Built Environment

Published by Alexandrine Press
Publications
PIP Changes in population distribution in England and Wales in the period since World War II are reviewed. The focus is on whether the trend away from urban centers toward suburban and nonmetropolitan areas observed in the 1960s continued into the 1970s. It is concluded that this process of population decentralization has continued, with movement to more remote areas now also being involved, and that this process is part of the general trend away from urban centers that has characterized urbanization for many years.
 
For a number of years, French local authorities have been pursuing special pricing policies designed to help the most disadvantaged social groups. Schemes vary in different cities, as do the criteria for determining the beneficiaries. This paper shows, however, that notwithstanding the scale of the agreed efforts, the policies' effectiveness has, on the whole, been limited. In addition to the transit system failing to cater to the needs of some segments of the population, low-income workers and the non-registered unemployed remain excluded from the subsidized pricing schemes.
 
This article explores some of the ways in which England has been portrayed in the genre of folk, rock and punk music between 1965 and 1977. The article argues that changes in both the music and lyrics reflect the shift in England from what Eric Hobsbawm calls a post war `Golden Age' to `Crisis Decades'. These musical transitions are evident in increasingly strident instrumentation and lyrical content that becomes progressively more cynical. The article argues that in this way, English folk, rock and punk music has played a role in both reflecting and recreating the spirit of the age.
 
Building on top and along the edges of Zurich's main railway station has been one of the most contested issues of urban development in Switzerland's economic capital. Located in the very centre of the city and at the heart of both the regional and national public transport system, Zurich Main Station had long been a focus for more intense land use. Over several decades, many different projects with ever changing coalitions of investors were developed. For more than 30 years all plans failed. They were defeated by ecological associations, political parties, referendums, economic recessions and in fighting among developers. The case of Zurich Main Station presents the whole range of stakeholders in the urban development process and how they used all the instruments available to them to promote or impede, respectively, one of the largest projects this country has seen. This is also a detailed account of the vagaries of a large-scale urban development scheme in a global city under a régime of direct democracy.
 
This paper relates the experiences of some rural and urban areas of Tamil Nadu in the aftermath of the tsunami, focusing on issues in their rebuilding and rehabilitation. It draws upon research which the authors are undertaking in the rural districts of Nagapattinam and Cuddalore and also in the settlement of Tsunami Nagar, where some 2000 urban households from five slums have found shelter for more than a year now. The research draws on interviews conducted with inhabitants of both rural and urban settlements where rehabilitation is under way, focusing on housing, livelihoods and infrastructure, in particular. It explores the self-help rebuilding experiences of these communities and also the work of local NGOs, international agency partners and local and regional governments. Only a preliminary summary of the results of the study is reported here.
 
This contribution traces the ongoing political controversy surrounding 'Stuttgart 21' - one of the largest and most ambitious railway and urban redevelopment projects currently planned in all of Europe. The article provides an up-to-date review of Stuttgart 21's development history and of the mass protests the project has sparked, linking them to key theoretical debates of mega-projects and the context within which they are realized. Particular attention is devoted to 1. understanding Stuttgart 21 as a key exemplar of contemporary mega-project development; 2. analyzing dynamics of participation, politics and power in mega-project planning and implementation; and 3. assessing the wider implications of the mass protests against S21 for planning and policy-making in Germany.
 
New toll motorway infrastructure has been completed around the city of Barcelona, and prices of access to and parking in the city are increasing. Pronounced suburbanization trends may well secure the economic profitability of the new system, but how fair is it to social groups that cannot afford to pay the prices? This paper stresses the political need for greater transparency as to the redistributive effects of urban transport policies.
 
A study of English Nature's Accessible Natural Greenspace Standards model investigated whether such a model is needed; barriers and limitations to its adoption; and means of implementation. It was concluded that English Nature should improve communication with local authorities, and that greenspace planners and managers need effective decision-support in implementing the model. Also many of the difficulties associated with the model arise from its attempt to combine two very different perspectives: that of nature conservation and that of greenspace users.
 
