Contrary to the industrial epoch, cities have been interpreted in the last fifty years as the places facing the greatest economic and social problems. A contrasting view has emerged only recently that takes cities as sites of economic dynamism and social vitality. The paper offers evidence on population change for 118 greatest cities of the United States of America to assess how their fortunes have changed from the 1950s to 2009. Considerable diversity of experience was revealed and seven categories of cities have been distinguished as far as their population change patterns are concerned. These categories range from the continuous growth from 1950 until today to continuous decline. The most dynamic cities are located in the Sun Belt and they are relatively small and new.
On the opposite, the biggest and old industrial centres of the Rust Belt have been losing inhabitants. In general, the pattern of population change shows close relationship with the economic situation and in particular, is connected with the structural changes in society and economy, namely the structural shifts toward more services-oriented economy, and smaller households.
Essentially the paper offers the historical outline of the population changes in the biggest American urban centres. It should be seen as an introduction necessary for the more advanced studies concerning the issues of employment, incomes, ethnic composition, and various social problems which could explain the changing fortunes of particular cities.
Political and socioeconomic transformation has significantly influenced demographic processes in Central and East Europe. This was mainly noticeable in behaviours and attitudes concerning forming and developing of families. With regard to the aforementioned behaviours, the populations of analysed countries have adopted to new conditions very quickly, and the demographic parameters have reached values that were almost identical as those in West Europe. The situation developed completely differently in the case of mortality and life expectancy. Differences between Central and East Europe, and West European countries, which were already visible at the beginning of 1990's, have been eliminated considerably slower. Even though, one can observe favourable transformations in life expectancy and the distribution of death causes in the Central and Eastern European countries. Those changes are especially apparent in countries which became members of the European Union in 2004.
Rural Areas in Poland in The Context of Changes in Population Age Structure in 1996, 2001 and 2006
The article presents changes in the rural age structures in Poland as observed in the years 1996, 2001 and 2006. The changes in population numbers are analysed with respect to age groups, the aging index and the old-age rate. Regarding its spatial scope, the article covers rural areas in Poland and the basic territorial units it uses are rural communes and the rural parts of mixed rural-urban communes that altogether amount to 2,171 units (as of 2006). The obtained results are discussed in a broader context of urban as well as countrywide age structures.
Demographic Determinants of the Activity of Farms in Poland in the Acquisition of European Union Funds in the Years 2004-2006
Out of the several assistance measures of the European Union orientated towards the development of agriculture, there are two in which demographic criteria have been set for the beneficiaries, viz. support for young farmers (applications can be submitted by farmers up to 40 years old) and structural pensions (eligible farmers are of pre-retirement age: from 55 to the start of retirement age). The number of applications processed under those measures in the years 2004-2006 (the actual absorption level) as against the total number of young farmers and those of pre-retirement age (the potential absorption level) was adopted as a basis for a spatial analysis and assessment of the use of the EU funds in those fields. Indices constructed on the basis of the number of applications per 1,000 farm operators, both young and of pre-retirement age, showed there to be wide spatial differences. It was shown that the lowest activity of farms in this respect was characteristic of those in south-eastern Poland. In turn, the measures determined by the demographic structure of farmers were the most popular in the voivodeships of Kujavia-Pomerania and Wielkopolska. Such a spatial distribution contributes to a further deepening of regional disparities in Polish agriculture.
Spatial Distribution of EU Structural Funds in Poland in 2004-2006 - Factors, Directions, and Limitations
In 2004, Poland joined the European Union. This access means the possibility of taking advantage of European Union Structural Funds. Apart from this the structural funds play another important role. The popularity of the idea of European integration in countries like Poland depends largely on the effectiveness of this financial support, which theoretically should lead to economic and social development on different levels (local, regional, national, and even continental). The main problem of relying on EU funds is their unequal availability, which is limited, for example, because of the granting principles.
