was detected in 4.9% (5/103) of NB patient tumor tissues. MYCN gene amplification was detected in 35% (36/103) out of patients with NB. Amplification of the MYCN gene was detected in 2 patients (1.9%) out of 4 with detected 11q deletion, which is the most commonly observed in female (3/4) patients, older than 2 years (2/4). A statistically significant difference between groups of patients with and without deletion of the 11q chromosome,
such as sex (χ2 = 0.714, p = 0.399), age (χ2 = 0.121, p = 0.94), and MYCN gene status (χ2 = 0.42, g = 0.52), was not observed. Amplification of the MYCN gene was detected in all patients with 1p36 deletion. The 1p36 deletion was detected most commonly in female (3/5) patients older than 2 years (3/5). The difference between the presence/absence of 1p36 deletion and MYCN gene status was statistically significant (χ2 = 9.8, p = 0.002). According to the
Kaplan-Meier method, the deletion of 11 chromosome’s long arm didn’t affect the duration of recurrent period, p = 0.07. Similarly, the MYCN gene amplification didn’t affect the duration of progression free period, p = 0.6. However, the deletion of the 1p36 chromosome significantly reduced the duration of relapse-free period in children with NB (p = 0.002). NB patient’s with 1p36 deletion 6-month disease-free survival was 60 ± 2%, but throughout the one year all patients with 1p36 deletion had local recurrences and/or distant metastases. Among the patients without 1p36 deletion the 6-month progression free survival rate was 90.6 ± 4% and the one-year progression free survival was 87 ± 5%. We established that only 1p36 deletion was decreased significantly progression free survival rate in patients with
NB and all patients with 1p36 deletion had local recurrences and/or distant metastases in one year period.
Recently, with the perception of hydrogen sulfide as a gasotransmitter, it came to the understanding
that endogenous H2
S is an important component of many biochemical processes in organism. Diabetes mellitus
(DM) is a disease that is expanding globally and is considered an epidemic. DM has many complications, including
pathological changes in the liver, associated with oxidative stress. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide in diabetes
mellitus is insufficiently studied. Melatonin is a potent, naturally occurring antioxidant and a signaling molecule
based on its primary and secondarily-evolved functions in organisms.
Thus, this study has the following purpose: to examine the role of melatonin introduction on the hydrogen
sulfide production in the liver of alloxan induced diabetic rats.
Experiments were conducted on white outbred sexually mature male rats with the body weight 0,15-0,18 kg.
Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg
body weight). The rats were divided into the following groups: controls rats; diabetes; diabetes + melatonin (animals
with diabetes were introduced the melatonin (Merck, Germany) intragastrically in the dose of 10 mg/kg at 8 a.m.
daily during 14 days). In the liver was determined content of H2
S concentration, H2
S production and activities of CSE,
CBS and CAT.
It was found that alloxan diabetes was observed an decrease H2
S concentration and an increase H2
S production in the liver compared to control group. The activities of CSE, CBS and CAT in alloxan diabetic rats was higher
compared to controls rats. Introduction of the melatonin increased H2
S concentration and decreased content of H2
production compared to diabetic group. There was also a decrease the activities of CSE, CBS and CAT in the liver
compared to the alloxan diabetic rats.
We have also found the positive correlations between investigated parameters, which indicate connection between concentration and production of H2
S and the enzyme activities of its synthesis, and the relationship between
The administration of melatonin normalizes concentration of H2
S and CSE activity in the liver of alloxan diabetic
rats, which contributes to lowering glucose levels in the blood, but the reduction of H2
S production, CBS and CAT
activities did not have level of control group. The positive effect of melatonin may be due to increased antioxidant
protection of organism.
Further research will be study the mechanisms of melatonin effects on the exchange indicators of hydrogen
sulfide at alloxane-induced diabetes.
The most active growth of caries index is observed in children. This is due to the eruption of permanent
teeth which are not sufficiently mineralized, especially in the first 2-3 years after the eruption, formation of body
organs and systems, somatic pathologies, improper oral hygiene, geochemical living conditions, impact of various
external factors which might cause derangement of mineral metabolism.
The objective of our research was to determine the degree of incidence and rate of permanent tooth caries in
children aged 6 to 16 for further elaboration of combination preventive measures aimed at prevention of occurrence
and development of cariosity complications.
Research materials and methods. Dental health has been studied in 412 children at the schools of Poltava (grades
1-11). We have determined caries rate by CFE index. Caries incidence degree has been calculated for each age period
as percentage. Also, we have grouped children based on the period of studies in primary, secondary and upper
school. We have calculated Significant Caries Index (SIC index) based on Brathol method. The level of dental care to
children was assessed against CFE index according to P.A. Leuss recommendations.
