Bulletin of Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts Series in Museology and Monumental Studies

Published by Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts
Print ISSN: 2617-7943
Метою дослідження є загальна характеристика документального комплексу відомого археолога Миколи Львовича Ернста, що зберігається в архіві Національного музею історії України: особисті документи та польова документація (креслення розкопів, малюнки знахідок, тексти звітів) студій археологічних пам’яток від кам’яної доби до середньовіччя включно, у 1920-х–1930-х рр. проведених у різних регіонах Кримського півострова. Методами дослідження є методи аналізу/синтезу, індукції/дедукції, систематизації та кореляції, а також порівняльно-історичний метод. Наукова новизна статті полягає у тому, що вперше до наукового обігу вводиться комплекс польової документації відомого археолога М. Л. Ернста. Висновки: дана публікація є оглядом документального комплексу М. Л. Ернста, який становить значний інтерес як джерело дослідження як маловивчених сторінок кримської археології міжвоєнного часу, так і біографії М. Л. Ернста.
A lot of cities located in Kharkiv oblast are in the Register of Historic Settlements of Ukraine. Among them, the town of Izium deserves special attention because of its rich history. However, Izium remains underexplored, which makes the historical research of its urban planning a relevant and important issue. Author presents his research findings of the Izium town area, which he made in 2018 being a member of the civil society organization “POG “Instytut Kulturnoi Spadshchyny” under All-Ukrainian Committee on Protection of Cultural Heritage of Ukraine, participating in the creation of the design and specifications for the Historical and Architectural Outline Plan of Izium in Kharkiv region. It defines the boundaries of the protected areas around historical monuments and historical sites and arrangements for their use. The purpose of the research was to study the historic and architectural processes that took place within the town area in the 17th-18th centuries and to determine the peculiarities of the local urban planning. The object of the research includs the area of Izium listed in the Register of Historic Settlements of Ukraine (dated 1639 (Serdyuk, Bobrovsky, & Kirilenko, 2011, p. 562)), the town plan and landscape. The urban space and structure of Izium became the subject of the research. The author followed the commonly used methodology of historical research on urban planning and historical landmarks preservation (Vecherskyi, 2011). The selected methodology of the research of the historical and architectural heritage of the town became the key success factor. The author examined the town area taking into account major historical milestones and key urban structure elements (industrial settlement, town, railway, town-forming enterprises, the historical center of the town, etc.) The author also used the methodology of historical and architectural evaluation of the city structure (the main criterion was chronological, the secondary criteria were composition and landscape), which helped to estimate the condition of the historical center planning. Based on the retrospective and geographic analysis of archival records, literary sources, maps dated 17th-18th centuries and on-site inspection the author studied the prerequisites of urban planning in the town of Izium and surrounding landscapes of the Siverskyi Donets river valley. The study of previously made research and analysis of historical maps helped to get a more comprehensive picture of the urban development processes occurring at different times within the area and dynamics of the town planning development. The originality of the research is in finding the laws of origin and evolution of Izium town planning patterns in the 17th-18th centuries and major peculiarities of the town’s history. The results and conclusions of the research contributed to the creation of historical and architectural outline plan of the city and the determination of the size and dimensions of conservation areas and specification of their use. The historical and architectural outline plan can be used during the design of the General Urban Growth and Development Plan and zoning of the town area.
The expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Kiev National University of Culture and Arts, with the assistance of the Khortytsia National Reserve, continued this year the study of the multi-layered settlement on Baida Island. This year the study of the site of the settlement has been completed, which was adjacent to the semi-dugout of the gentry, which had been investigated earlier. In 2007, the semi-dugout of the gentry was investigated. For all the years of studying the settlement, this was the only room that could serve as the home of Dmitry Vishnevetskyi. This year, the premises that existed in the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries were investigated. It was probably a kitchen. In addition to the kitchen, parts of three rooms have been discovered. One of them (No. 17) relates to the Bilozersk culture for ceramics. It had walls made of stone. Only one wall was revealed. The remaining ones were left for the future due to lack of time. Other rooms (No. 15 and 16) are believed to date back to the 18th century. One of them is very damaged by craters from shells and mines during the Second World War. The found material dates from different times from the Early Bronze Age to the 18th century.
The aim of the study is to find out the peculiarities of the formation of the ensemble construction’s formation of the Кyiv-Pechersk Lavra in the 2nd half XVIII–XVIII centuries. The methodology is based on the use of general and special methods, including the historical method in a systematic approach, when the ensemble of monuments as an object of study is considered in development, as well as a comparative method, analysis and synthesis. The scientific novelty of the study is that the development of the stone building of the Кyiv-Pechersk Lavra ensemble has been comprehensively analyzed, and its patterns and features have been identified. The findings and conclusions of the study. For the period of the 2nd floor. XVII–XVIII centuries a characteristic method was the completion of temples and monastery ensembles of the upper edges of the high riverbanks. This variant of interaction between architecture, natural terrain and water bodies was the most effective, because such components of the natural landscape were the most expressive. In cases where the riverbank was high, the monastery complex could develop on several levels, terraced.The church buildings were located at different levels along the slope of the steep bank. At the same time, the most significant objects – such as the Assumption Cathedral, the Great Bell Tower of the Lavra stood on the highest plane, surrounded by not so high and not so lavishly decorated churches and buildings, and other temples and buildings were located below. This provided a certain Orthodox hierarchy: the Assumption Cathedral – the Mother of God House is a unique temple and of significance for all the Eastern Orthodoxy and for Ukraine, both in history and architecture, so anyone who came to Кyiv from the side of the inclined left bank, immediately understood which temple in the Lavra was the main one: it was accentuated and located next to the baroque multi-tiered bell tower, which for centuries was the highest building in Кyiv.
This research article is concerned with marine communications of the pit grave and catacomb population from the Troad and the Eastern Mediterranean. Relevance of the research. The territory of Ukraine had been influenced by the Ancient Middle- East civilization center since the Neolithic period, which constantly affected the development of the population of the South of Ukraine, especially its steppe part. In the 3rd millennium BC, an important trading center for the entire Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea region was Troy. The aim of the research is to observe a connection between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Northern Black Sea region. Methodology of the research is based on the use of the theory of space geography, system approach, and the comparative historical and chronological methods. All trade space structures tend to form regular hexagons. There are some structures, which centres are to the seacoasts. In plan, they feature sectors of a circle. Such a configuration of space structures means that sea communications play a very important role in the economy and social life of these peoples. Antique social organisms expand their sphere of influence, move to the steppe, and attract local tribes to their structures. Scientific novelty lies in fact that all known significant catacomb and pit grave settlements are also located in the lower reaches of the rivers flowing into the Black and Azov Seas. This is the catacomb layer of Liventsivsky I settlement. It is located in the Don River delta. The social centre on the Molochna River is located near the sea. Matviyivske settlement of the Ingul culture is located in the northern border district of Mykolayiv city. The most ancient significant sites of the Donetsk culture, according to the research of S. N. Bratchenko, are concentrated along the shores of the Azov Sea. According to S.V. Ivanova`s study, the pit grave social centre in the Bugeac steppe was located in the Dniester river delta, not far from the Black Sea. Mikhalivske settlement (ancient settlement), where both pit grave and catacomb artefacts were found in the upper layer, was located below the Dnieper rapids. Novotytorovsky social centre was located in the lower reaches of the Kuban River. The social centres of the pit grave and catacomb society were attracted by the coast of the Black and Azov seas. The successful trade relations with the Eastern Mediterranean and in particular with Troy could cause it. The trade relations between the Northern Bleak Sea region and Troad could take place, the bones of the dolphin in the settlement of Matviyivka 1, and a type-setting boat in the flooring of the pit burial place in the Odesa region proved it circumstantial. The Egyptian scarab was found near Melitopol, and pasta beads from the graves of the pit and catacomb communities were found too. Dishes that are similar to Cyclades`; Troy`s polished axes can also be evidence of these connections. The treasure, found in 2012 in Sadove village in the Crimea, provides much to identify the close relations between these regions. It contains 24 items of Anatolian, Trojan and Northern Black Sea origin. It suggests that rather close exchange relation existed between Troad and the Black Sea regions. Conclusions. It is determined that Troy did intermediary trade mainly, supplying certain goods from all over the Eastern Mediterranean to the northern coast of the Black Sea. Analysis of the treasure from Sadove confirms the connection between the Early Bronze Age cultures of the Northern Black Sea region and the more southern regions of the world. The results of the research can be used in generalizing works on archaeology and history of Ukraine
Purpose of the article. To find the most effective methods of curatorship, based on P. Hudimov’s (famous Ukrainian curator) experience. Methodology. Conceptualization of experience, skeptical empiricism, scientific criticism are used. Scientific novelty. This research is the first attempt at a scientific conceptualization of a professional interview. It is shown that the essence of curatorial practice is not visualization of popular narratives, but in specific research work that creates new meanings. According to P. Hudimov, curatorial practice can be considered as "thinking design". Conclusions. As a result of the study, it was established that curatorial work, including museum, is a creative process, far from patterns and routine. Curatorship excludes routine, templates, imitation. So, it’s hard to speak about curatorship robust models, that can use by different curators. Even if borrowed models were succeed. Curatorship approaches are ties close with the person of curator. That’s why, models of curatorship are not in competition, in which the best one survive and worse – eliminate. Each approach of curatorship is curator’s self-expression. Despite this, P. Hudimov identifies the most common curatorial methods, among which he especially emphasizes the productivity of denial. This brings the curatorial methodology closer to the scientific one, which is based on a refutation. In addition, Hudimov emphasizes the benefit of intentional stress for both the methods themselves and curatorial representations. The stress method also brings curation to science closer together, since the refutation is closely related to criticism and testing. The method of negation proposed by Hudimov, more broadly, the method of "trial and error" is integral not only for curatorial practices, but also for science, art and empiricism in general. P. Gudimov considers it necessary for the curator to overcome patterns (template-realm of social consciousness). For that, in his opinion, the synthesis method is optimal, which consists in combining phenomena, artifacts, and ideas that are not at first glance. The most innovative method Gudimov calls the research approach in the work of the curator. In this regard, further investigation shall be directed on the scientific aspect of curatorial practice.