Since the close of the Cambodian civil war, the international architectural conservation community has worked to create a vibrant on-site training venue among the temples at Angkor. While conservators are actively at work on the structures they are also developing a new generation of Cambodian conservators. The effort fits firmly within the tradition of conservation pedagogy, and greatly promotes the survival of the site and the professional community in Cambodia. But for all the courses taught and money spent, no comprehensive survey or assessment of training efforts at Angkor yet exists. Nor do standards or best practices exist to define exactly what constitutes effective training. This article places a spotlight on this highly problematic situation, while also surveying the history and current landscape of training efforts at Angkor. While the article does not constitute the much-needed evaluation of training at Angkor, it does provide a stepping stone to accomplishing that much larger goal. With so much already invested in training at Angkor, the site and indeed the profession at large depends upon successful, measurable results in this essential effort.
 
spatial scales and aspects of urban flood risk dealt with in AUDACIOUS
AUDACIOUS logical process framework
Local drainage systems are crucial to everyone. These comprise building drainage systems and the drainage networks around buildings, locally in streets and in small ditches and watercourses. Problems arise both due to the inflows to the system, which in future will be less certain, and increasing downstream hydraulic and regulatory constraints on outflows. In addition, key stakeholders often find it difficult to engage due to the complex institutional structure of flood risk management in England and Wales. The major drivers identified for future increases in flood risks relate to rainfall, environmental legislation, urbanization and urban planning. In a recent UK government study it was identified that traditional solutions to managing urban drainage related flood risk changes are likely to be too costly and that alternatives need to be found. The development of an analytical approach to local urban drainage that takes account of potential future changes, such as climate and urban form, is described that will allow alternative adaptable solutions to be evaluated. The approach has been applied to several case studies. The effectiveness of these processes in the light of changing future risks is reviewed and a proposed framework and guide for adapting urban drainage systems to climate change presented.
 
The facility structure in post-war areas of The Netherlands is probably one of the most intricate in the world, with facilities clustered in neighbourhood units that are functionally ordered across the cities. However, developments in society threatened the viability of the hierarchic structure and forced the adaptation or dismantling of neighbourhood centres at the base of the pyramid, a process still continuing. Economic viability competes with the social desirability of a neighbourhood centre as a heart of the neighbourhood.
 
There are many challenges to developing and delivering effective climate change adaptation strategies for urban areas. Some are associated with a lack of available tools to help understand the spatial and temporal dimensions of climate related problems, while others are associated with the limitations of existing structures and frameworks through which adaptation plans can be generated and delivered. The land-use planning system offers a number of options through which climate-related risks may be better managed, especially in urban areas. However, both land-use planning and the related process of urban design can just as easily adversely affect the nature and degree of impacts, effectively enhancing the impacts of climate change. The long-term nature of urbanization processes means that just like the climate system itself, the decisions that are taking place now will determine the response of the urban system in the future, making climate-conscious planning an urgent and important goal. This paper considers how a spatial risk assessment framework can help improve adaptation planning through providing relevant information to underpin the development of adaptation strategies related to land-use and spatial planning. The paper uses an example of adaptation to heat stress in a UK urban context (Greater Manchester) and shows how socio-economic as well as climate scenarios help to shape future patterns of risk. It ends with suggestions for how heat stress risk might be effectively tackled through considering existing policies which operate over conurbation as well as local scales.
 
The eighteenth-century Italian philosopher of culture Giambattista Vico should have been embraced by architecture theorists if only for his poetic account of human origins and development. More than Heidegger's Building Dwelling Thinking, Vico proposed that the human imagination, not the circumstances of environment or innovations of technology, shaped culture, thought, and human institutions. Yet, apart from a few initiatives, including the efforts of the architecture historian Edgar J. Kaufmann, whose family had commissioned Frank Lloyd Wright to design Falling Water and whose monographs on Ledoux involved the Enlightenment discussions of the origin of mankind, Vico has lain dormant in architecture thinking.
 
Affluence and deprivation in The Hague (average annual per capita income).  
Using data on all cleared crimes in the city of The Hague, The Netherlands, in the period 19962004, we study the flow of crime between the ninety-four neighbourhoods of the city, i.e. the flows from the neighbourhoods where offenders live into the neighbourhoods where they commit their offences. The results show that in addition to physical distance, ethnic and economic differences between neighbourhoods (social barriers) also significantly limit the flow of crime between them.
 
Income segregation across Melbourne's residential communities is widening, and at a pace faster than in some other Australian cities. The widening gap between Melbourne's rich and poor communities raises fears about concentrations of poverty and social exclusion, particularly if the geography of these communities is such that they and their residents are increasingly isolated from urban services and employment centres. Social exclusion in our metropolitan areas and the government responses to it are commonly thought to be the proper domain of social and economic policy. The role of urban planning is typically neglected, yet it helps shape the economic opportunities available to communities in its attempts to influence the geographical location of urban services, infrastructure and jobs. Under the current metropolitan strategy Melbourne 2030 urban services and transport infrastructure are to be concentrated within Principal Activity Centres spread throughout the metropolitan area and it is the intention that lower-income households should have ready access to these activity centres. However, the Victorian state government has few housing policy instruments to achieve this goal and there are fears that community mix may suffer as house prices and rents are bid up in the vicinity of Principal Activity Centres, and lower-income households are displaced. But are these fears justified by the changing geography of house prices in the metropolitan region? This is the key research question addressed in this paper which examines whether the Victorian practice of placing reliance on the market to deliver affordable housing, while intervening to promote a more compact pattern of urban settlement, is effective.
 
