Buletin Psikologi

Published by Universitas Gadjah Mada
Print ISSN: 0854-7106
Covid-19 pandemic has not only threatened public physical health but also mental health. The mental health effects of this pandemic can include anxiety of contamination and death as well as feelings of isolation. Counseling has been proved as an effective method of supporting the physical and psychosocial needs of the individual affected. Technological advancement makes it possible for psychologists and clients to carry out counseling sessions without the needs of physical presence in one place by utilizing various modes of telecommunication. This form of counseling is known as telecounseling. As a relatively new form of counseling in Indonesia, numerous aspects need to be considered in implementing telecounseling. This article aims to explore the considerations taken in conducting telecounseling sessions in Indonesia. Their opportunities and challenges which might not be present in an offline face-to face counseling will also be discussed. Psychologists need to develop both practical and technical competencies to be able to provide adequate telecounseling services. Suggestions for development are also given to other relevant parties such as psychological service institutions, professional associations, and education providers.
In addition to COVID-19, stunting is another threat facing Indonesia. Although not as deadly as COVID-19, stunting requires immediate responses; otherwise it will burden our development agenda. Substantial evidences from application of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) accumulate significant relationship of health intentions to individuals’ behavior. Further extension of TPB that include other variables confirm the role of knowledge and risk perception in predicting health intentions and behavior. Similarly involve risk factors within public health area, risk communication of COVID-19 seems outperforms that of stunting. Using TPB’s perspective, this review of literature aims to analyze health promotion impacts of these health threats. Result indicates differences in risk communication strategy for COVID – indicated by emerging amateur health promoters – as to stunting. There is a need for intensive collaboration of Psychology and Communication studies in exploring communication strategies to help building health intentions toward performing risk-mitigating behaviors beyond COVID-19 and stunting alone.
Cognitive Bias According to Error Management Theory in the Context of Covid-19
The limited number of effective medical interventions to combat Covid-19 to date has resulted in government institutions focusing on preventive behaviours believed to minimize virus transmission. The Indonesian government has launched a ‘new normal’ campaign whereby outdoor activities are restricted by various health protocols established by health authorities, such as wearing a mask, habitual hand washing and social distancing. However, these protocols have not been implemented with a thorough understanding of human behaviour. The result is numerous violations of the protocol, which subsequently lead to the persistence of Covid-19 cases in Indonesia. Behavioural science as an approach can provide important insights regarding the systematic errors of thought that contribute to non-compliance with Covid-19 health signs. This article will elaborate on the different types of systematic errors, known as cognitive biases, that plays a role in Covid-19 protocol compliance and suggest the corresponding solutions deemed most effective to overcome these obstacles. Understanding of the dynamics paired with the application of behaviourally informed strategies will hence contribute to the attempt to flatten the Covid-19 curve.
The Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM). Adapted from "Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model " (Witte, 1992: 115)
Compliance with health protocols plays an important role in minimizing the spread of Covid-19. However, Indonesia is still facing a robust challenge including non-compliance to persuasive recommendations or messages (psychological reactance) and belief in conspiracy theories. Issues related to conspiracy theories and theories had obscured the message for the people to keep their behavior safe from the virus. The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) is a theory that explains how people would obey the messages they received, particularly health messages. Perception of threats and efficacy contribute significantly to the effectiveness of the message people received. In this article, we discussed four psychological conditions that possess the chance to affect society's threats and efficacy to comply with health protocols. These conditions were viewed from social, clinical, and industrial-organizational psychology perspectives. Four solutions to cope with non-compliance tendencies were also proposed. We suggest that these solutions should be applied to strengthen the tendency for people to obey health protocols.
Pandemi Covid-19 telah menimbulkan dampak psikologis yang besar bagi masyarakat di berbagai belahan dunia. Hal ini diikuti dengan adanya krisis layanan kesehatan mental di berbagai wilayah sebagai akibat dari adanya pembatasan berskala besar untuk mencegahnya persebaran virus lebih jauh. Mempertimbangkan adanya keterbatasan-keterbatasan selama pandemi, telepsychology dipandang menjadi bentuk layanan yang mampu menembus batasan-batasan yang biasanya ditemukan dalam layanan kesehatan mental tatap muka. Di Indonesia, praktik telepsychology masih tergolong baru. Meskipun begitu, telepsychology telah banyak dikembangkan di banyak negara dan didukung oleh riset-riset terkait. Dalam menerapkan praktik telepsychology, tentunya perlu didasarkan pula pada panduan yang jelas sehingga dapat tercapai praktik layanan terbaik. Artikel ini akan mengulas berkembangnya telepsychology di masa pandemi, berbagai variasi bentuk telepsychology, panduan layanan telepsychology, dan kesiapan dan tantangan Indonesia dalam beradaptasi dengan layanan telepsychology. Melalui artikel ini diharapkan dapat membuka perspektif para pembaca mengenai praktik telepsychology, khususnya di masa pandemi Covid-19.
Pandemi Covid-19 menstimulus tatanan dunia baru dan percepatan revolusi Industri 4.0. Pandemi ini berdampak pada berbagai sektor. Kondisi ini membuat seseorang dapat mengalami gangguan atau beradaptasi dan melihat peluang pada tatanan dunia baru. Kemampuan berpikir reflektif, bahwa dirinya penting, memahami hidup, mampu menentukan tujuan yang lebih luas untuk hidup dalam meaning menjadi penting untuk menyikapi situasi krisis ini. Komponen tujuan (purpose), koherensi (coherence), dan signifikansi (significance) dalam meaning membantu individu untuk beradaptasi pada situasi krisis dan berkembang dengan perubahan. Proses perubahan yang sengaja secara aktif dikembangkan oleh individu dikenal sebagai Personal Growth Initiative (PGI). PGI diperlukan untuk mendukung meaninglebih baik. Orang yang secara teratur memanfaatkan keahlian PGI untuk terlibat dalam proses perubahan pribadi yang positif dapat merasakan makna yang lebih besar dalam hidup dan mengalami lebih banyak kepuasan dalam hidup. Program-program aplikatif untuk meningkatkan meaning akan membantu individu berkembang pada perubahan tatanan dunia baru.