Income and Expenditure of the Polish Population in 2006 (An analysis of Regional Diversification)
Changes in the political system after 1989 have led to the opening up of new areas of study in many fields of research, including socio - economic geography. One such example, undoubtedly, is the regional diversification of income and expenditure of the population, which was the subject of the ongoing studies, whose selected results are presented in this study. An analysis of the level of income and expenditure of the population was important, as it provided information on: the level of socio-economic development, the standard of living, the level of civilization and culture development, consumption structures, consumption patterns, changes in the structure of demand, etc. Therefore, it was significant for understanding the process of changes which have taken place in Poland. The analysis also provided new generic approaches (problems). This article presents, above all, the research results of the regional diversification of income and expenditure levels as well as the consumption structures of the Polish population in 2006 (in an elementary, complex and synthetic section). A further aim of the research, was to determine statistically significant factors which influence the income and consumption patterns - both factors which had a positive impact (the level of urbanization, the efficiency and productivity of the economy, agricultural produce) and a negative one (unemployment, age structure of the population, population growth and industrial production). This resulted from the conviction that, each description is valuable only if it is supplemented with an explanation of the reasons for such a state of affairs.
The Electorate in Poland's Large and Medium-Sized cities and Towns and its Influence on the Results of the 2007 Parliamentary Elections
Urbanization is regarded among the most significant factors affecting election-related behaviour in Poland. In order to identify the importance of Poland's municipal electorate, a procedure of reverse elimination was applied to the electorates of successive largest cities in Poland, followed by a structure of supporting the strongest political parties at each stage of the cities' rank elimination. Whenever each successive elimination is followed by dwindling support for a given party, this party is referred to as pro-metropolitan.
Full version available here: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bog.2008.9.issue--1/v10089-008-0008-4/v10089-008-0008-4.xml
The article presents the problems of the Lodz Ghetto organized by the Germans during World War II and the role of the ghetto railway station - called Radegast Station. The author also describes the contemporary function of the station, paying particular attention to the initiative of the local authorities, which led to building a monument within its premises, commemorating the Holocaust of the Lodz Jewish population. Following that, the author presents the results of a survey conducted in the monument area in 2007, which allowed the local authorities' activity and its indirect influence on the image of Lodz to be assessed.
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In the early 19 century Łódź became a huge centre of textile production. However, the transformations in Poland after 1989 led to the decline of this industry. At present the city is looking for new forms of development, such as services, including tourism and culture. One of the most important elements of the cultural function in Łódź are film festivals, based on over 50 year long tradition of film making in this city. The aim of this article is to present the film festivals organized in Łódź, which are a tourist asset and a kind of tourist product (an event). They are at the same time an element of cultural tourism, part of which is event tourism, connected with festivals and film tourism.
The article presents changes in the structure of population by age in ÅšlÄ…skie voivodship between 1990 and 2035. The similarity of structures has been studied with the use of taxonomic algorithm and the time distributions of senility and load indices of the population in general while taking sex and place of residence into consideration have been presented. The process of population ageing is more and more intensive. Less and less numerous age groups that reach the productive age and more and more numerous age groups that enter the retirement age show that ÅšlÄ…skie voivodship, similarly to the whole area of Poland and other European countries, will have to face the problem of population ageing. This challenge is particularly hard to confront because of the low level of professional activity of the people over 50 years of age.
Dynamics of National Composition of Vilnius Population in the 2 nd Half of the 20 th Century
The article presents changes of national composition of Vilnius population in the 2 nd half of the 20 th century. The changes of Vilnius population are analyzed with respect to nationality, including the smallest territorial administrative units of Vilnius. The growth of the city population was associated with an intensive allround city development. Based on the data of the censuses of 1989 and 2001, the article focuses on the dynamics of national composition, which took place after the restoration of independence. The analysis encompasses not only the intensity of dynamics of different nationalities but also the portion of national minorities residing in Vilnius (Poles and Russians in particular) on a country scale.
The article presents the main changes in Bulgarian urban settlements during the last two decades and the present-day situation and processes of their development. A pronounced tendency towards a decrease in the urban population in Bulgaria can be observed in this period, which is closely related to the continuing drop in the total number of the country's population. A comparison with earlier periods shows that there is a greater concentration of population in the cities and middle-sized towns. The processes of transformation in Bulgarian urban settlements are similar to those in the other Central and East-European countries in transition. The economic transformations and the changes in the urban economy affected the urban territorial structure. The last two decades have witnessed considerable changes in the spatial pattern of the complex systems links established between the settlements as well as between the settlements, gravitating to the cities or agglomerations. The regional policy, which has been implemented for the past two decades, aims to consolidate the importance of Bulgarian urban settlements (over 20 thousand inhabitants) and agglomerations in regional development.