Crime in South Africa remains a serious challenge and there is a general feeling in the country that the situation is worsening. But attempts have been made to reduce crime through the implementation of mechanisms that respond specifically to particular contextual problems and involve, to some extent, a local interpretation of international experiences. This paper highlights a number of responses, particularly those that recognize the physical (built) environment as a factor that could enhance or reduce opportunities for crime. It commences with a brief discussion of some of the distinctive features of the South African context and a number of key challenges impacting on crime and crime reduction initiatives in the country. The next section deals with some typical responses to the crime problems in South Africa, followed by a description of an approach to crime prevention through environmental design developed in response to the local context and challenges.
 
Of all the regions of the world, Africa's transformation towards bus rapid transit (BRT) would seem perhaps the greatest leap of ambition. Existing public transport conditions present difficult circumstances for both operators and customers a situation exacerbated by high urban population growth, increased private vehicle ownership and worsening congestion. Furthermore, municipal governments in Africa often lack the necessary resources to address the formalization of public transport services. A few cities, though, have demonstrated leadership in creating a new public transport paradigm for the continent. In 2008, Lagos launched a BRT Lite corridor which, although basic in nature, proved that a form of BRT was possible in Africa. With the impetus of hosting the 2010 FIFA World Cup, three South African cities, Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth, had initiated BRT starter services by 2010. Johannesburg's launch of the Rea Vaya system in 2009 marked the first full BRT system in Africa. These early efforts have spawned similar efforts elsewhere, including additional systems being developed in Ghana, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. The results to date, especially from the new South African systems, show that African innovation has in many ways surpassed other wealthier parts of the world. The leap from informal paratransit systems to high-technology BRT indeed appears to be a realizable achievement for Africa.
 
We describe recent developments in so-called 'morphogenetic' or form-generating urban design tools and strategies, and off er a critical assessment of the field's aims, challenges and opportunities. In particular we assess recent eff orts to incorporate the generative processes and characteristics of natural systems, examining several representative practitioners and theorists. We raise a strong caution about the dangers of employing avant-garde artistic regimes as drivers of urban planning and design, and we suggest that this results from a common confusion about the origin and role of art within se lements. We conclude with a discussion of opportunities for the further development of what are nonetheless promising new design tools and approaches.
 
Algiers's ambition to develop its coastline, and to link once more the city to the sea, is at an early stage, in contrast to well-advanced projects in Rabat and Tunis. This article reveals the genesis of the Bay of Algiers development project through an analysis of the various development plans for the city. The project originated in the qualitative Big Urban Project, developed in a phase of multifaceted urban crisis and unbridled metropolitan ambitions of the Wilaya. Since then, the concept has found a more modest formulation through the ideology of sustainable development. And the dangers of Dubaization have been partly averted.
 
Sixteen Latin American cities have embraced Bus Rapid Transit as a key component of their transit systems. BRT was already operational in several Latin American cities, before the acronym was coined by transit planners in the US in the late 1990s. This review concentrates on nine cities, and shows the systems' high performance (5,00043,000 passengers/hour/direction), general high user acceptance, comparatively low capital investment (US 1.0 million/km to US 12.5 million/km) and little or no operational subsidies. BRT has been a key element in transit reform, changing the way service is delivered. The systems have reduced travel time, transport cost, air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, and accidents. Some cities have also experienced significant positive impacts in the built environment. BRT systems' expansion is underway in most cities, and several additional Latin American cities have implemented or are in the process of implementing BRT systems. The cities have also faced some system implementation and operational difficulties due to institutional and financial constraints.
 
Spoerry’s late 1960s project, Port Grimaud, France ( Photo : Michelle Thompson-Fawcett, 1996) 
A view of Kirchsteigfeld, Germany. ( Photo : Groth Gruppe, Germany) 
Variety achieved via a code, Poundbury (Phase 2), UK. ( Photo : Sophie Bond, 2003) 
New Urbanism is now an international phenomenon. The spread of this `paradigm' is not a straightforward dispersal from a pivotal source. Rather, multi-directional diffusion is occurring via a broadly based network, particularly across the Atlantic. In response, new urbanism displays variations and modifications as it is adapted to different contexts.
 