The purpose of this article to find out which variables are the causes and effects between substancial abuse and internet addiction through conceptual studies.Internet addiction and substance abuse are known to have correlation.But this becomes overlapping, which is the cause andthe result. The results of this conceptual study explain that adolescents who experience substance abuse will tend tobe the cause of increased prevalenceinternet addiction, because the use of addictive substances will determine how fast internet addiction develops. Conversely, adolescents who experience Internet addiction is not necessarily the cause of the emergence of substance abuse. It can be concluded that substance abuse is the cause of high levels of internet addiction in adolescents, likewisethe internet addiction has the potential to cause substance abuse
Entrepreneurship plays an important role for the national economic growth. Therefore, the chararacter development, the way of thinking, and entrepreneurial skills within community are things that should be sought. Consequently, the effective entrepreneurship learning methods are needed, specifically kind of method that based on adult learning approach. This article seeks to bring the study of digital games technology as an entrepreneurial learning media. Hence, the description of the characteristics of games and learning aspects that can be facilitated by digital games technology will be mainly discussed. In addition, this article describes the learning process through digital media, instructional techniques that can be integrated in digital media, and assessment feedback method in academic games learning. Some examples of digital games used for learning in entrepreneur­ship courses are presented to provide a concrete picture. In brief, this article supports the use of digital games technology in entrepreneurial learning.
Rancangan eksperimen oleh McGuigan(1987) secara umum diartikan sebagaipenerapan metode ilmiah yang diawalidengan merumuskan permasalahan, dilan-jutkan dengan merumuskan hipotesis,menyeleksi partisipan, menempatkan par-tisipan ke kelompok eksperimen dankontrol, menentukan variabel independendan dependen, mengendalikan variabelluar yang relevan, melakukan analisa sta-tistik, membuat generalisasi dan penje-lasan hipotesis jika terkonfirmasi, sertadiakhiri dengan memprediksi terhadapsituasi baru lewat replikasi.
This article is to share best practices ofthe author in validating foreign researchinstruments into Indonesian Language.The words of Cultural and LinguisticValidation may not be something newanymore, but the scientific work on theproper cultural and linguistic validation offoreign instruments into Indonesian Lan-guage, in Indonesia, especially psychomet-ric instruments, is probably rarely done.Report of that is very limited, if there isany. Nevertheless, any comments andcritics to this article are most welcomed.
The aim of this meta-analysis study is to figure out the true correlation between self-esteem and internet addiction. This meta-analysis uses 159 studies from 40 scientific articles from the year of 2005-2018 and involved in 120.825 participants. Correction for the two artifacts studied in this meta-analysis first is sampling error, and the second one is measurement error. The results support the hypothesis and show some similar findings whereas the true correlations from the groups confirm previous researches that self-esteem has a negative correlation to internet addiction. The strongest correlation found in adolescence group followed by men and women, all participant, also students and college students groups. However, these findings show that the internet accommodates individuals with negative self-esteem to build online social relationships and fulfilling their communication and pleasure needs and makes them easier committed to deviant behavior such as internet addiction.
The problem of drug abuse and addiction cannot yet be resolved completely even though many addicts have done rehabilitation. This paper aims to analize intervention programs for drug addicts and propose alternative programs that emphasize psychological aspects. This paper begins by interpreting the implementation of the Drug Rehabilitation Center Practice and relaps after the addict completes rehabilitation. An understanding of addiction is needed to provide an understanding of the mental state of addicts and the process of change that must be experienced during the rehabilitation process. The recovery process through the Rehabilitation Institution will be discussed, especially in achieving "clean and sober" conditions. At the end of the article an alternative of psychological growth program is presented as a complementary program with the exsisting TC program. Psychological growth programs are expected to have a contribution to overcome psychological problems that until now have not been addressed
Search Result on Five Database
College adjustment is an important factor that influences academic success. First-year undergraduates must deal with a transition period from high school to college, during which time they encounter many challenges which can result in high dropout rates and low academic outcomes. This transition period requires adaptability. A systematic review was conducted to gain an overview of college adjustment and its influence. Using five online research platforms, namely EBSCOhost, PsycNet, Science Direct, Scopus, and Taylor & Francis Online, 18 articles were obtained. As a result, college adjustment can be characterized by indicators such as academic achievement, stress, anxiety, depression, and well-being. The Attachment Theory and Self-determination Theory were applied in more than one study. Individual and environmental characteristics can influence college adjustment, both positively as well as negatively. Recommendations for research on the topic of college adjustment are being discussed.
