It is reported that, for the first time, Prochloron cells were found associated with an animal other than a colonial ascidian-namely, a synaptid holothurian, Snaptula lamperti. This occurance brings into question the supposedly obligate nature of the association of this problematic algae with didemnids and their allies.
Seventeen species of Eunicidae belonging to the genera Eunice and Palola were found on the eastern Brazilian Coast. Among them are two new species: Eunice marcusi and Palola brasiliensis. The coast line is dominated by calcareous bottoms and its fauna is one of the poorest known in the western Atlantic.
During the MD/08 Benthos Expedition (from 7 March to 26 April 1976) about 7,000 polychaetous annelids were collected from 70 stations from Marion, Prince Edward Islands and Crozet Islands. A cluster analysis was used to define benthic polychaete taxocoenoses with a matrix data of 77 species and 55 samples. Six polychaete assemblages were found in which two were original: an assemblage occurring in shallow water and black sand with Pseudonereis anomala, Leitoscoloplos fragilis and Travisia kerguelensis and a second group in deeper water and hard bottom with Polyeunoa laevis the dominant species. These polychaete assemblages occurred on the continental shelves of Marion, Prince Edward and Crozet Islands, and were discussed in relation to their biogeography and compared with the fauna of South Africa and the Kerguelen Islands.
Study of seven species of the genus Munida in the western Atlantic has revealed six species of bopyrid isopod parasites, all of which were undescribed. Bonnieria americana, n. sp., infests Munida microphthalma A. Milne Edwards; Anuropodione carolinensis, n. sp., infests Munida iris iris A. Milne Edwards; Anuropodione megacephalon, n. sp., infests Munida pusilla Benedict; Balanopleon tortuganus, n. gen., n. sp., infests Munida simplex Benedict; Aporobopyrina anomala, n. sp., infests Munida valida Smith; and Pleurocryptella fimbriata, n. sp., infests Munida constricta A. Milne Edwards and M. miles A. Milne Edwards. In addition, a pair of bopyrids was found infesting a specimen of Munida irrasa A. Milne Edwards, but, since the female appears to be damaged and the male immature, these are not described or named.
The Research Vessel John Elliot Pillsbury of the University of Miami obtained a small collection of porcellanid crabs during five cruises over a 3-year period from 1968 to 1971 throughout the Caribbean Sea below 20°N latitude. The material consisted of 195 specimens divided into 7 genera and 13 species, all of well known littoral or sublittoral forms. While no new species were recorded, several gaps in distributional and ecological knowledge were filled, and a range extension is reported for Petrolisthes cessacii (A. Milne Edwards, 1878) previously known only from a small area on the western coast of Africa, and a single published record from Brazil.
An enumeration is given of the 18 known Atlantic species of Nephropidean lobsters. Special attention is devoted to the family group taxonomy, and to the morphology of the carapace. Keys are provided to all species. One subfamily, two genera and three species are described as new. The geographic distribution of each species is discussed, and all available information on the biology of the tropical forms is brought together. The species are provided with descriptions and figures or with references to such descriptions and figures published elsewhere.