Improving the management of risk in local economies is important in ensuring the sustainability of economic development. As regional economies become more integrated into the global economy, their exposure to risks increases and the management of these can become more difficult. Societies face increasingly exacting choices about which risks to manage, how to measure the level of risks, who determines acceptable levels of risk exposure to communities and the most appropriate strategies to manage risk. These are demanding questions to answer as risks, by their very nature, are difficult to predict or fully understand. This paper elucidates the application of a risk evaluation technique, multi-sector risk analysis or MSRA, to measure and analyse risks, which have the potential to impact on sectors of local and regional economies. The technique enables local governments and communities to assess the perceived impact and likelihood of risks facing an economy and to decide which risks need to be managed. Two case studies of risk analysis for the Cairns and Australian Capital Territory (ACT) regional economies are presented using MSRA. The results show how these mainly urban regions have very different regional economic risk profiles and exposure to endogenous and exogenous risk. A framework for developing sector industry risk management strategies and plans is then presented, developed from the ACT case study.
 
Children's gardens have become popular additions to botanical and other public gardens, especially in the United States over the last 15 years, and are an important source of nature interactions for children inhabiting built spaces. However despite subscribing to egalitarian aims of providing child-centred environments and lofty purposes such as inspiring a love of natural environments in children, this paper proposes that, while well-intentioned, they lag behind current best practice in their general lack of opportunities for children to participate, beyond consultation, in their design. The paper suggests reasons for this and presents and critiques examples of processes followed in some children's gardens. By relating these to current participative research and the new social studies of childhood, this paper adds to the growing discourse on participation of children in the design of their outdoor environments. Some concluding recommendations contribute to a pathway towards co-construction with children for practitioners of outdoor spaces in the built environment.
 
Automata and robots have been traditionally fashioned after humans, demonstrating human activities or habits, but without the immaterial essence or substance that animates or inspires. While architecture obviously does not possess life, it can reflect the spirit of humans. As a form of passive thinking machine, architecture should demonstrate an understanding of the cosmos, and thus inform us about the current condition of the human spirit. Discussing historical and contemporary robots and automata will help us speculate on architects' attempt to infuse inspiration into their buildings and better understand the conception of architecture.
 
First the concept of influence is questioned and, instead, the Derridean notion of `border crossing', is introduced. This announces itself with a movement of a certain step [pas], which is also its negation. Second, it is stressed that `architecture after photography' is about this undecidable border crossing. Architecture and photography both enter the zone of border crossing with an indivisible, or invisible line, separating and connecting, one step [pas] apart from each other, in the age of reproduction. Photography is thus presented as the `vanishing mediator' between architecture and other disciplines. In this speculation, `architecture after photography' is about death and the decentring subject of vision.
 
Construction workers' housing and Jianwai SOHO apartment towers, Beijing.
Major mega projects in Beijing designed by international architectural firms: 1998-2008.
This article examines the role of transnational architectural production in mega project developments in Beijing. It explores how local developers and government officials have consciously used signature design from international architects to brand their mega projects, as well as to promote Beijing as a new global city. By choosing modern, high-tech, and futuristic architectural designs from international architects, local political and economic elites have created a transnational urban space that caters for the needs of the transnational capitalist class. The symbolic capital of architectural design is transformed into other forms of capital in the process. The articulation of spatial design has become a major force of capital accumulation in Beijing's transformation into a global city.
 
Location and boundary of the Pan-Pearl River Delta
Comparison of major economic indicators of Pan-PRD members, 2005.
Economic reform in China since 1978 has led to the rise of urban entrepreneurialism and a powerful force of political fragmentation. There is intensive inter-jurisdiction competition for capital, from both the market and central resources. Building on a debate about the problematic nature and fragmented consequences of the entrepreneurial strategy, this paper argues that regional cooperation constitutes a new policy option for jurisdictions to overcome the negative effects of political fragmentation. It first reviews regional cooperation in China in general to provide a background of contextual changes and policy responses since 1949 and discusses the rationale behind the current proliferating of regional cooperation. It then develops a theoretical interpretation of what is behind the increasing interest in regional cooperation and how such cooperation is impacted by state politics in a transitional economy. It is argued that current regional cooperation projects are mostly unformulaic in nature and thus subject to contextually specific circumstances and political wills of key officials. Rather than serving as an institutional platform for inter-jurisdiction networking, regional cooperation may become a means or institutional fix to open up new venues for capital accumulation. The recent Pan-Pearl River Delta Forum is used to illustrate the formation and growth of a controversial regional cooperation project from a development background of the nature outlined above.
 