The museum accounting of the museum objects’ collection includes a set of written, graphic, acoustic and electronic data on such objects located in museum collections. They are incoming and accompanying documentation, etiquette, excavation protocols, expedition reports, field records, correspondence and descriptions of the collection’s objects on behalf of those who worked on them, publications on objects, classification references, inventory records, catalogs, and reports on conservation and restoration works. The aim of the study is to justify the need for thorough scientific accounting of museum items, and to highlight ways to unify accounting procedures. The research methodology is based on the analysis of existing regulatory legal acts and works on the theory and practice of museum accounting; information and reference publications to form the theoretical foundations of the work. A method of targof the practice of receiving items in museums, and its analysis to establish features and trends; methods of synthesis, systematization, generalization, evaluation are used. The historical significance of objects stored in museums does not follow from their storage, but from their scientific documentary accounting. This means that the continuous, volumetric and systematic researching and preservation of documents and data relating to the objects and its former and current connections. A museum object is a real object, which, due to its evidentiary ability, has been removed from the functional circumstances of a particular existing environment and can provide sensory-specific and authentic evidence. This object is accompanied by mandatory data on its origin. Only because of this, it becomes a full-fledged scientific document. This paper analyzes the need for a thorough documentary accounting of a museum collection for a museum and authority. It considered mistakes and ways of unification of modern museum accounting on the analysis of a documentary record of a museum collection of NMFALU for 50 years. Scientific novelty lies in the fact that the study is the first attempt to detail the stages of museum accounting, substantiate their need, and unify procedures. It is shown that the essence of museum accounting is to create an artificial historical environment of the museum subject, provides the opportunity to build and justify new scientific hypotheses and theories. Conclusions. The documentary accounting of museum monuments, their scientific processing are extremely important for identification and classification, compilation of museum collections, storage and ordering, cataloging with the ability to search and monitor the state of preservation.
The paper analyzes again the unique Greek inscription – the votive poem honouring Achillesgod and his island founded in 1987 on the Berezan. The purpose of the study is to analyze the reading options of the famous Berezan hymn to the island and Achilles and establish which of them most closely matches the idea of the ancient poet and the current state of the work he created. Scientific novelty. For the first time, a comprehensive study of all the versions of the Berezan votive reconstruction proposed in world science is undertaken. The research methodology is based on the principle of scientific objectivity and the generally accepted methods, and the technique of historical and epigraphic discipline. Conclusions. The criteria for the restoration of this epigraphic document have been determined. The boundaries of the permissible in its reconstruction have been established. The meaning, structure and condition of the inscription correspond to the version published by the author in 1990 the most closely: [Κυκλο]τερὲς κτεάτισμα θεῶν| [Ἀχιλῆο]ς ὄχημα, νῆσσε περικλυ|[τή. ἥ], κύμασι γηθομένη, σὸν πέ|[ρι εἴ]ληχεν Θέτιδος γόνος αἷμα|[ἔνερ]θε Αἰακίδης Ἀχιλλεὺς ἀθα|[νατοῖ]σιν ἵσος. Ἀλλ’ Ἀχιλλεῦ δέ|[ξ’ εὔθυ]σίην καὶ εἵλλαος ἴσθι ἡμετέ|ρ[αν ὁσιὴ]ν μοῦσαν ἀπὸ γραφίδος. “Oh, carved around the gods’ property, Achilles’ chariot, glorious, wave-rejoiced island. You, who before all received your blood as an inheritance, the child of Thetis, equal to the immortals below (= in hell) Achilles Eakid. You, O Achilles, receive a good sacrifice and, merciful, acknowledge (= accept) our (outgoing) pious muse”.
The aim of the research is a scientific understanding of the value of creativity as a component of the development of educational activities of modern museums; determination of the basic theoretical achievements that laid the Foundation for the development of creative Museum practices in the 21st century. The research methodology was based on the general scientific principle of objectivity, structural-functional and analytical method sin the course of analys is of educational work of museums.The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that a systematic and generalized basic theoretical achievements that laid the Foundation for the development of creative Museum practices in the 21st century, explored the most successful projects that reveal the educational the potential of museums in Ukraine. Conclusions. Determined that the experimentation and searching for local museum sareaimed at implementation of new approaches and technologies to interact with a diverseaudience. Proven creative educational practice of museums of Ukraine are implemented mainly in the spirit of a culture of participation (participatory culture); the ability to carefully and effectively moveaway from the template and develop its own special approach, helping his Museum to unite people an ditemsisan important element of the creative practice form odern museum workers; reducing the role of the educational process in the Museum environment provides the possibility off reeexpression of thoughts, emotions, feelings, opennes sin the creative samovirazì, creating situations for playing improvisations, the variety of subject-spatial environment.
The article is written in the scientific polemic genre and it is a continuation of the discussion that began earlier in the professional environment. The author defends the position to give more attention to culture layers of the 20th during conducting an archaeological excavation. The problem is the uncertainty of the cultural deposits’ status of the 20th century. The purpose of the article is to determine the 20th century culture deposits historical value. Research methodology. Common-scientific methods are used. The typological method is also used, in particular, for 20th century culture deposits classification. The scientific novelty lies in the first, in Ukrainian historiography, attempt to argue a historical value of the 20th-century cultural layers. Conclusion. The modern culture deposits' historical value is in that they are at least a historical source and also an epoch monument. In addition to scientific, individual artifacts or complexes on cultural layers of modern times can have artistic, aesthetic, museum, tourist, anthropological, ethnographic, national, political, ideological, economic, social value.
The purpose of the study is a historiographical and source-based analysis of the archeological expedition problem as a research object. The research methodology is based on exact methods: analysis/synthesis, induction/deduction, systematization and correlation, especially the comparative and historical method. The scientific novelty of the article is that for the first time: the historiography of the chosen topic has been analyzed, a complex cultural approach to the study of the archeological expedition has been formulated, as well as sample survey questionnaires that can serve as an effective way of collecting a wide range of information on archeological expeditions. Conclusions. The problem of the archaeological expedition is poorly developed in historiography which could be explained by the relative novelty of this scientific direction. The specifics of the source’s selection are closely dependent on which historical period the expedition under investigation belongs to. The author concludes that one of the most informative sources could be evidence from profilequestionnaires together with ethnographical expedition and interviewing.