Penuaan manusia merupakan proses yang kompleks, dimulai sejak lahir, dan dipengaruhi banyak faktor. Oleh karena itu penuaan yang berhasil (successful aging) perlu dipersiapkan sebaik mungkin sejak manusia dilahirkan. Komponen successful aging yaitu: (1) tidak rentan terjangkit penyakit dan efeknya; (2) kapasitas fungsional kognitif dan fisik yang baik; (3) keterlibatan aktif dalam kehidupan; dan (4) spiritualitas positif. Sebagian lansia termasuk dalam kategori successful aging rendah dan terdapat kesenjangan kultural antara lansia dan generasi di bawahnya berkaitan dengan kemajuan teknologi. Dari penelitian sebelumnya salah satu terapi yang terbukti efektif untuk meningkatkan successful aging adalah reminiscence, yaitu terapi dengan aktivitas mengenang masa lalu sehingga lansia bisa menerima pengalaman dengan positif. Saat ini metode terapi reminiscence dapat dirancang secara kreatif dengan memanfaatkan kemajuan teknologi yang sesuai dengan kondisi lansia. Kajian pustaka ini dapat menjadi acuan dalam merancang model reminiscence untuk meningkatkan successful aging lansia dengan teknologi (gerotechnology) agar dibuktikan melalui penelitian empiris.
Aggression brings adverse effects on individuals and the environment, and often developsinto social problems. This meta-analysis study aimed to find out the correlation between self-control and aggression. The used samples based on 18 primary studies from 10 onlinejournals published in 2002 - 2017 which is found by searching on online database journal viawww.lib.ugm.ac.id. Two artifacts allowed for correction in these study are sampling errorand measurement error. The results of the analysis provided support for the hypothesis thatself-control had a negative correlation to aggression, therefore self-control inhibits the emerge of aggression behavior.
Agresif 1 dan perilaku kekerasan bukanlah merupakan fenomena yang baru. Agresif dan perilaku kekerasan telah terjadi sejak 25.000 tahun yang lalu antara masyarakat Yunani, Mesir, dan Romawi. Peristiwa, seperti Holocaust, penembakan sekolah Columbine, di Colorado, atau serangan teroris di World Trade Centre pada 11 September 2001 yang membuat masyarakat bertanya-tanya dibalik terjadinya perilaku kekerasan tersebut. Prevalensi perilaku agresif dan kekerasan saat ini sudah cukup banyak dijadikan sebagai pemicu timbulnya masalah sosial yang layak menjadi perhatian di seluruh dunia.
Gambar 2. Permukaan Lateral PFC (kiri) dan Permukaan Medial (kanan). ACC, Anterior Cingulate Cortex; DLPFC, Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex; OFC, Orbitofrontal Cortex; RLPFC, Rostrolateral Prefrontal Cortex; VL-PFC, Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex. (Diambil dari Handbook of Life-Span Development; Cognition, Biology, and Methods).
The study of literature was to aim exploring role of cool and hot executive functions (EF) on academic performance. It was consist of (a) what are they; (b) developmental hot and cool EF; and (c) The dynamic of hot and cool EF toward academic performance. This study of literature explores a distinction (and relationship, too) made within this general domain that has emerged only recently in the theoretical and empirical literature: cool and hot executive function. Cool executive functions were related as cognitive tasks (working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibition control), and hot executive functions were related as emotion tasks (motivation, affective decision making, behavior). Both of them played an important role in academic performance. Implication of literatures study should be useful for teaching strategy in classroom. Teachers need to create good atmosphere, in particular to stimulate positive emotions for learners
Gambar 2 Gelombang ERP yang Dipicu oleh Paradigma MMN
Agar dapat berinteraksi secara efisien terhadap banyaknya informasi sensori, otak memiliki strategi heuristis yang dapat menyaring informasi sekaligus mengarahkan atensi ketika muncul informasi yang penting dan krusial. Penelitian tentang otak telah mengungkapkan salah satu penanda atas sistem tersebut, yang disebut sebagai Mismatch Negativity (MMN). MMN merupakan salah satu komponen dari Event-Related brain Potentials (ERP) yang diasosiasikan dengan penanda sistem pendeteksi perubahan dan pelanggaran tiba-tiba terhadap aturan abstrak dari stimulus suara, dan dapat digunakan sebagai indikator objektif mengenai akurasi diskriminasi suara, sensori memori, maupun proses praatensi. Komponen MMN muncul sebagai gelombang negatif yang terpicu oleh stimulus yang menyimpang dari keteraturan. Metode MMN telah banyak digunakan dalam berbagai bidang penelitian hingga konteks klinis. MMN juga merupakan metode yang sangat bermanfaat untuk menyelidiki mekanisme pemrosesan kognitif pada populasi yang memiliki kesulitan untuk mengikuti prosedur eksperimen, misalnya pada anak-anak, atau pasien klinis karena sifatnya yang otomatis dan tidak membutuhkan atensi. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memberikan pengenalan mengenai konsep dan prinsip dasar dalam MMN, paradigma eksperimen, hingga contoh aplikasi, dan potensi penelitian yang dapat dilakukan menggunakan metode ini.
Gambar 1 Model formasi kepribadian amanah
Amanah merupakan salah satu konsep penting dalam kepribadian Islam. Konsep amanah telah banyak diskusikan dalam perspektif Islam, Namun belum banyak penelitian amanah dalam perspektif psikologi. Artikel ini mencoba mereview dan mendiskusikan konsep amanah dalam perspektif psikologi, yang terdiri dari bagian, Pertama, apa itu amanah? Kedua, hubungan amanah, psikologi dan Islam. Ketiga pengukuran amanah. Keempat, pentingnya amanah bagi individu, masyarakat, dan organisasi. Terakhir, peluang dan tantangan penelitian amanah. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa konstrak amanah bersifat kompleks dan multidimensi, karena melibatkan hubungan interpersonal (horizontal), dan hubungan dengan Allah (vertikal). Oleh karena itu, perlu dieksplorasi dari perspektif psikologi melalui penelitian-penelitian empiris. Beberapa studi menunjukkan bahwa penelitian amanah memiliki beragam teori, sehingga berimplikasi pada perbedaan pengukuran amanah. Sementara itu, peluang dan tantangan dalam penelitian amanah akan diskusikan dalam artikel ini dalam konteks teoritis, metodologis, dan praktis.