Social and Spatial Dimensions of Demographic Processes in Beijing Municipality at the Turn of the 21 ST Century
This study focuses on the demographic processes in Beijing Municipality at the turn of the 21 st century and attempts to evaluate a role of China's social policies upon contemporary population changes. Two main determinants influencing present demographic characteristics were taken into consideration: the immigration of temporary workers and one-child policy. Socio-economic processes in Beijing are accompanied by the rapid changes of urban physiognomy as a result of immense city development (new industrial and residential areas) and new investments prepared for the 2008 Olympics. A spatial typology of socio-demographic changes between 1997 and 2007 was created in order to distinguish areas of different demographic and social development. Concluding remarks of this study highlight main characteristics and determinants of Beijing Municipality demographic features and a pace of their changes. Evidences typically found in Beijing clearly show a crucial role of market economy elements which have a great effect upon socio-spatial urban expansion.
The aim of the paper is to recognize and to assess the scope of Non-Governmental Organisations cooperating across the Polish Eastern border. Non-Governmental Organisations as the vital element of civil society may play a significant role in stimulating social and economic relations between citizens from bordering countries.
This paper is focused on the Polish - Russian (Kaliningrad Oblast) and Polish - Ukrainian border region and is based on empirical data from over 150 questionnaire surveys conducted on both sides of the border.
The gathered information shows not only how organisations operate but also partly indicates the nature of local border society.
The observed lack of conformity between the population measured by category of registration for permanent residence and the actual population is on the one hand a consequence of the limitations connected with public statistics and on the other it is the result of increasing temporary spatial mobility. Beside the scale of this phenomenon, its spatial dimension is particularly significant as, together with official statistics concerning population inflow and outflow, it defines the real intensity and directions of migration.
The basic objective of this study was to examine the scale and conditions connected with the shaping of spatial diversities between the size of registered and actual populations. The analysis was conducted, above all, in relation to economic factors creating these differences. The analysis was carried out in relation to the units of LAU2 level in Poland.
The conducted analysis indicated that economic and education-related conditions played an important role in the shaping of temporary registered migration. This also confirmed the existence of a link between temporary registered migration and human capital as well as the level of economic development of particular regions. Spatial structure of temporary registered migration was similar to non-registered migration structure. Thus, it may help define general directions of informal population migration.
It is often argued that innovation plays a key role in the economic growth of regions. Therefore, the impacts of innovation on the socio-economic development of regions have been widely discussed in previous studies, but with divergent areal coverage, methods, and datasets. As a point for departure, these relationships redrawn from international literature are tested here with a single dataset from Finnish local administrative units and with coherent methods. As there does not seem to be a generally accepted indicator for innovation which can claim to be superior, despite the growing literature on the subject, research and development (R&D), and patent statistics are used in this paper to represent innovation activity. The significant, strong, and positive relationship between innovation and traditional socio-economic variables is verified using Finnish regions.
Ageing and Quality of Life - New Responses from the Real Estate Sector in Portugal (1)
In the second half of the 20 th century, the history of European demography is associated with a pronounced and widespread process of ageing. The 21 st century will have to cater to the needs of an elderly population in transformation. Portugal is also part of this process and in efforts to improve the quality of life of the elderly, a wide range of facilities, services and social responses have been established by a variety of promoters, targeting several social levels. This paper will analyze a specific segment directed at an exclusive niche of the elderly population, the Senior Residential Condominiums. This is a very recent segment of the housing market, with high levels of comfort, quality, sanitation, health, and recreation, essential to full well-being. The paper intends to characterize this real estate market niche so as to identify its distinctive features, the promoting agents and how they can contribute to residents' quality of life.
The paper addresses the issue of current immigration to Finland in the context of population ageing. It is estimated that about 40% of the present labour force will have withdrawn from the Finnish labour market by the year 2020. The government of this rapidly ageing country is seeking possible remedies to the problem of a shrinking labour force. The necessity of attracting a new workforce as well as the growing number of immigrants in the ethnically homogeneous Finnish society create a need for more detailed and creative immigration policy. The paper analyzes the age and economic structure of the immigrant population, its participation in the labour market as well as the importance of immigration in contemporary demographic changes in Finland. Another aim of this paper is to outline major issues concerning Finnish immigration policy.