The aim of the study is to provide a scientific analysis and elaboration of the methodology and criteria for the representation of architectural monuments in the universal encyclopedia, providing recommendations for the further deployment of similar encyclopedic studies. The research methods are based on the use of general scientific and special methods, in particular, the historical method with a systematic approach, when a collection of monuments of a certain type as an object of study and representation is considered in development, as well as a comparative method, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the first time the problems of representation of architectural monuments in the universal encyclopedia have been comprehensively analyzed, the methodology and criteria for the selection of articles on this subject have been elaborated, with particular emphasis on the need to strike a balance between national and universal. The findings and conclusions of the study. The methodological principles and criteria for the selection and inclusion of articles about architectural monuments, including lost, in the universal encyclopedia are proposed, as well as biographical articles about the creators of these monuments and the minimum necessary terminological articles, without which the above information would be "unreadable" for users.
Мета дослідження – пам’яткознавчий аналіз і класифікація численних пам’яток нерухомої культурної спадщини м. Львова за видом «архітектура» з опрацюванням заходів щодо їхнього збереження. Методи дослідження базуються на використанні загальнонаукових та спеціальних методів, зокрема історичного методу в системному підході, коли сукупність пам’яток історичного міста як об’єкт вивчення розглядається в розвитку, а також порівняльний метод, аналіз і синтез, дедукція та індукція. Наукова новизна дослідження полягає в тому, що вперше комплексно проаналізована наявна на теренах усього Львова архітектурна спадщина з визначенням основних параметрів цієї множини та оптимальних способів подолання загрозливих їй факторів. Висновки. У Львові зафіксована найвища серед усіх міст України кількість, різноманітність, концентрація й цінність архітектурних пам’яток, які формують комплекси, ансамблі й визначні місця, але не тільки в історичному центрі, а й навколо нього, а також у периферійних районах. Для забезпечення їх збереження необхідно не тільки внести до Державного реєстру нерухомих пам’яток України всі об’єкти культурної спадщини, а й добитися зосередження зусиль міського самоврядування, громадськості, фахівців і концентрації фінансових ресурсів довкола практичного впровадження принципів визнаного в цивілізованому світі територіально-середовищного підходу задля збереження для нинішнього і прийдешніх поколінь не тільки численних поодиноких пам’яток архітектури, а і традиційного характеру середовища Львова.
Мета дослідження – пам’яткознавчий аналіз і класифікація пам’яток нерухомої культурної спадщини м. Чернігова за видом «архітектура» з опрацюванням рекомендацій щодо їх збереження. Методи дослідження базуються на використанні загальнонаукових та спеціальних методів, зокрема історичного методу при системному підході, коли сукупність пам’яток як об’єкт вивчення розглядається у розвитку, а також порівняльний метод, аналіз і синтез, дедукція та індукція. Наукова новизна дослідження полягає в тому, що уперше комплексно проаналізована наявна дотепер архітектурна спадщина Чернігова з визначенням основних загроз, які існують для неї, та способів їх подолання. Висновки. У Чернігові найвища концентрація і цінність архітектурних пам’яток є у межах історичного середмістя. Для забезпечення їх збереження необхідно виготовити облікову документацію на всі об’єкти архітектурної спадщини відповідно до сучасних нормативних документів та занести ці об’єкти до Державного реєстру нерухомих пам’яток України.
The aim of the article is to investigate the peculiarities of the revitalization of the monuments of palace and park architecture in modern Ukraine on the example of the palace and park complex of Potocki-Liantsokoronski-Urbanski XVIII – ХХ centuries with the state of conservation and use typical for the monuments of this species. The methodology of the work is based on the use of general scientific and special methods, in particular methods of empirical research (observation and comparison, survey), methods of theoretical research (analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction) and also monitoring (special research method). The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that not only the features of revitalization are highlighted for the destroyed palaces by turning into a cultural space and an active object of a tourist show, but also the conditions are established under which the destroyed historical and architectural objects are subject to revitalization processes. Conclusions. Revitalization of neglected palace and park complexes with low level of preservation of architectural monuments (post-fire condition) is possible by socialization of space, development of infrastructure elements, improvement of the territory, ensuring excursion visit to the object, which provides updating of the heritage object.
The article is devoted to the results of the study of Architecture in Ukraine of XVII–XVIІI centuries, conducted over the last century. The relevance of the study is conditioned by the necessity of forming the history of the national architecture and monumentology on modern methodological principles, according to which all phenomena and processes of the corresponding age within the current territory of the state are studied, regardless of the ethnic, confessional or state origin of those or other phenomena and artifacts. The main objective of the study is to synthesize the results of the study of the historical and architectural process during the Hetmanate period, including clarifying the stages of the development of architecture; identification of regional peculiarities; the establishment of the role and place of the architectural heritage of the Hetmanate period in the further development of Ukrainian architecture and urbanism and its place in the context of the development of European architecture. The methodology of the research is to apply the methods of theoretical research, namely, the historical method in the systematic approach, when the object of study is the architecture of a certain period is considered in the occurrence and development. The system approach consists in complex studying of the object as a certain unity of the multi element system, for studying which methods of structural-genetic analysis and synthesis with decomposition of the system on the subsystems, which are studied autonomously, with their subsequent coordination, are applied. The scientific novelty consists in revealing the regularities of the formation and development of Ukraine's architecture of Hetmanate period, determining the nature and basic features of these processes, more thoroughly clarifying regional differences, defining the European and Eurasian context of the development of architecture in that time in Ukraine. The findings and conclusions of the study allow us to consider the architecture of Ukraine as an independent phenomenon, and not as a derivative of the architecture of the Moscow kingdom, the Russian Empire or the marginal phenomenon of the Central European architectural process. The high level of self-sufficiency of Ukrainian architecture is proved on the basis of the development and transformation of autochthonous traditions and selective learning of the experience of other cultures. Examined in science are incorrect ideas about defining the dominant style of architecture as a baroque. The simultaneous existence of two stylistic currents, namely Baroque, Western origin, and Renaissance-Baroque synthesis, which became the result of the development of autochthonous architectural traditions, was proved.
Комплекс козацького озброєння XVI ст. значно менше відомий, ніж XVII–XVIII ст. Ця прогалина може бути заповнена завдяки матеріалам розкопок на о. Мала Хортиця (Байда). На острові знайдені дерев’яні оборонні споруди з обмазкою тину глиною. Вони є типовими для фортифікації XV–XVI ст. Їх будували такою самою системою, як за князівських часів. Побутує думка, що основою козацької зброї стали перероблені селянські знаряддя праці: бойовий серп, бойова коса, сокира, моргенштерн тощо. Знахідки на о. Байда спростовують тезу про селянський характер озброєння перших козаків. Зброя, яка виявлена на о. Байда, дає змогу стверджувати, що типовий комплекс козацького озброєння, який добре відомий у XVII ст., у цей час ще не сформувався. Проте основні ознаки озброєння європейських армій присутні і в комплексі козацького озброєння на о. Байда. За роки вивчення пам’ятки виявлено два зразки гармат, чотири зразки ручної вогнепальної зброї, численний реманент до неї (кулелійки, рушничні кремені, ґнітові замки, шомполи). Холодна зброя представлена списами, сулицями, ножами, сокирами. Знайдено також фрагменти захисного обладунку, численні вістря стріл. Про наявність на о. Байда шабель свідчать портупейні застібки та уламок клинка шаблі. Отже, основною зброєю війська Д. Вишневецького були мушкети, а також пістолі, на другому місці – сокири. Решту видів зброї можна зарахувати до поодиноких. Гармати використовували принаймні двох видів.