The purpose of this article is to understand the basic neuroanatomy of the brainand the neurodevelopmental characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorders.Children with autism spectrum disorders are children with complex developmentaldisorders, based on a neuropsychological approach, a disorder experienced by a child withautism due to abnormalities in the structure and biochemistry of the brain, as well as theinterference in integrating sensory information received by the environment. Disturbances inthe sensory process include how to obtain sensory information (sensory procesing), how toprocess the information (sensory procesing), and how to move the muscles and perform aseries of movements in response to sensory stimuli received.
Tujuan dari artikel ini adalah berupaya memahami perilaku maladaptive anak dan pengukurannya. Perilaku maladaptive anak merupakan perilaku anak yang tidak mampu menyesuaikan diri atau beradaptasi dengan keadaan sekelilingnya secara wajar, dan tidak mampu beradaptasi sesuai dengan tahapan perkembangan usianya. Permasalahan-permasalahan yang ditimbulkan dari perilaku maladaptive anak dapat menghambat tercapainya perkembangan anak secara optimal. Memahami perilaku maladaptive anak sangat penting untuk meminimalisasi dampak dan tingkat keparahan perilaku. Tulisan ini merupakan reviu literatur. Hasil reviu dalam tulisan ini merupakan bahan rujukan untuk menambah pemahaman terkait konsep perilaku maladaptive anak dan pengukurannya. Perilaku maladaptive anak terbagi dua, yaitu: 1) perilaku maladaptive internalizing, digambarkan seperti ketergantungan, sikap acuh tak acuh, kesulitan makan dan tidur, cemas, perasaan penolakan, perubahan suasana hati, rendahnya kontak mata, kurangnya interaksi sosial; 2) perilaku maladaptive externalizing, dikarakteristikkan seperti perilaku impulsif, tantrum, ketidakpatuhan, tidak peka terhadap orang lain, agresif, keras kepala. Pengukuran untuk menguji perilaku maladaptive anak yang umum digunakan dalam penelitian, diantaranya: 1) Maladaptive Behavior Index-Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (MBI-VABS, Sparrow, et al.); 2) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, Goodman); dan 3) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, Achenbach).
n the family, parent-child relationship deemed to be a complicated relationship. Parents as adult individuals who have the necessity to educate will tend to straighten up their children. And children are other individuals with different dimensions of life have a tendency to explore life by playing, hanging out, and learning. This relationship then often creates tension and misunderstanding as a result of ineffective communication and power relation in the status as a parent or a child. Islam offers the concept of birr al-walidain for parent-child relations, which is ideal for maintaining harmony of parent-child relationships and good for both. The article is aimed to discuss a virtue in the religion and society of Islam that governs the concept of parent-child relationship, namely birr al-walidain. Virtue values contained in birr al-walidain are needed to form a good relationship pattern between parent and child. The understanding of birr al-walidain as a virtue that requires bidirectional relations will be able to benefit both parties (parents and children) and generate reciprocity and complementary, so that parent-child relationship become intimate and have a positive impact for both psychological health.
Compassion adalah berbelas kasih terhadap penderitaan orang lain dan ditindaklanjuti dengan menolongnya. Compassion penting dalam kehidupan manusia, dan diterapkan di berbagai lapisan masyarakat. Dalam ranah keluarga, compassion dapat menstimulasi kesejahteraan individu dan keluarga. Penelitian terbaru belum banyak yang mengkaji compassion dalam konteks pengasuhan anak, khususnya anak dengan autism spectrum disorder. Tujuan dari studi hasil pemikiran ini adalah mencoba menggambarkan compassion, yaitu dalam hal ontologi dan penelitian-penelitian yang berkaitan dengan compassion khususnya compassion pada pengasuhan anak, dan lebih khusus lagi adalah compassion pada pengasuhan anak dengan autism spectrum disorder. Metode yang digunakan adalah studi literatur. Hasil studi ini menemukan pemahaman compassion secara komprehensif, dan menemukan konsep compassion dalam pengasuhan anak dengan autism spectrum disorder. Hasil penelitian bisa menjadi dasar konsep yang digunakan oleh peneliti lain yang berminat dalam ranah studi yang sama, yaitu untuk pengembangan studi lebih lanjut terkait pengasuhan anak berkebutuhan khusus, sehingga bisa bermanfaat bagi masyarakat.
Perkembangan 1 sosial emosi semakin dipahami sebagai sebuah krisis dalam perkembangan anak. Hal ini disebabkan karena anak terbentuk melalui sebuah perkembangan dalam proses belajar. Dari masa perkembangan awal, bayi menunjukkan rasa aman dalam keluarganya apabila kebutuhannya terpenuhi oleh lingkungan. Bayi akan mengeksplorasi melalui sentuhan, rasa, dll. Dari mengeksplorasi itulah bayi akan belajar. Sebaliknya, apabila bayi merasa tidak aman dalam lingkungan keluarga, bayi akan menghabiskan energinya untuk mengatur dirinya sehingga bayi tidak memiliki kesempatan untuk mengeksplorasi. Ketika bayi tidak dapat kesempatan untuk bereksplorasi, bayi tidak memiliki kesempatan untuk belajar.
This article examined the correlation between self-efficacy and resilience with meta-analytic technique. The quanitative review includes 20 correlations from 15 studies. Two artifacts allow for correction in these study are sampling error and measurement error. Summary analysis provided support for the hypothesis that self-efficacy has a positive correlation to resilience. The result shows that the correlation of self-efficacy and resilience is 0.591, with the confidence level is 95%.