The Quality of Life of Suburbanities: A Case Study of the Gdańsk Agglomeration
The article explains the meaning of the concept of ‘quality of life’, placing emphasis on its subjective dimension. As the concept is more and more discussed in the literature, the author intends to examine the satisfaction within public spaces for which local government is responsible. According to research made in Canada it is worth measuring not only satisfaction as such but also the importance of its constituent dynamics. Therefore, a survey made in the suburbs of the Gdańsk agglomeration asked respondents about their satisfaction with public transport, roads, environment, etc., including questions about the relative importance of such issues. The combination of satisfaction and importance provide the overall quality of life. At the end of the paper the author considers if there is a chance to improve the quality of life through a brief analysis of local governments expenditure.
The paper describes political support for Polish political parties as aggregated into four principal options (left-wing, liberal, populist, and right-wing) as well as flux in the electorate in MaÅ‚opolskie voivodship in the last two decades in order to show regions of electoral stability that tend to do favour the four principal social and political options. Stabilization of cultural and political identity and gradual changes therein are shown by comparing dominant political options with selected social and economic data. The comparison should also allow for a reasonable prediction of future gains and losses for each political option.
Consumer behaviour has led to the development of specific shopping systems in the Gubin-Guben transborder urban complex. One, fairly stable, is geared to the local population service, while the other displays a marked asymmetry in terms of volume and function. On the Polish side, this system responds to changes very dynamically and adjusts to the expectations of consumers from the German side; the German system, however, has opened to the Polish consumer only slightly. The author's research presented here shows that consumer behaviour is largely controlled by the exchange rate of the euro, prices, and the quality of products in the given country; but it also depends on the socio-occupational status of the residents of the two transborder towns.
In the last decades in most European countries urbanization can be observed, characterized by a tendency towards expansion of big cities into their environs with a decreasing number of inhabitants living in urban cores (urban sprawl). The result is networked, poly-centric forms of concentration. These new structures are the result of the changes in the organization of the production process, the increasing role of the service and information based economy and the growing mobility of the population.
The aim of this paper is to present the demographic aspect of urban processes in Portugal, in the country as well as in the Lisbon Metropolita Area.
Demographic Situation and the Level of Human Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan: Regional Aspects
The objects of research are indicators of human development in Kazakhstan from the moment of independence acquisition by the republic until today. The subject of scientific research is spatial-existential patterns of socio-demographic processes as a key factor of human potential development in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The importance of scientific work is that the results permit to estimate the level of human development of the Republic of Kazakhstan on the basis of socio-demographic processes. For the first time the basic indicators defining human potential in Kazakhstan have been studied in detail and systematized. The aim of the work is to define the laws of the spatial organization of human potential and its basic spatial analyses of human development of Kazakhstan. The database, created with the help of ArcGIS, allows to monitor the changes of human development level, to analyze, estimate and manage human potential of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Spatial Diversification of the Balance on the Labour Market in Rural areas in Poland
The purpose of the study is to present the spatial diversification of the level of the balance on the local labour market in the rural areas. The spatial unit of the analysis is constituted by rural communes (gminas) and the rural areas of the urban-rural communes in Poland according to the administrative division into town and village. This means that the research concerns the spatial diversification observed according to 2,171 units. It was accepted in the research that a balanced labour market occurs where favourable demographic structures are located around the largest regional centres in Poland. This is connected with the development of the communes' non-agricultural economic functions and a strong dependence on urban markets.
The aim of the article is to present some of the consequences of the suburbanization process in Poland, where said the process became relevant in the 1990s and continues to this day. The author focuses specifically on the demographic aspects of this phenomenon, i.e., the changes in population it has implied in urban and suburban areas, as well as the characteristics of the relevant demographic structures and natural increase that affect the territories in question.
The results of the research pertain to three of the largest cities in the Lubelskie voivodship: Lublin, CheÅ‚m, and ZamoÅ›Ä‡, spanning the years 1995 to 2007. An analysis of available statistical data on this period allows us to note substantial differences in some demographic indicators for cities on the one hand and their respective communes (gminas) on the other. Additionally, the data suggests that the population shifts and changes that occur in the region are the result of an interaction between suburbanization processes and the ongoing Second Demographic Transition, which takes place simultaneously.
Foreign Migration of Poles in Scientific Research at the Turn of Century
The article deals with problems related to present foreign migrations of Poles. The attention is concentrated on presenting scientific research results in this sphere indicating many problems caused by migrations not only in the social, demographic and economic spheres but also in political and cultural spheres thus enabling scientists to understand better this complex and multidimensional phenomenon.