The purpose of the article is to analyze the monument and expert assessment of the monument of garden and park art Central Republican Botanical Garden (1 Timiriazievska Street, Kyiv) and its urban environment, which is rapidly evolving, threatening this monument naturally of the reserved fund and cultural heritage sites located on its territory, which requires the development of the protection zoning concept in the areas adjacent to the monument in order to preserve this unique cultural and natural heritage. The research methodology is based on the use of general scientific and special methods, including the historical method in a systematic approach, when the set of monuments connected by a common area, as well as the surrounding environment as an object of study is considered in development, as well as the comparative method, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction. The scientific novelty of the research is that for the first time a comprehensive analysis of this monument of park and garden art as an object not only of nature reserves, but also immovable cultural heritage type ‘landmark’, articulated problems caused by rapid and chaotic development urban environment around this monument, and also proposed a conceptual approach to the protective zoning of areas around the monument. Conclusions. All cultural heritage sites, including the Central Republican Botanical Garden as an object of study, form the traditional nature of the environment of the southern periphery of the historic centre of Kyiv. The object of study for its compositional role in the traditional nature of the environment is the landscape dominant of the large-scale monument ‘Cultural Landscape of the Kyiv Mountains and the Dnieper River Valley’, the compositional and species influence of which extends to the entire Dnieper Valley between the E. Paton and the South bridges. With this in mind, a conclusion was made about the insufficiency and obsolescence of the existing protection zoning in the areas adjacent to the monument in question, and a new concept of protection zoning with additional development control zones was defined. Their approval will allow actualizing the territorial-environmental approach as the most effective in preserving the traditional Kyiv character of the environment for the present and future generations.
The purpose of the study is to carry out a compositional and artistic territory’s evaluation of the Landscape Monument “Historic Landscape of the Kyiv Mountains and the Dnieper River Valley”, with recommendations on how to preserve the traditional character of the environment as well as the environment itself. The research methodology is based on the use of general scientific and special methods, in particular applied methods of theoretical research, namely the historical method in a systematic approach, when the object of research is considered in its origin and development. The systematic approach is to comprehensively study the object as a certain unity with the coherent functioning of the parts and the whole. Methods of bibliographic, archival, cartographic, iconographic research, as well as methods of empirical research: observations, full-scale studies, comparisons and mapping, have been applied. The scientific novelty of the research is that for the first time a compositional and artistic territory evaluation of the landmark “Historic Landscape of the Kyiv Mountains and the Dnieper River Valley” was carried out. This expertise should form the basis for defining / adjusting the boundaries and modes of use of the site itself and its conservation areas. The findings and conclusions of the study are based on the expert evaluation of the territory of the landmark “Historic landscape of the Kyiv Mountains and the Dnieper River valley” in the compositional and artistic aspect. It is concluded that the entire territory is of high value, because it is a landmark that is currently still a part of to the local accounting category, but by its importance for Ukrainian history and culture it should be entered in the State Register of Immovable Monuments of Ukraine as a monument of national importance. However, despite such a high overall assessment of the entire territory of the monument, two categories of territories can be distinguished within it. The most valuable of them are on the high marks of the Dnieper plateau, with ensembles and complexes of town-planning, architectural, historical, archeological monuments of national importance and UNESCO World Heritage Site – the Kyiv- Pechersk Lavra ensemble. The relatively less valuable undeveloped territories in the Dnieper valley serve as a visual pool with many viewing points and fronts and a kind of pedestal for large-scale forms of positive curvature topped by architectural and urban dominants.
The purpose of the article is to analyze contemporary problems of cultural and educational activity in museums of the artistic profile, to determine the role and effectiveness of psychological methods, in the context of working with visitors of different ages. Research methodology. An interdisciplinary approach has been applied, using analysis, synthesis and generalizations methods. The scientific novelty of the research is that this article launches an analysis of cultural and educational activities of art museums from the standpoint of museum psychology in Ukrainian museums. Conclusions. Today, the problems of using psychological methods in the cultural and educational work of domestic art museums are not sufficiently studied. In Ukraine museum psychology is developing as part of cultural and educational work and museum pedagogy. The effectiveness of the museum information perception by museum visitors depends on many factors, among which the study of needs and interests of museum visitors, the interpretation of expositions taking into account the principles of developmental psychology and sensory perception are important. At the beginning of the 21st century, the development of trends in differentiated and multisensory approaches to the interpretation of museum displays is observed. In the cultural and educational activities with modern visitors, innovative, art-therapeutic, sensory, multimedia and virtual technologies are used. These funds, taking into account the principle of museum psychology, diversify the processes of transmitting cultural experience in domestic museums, and bring cultural and educational activities to a qualitatively new level of development.
The purpose of the research. Important conditions for success of a museum are a competently built-up management system and consistent attraction activities designed for different types of target audience. The article analyses the structure of attraction activities in Ukraine’s transport museums compared to that of New York State museums. The methodology of the research. The museum visitors were interviewed, the content of the museums’ websites and testimonials was analyzed. The focus was on the description of the museums’ exposition, dramaturgy, types of attraction policy and activities for various types of target audience. Comparison of opportunities for actualizing the attraction potential of transport museums in Ukraine and New York State was made. Based on the analysis, a method of increasing their popularity was deduced. The scientific novelty lies in adaptation of attraction strategies of the US transport museums to Ukraine’s realia. For the first time, the factors of influence on the audience from attraction events in transport museums in Ukraine and the US (on the example of the state of New York) have been systematized. Conclusions. Methods of museum space theatricalization and animation in transport museums of the US have been analyzed. Based on that, an algorithm of actions for Ukraine transport museums have been deduced. There is a need to consider means of attracting financial resources and museum volunteering to the museum space. The issue of practical realization of this task by museum workers in the realia of post-soviet cultural space has been raised. Experimental modelling of an attraction events program in Ukraine’s existing transport museums may approbate the results of the research.
Purpose of the study. Cimmerians are the first ethnonym known in Ukraine. Interesting pages of the history not only of Ukraine but also the countries of Asia Minor and the Caucasus are connected with the Cimmerians, which makes the people an indicator of the historical situation in these regions to a certain extent. At the same time, the questions of the origin and the disappearance of this people remain unclear, as well as their identification with archaeological cultures of the early Iron Age, which determines the relevance of this topic. Research methodology the article is based on general scientific methods and uses a systematic approach to the study of written and archaeological sources. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the denial of an opinion that the Cimmerians, known all over Asia Minor, belonged to an autochthonous population of the Northern Black Sea region. Those were tribes from the Caucasus region, which in the middle of the 8th century BC invaded the Northern Black Sea region, while other Cimmerian troops simultaneously acted in a southerly direction, fought with the army of Urartu and robbed in Asia Minor. Conclusions. Contrary to the assertions of A.I. Terenozhkina, the carriers of Arzhan type’s culture with stirrup-shaped bits were not Cimmerians. That was the first expansion of the eastern nomads on the territory of Ukraine. Cimmerians should be considered the carriers of Novocherkassk culture with two-pointed bits which appeared on the Northern Black Sea Coast and originated from the North of Caucasus, displacing local farmers from the steppe. They drove forest-steppe farmers to strengthen their settlements and partially migrate to the left bank of the Dnieper, from where the local carriers of the Bondarino culture were forced to leave for the North. Importantly, thanks to Cimmerian warlike and aggressive policies, this ethnonym became a household name in the entire Black Sea region and remained the “Cimmerian land” in minds of ancient authors.
The purpose of the article is to suggest a new conceptual understanding of the of cultural transfer role in the birth of museum in Belarusian lands (“museum transfer”), within a comprehensive study of this phenomenon as an integral, organic part of the national culture. The methodological basis of the research has become the universal scientific principles of objectivity, systematic and comprehensiveness, as well as comparative-historical, historical-typological, problem-chronological and structural-functional methods. The study was carried out in the framework of M. Espagne cultural transfers concept. The scientific novelty of the article. The work proposes a new term, ‘museum transfer’. Its structure and functioning mechanisms are illustrated employing major early Belarusian museum cases. The place and role of the museum transfer in the system of cultural interactions is determined. Сonclusions. The emergence of museum as a social institution in the Belarusian lands was a result of cultural transfer – a dynamic process of intercultural communication. At the initial stage, the cultural ‘translation’ of Western European museum ideas and practices into the language of Belarusian culture was ultimately unsuccessful in most cases. Museum projects of F. Skaryna, N. K. Radziwill, A. Jabłonowska, J. E. Gilibert, G. Gruber, E. P. Tyszkievicz did not find wide support in the traditional, archaic agrarian society and as a result of socio-political and military cataclysms quickly disappeared. Nevertheless, they laid the foundation on which the modern museum network, museum profession, museum traditions in the Republic of Belarus were formed.