Schultz and collaborators (1953-1966) listed 543 species of fishes from the Marshall Islands (Gobiidae omitted). Eighty-six new records and new species of fishes have been recorded since their series of bulletins appeared. In the present paper the following 106 new records or valid early records overlooked by Schultz and collaborators are reported from the Marshalls, principally Enewetak and Kwajalein: the hexanchid Hexanchus griseus; the albulid Albula glossodonta; the muraenid Uropterygius kamar; the congrids Heteroconger hassi and Poeciloconger fasciatus (also here recorded from the Hawaiian Islands); the ophichthid Apterichtus klazingai; the antennariids Antennarius analis, A. pictus, A. randalli, and Antennatus tuberosus; the isonid Iso hawaiiensis; the anomalopid Photoblepharon palpebratus; the holocentrids Myripristis adustus, M. vittatus, Sargocentron caudimaculatum, S. melanospilos and S. praslin; the syngnathid Syngnathoides biaculeatus; the scorpaenids Dendrochirus zebra, Parascorpaena mcadamsi, and Scorpaenodes hirsutus; the pegasid Eurypegasus draconis; the serranids Anthias pleurotaenia, Cephalopholis analis, C. sonnerati (C. purpureus is a junior synonym), Epinephelus caeruleopunctatus, Gracila albomarginata, Plectranthias winniensis and Plectropomus oligacanthus; the grammistid Pogonoperca punctata; the plesiopid Calloplesiops altivelis; the cirrhitid Oxycirrhites typus; the apogonids Apogon doryssa and Apogonichthys perdix (A. waikiki is a junior synonym); the malacanthids Hoplolatilus cuniculus, Malacanthus brevirostris and M. latovittatus; the carangids Alectis ciliaris, Carangoides plagiotaenia and Trachinotus blochii; the lutjanid Lutjanus semicinctus; the caesionid Caesio caerulaurea; the haemulids Plectorhynchus obscurus and P. picus; the lethrinid Lethrinus ramak; the nemipterid Pentapodus caninus; the mullids Mulloides pflugeri, Parupeneus barberinoides, P. blfasciatus (P. trifasciatus is a junior synonym; the species in the Pacific that has been named trifasciatus should be identified as P. moana), P. heptacanthus and Upeneus taeniopterus; the kyphosid Kyphosus vaigiensis; the chaetodontids Chaetodon tinkeri and Heniochus varius; the pomacanthids Centropyge bicolor, C. loriculus, C. multifasciatus, Genicanthus bellus and G. watanabei (G. vermiculatus is a junior synonym); the pomacentrids Amblyglyphidodon leucogaster, Chromis atripes, C. elerae, C. vanderbilti, Chrysiptera caeruleolineata and Lepidozygus tapeinosoma; the labrids Anampses melanurus, A. meleagrides, Bodianus anthioides, B. axillaris, B. diana, B. loxozonus, Cheilinus bimaculatus, C. orientalis, Cheilio inermis, Cirrhilabrus exquisitus, Cymolutes torquatus, Halichoeres richmondi, Pseudocoris yamashiroi, Pseudodax moluccanus, Pseudojuloides cerasinus and Xyrichtys pavo; the scarids Calotomus spinidens, Scarus atropectoralis, S. dimidiatus, S. Jorsteni (the S. tricolor of Randall and Choat, 1980), S. frenatus, S. ghobban, S. niger and S. oviceps; the blenniids Entomacrodus caudofasciatus and Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos; the callionymid Synchiropus ocellatus; the acanthurids Acanthurus maculiceps, Ctenochaetus binotatus (C. oculocoeruleus is a synonym), C. hawaiiensis, C. marginatus (C. cyanoguttatus is a junior synonym), C. strigosus and Naso tuberosus; the siganid Siganus puellus; the balistid Xanthichthys caeruleolineatus; the monacanthid Cantherhines fronticinctus; the tetraodontids Canthigaster bennetti, C. coronata, C. epilampra and C. valentini; and the diodontid Diodon liturosus. Seventy of these records are represented by specimens in museums (mainly the Bishop Museum, Honolulu), 30 are based on photographs (two from a submarine and the rest by divers), one from a figure in Hiyama (1943), and five on sight records.
The 107-year growth history of a massive coral Solenastrea bournoni from Aorida Bay was reconstructed with x-ray imagery from a single 4-in.-diameter (10 cm) core that penetrated the exact epicenter of the 95.3-cm-high colony. The growth record core was collected in October 1986, and another “proof” core was drilled 1 year later to verify annual density banding in this species. Growth increments totalled 952.9 mm, averaging 8.9 mm/yr over the life of the coral. To our knowledge, this is the first time that growth rate of S. bournoni has been determined. Growth rate trends in the Aorida Bay coral were compared to those in a Montastraea annularis of similar age from Hen and Chickens, a nearby patch reef on the Atlantic Ocean side of the Florida Keys. Both corals were rated as potential indicators of natural and man-induced perturbations by comparing their growth rates in years of severe environmental stress to each coral's long-term growth rate average. It was concluded that growth rate, at least in these specimens, is a questionable indicator of past hurricanes and freezes. There does appear to be, however, a possible cause-and-effect relationship between major man-induced environmental perturbations and a prolonged reduction in growth rate in each coral's growth record.