The built environment impacts on the patterns of crime in many different ways. The distribution and clustering of different land uses is thought, on theoretical grounds, to play an important role in where and when crimes occur. This study analysed the patterns of assault and motor vehicle theft in relation to the distribution of land uses across more than 60,000 separate parcels of land in a large British Columbia city. Specific land-use types that concentrate routine human activities in time and space are found to act as major crime generators and attractors. Attention to the distribution of these land-use types across the urban mosaic can substantially reduce the volume of crime associated with design decisions.
 
This paper presents an update on progress in developing BRT systems in Australasia and follows a similar review undertaken in 2006. Between 2006 and 2010 BRT systems in Australasia have increased by 216 route km (200 per cent) mostly on established systems. There has been a significant rise in BRT ridership which increased from 37 million passengers per annum to 86 million passengers per annum (134 per cent). Most ridership growth occurred in systems which were already in operation in 2006. Analysis shows ridership growth on established BRT systems tracked consistently higher than transit ridership in general. Lessons in BRT implementation and development, together with the challenges presented by new technologies and patronage and operations growth are described. It is concluded that the future rate of BRT system growth is likely to slow compared to the last 4 or 5 years.
 
Speaking of the successes of contemporary cities in becoming an important, attractive and leading city automatically leads to the example of Barcelona. Today everyone refers to this city as the place to visit or the place to be, because of the impressive and pleasant public spaces, an attractive built environment, important cultural elements, and a very active and ambitious local government. But some 15 years ago nobody spoke of Barcelona as a creative cultural knowledge city. What are the reasons behind this fast rising star?
 
This paper proposes the emergence of two metropolitan regions in Switzerland, the Arc Lmanique and the Zrich-Basel metropolitan region, whose perimeters extend far beyond existing political and administrative structures. However current spatial development policies in the light of this metropolitan notion reveal that policy-makers have neglected the impact of the increase in knowledge-intensive economies and international relations, which leads to spatial reorganization of the country. Governance responses at the scale of the metropolitan region to the needs of the expanding knowledge economy are needed. Here we propose a combination of policies, the so-called tripod of spatial planning, regional policies and international location marketing. Concerted actions from the three policy fields will enhance the chance of shaping liveable urban landscapes. A necessary and important step still lies ahead: shaping awareness of the metropolitan reality in Switzerland.
 
In Asia, two deltaic cities have to endure the constant threat of flooding: Tokyo, capital of Japan, and Dhaka, capital of Bangladesh. Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries of Asia and Japan is the wealthiest country of Asia. The question is how these cities handle the threat of flooding. Are there similarities between their approaches or do they follow different courses? This paper shows that both cities use similar flood protection structures, such as flood walls and embankments. This is remarkable because, in general, the type of structure depends on the available resources, the physical constraints and the degree of urgency. There are also differences in flood control. Aesthetics and an appealing waterfront are in Bangladesh of less importance than in the more developed Japan. In this paper it becomes clear that Japan and Bangladesh can learn from each other. Additionally, other deltaic countries, like in the European Rhine catchment, can also benefit from their knowledge. Exchange of knowledge between all deltaic and flood endangered countries all over the world remains important. It can induce innovative solutions which can lead to better protected cities and better protected hinterland.
 
Since 1990, Sofia has re-invented itself without help or hindrance from policy. Its path had little to do with planning and much to do with an Aristotelian-Habermasian model, under which civic energy and habits, once awoken, spread beyond issues of governance and infused the entire daily lives of citizens. Sofia's creation out of chaos trajectory neatly illustrates Trnqvist's and Andersson's major prerequisite for a creative milieu structural instability (i.e. uncertainty about the future). This means that the very manner (actor-based), in which Sofia re-invented itself, predetermined the strong possibility that a creative city would emerge in the end. The policy that has impacted Sofia effectively has been that at the national-level. The introduction of a Currency Board regime in 1997 ensured financial stability. A decade of government tax cuts has produced the lowest taxation burden in the EU. Low taxation and a secure financial environment have impacted all Sofia's creative industries, allowing them to expand, invest and plan. The resilience of Sofia as a creative city is now to be tested in the cold winds of the global financial crisis.
 