The purpose of the article is to consider the possibility of Timber-grave (Zrubna) culture influencing on the western area of Sabatynivka culture on the one hand and the likelihood of connections of the population of the Sabatynivka culture of the Northwest Black Sea in the eastern direction on the other. The methods of research are comparative historical, chronological method and scientific methods. The scientific novelty consists in the comparison of archaeological data on the Sabatynivka culture of the region and the results of genetic analysis. Conclusions. In the late Bronze Age, the steppe part of Right-Bank Ukraine, steppe Crimea, and Pryazovie were inhabited by tribes of Sabatynivka culture. It is dated to the 15th-12th centuries BC. Most researchers associate its origin with Babyne culture. Timber-grave culture in Ukraine was widespread, mainly on the left bank of the Dnieper. In the steppes of the Dnieper region, archaeological material reflected contacts between the Sabatynivka and the Timbergrave cultures. This is not surprising. In this situation, the Dnieper is not only a border between cultures but also their contact zone. Due to the western influences (cultures of the Lower Danube region), archaeologists include the Sabatynivka culture in the Sabatynivka – Noua – Coslogeni cultural and historical community. But there is reason to suppose that the Black Sea steppe and a small part of the population are penetrating to the west. This is evidenced by the findings of ceramics with features of Timbergrave culture, found on the settlement Grybivka IV of Sabatynivka culture in the Odesa region. The Late Bronze Age monuments often trace the influence of different cultural traditions. This is reflected, first of all, in the composition of the ceramic complex, the method of making ceramics, its ornamentation. Most of the pottery found in Grybivka IV is traditional for the monuments of the Sabatynivka culture of the Northwest Black Sea. However, the decoration made by the notched stamp resembles the finds well-represented on the Timber-grave culture sites situated between the Volga and Ural rivers. Some ornamental compositions detected on the vessel fragments from the Grybivka IV site are known on the Timber-grave pottery, namely those which are treated as an element of Andronovo culture. DNA analysis also reflected the evidence of transcultural contacts. The bones from the burial of Sabatynivka culture Sychavka 1/6 were subjected to this analysis. The deceased appeared to be a relative of another sample taken from the burial of Timber-grave culture and living in the Samara region (Russian Federation).
Метою статті є розгляд хронології та можливих контактів культур ранньої та середньої доби бронзи Північно-Західного Причорномор’я (ямна, катакомбна, бабинська), які проявилися в археологічних матеріалах. Методи дослідження ґрунтуються на діалектичному підході до аналізу і синтезу у вивченні давніх спільнот, з урахуванням нерівномірності історичного розвитку, визнанні щільного взаємозв'язку між палеоекологічними та історичними процесами, можливості прояву конвергентних тенденцій на історичному шляху носіїв археологічних культур. Для реконструкції історичної ситуації та культурно-історичних процесів, виявлення загального і особливого в історичному розвитку населення Північно-Західного Причорномор'я наприкінці III тис. до н.е. використовувалися порівняльно-історичний і хронологічний методи, метод екстраполяції. Наукова новизна результатів полягає в обґрунтуванні хронологічної позиції та можливості культурних контактів трьох культурних спільнот бронзової доби – ямної, катакомбної та бабинської. Можливість існування «контактного періоду» під­тверджується спільністю деяких рис поховального обряду та форм кераміки. Висновки. У добу бронзи населення буджацької та катакомбної культур Північно-Західного Причорномор’я розвивалося паралельно протягом довгого часу (ХХV–XX ст. до н.е.) та стало складовою частиною культурного кола Бабино. Фінал ІІІ тис. до н.е. пов'язаний з одночасним проживанням та контактами населення трьох культур: згасаючих буджацької та катакомбної – і прийшлою бабинською, а також подальшим їх симбіозом, включенням Північно-Західного Причорномор’я у західну периферію культурного кола Бабино.
The aim of the study is to find out the problem of preservation of architectural monuments of the National Kyiv-Pechersk Historical and Cultural Preserve on the example of the cells of the Cathedral Elders (building No. 4). The research methods are based on the integrated use of general scientific and special methods, including observation, mapping, analysis, generalization, synthesis. The scientific novelty of the study is that for the first time, on the basis of monitoring, as an important means of providing information about the state of each monument and the dynamics of its changes in real time, the nature of deformations of a particular above-ground monument has been comprehensively analyzed, taking into account the presence of nearby underground structures within its foundations. The peculiarities of monitoring the monuments, the nature and the specificity of the professional tools of the monitors are considered, which ensures the effective accomplishment of these tasks. Conclusions. The presence of underground structures located within the foundations of the main part of the building does not significantly affect the activation of deformations. Underground structures located in the immediate vicinity of the walls of the building and sufficiently buried in the soil mass indirectly affect the deformation of the building structures. The main factors that lead to deformation of structures (waterlogging of the soil mass, direct infiltration of atmospheric precipitation, suffusion) and factors of influence (imperfect landscaping) are determined. In order to ensure the effective preservation of the complex diachronous above-ground architectural monuments with significant underground parts, peculiar to the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra, it is necessary to improve the landscaping of the territory, as well as to carry out constant monitoring, to systematize the restoration interventions with the obligatory accomplishment within the set terms of the complete complex of engineering, repair and restoration works.
The aim of the article is to find out possible positive aspects of museum market theory. Methodology of research consists in criticism (in Karl Popper's sense) which is directed on views on increasing of surplus value from museum work. Conjectures as to harmonization specific of museum work with market relations have been offered. Conclusions. Until that time we have seen mostly negative appreciation of museum market theory. It's because of receiving surplus of value in museum from unspecific museum activity. Scientific significance of this article is improvement of market theory of museum such as solving contradiction between requirement of liberal market economy and social function of museum. Social significance of this scientific work is offer of piecemeal engineering directed on museum as social institution. This piecemeal engineering avoids potential disadvantages that can be inflicted museum and society. Thus, one of the main courses of museum work is scientific interpretation of museum things. The appraisal of antiques depends on scope information about things. So, than more museum investigation on interpretation of the museum things – that more value of these things. Museums, which can produce surplus value, they will become important players on the market of antiques. But museums mustn't go in for trade of antiques. Thus, museum reserves would keep in safe.
One of the factors determining the development of ancient society was the bronze casting craft. The features of the socio-economic state depended on the direction of its development; therefore, it is important to trace its character at various stages of the social division of labor. At the same time, the key question is who the craftsmen were, who provided the population with metal products, and in this case it turns out that in most cases those were wandering casters. The relevance of the study is determined by this issue. The aim of the study is to analyze the nature of the bronze casting craft at various stages and to determine the role of wandering craftsmen in providing the population with metal products. Scientific novelty. For the first time, the activity of vagrant masters in Ukraine has been analyzed and their influence on the development of tribal relations has been determined. The research methods are based on the general scientific principle of objectivity, as well as structural, functional and analytical methods. Findings. The level of development and the role of casting craft at various stages of society development have been determined. The activities of wandering casters have been singled out separately and the factors that testify to their activitiarose with the advent of metallurgy and metalworking and existed during the Eneolithic, Bronze and Early Iron Age eras.es have been characterized. The tradition of wandering crafts
The purpose of the article is to provide a scientific comprehension of Georgian civilization role in global processes, in the complex research of this local culture as an integral part of the Euro-Asian civilization. The methodological bases of the research have been the universal scientific principles of objectivity, systematic and comprehensiveness, as well as comparative-historical, historical-typological, problem-chronological and structural-functional methods. The scientific novelty consists in a thorough study of the socio-economic, socio-political and cultural development of Georgian civilization in connection with the emergence of the «conflict of civilizations» threat, the danger of a «peaceful collision» between Islam and Islamic sects, on the one hand, and Christianity on the other. Conclusions. The ways of solving this situation have been proposed, which consist in the convergence and consensus of ethnic positions and moral values of ethnic groups. It has been determined that solving global problems (ecological safety, terrorism, drug trafficking) requires the interaction of the international community and various states. In this issue, one, a separate state, is powerless. Internationalization of labor activity activates inter-state relations in the trade, economic and financial spheres. The threat of a global nuclear catastrophe determines the integration processes, which, in turn, influences the foreign policy of a particular country to a certain extent.