This study examined the correlation between job satisfaction and turnover intention derived from various studies in 2009-2016 using meta-analysis method. The used samples consisted of 25 studies from 21 research journal drawn from online databases. Analyses were conducted using two artefacts, correction on error sampling and on error measures. Results of the study showed that correlation between job satisfaction and turnover intention in the 1st artefact was -0,46 and in the 2nd artefact was -0,56.
The effect of innovation on performance of Small and Medium Industries (SMIs) draws a great of attention from researchers and practitioners to study further. Based on empirical findings, it is found out that the correlation between innovation and performance is dependent on context, that is the innovation does not affect the performance of a company or indicated negative implication between innovation and performance. Meanwhile, other researches reported positive effects of innovation and performance. The review of researches on the correlation between innovation and SMIs performance shows contradictory results.The meta-analytical study is aimed at investigating further the correlation between innovation and performance on SMI based on researches published between 2004 and 2013 in 5 continents (Australia, Asia, Europe, Africa and America). The independent variable was innovation and the dependent variable was performance, while the moderators variable consisted of the year of the research and the location of survei. The result of the meta-analytical study on the correlation between innovation and performance indicated a positive correlation with mean 0.459 and the standard deviation 0.168 on 95% confidence interval.
In the last decade, the research on the relationship between self esteem and psychological well-being has increased. The wellbeing that distinguishes between hedonic and eudaimonic ideology is widely used in research and has been empirically supported by experts from different cultures. The results of the study about correlation between self- esteem and psychological wellbeing showed varying results. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between self esteem and psychological wellbeing through a meta-analysis study. The total study used was 24. Meta-analysis was performed based on sampling error. The results of the meta-analysis show generally that between self-esteem and psychological well-being is low. Correlation based on sampling error is 0.269, within the 95% confidence interval limit. The limited number of studies in the study may be a weakness. The accuracy of meta-analysis depends on the total sample used.
The number of person with eating disorders are increasing almost all over the world. The exact cause of eating disorder is difficult to determine. Feeling of shame caused by negative judgments on one’s body has positive correlation to the emergence of pathological eating behavior. Furthermore the position of body shame as a variable in research on eating disorders is still inconsistent in some studies, consequently it is placed as a mediating variable to self-objectification. This study attempted to see whether there is a direct correlation between body shame and eating disorders using meta-analysis procedure. The analysis of sampling error and measurement error made on 34 studies from 21 articles. The result of the analysis showed that body shame and eating disorder are strongly correlated (r=0.547) with α = 0.05. Keywords:body shame;eating disorder;meta-analysis
Dilema transisi budaya, politik, ekonomi, dan militer Jepang menuju era modern merupakan skenario yang menarik dalam film “The Last Samurai. Para pemimpin yang saling bersaing dalam mencapai tujuannya memudahkan penonton untuk melakukan analisis tipe kepemimpinan. Efektifitas serta relevansi terhadap kebutuhan tipe kepemimpinan akan transisi Jepang lama menuju Jepang modern yang mampu bersaing dengan bangsa luar (khususnya bangsa Barat) terlihat jelas dalam film ini. Tipe kemepimpinan visioner ditampilkan oleh Omura, penasihat yang mampu mempengaruhi Kaisar dalam mewujudkan nilai komparatif dan kompetitif para masyarakat Jepang sehing­ga dapat bersaing dengan berbagai inovasi-inovasi yang terus berkembangan seiring dengan tantangan jaman. Tipe kepemimpinan “Wisdom dan Charismatic”hadir dalam sosok Katsumoto, sebagai pemimpin Samurai dan guru Kaisar ingin mempertahankan nilai-nilai luhur budaya Jepang. Teladan kepemimpinan “Wisdom and Charismatic”Katsumoto tercermin pada pengabdian yang luar biasa, jiwa kepahlawanan, serta karakter yang patut menjadi teladan, dan memegang teguh perintah yang diwah­yukan padanya sebagai seorang samurai. Sifat tersebut menimbulkan kekaguman, rasa hormat, dan pengabdian dari seke­lompok samurai. Gambaran tipe kepemimpinan Visioner,“Wisdom dan Charismatic” yang ditemui pada sosok Omura dan Katsumoto. Tantangan masa kini menuntut setiap anggota untuk inovatif, kreatif, kompetitif, kompeten, dan berani mengambil risiko. Dalam pencapaian visi tersebut dibutuhkan sosok seorang pemimpin yang memiliki jiwa kharis­matik.
Angka kejadian bunuh diri meningkat di Indonesia dan seluruh dunia yang mendorong penelitian terhadap perilaku bunuh diri juga berkembang. Keputusasaan dikenali sebagai prediktor yang kuat terhadap perilaku bunuh diri, termasuk ide-ide bunuh diri dan percobaan bunuh diri (Beck dkk, 1990; Reinecke dan Franklin-Scott, 2005). Namun hasil empiris tentang korelasi antara keputusasaan dan perilaku bunuh diri masih tergolong belum konsisten. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan keputusasaan dan perilaku bunuh diri melalui studi meta analisis. Total studi yang digunakan adalah 27 studi. Meta analisis yang dilakukan berdasarkan penghitungan kesalahan sampling dan kesalahan pengukuran. Hasil meta analisis menunjukkan bahwa secara umum, korelasi keputusasaan dan perilaku bunuh diri tergolong medium, dengan r=0.360, dan taraf kepercayaan 95%.