Transport technologies seldom make a comeback, save in nostalgia trips for well-heeled tourists. Stagecoaches have not made a reappearance on the Bath Road, nor sedan chairs on the streets of London. But there is a spectacular exception: railways, written off thirty years ago as a Victorian anachronism destined to atrophy before the steady growth of motorway traffic, have suddenly become one of the basic technologies of the twenty-first century.The reason of course is the high-speed train
 
Comparing 1982 and 2000 census data, we find that Beijing's socio-spatial structure is becoming more complex, with the transformation from a homogenous spatial structure to a heterogeneous one. The characteristics of Beijing's social space transformed from reflecting information about occupation to the appearance of many new factors, concerning migrants, ethnicity and housing conditions, which are the results of moving to a market economy. The socio-spatial structure model changed from one exhibiting more similarities than differences to one exhibiting more differences than similarities. The distribution of urban social indices tends to be dispersive and complicated, while the degree of spatial differentiation of social indices in Beijing tends to have decreased in the period 19822000. The reasons for such transformation should be attributed to institutional innovation, the changing manner of urban planning and development, and changing individual status.
 
A general view of the recent high-end building boom on Beirut's sea front boulevard.
A road leading to Beirut Central District showing several recent building developments including the Platinum Tower (centre) and the Marina Towers/Four Seasons Hotel (left). The war-battered Holiday Inn is visible in the background.
This paper presents the first findings of ongoing research documenting the changing modalities of governing and organizing the built environment in the past two decades in Lebanon, a phase widely associated with the advent of neoliberalism in the country. Taking building permits as the entry point for an investigation of these modalities, our research shows that in line with trends documented elsewhere, the neoliberal turn has materialized in public interventions deployed at several levels in order to facilitate the circulation of capital to this sector and foster more intensive construction practices. These include changing regulations, delegating planning to private actors, and changing the institutional environment in ways that accommodate the needs of capital. We further argue that additional flexibility is provided to capital through the informalization of public decision-making with regard to planning decisions, meaning more decisions taken by mutual agreement, on an ad hoc basis, at multiple levels of the public hierarchies. Our findings are based on a thorough investigation of the public regulations issued over the past two decades as well as interviews with public sector officials, with developers, and with real estate experts.
 
This paper shows how Rbati civil society has decided not to accept being left behind or faced with a fait accompli in the development of urban mega-projects. The examples discussed of the Bou Regreg Valley and Rabat Corniche are emblematic of this new trend, leading to social movements and the birth of new rules such as negotiation and compromise, all of which were rare in the old management practices. To enforce the rights of citizens, the associations mobilized in response to these projects, have benefited from their undoubted skills in affecting a transformation of their objectives (from socio-cultural concern of proximity, to legal and environmental concerns at the national scale) and their modes of action and organization (national pleading, cooperative, group and network association).
 
Urban settings play a major role in facilitating and enabling healthy lifestyle choices. In particular, they can provide opportunities for maintaining or reintroducing walking and cycling as part of daily life, contributing to more physically active lifestyles and reducing obesity and risks for important diseases such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. This paper describes analytical tools that can be used locally to support walking and cycling as cost-effective and healthy options for urban mobility. The paper highlights recent international policy developments that are raising awareness of health promoting opportunities provided by walking and cycling, and the role to be played by urban and transport planning in creating favourable conditions for safe walking and cycling.
 
Utrecht Central Station, the Netherlands: station hall. (Source: Authors)
Summary of characteristics of station area development frames.
Broadgate, typifying the ‘property capitalization’ approach. ( Source : Broadgate) 
Euralille, typifying the 'urban mega-project' approach. (Source: Euralille)
Basic transport and land use correlations. TOD pursues a combination of transit and walking and cycling environments. (Source: Bertolini and Le Clercq, 2003)
The redevelopment of railway stations and their surroundings has been high on the agenda of European cities for more than two decades. An evolving set of factors has fuelled these initiatives. Driving forces include the expansion and upgrading of rail infrastructure, the reduced demand for industrial space in central urban locations, the privatization of railways, efforts to increase the attractiveness of cities, the quest for sustainable development and - last but not least - the spatial dynamics of contemporary society. Across the different years and countries, these factors have been combined with shifting emphases, resulting in three different ways of framing station area projects, here labelled 'property capitalization', 'urban mega-project', and 'transit oriented development' (TOD). The last frame puts initiatives in Europe on a par with similar efforts in other parts of the world. In the second part of the paper global, emerging experiences with TOD are reviewed in order to draw lessons for current initiatives in Europe.
 