Основними завданнями сучасного музею є наукове документування явищ, процесів, закономірностей розвитку історії; охорона культурно-історичних цінностей шляхом збирання, зберігання, реставрування, консервування та документування предметів матеріальної та духовної культури; проведення наукових досліджень на основі першоджерел; освіта, виховання та популяризація історії. Найбільш трудомісткими є фондова робота та експозиційна діяльність. Музейний предмет — культурна цінність, якість або особливі ознаки якої роблять необхідним для суспільства її збереження, вивчення та публічне представлення. Будь-яка робота з музейним предметом супроводжується документуванням різного ступеня обов’язковості. І чим краща система документування історії предмету в музеї, тим простіше працювати з предметом, тим більше інформації може цей предмет надати для наукового вивчення. Тому структурування і виведення документального обліку на актуальний рівень не просто вимога часу, а тотальна необхідність. Кожне переміщення предмету в межах та за межі музею з метою його використання для експозиційної, науково-дослідної чи іншої діяльності потребує відображення у цілому ряді документів. Важливими є документи, що містять оперативну інформацію про музейний предмет та безпосереднє місце його перебування. До таких документів, що забезпечують ефективний контроль за переміщеннями та станом музейних предметів, а також про їх адміністративну цілісність відноситься такий вид допоміжної внутрішньої музейної документації, як топографічний опис. Мета дослідження полягає у визначенні методологічних підходів до процесів обліку та збереження музейних предметів. Для досягнення мети використані первинні, спеціальні методи дослідження, їх сукупність та понятійно- категорійний апарат. Науковою новизною статті є піднятті питання уніфікації термінології, що використовується у музейній сфері, в тому числі і в галузі документального обліку. Також у роботі розглядаються способи та методологія складання та ведення топографічних описів у різних відділах музею, а також пропонуються розроблені співробітниками музею шаблони топографічних описів, які відповідають меті якнайдетальнішого документування історії музейного предмету, в тому числі історії його переміщень.
Мета роботи – визначення пріоритетів для створення комфортного середовища в музеях як базової основи музейної комунікації. Методологія дослідження – застосовано методи аналізу, синтезу та творчих узагальнень емпіричного матеріалу. Наукова новизна дослідження полягає в тому, що ця стаття започатковує в українському музеєзнавстві аналіз комфорту в музеї як базової основи музейної комунікації. Висновки. Підсумовуючи, треба наголосити, що сучасний відвідувач давно перестав бути пасивним спостерігачем, а займає чітку позицію з приводу традиційних функцій музею і сфери музейних послуг. Взаємодія музею та відвідувача і далі розвивається в бік зростання ролі останнього. Відкритість музею відвідувачеві має реалізовуватися на всіх рівнях музейної діяльності: від розвитку інфраструктури до перегляду концепцій постійної експозиції музею. У зв’язку з цим виникне необхідність поглиблювати взаємодію з відвідувачем не тільки на формальному рівні, але розвивати взаємну комунікацію й участь відвідувачів у спеціальних програмах, дискусіях та інших музейних заходах, які сприятимуть збільшенню проведеного в музеї часу. Активні відвідувачі охоче йдуть на діалог із музеєм, готові представляти та аргументувати свою позицію щодо актуальності музейних сервісів, особливостей роботи персоналу, легітимності правил та заборон, введених в установах. Створення оновленого, привабливого, комфортного середовища в музеях вимагає серйозних змін, нововведень, експериментів. Будь-які нововведення, навіть найсміливіші ідеї, варті того, щоб апробувати їх у музейному просторі за умови, що вони не несуть загрози для збереження об’єктів історико-культурної спадщини й не ставлять під удар безпеку відвідувачів та співробітників.
The purpose of the research is to substantiate the features of Volyn icon painting School, to highlight the Volyn School of icon painting from the general iconographic movement of Western Ukraine in the 16th – 18th centuries on the basis of the obtained results. The methodology of the research. Methods of analysis and synthesis were used in the process of research. The local features of Volyn icons that are based on the analysis of stylistic monuments features of Ukrainian sacred art were defined. Method of synthesis allowed to explore the Volyn icon painting school in its integrity and to substantiate its value and role in contemporary space of culture. Novelty of the research lies in the disclosure of local features of Volyn icon painting School based on the analysis of stylistic peculiarities of monuments of other regions of Ukraine. The chronological boundaries of incipience of Volyn icon painting School were defined in the research. The factors of region’s geographic location and their effect on iconography formation in Volyn region were analyzed. It was made an attempt to substantiate the definition of "Volyn School of iconography". Conclusions. It was found out that throughout the incipience and development Volyn School of iconography formed the set of features and qualities (stylistic, artistic and technological) expressed in extremely rich and diverse artistic and cultural heritage of the region.
The purpose of the research is to scientifically interpret the processes that took place in modern Turkey and were associated with the destruction (collapse) of a typical for totalitarian ideology system (“all Muslims are Turks”); a comprehensive study of the factors that put non- Turkish ethnic groups into the necessity of replacing the old ideology with a new one. The general scientific principles of objectivity, consistency and comprehensiveness, as well as comparative historical, historical typological, problem-chronological and structural-functional methods became the basis of the research. The scientific novelty of the results is due to the fact that for the first time a thorough study of the socio-economic, socio-political and cultural development of the multiethnic population of Turkey against the background of confrontation between compact ethnic groups and other ethnic communities is being carried out. Conclusions. The ways of solving this situation, which consist in the convergence and consensus of ethnic positions and moral values of ethnic groups, are proposed. Among the Georgian, Armenian and Turkish populations, there are differences in the views on the question autochthony question of the population living in Tao-Klarjeti, in particular the Georgians. The position of the Turks and Armenians is obvious, but the lack of awareness of a certain part of the Georgians about this problem remains incomprehensible. In particular, the positions of Georgians living here differ from each other. Despite these trends, the multiethnic population of Turkey has gained a rich experience of living together with the Turkish people, which needs to be effectively used in order to protect the interests of ethnic mobilization and the preservation of national identity
Мета статті. Завдання, яке ставить автор статті у дослідженні поданої теми, полягає в окресленні проблематики збереження й повернення музейних колекцій із тимчасово окупованих територій до культурного надбання України. Актуальність теми зумовлена сучасними потребами оптимізації державної політики в музейній галузі, зокрема, створенням ефективних державних програм зі збереження національного Музейного фонду. Реформування в цій сфері суспільного життя зумовлюється насамперед необхідністю створення єдиної державної уніфікованої системи обліку музейних предметів з усіх зібрань музеїв України. Наукова новизна полягає в запропонованих концептуальних підходах щодо збереження й повернення музейних цінностей у випадку збройних конфліктів та протистоянь. Методологія дослідження. Реалізації завдання дослідження підпорядкована теоретико-методологічна база, до складу якої входить комплекс методів, серед яких первинні – у вигляді збору інформації про рівень дослідженості теми, вивчення джерел, авторські спостереження та досвід, а також вторинні методи, які використані для обробки та аналізу отриманої інформації. Несформованість єдиної державної зведеної інформаційної бази даних на сьогодні унеможливлює встановлення масштабів втрат музейних цінностей на окупованих територіях. На прикладі музеїв окупованого Луганська доведено, що питання збереження пам’яток культури України повинно стати нагальним для органів влади всіх рівнів, а музейна спільнота має долучитися до обговорення зазначених проблем, створення та впровадження принципово нових шляхів та заходів зі збереження музейних фондів України, зважаючи на величезні втрати національних культурних цінностей за останні роки. Складання та публікація каталогів колекцій певних музейних установ і Музейного фонду України загалом мають стати стратегічним напрямом державної політики в галузі культури й музейної сфери, запобіжником остаточній втраті пам’яток у випадках збройних конфліктів. Висновки. Результати дослідження можна застосувати для відновлення та практичного оновлення діяльності музеїв після їхнього повернення до складу України, а також для розроблення науково-методичних рекомендацій щодо удосконалення обліку пам’яток культури України й державних програм зі збереження національного культурного надбання.