Six new species of hermit crabs of the genus Paguristes are described in detail and fully illustrated. Indications of intraspecific variation are given and distinguishing morphological characters are discussed.
Several thousands of pycnogonid specimens from 451 stations or samples, belonging to 76 species in 7 families are recorded. Of these, 23 represent new species or subspecies; moreover 1 new genus and 1 new subgenus are described. The samples studied came from the entire tropical belt of the Atlanto-East Pacific region, but mostly from the Caribbean and adjacent regions. Both shallow-water and deep-sea material is treated.
Egea inermis Joubin, 1933, is fully redescribed and illustrated from the postlarval to near mature form based on a reexamination of the type material and fifty-eight newly reported specimens collected in the Atlantic by the Danish research ship DANA and other vessels. Phasmatopsis lucifer G. Voss, 1963, is placed into synonymy. Known geographic and vertical distribution are given. The validity of the genus is reaffirmed, and the relationship of Egea inermis to a small group of nominal species of taoniids which, in part, have been identified to the genus Phasmatopsis de Rochebrune, 1884, by Clarke (1962) is discussed. It is shown that the genus Phasmatopsis cannot be used and that further study is necessary to clarify the existing interrelationship of the group.
A series of laboratory feeding experiments determined rates of predation by 11 species of common zooplanktonic predators upon embryonic and larval stages of the Pacific Sand Dollar, Dendraster excentricus (Eschscholtz). Rate of predation by the predator species was not constant upon the prey stages, and four patterns of predation emerged: (1) Three crustacean and two hydromedusa species consumed embryo through gastrula or prism stages, but few pluteus larvae; (2) An amphipod and a chaetognath species ate motile pre-pluteus stages, but not unhatched embryos or plutei; (3) Two fish species ate unhatched embryos, prism and pluteus larvae, but ate few blastulae or gastrulae; (4) Two ctenophore species ate few or no prey during experiments. The observed patterns of predation were presumably caused by behavioral and morphological changes that occur during embryonic and larval development of the prey, and vary between groups of predators that use different feeding mechanisms. The nine invertebrate predator species consumed few, if any plutei, while the two fish species ate plutei in substantial numbers. It is suggested that field rates of predation upon plutei are lower than those upon pre-pluteus stages where invertebrate predators predominate. Conversely, where planktivorous fish are common, plutei may be consumed at high rates.
Species specific aggressive interactions have been found among West Indian and Indo-Pacific scleractinian corals. When the polyps of different corals touch each other, the species which are "stronger" aggressors extrude mesenterial filaments over their "less aggressive" neighbors, dissolving those tissues within reach by extracoelenteric forms of digestion. Interspecific aggression by corals may occur under natural or experimental conditions. For any population, the interactions of different species have a definite and consistent hierarchical structure.Most highly aggressive species belong to the suborder Faviina, have massive or encrusting growth forms, construct relatively small coralla, and are usually minor components of coral reef communities. They use aggressive interactions as a defense against overgrowth by the more rapidly expanding ramose and foliose corals, and to clear space for their own growth. Some faviids are moderately strong aggressors which construct primary reef framework in many West Indian habitats. Ramose and encrusting corals of the family Acroporidae, which occupy an intermediate position in the aggression hierarchy, also construct reef framework; interspecific aggression is common in mixed acroporid reefs. Weak aggressors include the foliose agariciids, which may form the predominant cover in deep reef zones.