Hiburan 1 yang murah, mudah, dan dekat menjadi pilihan bagi masyarakat. Menonton acara televisi adalah salah satu diantaranya. Cukup dengan membeli televisi masyarakat sudah dapat menikmati program-program acara yang ditawarkan. Stasiun televisi barupun marak bermunculan, mulai dari televisi yang dapat diakses melalui antena UHF/VHF atau melalui dekoder/ TV kabel berlangganan. Berdasarkan survei Nielsen Audience Measurement pada tahun 2012, bahwa 94% masyarakat Indonesia mencari informasi dan hiburan melalui televisi (www.tempo.co).
Artikel ini memaparkan tentang teori implisit yang perkembangannya dipelopori oleh Carol S. Dweck dan kolega-koleganya. Teori implisit merupakan teori orang awam yang terdiri atas teori entitas dan inkremental. Teori entitas adalah pandangan yang dimiliki orang awam bahwa sifat bersifat permanen, sedangkan teori inkremental adalah pandangan orang awam bahwa sifat bersifat dinamis dan dapat dikembangkan. Pemaparan teori implisit didasarkan pada hasil-hasil penelitian pada berbagai isu belajar dan relasi-relasi sosial, meliputi penelitian-penelitian tentang peran teori implisit pada performansi dan proses-proses belajar yang mendasarinya, pada relasi antar pribadi dan relasi antar kelompok. Selain itu juga dipaparkan hasil penelitian tentang intervensi untuk mengubah teori implisit yang mendukung perubahan diri dan sosial yang konstruktif. Paparan tentang teori implisit diharapkan memberikan pemahaman tentang peran perbedaan individu dalam proses interaksi sosial.
Intercultural marriages have an actual percentage increase in different countries over time. One of the things that should be observed in intercultural marriage is that in married couples in the same culture, we will discover the uniqueness of individual personality traits that become one of the determinants for individuals in adapting to marital relationships, whereas in intercultural marriage relationships, there are many differences in cultural values brought by both individuals from birth and on the one hand it is possible to contradict so that it can complicate the process of adaptation in marriage and increase the likelihood of conflict during the marriage from time to time. From literature review, the emergence of conflict due to cultural differences can lead to marital disatisfaction that can lead to the thought and decision to divorce. In view of the growing intercultural marriage trends in many countries over time, this paper will specifically review the potential for conflict due to cultural differences in intercultural marriages, and will also address individual aspects of cultural differences as a triggering factor conflicts in intercultural marriages, and conflict management models that will be determinants of intercultural marriage achievement to provide a discourse on how to manage conflicts appropriately so that intercultural partners can sustain their marriage well into the elderly. In general, the use of integrating and compromising models in managing conflict will maintain a harmonious relationship that supports the achievement of marital satisfaction in intercultural couples (Cheng, 2010).
The phrase "Anakhonki do hamoraon in ahu" which means children are parents' treasure, illustrating how precious the children are in Batak Toba family. The perspective of people of Batak Toba, the system of cultural values become the goal and the way of life that passed down from generation to generation that is wealthy (hamoraon), having descendants (hagabeon) and honor (hasangapon). However, along with the high competition of people today, the influence of disposition of personality and low cognitive ability, Batak Toba culture values can be motivating values that encourage Batak Toba teenagers to achieve excelence, as well as the source of pressures that trigger suicidal behavior when the expectations of parents can not be fulfilled.
Organisasi dalam menyongsong era industri 4.0 memiliki beragam tantangan. Salah satu tantangan sosial yang dihadapi berkaitan dengan kepemimpinan. Dari banyak teori kepemimpinan, spiritual leadership merupakan salah satu gaya baru kepemimpinan yang dapat diterapkan karena lebih berorientasi pada nilai–nilai kesejahteraan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk : 1) mengidentifikasi berbagai macam faktor spiritual leadership, serta 2) rekomendasi penerapan spiritual leadership untuk penelitian masa depan. Metode yang dipergunakan adalah telaah literatur. Hasil penelitian menyebutkan spiritual leadership memengaruhi beberapa variabel seperti misalnya: kualitas kehidupan kerja, kepuasan kerja, perilaku etis, penyimpangan perilaku di tempat kerja, spiritualitas di tempat kerja, perilaku keselamatan karyawan, budaya sekolah, kesuksesan akademis, kelelahan, keterlibatan kerja, niat karyawan untuk tetap bersama organisasi, serta rasa panggilan kerja. Rekomendasi penelitian spiritual leadership pada masa depan pada kajian metodologis serta pengembangan teori.
Review and Identification of Contexts in Work Identity Conceptual
Forms of Job Crafting from Existing Theories Dimension
Professional musicians have been continuously facing difficulties in career over time. One of the psychological threats for musicians is to lose their identity at work, which may lead to abandonment of their potential lifetime career. Previous studies have not emphasized the importance of certain work efforts to maintain work identity in the context of music career. This study conducted a literature review on the job crafting role to musicians’ work identity, and aimed to elaborate the existing concepts with the context of music profession. Using theoretical frameworks of job crafting and Job Demand-Resource theory, this study proposed theoretical perspectives to support the theories, by identifying five dimensions of job crafting (task, relational, cognitive, emotional, and physical) for professional musicians, as well as building a conceptual model that may help musicians to maintain work identity. This study also contributed theoretical insights and implications regarding the job crafting role towards identity construction for musicians, which could be considered during the current pandemic.
Music therapy began to show its existence as one of the new therapeutic methods. Music therapy which was previously identic with Western society, is now starting to be used in Indonesia. It began to develop as one of therapy methods in psychology field. Along with the development of music therapy, the issues around music therapy are also an interesting study material. Newly developed music therapy in Indonesia often has very different application methods between one and another study, and the use of music as a method of therapy is still being debated issue to find good operational standards. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the growing cultural-related assumptions around music and music therapy.