The purpose of the article is to outline the current problems in modern museum studies regarding the negative impact on the public perception of museum activities of the manipulation of the term ‘museum’ in the names of consumer infrastructure and periodicals. Research methodology. General scientific research methods were used, in particular historical, method of analysis, typological, method of analogies, method of generalization. Scientific novelty. The state and degree of speculation research with the term ‘museum’ in the names of elements of consumer infrastructure are determined. It is revealed that such a phenomenon did not originate in the 21st century but has existed since pre-Soviet times. It is determined why the speculation process with the term ‘museum’ is so popular in Ukraine and abroad. Conclusions. The article reflects the position of the authors on the use of the term ‘museum’ in the names of consumer infrastructure institutions – cafes, restaurants; usually carried out in order to use the authority of museums to attract new customers and consumers. Today it is popular to decorate catering establishments and cafes using antiques without investing in a special concept or design. A proposal was made to amend the legislation on the names of legal entities.
Many contemporary museums in Ukraine have a large number of issues related to different aspects of museum activity and approaches to it. In particular, it concerns the dialogue between the museum and the city and how the city is represented in the museum. It does not apply to all the features of museum exposition and material presentation. It refers to a dialogue that is supposed to be between the museum and the region where it is located, how the culture of the region is revealed in the museum, which aspects of culture are given more attention than the emphasis placed on the exposition. In our case, this is a dialogue between the museum and the city in the context of the city's everyday life. The aim of the research is to consider how the situation in this direction develops. On the theoretical level, the principles of museum work, its funds and expositions have been studied quite well. There are more issues when we refer to the problem of interaction between the museum and the city at the level of functioning of museum as part of the urban environment. This topic is less developed and, therefore, requires background study. The issue of studying the urban daily life for Ukrainian humanities became relevant not so long ago, it is subject to museum affairs. Therefore, a single methodology and a universal set of approaches have not been created yet. One of the top issues is that urban life has a rather rapid tempo and pace of development; it is too diverse, which attempts to portray it in the scale of exposure rather problematic. Thematic museums, devoted to specific components of urban life, assist to solve this problem in some way. The visitor, who is not only the recipient of the information provided by the museum, but also a part of the links between the museum and the city, plays an important role in the dialogue between the city and the museum. Moreover, the museum requires looking for ways to maximize the range of opportunities to supply information about urban culture by various means and at different levels. In particular, the attraction of visual means and virtual technologies contributes to this. In addition, the active inclusion of the museum in the visualization of urban life could contribute to the formation of new approaches to the study and museumification of urban culture. Thus, we see that the problems of presentation urban life in the museum and the inclusion of the museum itself in the urban everyday life have theoretical and practical components. These issues require further detailed research.
The aim of the article it to show the concept of «material culture» which is perceived somewhat ambiguously, but at the terminological level this concept exists and continues to be widely used by both ethnologists and cultural scientists. Methodology of the research consists in the method of analysis and synthesis. We propose to analyze the definitions of the concept of «material culture», which were formulated in ethnology and cultural studies, in order to understand the meaning of the humanitarian sciences.
The purpose of the paper is to identify the features of environmental museums that allow them to be considered as a phenomenon of modern cultural industries. The methodology of the work is based on the cultural approach with the use of analysis, synthesis. The scientific novelty of the research is that this paper is one of the first attempts at a comprehensive analysis of the environmental museum as a phenomenon of modern cultural industries in Ukrainian museology. Conclusions. The relevant features of environmental museums are: the possibility of attracting of other sectors of creative industries into the work; possibility of incorporation into a wider cultural industry; wider opportunities for presenting and interpreting cultural senses, working with visitors and creating creative products based on creative potential; active development of various forms of partnership.
Coursebook Review: Introduction to Museology and Monument Studies: coursebook/eds. O. Honcharova, S. Pustovalov. - Kyiv: Lira-K Publishing House, 2019. - 490 p.
Мета дослідження – наголосити на важливості включення до реєстру пам’яток культури та входження до складу Державного архітектурно-історичного заповідника «Софійський музей» (нині – Національний заповідник «Софія Київська») пам’ятки архітектури ХІХ ст. – колишнього дияконського флігеля, задля збереження цілісності архітектурного ансамблю Києво-Софійського собору, а також для підкреслення зв’язку родини Стрілець-Морозових з суспільно-громадськими, релігійними та культурними процесами, що відбувалися у 20–30-ті роки ХХ ст. на території України. Наукова новизна дослідження полягає в тому, що вперше в контексті історії пам’ятки кінця ХІХ ст., колишнього дияконського флігеля, розглянуто один з аспектів меморизації Григорія Косинки, а меморіальна дошка письменнику українського розстріляного відродження як своєрідний образ історичної пам’яті та елемент об’єкта культурної спадщини. Методи дослідження базуються на загальнонаукових та спеціальних методах, зокрема використано історичний метод. Застосовано методи бібліографічних, архівних, іконографічних досліджень, а також емпіричні методи: спостереження, натурне вивчення та порівняння. Висновки. Встановлення меморіальної дошки Григорію Косинці ознаменувало появу нового «місця пам’яті» та стало складником історії колишнього дияконського флігеля. Його включення до складу архітектурно-історичного заповідника сприяло збереженню пам’ятки архітектури ХІХ ст. та цілісності архітектурного ансамблю одного з найбільших музейних комплексів України.
The article is devoted to one event in ancient history, called ‘The First Migration of Peoples,’ which was studied and commented on many times when the Germanic tribes Cimbri and Teutons carried out many years of displacement in the space of Central Europe. Despite their defeat by Rome, this event caused a powerful movement of other tribes, especially towards Eastern Europe, where many new archaeological cultures were formed. Among them, a special place is occupied by the Zarubinets culture and its part in the history of Eastern Europe. The purpose of the study is to determine the place of Zarubinets culture in the history of eastern Europe. The research methodology consists in the use of general scientific, special and interdisciplinary methods. Scientific novelty. For the first time, the Zarubinets culture of Eastern Europe is considered against the background of the Western European tribe’s movement due to Roman expansion. Conclusions. The question of the Zarubinets culture's origin is still debatable. Now there is no particular objection to the opinion that the genesis of Zarubinets culture was a complex process that reflected the peculiarities of both the internal development of the local population and the effects of external circumstances, reflecting the movement of tribes in the Center for Europe.
Мета статті полягає у висвітленні динаміки змін географічної ситуації в пониззі Дніпра, зокрема на Кінбурнському півострові в античний час і освоєння регіону на фоні грецької колонізації Нижнього Побужжя. Під час написання статті застосовані загальнонаукові методи та системний підхід до вивчення писемних та археологічних джерел. Наукова новизна полягає в порівнянні археологічних і давньогрецьких літературних джерел із палеогеографічними даними, що дало змогу відновити природні умови в античний час у районі Буго-Дніпровського лиману і значно доповнити уявлення про формування греко-варварських зв’язків у регіоні. Висновки. Природні умови в районі Буго-Дніпровського лиману неодноразово змінювалися протягом останніх тисячоліть, що було пов’язано із коливанням рівня Чорного моря. З античного часу Кінбурнський півострів був відомий в античній літературній традиції, але мав зовсім іншу конфігурацію берегової лінії й був вкритий листяним лісом. Наприкінці VII ст. до н. є. на березі одного з рукавів дніпровської дельти з’явилося поселення, яке за своїми морфологічними ознаками було визначено як тимчасове сезонне торжище, на якому в теплу пору працювали ремісники – вихідці із Подніпров’я, Балкан, Північного Кавказу й навіть далеких східних областей. Затухання життя на торжищі було пов’язано із заснуванням Ольвії, де прибулі здалеку ремісники могли затримуватися на тривалий час, не залежачи від сезонних змін погоди й орендуючи приміщення для облаштування там тимчасових майстерень. З Ольвії ці майстри могли розповсюджувати свою діяльність і на поселення хори, про що свідчать поодинокі зношені ливарні форми на деяких із них, а також поховання варварського ливарника в Марицинському могильнику неподалік від Ольвії. Після від’їзду майстрів у приміщеннях прибирали і всі рештки майстерень скидали в покинуті льохи або ями, подібні до тієї, що була розкопана в 1982 р.