Descriptions of three new species (including one subspecies raised to specific rank) and redescriptions of the four other species of the parasitic isopod genus Munidion Hansen 1897 are presented. The genus, whose validity had been questioned, is shown to be valid and is redefined. The seven species (all parasitic on galatheid crabs) now in the genus include Munidion princeps Hansen (host: Munida refulgens Faxon, Pacific coast of Colombia); Munidion pleuroncodis, n. sp. (host: Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, coast of California and Baja California); Munidion parvum Richardson (host: Munida quadrispina Benedict, coast of Washington and British Columbia); Munidion cubense Bourdon (new status; originally = M. parvum cubensis) (hosts: Munida stimpsoni A. Milne Edwards, Cuba; and M. flinti Benedict, near Venezuela); Munidion irritans Boone (host: Munida irrasa A. Milne Edwards, Atlantic coast of Florida and near British Honduras); Munidion longipedis, n. sp. (hosts: Munida longipes A. Milne Edwards, Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida and near Isla de Providencia, and M. schroederi Chace, Cuba); and Munidion laterale Richardson (hosts: unidentified galatheid, Dumalag Island, Philippines, and Munida scabra Henderson, Java Sea). Some taxonomic problems of the genus and the distribution of its species are discussed. Keys to all species, based on mature females, are presented.
A review of the species heretofore known as Pagurus brevidactylus (Stimpson) and Pagurus miamensis Provenzano has shown that the identity of the former species has been misinterpreted. Stimpson's species is identical with P. miamensis, and the species, to which the name, P. brevidactylus, has been applied, represents a new species. The group to which these species are assigned has been redefined and renamed.
A new species of ocellated octopus, Euaxoctopus pillsburyae, is described from material collected from the R/V John Elliott Pillsbury in the tropical Western Atlantic. It is compared with its nearest relative, Euaxoctopus panamensis, from the Eastern Pacific. The genus Euaxoctopus is emended in order to contain the new species; the genus is the first in the octopodines to contain species in which either the third right or the third left arm is hectocotylized.
Fifty species of cephalopods are identified from the Straits of Florida from the 698 specimens collected by the R/V Gerda. This raises the total number of species known from the Straits from 49 to 64. Four are new records for the Western Atlantic: Pterygioteuthis gemmata, Abraliopsis pfefferi, Corynoma speculator and Helicocranchia pfefferi. Two others, Rossia bullisi and Abraliopsis atlantica, are reported for the second time in the literature. The male of Abralia redfieldi is described for the first time. The first mature specimen of Danoctopus schmidti is reported with drawings of its radula and ligula. Pelagic distributions are analyzed with respect to mean depth of capture and concentration in particular geographic regions of the Straits. Benthic distributions are analyzed regarding bottom type and concentration in geographic regions of the Straits. Diel migration is discussed for several species. The zoogeography of all species reported in the Straits is discussed.
The genus Chrionema Gilbert, 1905 is reviewed. Four species are recognized: C. squamentum and C. squamiceps, previously placed in Chriomystax Ginsburg, 1955, and C. chryseres and C. chlorotaenia. Chrionema is readily separable from other percophidid genera by the absence of maxillary tentacles and the number of fin elements. The four species are distinguishable on the basis of squamation, meristic characters, and pigmentation pattern. The disjunct distributions of the species are discussed and compared with similar patterns in other families.
Based on abundant material, four species of the genus Stephanocyathus are distinguished in the western Atlantic: S. (S.) diadema (Moseley), S. (S.) paliferus n. sp., S. (S.) laevifundus n. sp., and S. (O.) coronatus (Pourtalès). These four species are fully described and illustrated; their bathymetric and geographic ranges are provided. The taxonomic position of Stephanocyathus discoides (Moseley) is discussed.
The formerly monotypic genus Comactinia is found to comprise two valid species. One of these is further divided into two subspecies. The variability of the genus is examined and illustrated. A discussion of ecology, affinities, and zoogeography is included.
