Serratia marcescens has been studied to show a higher degradation potential for organo-phosphorus pesticides. This property has made it useful as a potential bioremediation agent. The bacterial cell was bio-stimulated in luria beterni broth at a selected experimental temperature ranging from 25 ºC – 40 ºC. The highest cell biomass was recorded at 35 ºC to range from 7.56 -8.10mg/ml for single strength and double strength yeast extract in luria beterni, respectively. Percentage bio-sorption efficiency of both the cell culture and extracted membrane protein augmented cell culture of Serratia marcescens showed 100% removal in heavy metals such as lead, potassium and manganese, respectively. The cell culture percentage sorption also showed 99.2%, 95.9% and 82% removal of copper, nickel and zinc, respectively, while the protein extract augmented cell culture showed improved corresponding heavy metal removal with 100% removal of copper and nickel and 86.5% removal of zinc. The bacterial cell and corresponding protein extracts tend to create oxygen stress in an aquaculture model, reducing the dissolved oxygen level to 3 mg/l. Lethal dose 50 of the bacterial extracts were high a 14.14%; hence this showed high toxicity or pathogenicity of the bacteria. This showed that the bacterial cell and corresponding proteins extract showed promising in the removal of heavy metals in an aquaculture environment; however, its toxicity effect on the test fishes makes it a potential risk to aquatic life.
The exposure of Mesozoic rocks in the Mangilu area, both as a result of tectonic deformation in the form of mélange, low-high degree metamorphism and deep-sea sediments (flysch, radiolarian cherts, and sediment flow in the form of olistostrome), which formed in the subduction zone indicates complex accretionary rocks. The purpose of this study is to identify and study the accretionary complex trace rocks of the Mesozoic era. The method used in this study was field observation, including collection of geological data, tectonic deformation, rock groups and laboratory analysis (petrography). In general, the accretion complex is divided into 2 categories, namely a). oceanic volcanic groups and sediments of the oceanic crust; b). terigenous sediments from continents with sialic beds. The oceanic volcanic group consists of gabbro, diabase, dolerite, pillow and hyaloclastic lava, and oceanic sediments consist of radiolarian chert and mali limestone. The terigen sedimentary group consists of flysch type sandstones and olistostrome flow sediments with components in the form of granite, granodiorite, dacite and diabase. Other components found in autoclastic breccia rocks in the Mangilu area consist of metaperidotite, serpentinite, quartzite and metachert. Based on the Oceanic Plate Stratigraphy (OPS) arrangement, the autoclastic breccia rocks in the Mangilu area consist of bottom up, namely ultramafic/serpentinite, gabbro, diabase, pillow basaltic lava, hyaloclastic, radiolarian chert, mali limestone and flysch sediments. The mixing of rocks originating from oceanic plates with continental plates in autoclastic breccias indicates that the Mesozoic accretion complex in the Mangilu area has experienced strong deformation in the form of thurst in the Tertiary era.
Historical groundwater level and water quality data in Ghazni province poorly were reviewed and compared with the data collected in the past than recently. The results suggest that the groundwater quality and water level have been improved progressively with urban development, land use, climate change, social development and frequent drought events. The main impact of these events include; 1- most of the springs and flumes have dried up; 2- decreased annual atmospheric precipitation; 3- increased serious deterioration of water quality; 4- increased water logging and irregulation salinization; 5-declining of water level in excess of recharge trend; 7- increased evaporation and discharge; 6- marshes dried up in several areas of the Basin, leaving salt crust at the surface. The above impacts have resulted in the replacement of surface water with groundwater resources to support socio-economic development. This, however, is basically not possible because of the low thickness and productivity of the aquifers. We have done very little to advertency water quality deterioration and serious lowering of the groundwater level due to fragmented institutional arrangements and poor formulation of effective water policies, strategies and regulations for integrated groundwater resources management, development, protection and sustainability. Groundwater natural reserves have been depleted, and water quality has deteriorated due to over-exploitation. Overall Afghanistan, Arsenic (total as) contamination are an issue of current drinking water supply systems where users have been using groundwater sources. Arsenic contamination is a major environmental health management concern, especially in Ghazni province in the WASH sector. Increasing human activities and haphazard urbanization have modified the cycle of heavy metal, non-metal and metalloids. The arsenic contaminated groundwater used for drinking can cause an adverse effect on the human health of the study area. The water quality study with 96 samples from drinking water points (DWPs) was carried out in the center of Ghazni province results show that the arsenic concentration values in the study area varied between 0.00-0.99 mg/L and 38% of DWPs samples exceeded the value of the WHO guideline of 0.01 mg/L of As Owever, 62% of analyzed water samples exceeded the National drinking water quality standard (NDWQS) of 0.05 mg/L of As.