A number of specific characteristics of the town of Cieszyn are inherently related to its history. Since 1920, Cieszyn has been divided by a state border along the Olza river (except for the war time of 1938-1945). Before that, since the 17<sup>th</sup> century, the town was part of the Austrian Habsburg empire and was under imperial Vienna's cultural influence. The contemporary structure of the Polish part of Cieszyn includes numerous elements reflecting the town's specificity. Therefore, the social cognitive image of Cieszyn comprises those components of its spatial structure too.
Knowledge and know-how of calculation methods of indicators and indices allow to evaluate, compare and correlate if not fully then to a considerable extent the situation in different countries and regions of the world. Moreover, in countries with "transitional economy" to which Russia and other countries of former Soviet Union are attributed to, the situation has significantly changed and it is necessary to adjust the directions and perspectives of development considering the changed environment.
The article characterizes a position of Russia and other CIS's countries (Commonwealth of Independent States) on the international rating of Human Development Index and Networked Readiness Index.
Nowadays, one of the characteristic orientations in social science studies focusing on cities is the ranking of cities, as well as the definition of the world's leading cities (world cities, global cities) on the basis of various criteria. Central European countries are given just a minor role in these researches, particularly in comparison with German cities with their considerable economic performance. This analysis compares the large cities of Austria, Germany and the countries of the VisegrÃ¡d Group in terms of their role in economic leadership. To this end, the characteristic parameters have been examined: the GDP in purchasing power standards and nominal GDP of the cities, the revenues of large companies found in these cities, as well as the domestic market capitalization of the stock exchanges.
Commuting as a Spatial Feature of International Concern's Location in a Major City. Example of Poznań
The study presents the spatial aspects of the location of a branch of an international concern in a major city, viz. in Poznań, in terms of commuting streams, both from the city area, and the surrounding area, as well as their variation in the period 2000-2009. In order to characterise the spatial arrangement of commuting, the study used centrographic measures to analyse the variation of commuting directions and identify the areas of the greatest concentration. Furthermore, it was observed that there was a regular disproportion between the group of employees commuting from the city area, and the group of employees commuting from the region, the latter of which was smaller. It thus seems that an international concern production plant influences the local labour market to a significant extent, displaying the strongest regional impact within the range of 20 km from its location, with the direction of this influence being clearly related to the plant's location in relation to city borders, which might be linked to better communicational accessibility.
The process of socio-economic change, which started in Poland in 1989, began the series of modifications in the structure of Polish cities. These changes embrace the economic sphere and the social sphere, as well as the habitable environment. The changes occurring in Polish cities resemble the processes present in settlement systems in highly developed countries. They take place, however, with some delay which is caused by the movement from the centrally controlled economy to the market economy and all the problems associated with it.
The aim of the presented article is to show the influence of occurring changes on the socio-economic development and demographic situation apparent in small towns of the WrocÅ‚aw Metropolitan Area (WrMA). The attempt of evaluation of factors promoting the development was undertaken. The value of chosen characteristics was analyzed for the set of small towns of DolnoÅ›lÄ…skie voivodship. The analysis of chosen quantities common for demographic phenomena in a longer time cross-section (1995-2008) pinpoints the irregularity of development of specific towns, which may result in negative effects for the whole area in the future.
Inner-City Transformations after Socialism. Findings from Interviews with New Residents of Pre-War Tenement Houses in Gdańsk
Issues of intense suburbanization and urban sprawl have been the most discussed threads in the recent debate on urban development in Poland. Meanwhile, in numerous cities of Western Europe signs of inner-city revival have been observed and investigated. Led by demographic and lifestyle changes alike, such reurbanization trends are found to be closely related to household transformations. Results of undertaken studies indicate that residential preferences of non-traditional households, such as singles, cohabitations, childless couples or flatsharers, gravitate to inner-city living. The aim of this paper is to reveal similar tendencies in a postsocialist city, using the example of Gdańsk. Presented results of statistical and qualitative data analyses point towards confirmation of incipient reurbanization, although with several distinctions following from the postsocialist context.
Analysis of Relationships Between Distribution of Population and Spatial Economy of Communes in the Kraków Metropolitan Area
The expansion of developed areas is one the factors that influence the distribution of population. Spatial policy implemented by communes reflects the existing tendencies but is also a factor that moulds the occurring processes. The aim of this article is to present the planned development of areas designated for investing, depending on the existing density of population. The article presents relationships between location and present distribution of population, and planned degree of expansion of development of communes located within the Kraków Metropolitan Area (the "KMA"). The range of areas designated for investing was analysed based on valid commune planning documents, which means that the article took into account 52 land use plans concerning all the communes that form the Kraków Metropolitan Area. The object of analysis is the spatial policy of communes related to the expansion of development, as well as demographic conditions of the Kraków Metropolitan Area.