Facing the “VUCA world” (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity, Ambiguity), organizations need strategies to sustain and to keep growing. The aim of this research is to constructing authentic organization as alternative concept for organizations in coping with those rapid changes. However, the concept of authentic organization has not been solid yet. This researchexplores as well as builds the concept of authentic organization. Using seven steps of meta-ethnography approach for 33 relevant articles, this study offers two main findings: The first is the definition of authentic organization and the second is Truthfulness, Resilience, Uncertainty friendly, and Eminence (“TRUE”) as the factors of authentic organization.
Overview of Research Studies
Equipment in Music and Play Therapy
Until now, music therapy is still widely used to help children with autism. In this literature study, various music therapy research will be explained and explicitly given to help children with an autism spectrum disorder. This literature study using two academic electronic search engines: Taylor Francis Online dan EBSCOhost Academic Research Database. For this literature study, researcher using five research studies from abroad, and three research studies from Indonesia. Besides, this literature study is expected to help parents with autistic children, children with needs precisely, as well as music therapists, to get information about the types of therapy and to get therapy music choices that fit the goals to be achieved.
Electroencephalography (EEG) merupakan metode untuk merekam aktivitas elektris otak pada permukaan kulit kepala. EEG merekam fluktuasi potensial elektris yang muncul sebagai akibat dari aktivitas sel-sel otak. Seiring dengan kemajuan penelitian dan semakin canggih alat ukur, EEG semakin banyak digunakan dalam penelitian mengenai fungsi kognitif. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan pengantar teoretis mengenai alat EEG serta proses dalam analisis data untuk konteks penelitian dan eksperimen dalam kajian ilmu psikologi maupun ilmu sosial secara umum. Bagian awal mendeskripsikan mengenai dasar neural dan asumsi pengukuran dalam EEG, yang diikuti dengan penjelasan mengenai komponen-komponen alat EEG dan standar pemasangan. Bagian kedua menjelaskan mengenai pemrosesan sinyal yang memberikan contoh berbagai artefak yang merusak kualitas data EEG, serta beberapa metode dalam melakukan koreksi artefak yang umum digunakan. Ekstraksi fitur menjelaskan beberapa contoh metode dalam mengolah data EEG untuk kemudian fitur tersebut diasosiasikan dengan perilaku, proses mental atau aktivitas otak.
Kinerja suatu organisasi diukur dari physical assets, financial capital dan human capital. Organisasi memerlukan sistem yang tepat dalam meningkatkan kinerja.Tujuan Performance Management System yang diterapkan dalam organisasi adalah untuk mengoptimalkan potensi individu, tim, pemimpin, dan organisasi. Pendekatan komprehensif diperlukan untuk dapat mengoptimalkan potensi dan pencapaian kinerja yang optimal.PBSC adalahperformance management system dengan pendekatan perspektif finance dan non finance serta mengintegrasikan dengan formulasi strategi (visi, misi organisasi), tujuan organisasi dengan tujuan departemen dan tujuan karyawan. PBSC adalah konsep baru dengan pendekatan personal,baik terkait perusahaan maupun bukan terkait pekerjaansebagai ukuran diri. Pengembangan suatu organisasi yang terintegrasi adalah adanya kesadaran individu-individu dalam organisasi yang memunculkan personal meaning atau kebermaknaan diri di dalam organisasi, sehingga akan membentuk budaya organisasi dan iklim organisasi yang efektif dan harmoni. Penerapan Positive Organization Behavior dan Positive Organization Scholarship pada organisasi akan membangun Positive Emotional Climate dan Organization Relational Strength. Pendekatan secara integratif antara Personal Balance Scorecard, Positive Organizational Scholarship, Positive Organizational Behavior dan Psikologi Integral akan memperkuat kinerja organisasi dan memiliki kesempatan menuju organisasi Positif . Individu dalam organisasi akan memiliki vitalitas dan mengalami flow, dan organisasimemiliki flourishing
Peradaban berakar kepada sistem nilai yang menjadi penggerak kehidupan masyarakatnya yang bersifat laten (Parsons et al., 1961). Sistem nilai ini tumbuh dan berkembang di dalam keluarga sejak seseorang masih kanak-kanak dan akan dikembangkan ketika menjalani pendidikan dan mulai terjun ke masyarakat. Bonus demografi saat ini sedang terjadi pada bangsa Indonesia. Kelompok usia yang lebih menentukan pembangunan peradaban di masa depan adalah usia anak-anak, karena pada usia inilah sistem nilai ditanamkan. Penanaman nilai tersebut terjadi dalam lingkungan keluarga. Oleh karena itu, supaya bonus demografi yang dialami oleh Indonesia ini dapat mewujudkan sebuah peradaban yang tinggi dan mulia, maka penting sekali untuk memikirkan pembangunan keluarga yang kuat sehingga mampu menjadi benih dan fondasi bagi peradaban Indonesia di masa depan. Dalam rangka itu tulisan ini merumuskan arah kebijakan pembangunan keluarga yang didasarkan pada lima dimensi, yaitu spiritual, biologis, psikologis, sosiologis, dan ekonomi. Strategi ini harus dilaksanakan secara holistik dan integratif.