The study analyzed the emerging land rights and the extent of the relationship between agricultural and extension education and soil conservation practices. A survey of 376 household heads randomly sampled respondents was administered using a well-structured questionnaire. Results from correlation analysis revealed that the relationship between "agricultural and extension education" and the soil conservation variables "mulching, zero tillage, and the use of crop residues or household refuse" was positive, moderate in strength, and statistically significant. However, the relationship between "agricultural and extension education" and "slash and burn agriculture" was negative, moderate in strength, and statistically significant. The results from the linear probability model show that the coefficients of "Agricultural and Extension education" are statistically significant at a 1% level of significance for all the model specifications except the case where "organic fertilizer" is used as the dependent variable. Specifically, the results indicate that Agricultural and Extension education increases the probability of farmers practising mulching, use of crop or household residues, and zero tillage by 59.4, 16.1, and 33.6 percentage points, respectively. Also, Agricultural and Extension Education decreases the probability of farmers practising slash and burn agriculture by about 16.2 percentage points. Agricultural and Extension education increases the probability of farmers practising at least two of the soil conservations by 25 percentage points, while it increases the probability of farmers practising at least three of those soil conservations by 5.5 percentage points. Based on the results, we propose the Agricultural and Extension Education for Sustainability approach. This approach consists of knowledge, skills, motivation, awareness, concern, responsibility, and action. Therefore, policies geared towards agricultural and extension services should be highly prioritized.
Despite the roles and functions of natural forests on the livelihood of the rural communities, their economic values are poorly reflected in market considerations and largely ignored in the decision-making process. There is inadequate empirical evidence detailing forest management preferences in developing countries, including Volcanoes National Park (VNP) in Rwanda. VNP has a considerable contribution to Rwandan rural livelihood, global environmental protection and cultural heritage. This study aimed at assessing the monetary values farmers attached to VNP. A Choice Experiment approach and Conditional Logit model were used for a sample of 192 farmers living along the park corridor using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data obtained were analyzed using Nlogit 3.0. The results showed that farmers preferred to improve the current VNP management and were willing to pay for its participatory management attributes. Farmers’ characteristics significantly influenced preferences. The findings have an implication on programmes that improve the current park management and on the design of vocational, farmer groups and gender-based environmental awareness and promotional programs.
Land is a vital resource that enables food production, and conservation of biodiversity facilitates natural management of water systems and, above all, acts as a carbon sink. The land, therefore, is fundamental to the ability humans possess to adequately feed, manage their water supply and adapt to extreme weather events. If not adequately managed, the land would degrade, erode and eventually result in the phenomenon of desertification – a monster capable of rendering millions malnourished, poor and unable to feed themselves and their families around the world. Desertification can result in forced migration, social instability and human inability to feed themselves. With these, desertification can lead to human rights abuse, especially the right to food, considered ideal for the enjoyment of the right to life. With the adoption of international, regional and national laws for the combat against desertification, there is a need to investigate the extent to which the right to food and human rights as a whole can be guaranteed. Thus, it is the dire need to feed humans that the ecosystems are degraded. Through the degradation of ecosystems by way of desertification, human rights,, especially the right to food,, are being compromised. To effectively harness this, stakeholders, including the State, farmers, local communities, and non-governmental organizations, must appropriate and effectively implement the decentralization package Cameroon has opted for, especially as it devolves effective participation in decision-making at all levels.