Characteristics of selected BHLS systems in Europe 
Ridership Gains and Related Factors for Selected BHLS Systems in Europe 
The paper discusses the respective American Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and European Bus with a High Level of Service (BHLS) concepts and compares their approaches. It outlines how the BHLS concept has emerged in Europe and the conditions under which it has been implemented. Secondly, it describes the main BHLS characteristics, the gains in ridership findings for several case studies in different European countries and reports the main findings concerning ridership gains for ten specific bus lines: two in Sweden and two in France, and one each in The Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Italy, Ireland and Finland.
 
Theory in environmental criminology postulates that changes in the urban structure will produce changes in spatial and temporal patterns of crime. This research examined spatial patterns of crime in Boston, Massachusetts using location quotients and buffer analysis. The focus of this reseach was how the central artery project (Big Dig) changed accessibility to a unique neighbourhood in Boston known as the North End. Theoretically, as a result of the increased accessibility, the North End would be likely to experience changes in spatial patterns of crime. Traditionally, however, the population of the North End has remained homogenous in nature, a modifying influence on crime. Analysis using location quotients and location time quotients found that block groups in the North End could not be characterized as troubled areas when compared with the rest of the city. The buffer analysis revealed high rates of certain types of crimes, and high relative concentrations of certain types of crimes around the former location of the central artery. Methodological issues and measurement problems pertaining to this unique situation are also discussed.
 
It is increasingly understood that the emergence of the knowledge-based economy (KBE) at local, sub-regional and regional level may be accompanied by increased social polarization in essence certain communities are in danger of being left behind. The broad perspective for this paper is the concern that, as a counter-balancing measure, the secondary education sector needs to be more wholly integrated into the design and delivery of KBE policy at the concept stage of localized initiatives. This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on KBE policy by considering the extent to which local KBE initiatives across cities in England can connect with local communities. In particular, we argue that the local secondary education (1119 year old) sector has a bridging role to play in connecting local communities to local KBE agendas. The education sector is ideally placed to help local communities prepare for the opportunities that will emerge from KBE activity. The challenge of incorporating the sector is elaborated through the examination of a case study of the Central Technology Belt (CTB) in south Birmingham. The paper concludes by reflecting on the implications of the discussion.
 
The popular Black music genre has been a principal feature of the US recorded music industry, instrumental for creativity, innovation and for the long-term cyclical patterns of growth, change and sustainability within this vital cultural products industry. Urban locations have acted as the central terrains for music production, industry corporate ownership, music distribution and consumption. Cities constitute the sites for verticality in music production; they function as both artistic centres of creative expression and as sites of industrial production of musical products via recording and processing music for mass distribution. This paper analyses the interlinked, changing spatial-geographic, social and cultural variables, patterns and relations that comprise Black musical genres within the US music industry, rectifying the conspicuous neglect of the critical role of urban space and of the location of Black music production in the musical recording business.
 
In this paper we explore the socio-technical dynamics of developing new urban transport systems. Based on the analysis of empirical material from the study of the Transmilenio in Bogot and the Metro in Copenhagen, we propose that the design, construction and operation of urban transport systems constitute a process where the actors involved negotiate and actively distribute agency in the components of the new system. The character and outcome of this process play a role in the stabilization of the system over time. Additionally, this process takes place in a setting dominated by established actors: institutions, technologies and interest groups. We analyse this setting as an arena of development, a concept that provides a framework to account for the interaction of existing and new systems. Our approach is based on theoretical developments from Science and Technology Studies, especially Actor-Network Theory and Large Technological Systems, and contributes to the current research on the dynamics of change and permanence in built environments.
 
Rocinha from below. ( Photo : Moises Lino e Silva) 
Map of Favelas in Rio. ( Source : Christian Wethmann and Elizabeth Randall, Harvard Graduate School of Design, based on UN-Habitat data) 
Based on fieldwork in Rocinha, one of the largest favelas of Rio de Janeiro, this paper discusses the formal/informal binary in relation to the city. Ethnographic material illustrates the daily relationships of businesses and lives in this favela and shows that they are clearly enmeshed in both what is usually considered the formal and the informal parts of urban life. Through the work of Beatriz Jaguaribe and Loïc Wacquant in particular, we suggest that what is perceived as informal is not just a construction of the formal but also serves as a dangerous basis for policies such as the 'Shock of Order'. The informal, as the 'other' and the 'unknown', needs to be better understood ethnographically to challenge the formal/informal binary in the face of the complex hybrid relationships of the contemporary city.
 