National College Admission Tests (Ujian Masuk Perguruan Tinggi Negeri -UMPTN) was first administered to select candidates for five most prominent universities in Indonesia more than fifteen years ago. The system was then improved and has been widely used with the inclusion of more than 10 participating universities across the country. High school graduates from different areas of the country are eligible to register for the exams. With the advancement of the administration system and the communication network, graduates have access to register and can take the exams in their high school region without having to go to the city where the intended university is located. That had been good so far until several years ago when apparent differences in performance on UMPTN among high school graduates from different geographical areas were for the first time noticed. Generally, the tendency showed that graduates from high schools that were located in Java (in-Java students) performed better than those from high schools that were located in other islands (out-Java students). This tendency resulted in smaller proportion of out-Java students admitted to the prominent universities. If out-Java students failed UMPTN mostly because they had not been as smart as in-Java students, then there would not have been a measurement problem but rather an educational problem. To think of out-Java students as less capable than in-Java students so they do not deserve places in good universities would not be justifiable. It is far more likely that out-Java students have been deprived from environmental and academic conditions conducive to teaching-learning process. It is realized that there exist academically potential out-Java students. Among small number of out-Java students that are currently attending universities, many of them have been achieving excellently and outperforming in-Java students. Why then the proportion of out-Java students passing UMPTN has been so small over years is getting attention from government officials, publics, high school teachers, and is becoming concerns of education and measurement specialists. To many, this problem can be attributed to the conditions of out-Java schools which are believed to be much less satisfactory than in-Java schools are. Among the shortcomings are that national curricullum and syllabi were not properly followed, environmental-related lack of motivation for learning among students, deprivation from modern information media, unstimulating teaching-learning situation, et cetera. Whatever the condition is, seemingly unfairness of UMPTN becomes an intriguing issue. Parents and teachers, especially of out-Java students, are most concerned about UMPTN favoring in-Java students. Efforts have been done to ensure fair opportunity for out-Java students when they are taking UMPTN. Item banking procedures has been improved, researches have been conducted for calibrating UMPTN items through equating procedures. Trainings for item writers were held intensively. Still another way of improvement needs to be applied, i.e. analysis of differential item functioning. Page 1 of 8 This analysis will give information on potentially bias items that need to be deleted from the exams. Such information will be very useful for test compilers that they can better select for the test only items that can detect "true" ability of the students regardless of what school group they are from. Unbiased items will lead to more valid test scores interpretation. Valid interpretation will lead to fair decisions. It is very crucial because fairness of the test is the one characteristic we can not afford to lose. Ideally, potentially bias items should be identified first before equating and banking procedures are carried out.
Schematic depiction of a feedback loop of a cybernetic control in a generic allocation situation of consumer behavior (adapted from Carver, 2004, p. 14).  
Suppose you had unexpectedlyreceived some money, for instance a gift ora lottery prize. What would you like to dowith the money? Why the action you choseto do is of much importance to you? Whatwould you like to achieve by that action?This is a simple illustration of the genericlevel of consumer decision making,henceforth the generic level. It is importantto note that neither money nor unexpec-tedness defines the generic level. Althoughthere are plenty of examples of receiving awindfall, gifts and lottery prizes being twoof them, the generic level also concernssituations when expectations rule. Forexample, people may expect to receive abumper bonus, an extra profit, a taxreturn, gain excessive money from a pre-vious budget, or even to inherit somevaluable assets from their beloved parents.To a certain degree, people in suchsituations must ponder of the differentways to utilize the money. The definingfeatures of the generic level concern themental processes of decision making inwhich an individual is trying to allocate aconsumer resource into different cate-gories of activities (Van Veldhoven &Groenland, 1993).
This review aimed to investigate the suitability of therapy derived from Cognitive-Behavioural perspective to be applied as an intervention to treat depressive symptoms in women with dating violence experiences. As this will become a preliminary study to be conducted in Indonesia, a review literature method was employed to gather relevant and up-to-date materials on the topic. Firstly, the issue of dating violence and its urgency in Indonesia were described in the introduction section. In the discussion section, Cognitive-Behavioural perspective and the therapy derived from it, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) was described and elaborated in detail. In general, CBT approach was effective in reducing depressive symptoms in women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences. As dating violence also belonged to IPV cluster, it is expected that CBT would also become an effective treatment to treat depression in women with dating violence experiences.
Kesulitan belajar spesifik sering didefinisikan sebagai pencapaian rendah yang tidak terduga. Berdasarkan konsep mengenai pencapaian rendah yang tidak terduga, model kesenjangan digunakan dalam upaya mendiagnosis kesulitan belajar spesifik. Menurut model kesenjangan, diagnosis kesulitan belajar spesifik dapat ditegakkan setelah ditemukan adanya perbedaan antara IQ dan prestasi. Namun, dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, para peneliti mempertanyakan validitas model kesenjangan dalam mendiagnosis SLD. Beberapa penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa penggunaan IQ dalam mendiagnosis SLD tidak diperlukan. Jadi kriteria diagnostik SLD dalam beberapa pedoman internasional direvisi. Salah satu manual diagnostik yang direvisi adalah Manual Diagnostik dan Statistik Gangguan Mental (DSM). Kriteria dan diagnosis tentang kesulitan belajar spesifik telah berubah, di mana model kesenjangan tidak digunakan. Makalah ini berupaya menjelaskan berbagai argumen yang mematahkan konsep model kesenjangan, sehingga penggunaan tes kecerdasan tidak lagi diperlukan dalam menegakkan diagnosis kesulitan belajar spesifik.
Top-cited authors
Mulawarman Mulawarman
  • Universitas Negeri Semarang
Femmi Nurmalitasari
  • State University of Malang
Suryanto Suryanto
  • Airlangga University
Wiwin Hendriani
  • Airlangga University
Unika Prihatsanti
  • Universitas Diponegoro