Whereas energy transitions have received global energy governance attention over the few decades, it appears research on this important subject is either new or unclear in terms of the direction and the quantum of changes in Ghana. The study was about an analysis of the phenomenon of structural electricity energy transitions in the context of climate change reality in Ghana to inform sustainable energy policy. The study used the desktop research methodology, including retrieving and analyzing secondary qualitative and quantitative materials from various sources. The results show two significant structural changes in Ghana's electricity energy subsector. Firstly, the results show a significant transition from the previous hydro dominant electricity generation to a hydro-solar-thermal mix. However, crude fired thermal plants account for about 69.56%, compared to 43.33% and 0.49% respectively for hydroelectricity and solar plants in 2020. Secondly, the state monopoly of electricity supply structurally and significantly changed into a state-private-partnership supply mix, with approximately 57% of total generation supplied by independent power producers in 2020. Based on the results, the study concludes that electricity transition from a broad perspective of structural changes in the economy's electrical power systems has taken place based on the available data from Ghana. However, a low-carbon energy economy transition in the context of transitioning into climate compatible energy-climate-sustainability nexus has not yet taken place. Therefore, further interdisciplinary studies are imperative to appreciate both theoretically and practically why Ghana's renewable energy policy agenda and the observed strategies of implementations appeared contradictory.
Cytochrome P450 are heme-containing enzymes that have been deemed to be the most active group of monooxygenases reaction. It is a self-sufficient protein whose activities rely on the various associated coenzymes. Expression of the catalytic module of cytochrome P450 gene (CYP102A2) containing pET-28a in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) across temperatures ranging from 19 ºC to 37 ºC. The solubility of the expressed recombinant proteins on SDS-PAGE showed that the recombinant protein is both secreted and membrane-bound protein across all the temperature treatments. The highest expressed recombinant protein of interest (P.O.I.) band observed in lane 15 was membrane-bound and was optimum at 28 ºC, while the most prominent expressed P.O.I. bands in lane 16 from the secreted proteins was optimum at 30 ºC. The estimated flavin adenine dinucleotide (F.A.D.) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) showed optimum concentrations of 15 mM and 14 mM respectively at the optimum temperature of 25 ºC, while the estimated heme optimum concentration (2.4 mM) was recorded at the optimum temperature of 35 ºC. These observations showed that it is little or no connection between the quantity of the expressed recombinant cytochrome P450 and the estimated coenzymes and cofactors concentrations in response to the temperature parameter. The enzymatic activity of the recombinant P.O.I. at a selected temperature of 25 ºC and 35 ºC showed exponential slope within the period of 60 seconds at 550 nm wavelength of reaction; however, a wide range of absorbance ranging from 0.1 A to 0.7 A and 0. 689 A - 0.998 A was recorded, respectively. The increase in activity may also be attributed to the fact that higher temperature tends to support an increase in the rate of reactions, hence the rate of monoxygenation.
Long ago, scholars noted an inseparable link between poverty and the community, especially in works and social discourses concerning sustainable development and structural adjustment, although it is concluded that this link has not been explored systematically (Fur, 1991). The cost of the community is sometimes affected by the level and degree of poverty experienced by people living in urban communities. Bolay (2000) believes that slums are ‘characterised by the precarious nature of their habitat; and that beyond this, it can genuinely be seen as ‘hut house’ of cultural creativity, economic invention, and social innovation.’ This position underpinning slum dwellers has been translated as one that connects them to communal resources. In this regard, this article is grounded on two contradictory conceptual and social postulates: the Orthodox and the New Thinking Schools. Proponents of these schools acknowledge the fact that there is a degree of linkage between poor people and the community. However, the divergence in perception between the two ideologies lies in their conception of poor people in relation to the community surrounding them. For the Orthodox, the poverty-stricken situation of slum urban dwellers forces them to exploit and degrade the community. This, in turn, results in their impoverishment in a downward spiral. Scholars of the New wave of Thinking refute this stance by considering poor people as having the capability of salvaging the environment by adding value to it. For them, communal problems stem from some natural occurrences external to the community. A major characteristic of views from scholars on poverty and the community is that they take poor people as the causal variable who are forced by appalling circumstances to exhaust the communal resources.
This paper discusses the relationship between Eco Museum and rural revitalization. This study explores the possibility of combining the Eco Museum concept with rural revitalization to find a way out for the village's future development. From the perspective of the components of an Eco Museum, this study selects Yim Tin Tsai in Hong Kong as the research object to elaborate and evaluate the application of the Eco Museum concept in the restoration project of Yim Tin Tsai in order to provide a reference for the practice of the Eco Museum concept in China. The study concludes that the local residents of Yim Tin Tsai have been given autonomy to preserve their own local nature and cultural resources in situ. On the basis of this, Yim Tin Tsai has been able to develop sustainably and generate economic benefits for local residents. This study illustrates that it is feasible to realize rural revitalization while practicing the concept of Eco Museum.