The experience of Runcorn emphasizes the importance of flexibility in planning and design. Shopping City, built around 1970 as the centre for the new town of Runcorn, was facing problems by the 1980s. Rents were high resulting in a narrow range of shops, most of which were leased and managed by national or international chains with little connection with, or concern for, Runcorn as a specific community. It is argued that centres that have grown organically (such as Runcorn Old Town) are able to support a much wider range of uses and functions. In addition to making organic centres more interesting places to visit, these characteristics make them better able to adapt to changing economic or social circumstances than planned centres. Runcorn demonstrates the failures of the rational comprehensive approach to planning, perhaps indicating that the incremental approach provides the variety of socio-economic and physical circumstances that enables towns and their centres to flourish and develop, while the rational approach provides only sterile environments that discourage and frustrate initiative and change.
 
Brussels's strong international position is linked to the presence of the EU and other international institutions. The metropolitan region's healthy economic situation benefits from the general European trend to re-metropolization. However, the specific situation of Brussels-Capital in the institutional framework of federal Belgium hinders any planned cooperation with its suburban periphery. In this context, Brussels-Capital suffers from a weak tax base, even if its economy is very productive, and appears to be a poor city with a strong economy. Along with suburbanization, the regional urban renewal politics could contribute greater intra-urban social dualization.
 
This paper explores the role and importance of universities, particularly in the Malaysian context, in building prosperous knowledge cities in the rising knowledge economy. It aims to shed light on how universities contribute to the knowledge-based development of Malaysian cities looking at the case of Bandar Seri Iskandar, a knowledge city created from scratch - including the establishment of new public and private universities. Bandar Seri Iskandar provides a unique opportunity to understand how the idea of the knowledge economy has permeated economic development policy within a developing country context. The research findings reveal that in Malaysia, much like many of the developed countries, universities are being positioned to play a major role in supporting knowledge city (trans) formation. While there has been a tangible success in spatial development based on a rapid land-use change towards accommodating knowledge-intensive land use and activities, the research reports that a more concerted and coordinated effort from academia and public and private sectors is needed to foster further the growth and development of economic, environmental, institutional and social aspects of Bandar Seri Iskandar in order for it to become a fully functioning prosperous knowledge city.
 
A major anticipated impact of climate change on the built environment in the United Kingdom is an increase in the occurrence of overheating in buildings, due to reduced efficacy of the traditional and still widely used method of cooling buildings comfort ventilation with outside air. As outside temperatures become higher, the potential to provide cooling with comfort ventilation falls off. This paper examines how serious this impact may be under the UKCIP02 climate change scenarios and investigates the implications of two types of adaptive solution: passive cooling measures, as traditionally used in countries with warmer climates, and mechanical cooling (air conditioning). A qualitative assessment is made through consideration of building design weather years morphed under the UKCIP02 scenarios. A quantitative investigation is then made through dynamic thermal modelling of three notional case study office buildings under morphed weather years for London, Manchester and Edinburgh for the UKCP02 Medium-High emissions scenario. It is demonstrated that in London, buildings relying on comfort ventilation are likely to become increasingly vulnerable to serious overheating and that advanced-passive or mechanical cooling measures will be needed. For Manchester, projected overheating risks in buildings relying on comfort ventilation are still significant but less than for London, whereas for Edinburgh overheating risks are low under the climate scenario data used. The implications of these findings for building design in the UK are discussed.
 
New Urbanism attempts to promote `greener' travel through physical design: especially through the provision of compact, walkable neighbourhoods served by transit. Achieving the desired environmental benefits effectively hinges on reducing auto trips, by encouraging people who currently travel by car to switch to walking for short trips and transit for long trips. However, while these aims may be simply asserted, the extent to which they are achievable is complex. The sustainability debate now goes well beyond merely technical discussions of environmental impacts to tackle the stickier political economy of how cities can be made to work in terms of accessibility, how environmental costs and benefits are distributed, and the concept of `environmental justice'. Who goes where, based on where they live and work, and the land-use levers available to affect why, have become the core policy focus. In order to understand the extent to which New Urbanism can contribute to sustainable transport and development, it is necessary to consider how different social groups using different modes of transport are related to the design of the built environment.
 
Top-cited authors
Stephan Pauleit
  • Technische Universität München
Roland Ennos
  • University of Hull
Susannah Gill
  • The Mersey Forest
Helen Woolley
  • The University of Sheffield
Nigel Dunnett
  • The University of Sheffield