Findings and discussing them. Research has involved children of the following age groups: 6-9-year-olds (grades
1-4 Group 1), 10-13-year-olds (grades 5-8 Group 2), 14-16-year-olds (grades 9-11 Group 3).Significant growth in the number of children with caries in the first 4 years of school (6-9-year-olds) by 36.26%
is observed. Changes are especially observed at the age of 8-9, 9-10 and 10-11 (increase of caries incidence degree
by 15.79%, 14.82% and 13.94% respectively). During the period from 11 to 13, and from 14 to 16, a slight growth in
the number of children with permanent tooth caries is observed.
The lowest carious index was found with 6-year-olds, whereas the highest with 16-year-olds. In age group 1,
the highest growth of carious index was observed with 6-7-year-olds. Research in age group 2 (10-13 y.o.) has shown
probable increase in the number of carious teeth in children aged 9 to 10 and 10 to 11. Probable increase in carious
index is observed in children aged 13 to 14.No significant increase in the number of carious teeth is observed in
children aged 14 to 15.
The average highest carious index in children aged 6 to 16 was 4.71±0.0.
The level of dental care delivered to group 1 children was 29.5%, which is insufficient. This parameter corresponds
to childrens need for caries treatment which, based on our estimates, is 24.6%. In group 2, the level of dental care
was 37.1%, need for treatment 53.9%, in group 3 48.8% and 68.8% respectively.
Conclusion. The increase in permanent tooth caries incidence degreeoccurs in every age period. The highest
increase is observed in 6-7-year-olds, i.e. in the period when the first permanent molars, which are less mineralized,
start to erupt, and when children are adapting in the first year at school. Periods that are important include from
8 to 9 (increase by 15.79%), from 9 to 10 (increase by 14.82%) and from 10 to 11 (increase by 13.94%), when
kids finish primary school and go to secondary school with higher workload and the necessity to get used to new
teachers. During other age periods no significant increase in caries incidence degree has been observed. Carious
index increases in children aged 6-7, 9-10 and 13-14, which also to some extent corresponds to the periods of
studying in primary, secondary and upper school, which required further research. The level of dental care increases
from group 1 to group 3, and so does the need for treatment, which may only be influenced by preventive talks with
children and their parents about the necessity of prevention and treatment at early stages of caries development.
The SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to severe acute respiratory illness and multiple organ failure. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted women’s reproductive and perinatal health, causing significant mental and physical suffering. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the features of the manifestations of violations of the function of the genital organs in women of different age groups who have recovered from COVID-19. Materials and methods. The authors conducted a comprehensive gynecological examination of 100 women who had undergone COVID-19. The surveyed contingent of women was divided by age into three groups: group 1 – women under 20 years old and group 2 – women aged 20 to 50. Group 3 consisted of women over 50 years of age. Each woman underwent an anamnesis, a routine gynecological examination in the mirrors of the vaginal mucosa and cervix, a bacteriological examination of the vaginal mucosa, and the acidity of the vaginal environment was determined. An ultrasound examination of the pelvic organs was also performed. Results. It has been established that the COVID-19 disease causes disturbances in the condition of the genital organs of women in the form of a change in the quantity and deterioration in the quality of vaginal discharge; feeling of dryness and itching in the area of the external genital organs; pain during sexual intercourse. Objectively, there was a decrease in the elasticity of the walls of the vagina, and there was a thinning of the epithelial layer. According to cytological studies, there was a manifestation of estrogen deficiency and an increase in the number of cases of fungal infections. The frequency of these changes was higher in people over 50. Regardless of the severity of the COVID-19 infection, not all women of different age groups complained of pelvic disorders. In the first group, 100% violated the composition of the vaginal microbiota (dysbiosis), and one had abnormal uterine bleeding. In the second group, only 31% of women violated the composition of the microbiota, and 33% violated the ovarianmenstrual cycle with anovulation and the formation of follicular cysts. In the third age group, 76% had an increase in the phenomena of genito-urinary syndrome. Conclusions. Thus, a violation of the state of the genital organs in women who have had COVID-19 is associated with endocrine disorders, impaired local immunity, and the consequences of distress. The pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease (endothelial disorders, damage to the immune system) cause these disorders. Since women over 50 years of age have deficiencies in the state of these mechanisms, their clinical manifestations will be more pronounced.
The effectiveness of including steam inhalation with therapeutic diluted sodium chloride mineral water in the rehabilitation complex of patients after pneumonia caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus was determined. Patients in the control group received a basic complex of sanatorium rehabilitation, which included electrophoresis with 10% CaCl2 solution on the chest area, magnetic laser irradiation on the lungs, massage, and exercise therapy. Patients in the main group received steam therapy with therapeutic diluted chloride mineral water containing metasilicic acid. Patients in this group showed a significant decrease in the frequency of obstructive disorders in the bronchopulmonary system, a considerable increase in the frequency of physiological indicators of external respiratory function, improvement in the functional state of the respiratory system according to the Borg scale and physical activity according to the 6-minute walk test, and a significant decrease in the level of inflammatory markers. Adding a course of steam inhalation with therapeutic diluted sodium chloride mineral water to the basic complex of sanatorium resort rehabilitation has increased its effectiveness.