This paper joins spatial autocorrelation models (Global Moran's index, Local Moran index) to analyse the distribution of cigarette vending outlets in Edinburgh and utilises global regression (OLS) models and Geographically Weighted Regression models (GWR) to examine the spatial heterogeneity of fiscal and social factors that affect the distribution of retail outlets in Edinburgh. The results demonstrate that Edinburgh has a considerable spatial agglomeration of cigarette retail outlets, with a clear trend towards clustering in high and low-value areas of retail outlet distribution, showing significant geographical characteristics. The impact of each element on the distribution of cigarette retail outlets was analysed utilising the ranking of the elements in SIMD (The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation) as explanatory variables. It was established that data regions with a high ranking in education, skills, and training and those with a high ranking in geographic access to services revealed a positive trend in the density distribution of cigarette retail outlets, while data regions with a high ranking in housing and those with a high ranking in crime revealed a negative trend on the density distribution of cigarette retail outlets. The outcomes are different from prior observations, so this paper specifically analyses the differences in the extent to which each influencing element affects cigarette retail outlets in Edinburgh across data regions, which will supply a scientific basis for decreasing the prevalence of smoking, decreasing socio-economic inequalities in smoking, and increasing diverse local tobacco control intervention strategies.
As a chemical spill that caused serious harm, the Love Canal chemical disaster brought heavy financial, social and public pressure to bear on the US government. Faced with this situation, the US government has adopted a certain information dissemination strategy to lead public opinion and thus reduce resistance. The strategy has been proven to be effective in solving the environmental crisis and secondary social problems in the early years of the crisis, as well as in completing the restoration and resettlement of the canal area ahead of schedule. However, the examination of the US government's information dissemination strategy during this environmental crisis also provides a glimpse into the truth and lies of the US government.
The lake has long been an important ecological space in the city and a public open space that people are eager to get close to. Under the background of ecological civilization construction, it is of great significance to constantly explore how to give full play to the ecological value and humanistic service value of urban lakes and create urban lake parks where people and nature coexist harmoniously. From the ecological perspective, four requirements are put forward for the design of urban lake parks: ensuring water security and clean water quality, establishing a complete regional ecosystem, improving the level of biodiversity, and injecting people-oriented service functions. Taking Zhongshan park as an example, the corresponding strategies are applied to the park design, building a natural ecological lakeside leisure space and creating a safe, ecological, and dynamic urban lake park to help the healthy development of the city.
This paper discusses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of sustainable development of ecotourism in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau based on the SWOT analysis and provides corresponding strategies for the future sustainable development model. The sustainable development of ecotourism in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has both natural and cultural strengths. The unique natural and cultural landscape provide the foundation for it, and international and domestic policies, financial support, and professional theories ensure its development. It is supported by a feasibility study and conforms to the times. To spur the sustainable development of ecotourism and establish the status of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in ecotourism, we must 1) make rational use of ESG and green finance and adhere to the development route suitable for the local conditions; 2) pay attention to the feasibility of ecological service-based economy in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and rationally apply it to the development of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; 3) improve the service level of the tourism industry in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, strengthen industry regulation and training, and improve tourists' experience in tourist destinations. To promote the development of ecotourism in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we must attach equal emphasis on the protection of the ecological environment and biodiversity and neglect neither economic development nor ecological protection in an attempt to create a better future for the Qinghai-Tibet region.
In many regions throughout the continent, industries and farms struggle with low-quality water supplies. They threaten environmental health and the safety of drinking and industrial waterways. The regeneration of industrial effluents is modeled in detail in this study. Solar stills are designed to emulate natural evaporation, purifying effluent from industrial processes. This approach is best suited for small, off-grid structures that produce their own power from renewable sources and have a salinity effluent stream. Effluent recycling is a useful process that benefits both commercial and agricultural endeavors. Renewable power solutions that use concentrated sun electricity are reviewed in this paper. This study develops and evaluates a solar concentration system based on a parabolic reflector for water recycling and reuse that makes use of air-condensed water, solar stills, and salt effluent. Desalinating industrial effluent using only renewable energy is the goal of this research. This technique relies on research on how solar panels and collectors may enhance solar still processing. | KEYWORDS Environment, industrial effluent, renewable energy, solar collectors