Цель работы. Выставочные проекти – неоценимый ресурс эффективной организации и проведения практических занятий для студентов специальностей музееведение, искусствоведение и др. Выставочный процесс дает возможность студенческой аудитории не только реализовать свой творческий потенциал, но и приобрести практические навыки необходимые современному специалисту. Методология исследования. Основой методологии исследования стали принципы объективности, системности и такие общенаучные методы исследования, как анализ и синтез. Аналитический метод – позволил выявить специфику процесса организации художественных выставок, а синтетический – определить закономерности. Научная новизна заключается в моделировании выставочного процесса, характерной особенностью которого является то, что основным его участниками выступают студенты, что значительно отличается от аналогичного процесса в музейном деле. Выводы. Проанализирован процесс реализации выставочных проектов и сформулирована методику работы со студентами при осуществлении выставочного процесса. Апробация результатов исследования осуществлена на пяти выставочных проектах произведений украинской академической живописи в течении 2015–2017 гг.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the significance of educational activities as the leading direction of the modern museum; to identify the main theoretical achievements of the twentieth century, which laid the foundation for the development of modern educational museum practices; explore the technology of edutainment as a tool for the effective adaptation of museum information for people with different levels of education and cultural training. Research methods are based on the general scientific principle of objectivity, as well as structural-functional and analytical methods. Scientific novelty. The main theoretical achievements that laid the foundation for the development of educational museum practices of the 20th century are systematized and summarized; the use of edutainment technologies in the educational activities of modern museums is explored. Conclusions. It was determined that the theoretical and practical basis for the development of modern educational museum practices was laid during the twentieth century. It is proved that by implementing the recreational-educational function of the museum, the following tasks can be solved: the formation of a value relation to objective reality, the development of associative perception, figurative thinking, the ability for independent judgments, creative activity and self-analysis.
The purpose of the article is to systematize and streamline the current legislation to simplify the algorithm for collecting and compiling a package of documents in order to establish and register a museum (museum formation) at a military educational institution. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that an attempt has been made to systematize and streamline the process of forming museum formation, as well as to harmonize and generalize the current legislative requirements for this process. Conclusions. A study of the legislation and regulatory framework for the establishment, operation and registration of museums at military educational institutions showed a complex and confusing system of regulatory legal acts, often requiring duplication of certain actions, and sometimes mutually exclusive, which complicates the procedure for creating a museum at a military educational institution. Systematization of regulatory requirements, structuring them in the order of implementation, as well as the classification and inventory of the collection items directly requires a specialist with the appropriate professional skills, abilities and motivation, otherwise, the assembly remains in the status of a storage.
Світова археологічна, антропологічна та історична науки зазнали важкої втрати. На 93 році життя 7 листопада 2019 року в Санкт-Петербурзі помер Лев Самуїлович Клейн. Викладач Ленінградського – Петербурзького університету, він читав лекції у Віденському, Західно-Берлінському, Копенгагенському, Даремському, Люблянському, Туркському, Вашингтонському університетах. В Мадриді, Кембриджі, Оксфорді, Стокгольмі Лев Самуїлович Клейн виступав з доповідями. У його науковому доробку понад 800 статей та понад 20 монографій з найрізноманітнішої гуманітарної проблематики.
The purpose of the research. An important component of the preservation of history monuments, architecture of local and national significance is their adaptation to the modern environment, in particular in the form of memorial museums. The article is devoted to the identification and ways to solve the problems of existing museums-estates, as well as estates-potential museums of prominent figures of culture and science in Kiev. The methodology of the research. An induction method has been applied, from which it follows that the condition, preservation and adaptation of each individual estate affects the overall state of protection of the cultural heritage of the capital as a whole. As well as attention to the problems of the protection of monuments in Kiev by officials, non-governmental organizations and the public affects the preservation of individual estates according to the deduction method. On the example of the analysis of the five famous museums of Kiev functioning, typical problems that they face are discovered. With the help of generalization of examples of creating museums positive experience, the ways to solve problems of estates that can become museumsare pointed. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that for the first time they underwent a comprehensive, systematic study and focus on the problems of museums-estates of Kiev prominent figures, and the author suggested ways to solve the problems of estates that are currently being destroyed. Conclusions. The following problems were analyzed through the prism of the milestones of the life and creative work of the figures whose estates are being examined: audience engagement; research of manor; reproduction of the authentic atmosphere of the premises; the importance of museums; conservation, restoration and adaptation of estates for memorial museums. The results of the study were tested at scientific conference and on the studios, which provided a wide publicity to the issue, and became the basis for further scientific research.
The aim of the article. The article is devoted to the problems of bread boarding of hot manufactures (pottery, metallurgy, glass making and others) in historical museums. The role of the layout in the creation of museum communication is not sufficiently appreciated. Much of the museum communication depends on the attractiveness of the exposition itself. The layout greatly increases the attractiveness of the exposition. However, mock-ups are very rare in museum expositions. Models of archaeological sites are even less common. Mostly such models are one of the central stands in the exposition. The creation of mock-ups of archaeological monuments for museum expositions to this day largely remains the work of the museum alone. One of the authors has already developed the scientific basis for creating mock-ups. On this basis, in this article, the problems of proto-chimney furnace prototyping, single-deck, two-tier furnaces are considered. For the sake of clarity of the first primitive methods of roasting, it is possible to use the model of an improvised furnace. They are the so-called ash-rooms of the Bilogroodivka culture. In the subsequent history, there are two main designs of pottery furnaces. The first of them had a side furnace, the hot air from which entered a special burning chamber. However, the air had different temperatures at the bottom of the burning chamber and under its ceiling. The most perfect design was a stove, the furnace was located under the burning chamber. In this case, the hot air completely covered all the dishes. Such a design of pottery furnaces is already known in the Neolithic of the Ancient Near East. The authors analyse the excavation materials of pottery furnaces that have been made in recent years, with the goal of creating scientifically based mock-ups. Conclusion.Also, the evolution of the metallurgical case is examined using the example of three methods of melting metal. According to the oldest method, the crucible with the charge was covered with a second crucible and placed on a pile of charcoal. Then the coal was set on fire and four metallurgists with nozzles on long wooden pipes became to the crucible. They carried out the blast. Also, the evolution of the metallurgical case is examined using the example of three methods of melting metal. And in the era of late bronze melting was carried out in special ovens with blowing. The described metallurgical devices of early and late bronze allow creating their models. The authors come to the conclusion that models can become central stands in museum expositions.
The aim of the article is exposition work, which is one of the main directions in museum activity. Its base deals with presentation and representation of museum objects, which must execute social, educational and cultural functions. The article is devoted to analysis of exposition activity in museums and definition of implementation specificity of interactive technologies in museum practice. Methodology of the research consists in the method of analysis and synthesis. The innovative methods of museum exposition formation were designed and offered on example of analysis of interactive exposition resolves in the three European museums. The method of synthesis allowed to study an interactive exposition in generally, in unified communication of its issues and to justify its meaning and role in contemporary cultural space in generally. Scientific novelty of the research deals with revelation of the exposition museum activity specificity that is based on the analysis of museum expositions in leading museums in Poland. The necessity of using of interactive technologies in formation of museum space in contemporary Ukraine has been justified in the research. Conclusion. There have been analyzed characteristic features of interactive museum exposition as the composite part of museum space; there have been suggested the main models of interactive technologies, which can be used in developing of exposition resolves; there have been analyzed the main factors of influence on development and perfection of contemporary museum exposition.
The main objective of the study is to provide a scientific understanding of the problem situation in the sphere of the immovable cultural heritage of Kyiv protection during the last decade and to find ways of its solving. The methodology is based on the use of general scientific and special methods, in particular, the historical method in a systematic approach, when the object of study is considered in development, as well as a comparative method, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction. The scientific novelty of the research is that for the first time the existing situation in the sphere of protection of the immovable cultural heritage in the capital of Ukraine in the first decades of the ХХІ century, its causes and consequences were analyzed. On this basis, possible ways of ensuring the modernization of historic preservation activities in Kyiv are outlined. The findings and conclusions of the study. The modernization of historic preservation activities in Kyiv requires the renovation of the legislative framework and improvement of administration in this area. It demands the provision of the specialists with the necessary qualifications and the need for the operational development and approval of the necessary scientific, design and urban planning documentation for the city, as well as the provision for repair and maintenance works, restoration works on specific city monuments.