Typology of Suburban Communities in Poland
The paper presents an attempt to classify new and existing suburban communities in Poland based on spatial patterns and comparisons with suburbs in the United States. Fifteen types of Polish suburban communities are identified in the paper. As large-scale suburban development is a relatively new phenomenon in Poland, most Polish suburban communities will continue to evolve over time and make the transition from one community type to another. An understanding of each type of suburban community may help local governments assist the communities they serve in the process of creating infrastructure and jobs for a growing population.
The article presents results of a multidimensional comparative analysis of the level of demographic development of voivodeships in Poland in years 1999-2006. Hellwig's synthetic measure of a development pattern was applied and on its basis the classification of voivodeships into homogenous typological groups was carried out with regard to demographic development.
The results of the research have pointed to a significant influence of socio-economic factors on the extent of advancement of given voivodeships in reaching a modern type of population reproduction.
Comparing the Probability of Unemployment in Southern Greece Vis-À-Vis the Entire Country
The basic aim of this paper is to investigate the impact that educational level of individuals and participation in training programmes (apprenticeship, intra-firm training, continuing vocational training, popular training) have on their job prospects in Southern Greece (namely the regions of Southern Aegean and Crete) during the implementation of the first Community Support Framework (1989-1993). We also research the differences between the two regions under study and the entire country. We try to see whether the educational level itself and participation in training programmes increased the chances of finding a job. More specifically, we research what are the social and demographic characteristics that increase the chances of someone in the examined population finding a job, how those chances change (if they do) after the introduction of training courses and, also, whether University graduates, in contrast to most of the rest of the EU member states, face greater difficulties in finding a job than non-University graduates, as a series of studies for Greece conclude. To the author's knowledge, this is the first attempt to analyse individual anonymised records (micro-data) from the Labour Force Survey (LFS) for both employed and unemployed in those two regions at NUTS 2 level.
Taking into consideration all conceptions of economic and social development discussed here it should be concluded that
-- non of the classical models of social transformation is represented in the Katowice region in homogeneous form. In fact, only modernisation (as it is a historical aspect) is most distinguished among others;
-- it is possible that features typical for several models of economic or social transformations occur at the same time. This concerns spatial approaches.
The consequence of frequent fragmentation of social-economic reality in numerous theoretical conceptions and proposals of restructuring changes is a narrow understanding of the research problems. It seems, therefore, that conceptions of social development created on the basis of sociology may be successfully applied in social geography. The condition here is not only taking into account spatial aspects but also the possibility of applying several models of transformations at the same time.
Lowest-Low Fertility in Japan: Consequences For A Once-Great Nation
Japan, once a great economic superpower, is currently one of a number of countries experiencing lowest-low fertility, having a total fertility rate of less than 1.5. This demographic figure exists alongside two decades of low economic growth, undermining confidence in national integrity and longevity. The association of low growth and lowest-low fertility has provoked a contest between two visions for national rejuvenation - one an old and increasingly discredited liberalism, and the second, a new demographic conservatism. Japan's debate is not new or unique. Questioning the methods for national replacement and the relationship between fertility and national integrity remains a crucial aspect of nationalism in a globalized world. In the Japanese context, the contest is between two visions for the nation - on the one hand, a cautious nationalism with attendant liberal proclivities; on the other a more conservative vision for the role of women in the family and civic duties. The election of the Democratic Party of Japan (DJP) in 2009 saw fertility issues prominent in the election campaign. Nonetheless, recapturing the lost economic greatness and the role of fertility in definitions of Japanese nationalism remain unresolved and controversial issues.
This paper attempts to determine and describe suburbanization stages (especially in the context of political-economic transformations and population changes) and also, to verify classical models of urbanization stages as a system of concentric zones, basing on historical process of development of complex settlement systems of Katowice voivodship (according to the former administrative division), i.e., Katowice conurbation, Rybnik agglomeration, Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a agglomeration, and CzÄ™stochowa agglomeration. The analysis includes the population number and the balance of migration between 1975 and 2008, as well as the number of entities of national economy between 1995 and 2008. Every settlement system was divided into its core, such as the main city or a group of cities, and its surrounding area, comprising urban and rural municipalities directly neighbouring the core. The calculations included absolute single-base increments and chain increments.