Recent collcctions of crinoids from the intertidal zone to 1,650 m in the tropical western Atlantic have provided significant range extensions for more than half of the 44 comatulid and stalked species known from the region. Of the 34 comatulid species, over 60% are endemic to the region; of the 10 stalked species, 90% are endemic. At the familial level, this fauna has its strongest affinities with the tropical Indo-Pacific region. Comatulids are most abundant above 300 m, while stalked species occur primarily between 100 and 700 m. Species that occur primarily above 600 m (the deepest penetration of the 10°C isotherm in the region) have depth ranges generally narrower than 200 m. Species that are found below 1,000 m generally have much broader depth ranges.
The reef-dwelling marine slug Tridachia crispata (Opisthobranchia, Sacoglossa) possesses endosymbiotic chloroplasts which contribute photosynthetically fixed carbon to the animal host. One of the predominant ways in which the slug utilizes chloroplast products is in the synthesis of mucopolysaccharide by the pedal gland.Chemical analysis of the secreted mucopolysaccharide shows that it is acidic, sulphated, of large molecular weight (> 2 × 106), and is composed of glucose, glucuronic acid, glucosamine, galactosamine, and traces of galactose. The protein moiety contains leucine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, serine, valine, proline, and alanine. Many of these substances are derived from chloroplast photosynthesis.The synthesis and secretion of photosynthetically derived materials by animals with autotrophic endosymbionts is widespread, and is viewed as an important aspect of the recycling of organic matter in coral-reef ecosystems.
During investigations on the larval development of western Atlantic scyllarid lobsters, larvae of the sand lobster Scyllarus planorbis Holthuis were hatched in the laboratory and were reared to the eighth instar, which attained the final (gilled) phyllosoma stage of development. The sequence of larval instars is described and illustrated. The length of larval life is estimated to be about 8 weeks at water temperatures near 25°C. Phyllosomas of this species in all instars can be distinguished from those of the western Atlantic species S. americanus and S. depressus, but closely resemble those of S. chacei.
Chlorophyll a, b, a+b, a:b, carotenoids, TAN (Titrable Acid Number), proteins, polyphenols, and tannin content of 14 species of mangroves viz. Aegiceras comiculatum, Aglaia cucullata, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera parviflora, B. sexangula, Ceriops decandra, Cynometra iripa, Excoecaria agallocha, Heritiera fomes, H. littoralis, H. macrophylla, Kandelia candel, Rhizophora mucronata and Xylocarpus granatum found in the mangrove forests of Bhitarkanika and the Mahanadi delta of Orissa were estimated. Total chlorophyll content varied from 0.21% in A. cucullata and C. decandra to 0.56% in A. corniculatum. Calculated chlorophyll a:b ratio was the minimum (1.55) in A. officinalis and the maximum (3.50) in B. sexangula. The carotenoids also varied from 0.04% in B. sexangula to 0.17% in A. corniculatum. Analysis of Variance showed intra- and interspecific variations in photosynthetic activities. TAN values revealed appreciable variations from 20.00 to 45.00 in A. officinalis and H. littoralis respectively. TAN values showed negative correlation with chlorophyll b and carotenoids, but highly significant positive correlation was noted with chlorophyll a:b ratio among the species. Total leaf protein content significantly varied from 12.21% in H. macrophylla to 29.22% in H. fomes. The quantitative analysis of tannin and polyphenols from the leaves of mangroves showed significant variation, 8.39% to 44.27% in A. cucullata and B. sexangula and 11.39% to 52.89% in A. officinalis and C. decandra respectively, Statistical analysis of the endogenous level of polyphenols and tannins showed no interdependence with leaf proteins.
A new species of the gorgonacean Nicella is described from deep-reef habitats along the coast of Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean and is named N. goreaui for its discoverer. It is compared with other known species of Nicella from the western Atlantic, and its spicular characters are illustrated by scanning electron micrographs as well as by drawings.