The analysis showed that the historical processes of urbanization of the ÅšlÄ…skie voivodship reveal significant variations in the way they were shaped in comparison with model-based approaches included in the literature of the subject matter. The agglomeration of CzÄ™stochowa is the closest to the concentric model, consisting of urbanization, suburbanization and deurbanization, whereas the remaining settlement systems reveal bigger or smaller differences. Variations between analyzed settlement systems reveal themselves also in contemporary times. The rate of population growth and migration balances divide the systems into different stages of maturity of suburbanization. The earliest were discovered in the Katowice conurbation. As much as the rate of population changes and migration balances significantly differentiated the core areas in comparison with their surroundings, the differences were less obvious in the aspect of business growth rate. This results from the fact that the core areas still retain the majority of workplaces. An increase of business activity around the surrounding areas remains selective, both as to the kind and space, revealing somehow higher rate as far as the agglomeration of Bielsko-BiaÅ‚a is concerned.
Crimes and Crime Dispersion in Urban Areas in Turkey
Crime is a phenomenon that arises from the interaction between social, political, economic, physical, psychological circumstances and geographical factors. Since crime occurs in geographical locations, the relationship between crime and location is worth discussing characteristics of a location occur in differents ways. Not only natural geographical factors but also human geographical factors may lead to crime. In this study, the situation, distribution of crimes in the cities which are in the police service zone are dealt with. In addition to crime dispersion in the cities and crimes committed to people and property, crimes committed by month is also studied. In this context, it is seen that since city centres are composed of dense population and urban functions, they feed crime, social control weakens in those areas and they create opportunities for criminals. This causes weakness in society and social capital apart from economic losses in cities. The number of crime incidents, which was 229,513 in 1995, in Turkey, has risen to 785,510 in 2006 with a 3.4 fold increase. 41% of the crimes which were committed in the year of 2006 were against people, 59% were against property.
The Eastern and the Western Cuiavia - One Region, Two Development Lines
Cuiavia is one of the oldest historical regions in Poland characterized by diverse physical and geographical conditions, as well as different administrative and historical past. The aim of this paper is to present the impact of historical and administrative divisions, as well as diverse socio-economic and political transformations that in a significant way influenced the diversity of social and economical features of Eastern and Western Cuiavia. Against such a background different development directions will be discussed.
The paper deals with remnants of multi-ethnic settlement: their form, interaction and persistence. In the past, the Podlasie region, situated in northeastern Poland, was an area of multi-ethnic settlement. The interaction of cultures brought the emergence of a new, borderland culture. As the years have passed, the memory of the sources of regional and local traditions has disappeared. Elements of ethnic and religious traditions have spread and survived in the material structures of the rural landscape.
The most significant traces of cultural interactions and at the same time the remnants of past landscape are high roadside wooden crosses with an additional small iron cross on their top, decorated with the crescent moon and sunbeams. The cross with half-moon has its beginnings in old Christian symbolism, regional history and tradition. The crescent was always accompanied by sunbeams and they meant sun and moon, day and night, Christ and Our Lady. Its material durability appears to be greater than the collective memory of the locals.
The roadside wooden crosses embellished with iron crescent cross are an interesting part of regional heritage. The symbol of the crescent was common here for all Christian inhabitants and Tatars, unifying all Podlasie people. This uniting symbol is the most valuable remnant of the interaction of multi-ethnic settlement in the cultural landscape of the Podlasie. These days, the 300 years of tradition falls into oblivion, but regional cultural heritage can be saved through tourism-related product and marketing. In peripheral, economically neglected areas like the study case, the remnants may become an impetus to develop the local economy through recreation and tourism. Furthermore, making new tourism products based on natural and cultural values can be a good opportunity to restore precious elements of the historical landscape.
The Geo-Demographic Dimension of Romanian Rural Space
Knowing, researching into and developing the rural space are activities of utmost importance for a country, both by the dimension of the rural space, expressed by the surface as such, and by the dimension of the demographic component (of the rural population). Referring to Romanian rural space, this is dominant, representing almost 94% of Romania's total surface (93.7%). In what concerns the demographic component (population), as it is known, this confers a particular dynamics to the rural space, generating a series of quantitative and qualitative aspects. At present the share of the rural population reaches 47% out of the total of Romania's population. Generally speaking, we can assert that the village and generally the Romanian village remains further on the main propeller of life. Thus the share of the rural population, besides the whole range of socio-demographic indicators, which can outline the degree of stability or instability of the rural space, as well as other basic indicators, such as the share of the rural population occupied in productive activities, socio-cultural services, tourism activities, etc., enhance the importance of the rural life from one country or another, reason for which the development of the rural space remains a problem of a national and international level. Consequently, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has raised the issue of the rural space at the level of European and Community policy.
Germany - Two Demographically Different States?
The paper is an attempt of an answer how belonging to different political, economical and cultural structures has influenced diverse population processes and structures and their spatial diversity. As an example to the research of these phenomena there was chosen Germany that until 1990 were two separated socio-political and economical formations (the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and the Federal Republic of Germany FRG). This state, with a population number about 82 millions presently, as it turns out - besides passage of time - is characterized all the time by some diversity of procreation behaviors, population processes and structures in the Eastern (Ost) and the Western part (West) of Germany. It is claimed, the structures are going to some similarities, but the 15 years period (1990-2005) was too short to level all stated demographical differences and trends (1).
Polish Towns and the Changes in Their Areas and Population Densities
This article presents the spatial and population density changes in Polish towns in the years 1960-2003. The assumed time frame allowed identifying area changes for a complete set of towns in different socio-economic conditions: the period of intense industrialisation, the economic crisis of the 1980s, the period of economic transition and finally in the years of a market economy. The investigation revealed that the trend shown by changes and the size of a town as measured by the number of its population are distinctly interrelated. It also demonstrated a much stronger dynamics of changes in the first subperiod, i.e. years 1960--1985, followed by a phase of relative stabilization (compared with the previous period) after the year 1980 (mainly of the spatial changes). Moreover, change intensity and change trends observed for the urban areas and population densities vary considerably in terms of space.
In the article the actual functions of rural or urban-rural communes in DolnoÅ›lÄ…skie voivodeship (Lower Silesia) in 1996 and 2005 were indicated by applying three criteria of delimitation: structure of economy, the level of industrialisation and the level of tourism infrastructure. The research revealed that in 1996 most communes were classified as the type dominated by agriculture and at the same time they were underdeveloped with regards to tourism and were, almost totally, lacking in industry - as many as 48 out of 126 of analysed communes. In 2005 in DolnoÅ›lÄ…skie voivodeship industrial communes prevailed which were also dominated by agriculture - altogether 47 communes in the region.
The end of Cold War in the late 1980s of the 20<sup>th</sup> century and the accession to EU in 2004 brought spectacular changes in Polish migrations during the last 20 years. The opening of borders in 1989 and labour markets for Poles in 2004 caused fundamental changes in the scale, intensity and directions of Polish migrations. This paper is an attempt to analyze the Polish wave of migration to Ireland, which is one of the three states that opened labour market for workers from the â€˜new EUâ€™ in 2004 without any restrictions. The special attention is paid to Dublin, where the presence of Polish immigrants is very visible both at the statistical level and within social and urban space.
The article presents changes of Lithuanian population after the restoration of state self-dependence and future prognoses. The article is based on the data at the Statistical Department of the Republic of Lithuania. There are brief analysis of the principal demographic indices: natural movement of population and migration flows. The analysis embraces the years before and after restoration of independence and future perspectives. The results of analysis was showed that the negative natural increment and migration balance have adversely affected other demographic indices: age structure, lifespan, number of marriages, deaths due to external causes, etc.
Entrepreneurship of Inhabitants vs. Economic Activity of Large and Medium Enterprises in Rural Areas of Selected Historical Regions of Poland
In the past historical periods, each particular region of Poland was developing -- in a sense -- as separate organism; some of them were achieving a relative rise in the economic hierarchy, whereas some other were plunging in backwardness. These disparities have remained very distinctive until today, especially between the rural areas of different parts of the country. The aim of this paper is to determine diversifications of economic development level in four selected regions of Poland (Little Poland -- pol. Małopolska, West Pomerania, Lower Silesia and the Lublin Region), measured as the localisation range and characteristics of big and medium enterprises in rural areas. Another objective was to observe the relation between localisation and characteristics of those enterprises and the general initiative of local inhabitants. The analyses carried out for this paper have served to create a typology of communes, depending on the number of workplaces in big and medium enterprises in this areas, as well as the general initiative of inhabitants, which then enabled the assessment of economic disparities between rural areas of selected Polish regions.