British Journal of Biology Studies

Published by Al-Kindi Center for Research and Development

Online ISSN: 2755-0052


Figure 3. Meta-analysis forest plot of FST on right and MSTN on left
Muscle Support Supplement by APOC, Medical Food EP1 (Cacao Advanced®): Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Exploring the Supplement’s Main Ingredient, the Cacao Flavanol l-Epicatechin and its Relationship Between the Follistatin to Myostatin Ratio
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July 2022


6 Reads

Victor Chiruta
Several scientific papers refer to the cacao flavanol l-epicatechin (EPI) as the first and only discovered dietary source of myostatin (MTSN) inhibition. However, although pre-clinical models strongly support this, there is a lack of high-quality human studies; to examine the response association between the consumption of EPI in humans and the effect on MSTN and follistatin (FST). By systematically reviewing the literature and qualitatively meta-analyzing with statistical methods, it becomes possible to quantify a conclusion from several lower quality human studies instead of a few high-quality studies. Two investigators searched Scopus® for the relevant human studies, which were pooled and meta-analyzed. Heterogeneity in the findings was explored with various subgroup analyses. Nine published articles with 11 intervention arms met the inclusion criteria. A significant improvement of the FST: MSTN ratio was observed in participants who ingested EPI, with a Common Language Effect Size (CLES) for Cohen’s d of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.74 to 0.99). Strong evidence of an association between EPI consumption and FST induction was noted, with weaker evidence for MSTN inhibition. Respectively, 0.98 (95% CI: 0.88 to 1.00) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.50 to 0.88). This meta-analysis provides evidence that EPI ingestion significantly improves the FST:MSTN ratio in humans by inducing FST and inhibiting MSTN. However, there was substantial variation in the results that could not be explained by the characteristics that were explored, and there were significant risk-of-bias concerns, with a large majority of the studies being small populations and not blinded. Nevertheless, considering the heterogeneity of children and the elderly and the lack of exercise intervention or alternatively high-quality exercise regime interventions. EPI consumption is the only feasible explanation for the drastic FST:MSTN ratio improvement.

An Analysis of Cancer Stem Cells’ Effectiveness in Curing Tumor and Possible Therapies

October 2022


23 Reads

This review focuses on the role of cancer stem cells in tumor development and summarizes multiple therapeutic approaches based on them. Cancer research has been significant in medical research as it is increasingly recognised as a worldwide public health concern. Although modern medical treatment can be done utilizing chemotherapy or radiotherapy, tumors’ high mortality and recurrence rate remain a critical issue. However, in recent years, based on a large number of studies on cancer, scientists have put forward the theory of cancer stem cells, aiming to provide prospective treatment theories and methods for cancer therapies. These innovative treatments have brought hope to a complete cure for cancer. This paper first reviews the current status of cancer development, the hot theory of cancer stem cells, and the role of cancer stem cells in curing cancer. Then, three popular cancer stem cell treatments are reviewed, briefly discussed, and analyzed. Finally, the prospect of a treatment system is examined based on cancer stem cells.

In situ effect of sodium lactate 0.5 % (T1) and sodium lactate 1.0 % (T2) on inhibition of Listeria spp. (Log10 CFU/g ± SD) in cold-smoked salmon stored at 4 0 C
Effect of Sodium Lactate on the Safety of Cold-smoked Salmon during Cold Storage
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August 2023


16 Reads

Effect of sodium lactate (SL) on inhibition growth of Listeria monocytogenes, L. innocua, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as compared to ampicillin and chloramphenicol antibiotics in cold-smoked salmon stored at 1.0 ± 4.0 0C were evaluated in this study. The sliced smoked salmon were coated with different concentrations of sodium lactate (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 % SL). Sterilized deionized water was used as a negative control. Total bacterial counts (TBC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), E. coli (EC), Pseudomonas count (PC) and Listeria count (LC) were examined. In vitro, the antibacterial agent (SL) exhibited antibacterial activities against all the tested bacteria. The antimicrobial action of 1.0 % of SL was more effective than the control. Therefore, thus coating with 1.0 %, SL prevented Listeria spp. and other pathogenic bacteria growth and prolonged the shelf life of cold-smoked salmon.

Ecological Protection Status and Protection Countermeasures of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

March 2023


34 Reads

The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has its unique advantages and is an important natural area to regulate the human living environment. At present, China's rapid economic development and social progress, with the rapid population growth, the ecological balance of the ecological environment affect the Plateau, which is indispensable in human life and development and is a necessary condition for steady and sustainable growth and people's living standards; it also plays a decisive role in the sustainable development strategic goal of the whole country. Due to the extreme nature of natural conditions and human activities, the biodiversity in the Qinghai-Tibet region is in danger, with serious soil erosion and sensitive ecological and environment. In order to protect the ecological environment of the Tibetan Plateau, strengthen the research and scientific management of the natural area and its ecosystem, establish and improve the nature protection mechanism; at the same time, strengthen the biodiversity maintenance of the alpine area of the Tibetan Plateau, implement a series of countermeasures of the ecological system, so as to restore the area to the original situation and provide more ecological service functions. This paper first analyzes the reasons for the fragile and sensitive ecological environment in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area, then analyzes the current situation and existing problems of ecological protection, and puts forward corresponding protection measures for various problems. On the basis of the above, the ecological protection countermeasures of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are discussed. In this paper, the investigation method and the literature research method are adopted to collect and analyze the existing research results, comprehensively understand the current situation of ecological protection on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and analyze them in detail. The results show that: (1) the economic development level of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area is low, and there is a contradiction between resource development and utilization and ecological environment protection; (2) the biodiversity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area is threatened, the ecological service function is reduced, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a vast territory, changeable climate and serious soil erosion. (3) Due to the impact of human activities on the environment, the contradictions between natural, social and economic development and ecological environment protection are increasingly prominent; (4) Ecological protection is faced with many problems and protection is difficult. Generally speaking, there are many problems and challenges in the ecological protection work in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, facing severe tests.

Study the Impact of Plateau Pika Activity on the Ecological Dynamics of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

October 2023


3 Reads

The Tibetan Plateau, the world's largest plateau, harbors diverse ecosystems that play vital roles in the global environment. This study aims to investigate the ecological impact of the plateau pika, an endemic species, on the plateau's water resources, carbon storage, biodiversity, and climate. The research advocates for a balanced approach to pika control, emphasizing ecological preservation while addressing the associated challenges. Various statistical tests were employed to quantify the relationship between plateau pika activity and ecological dynamics. Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between pika burrow density and soil moisture content. T-tests demonstrated a significant difference in soil carbon content between areas with high and low pika burrow densities. A chi-squared test found no significant association between pika population density and the presence of vulnerable species. Ecological protection and sustainable development are crucial, with plant-based pesticides like ricin offering an effective and environmentally friendly means of pika control. However, ecological restoration should be the core of rodent control efforts to maintain a balanced ecosystem. Combining grazing policies with ecological grassland control measures can help mitigate rodent damage while improving grassland productivity.

The Influence of Low Temperature on the Immune System of Teleosts

November 2021


5 Reads

Due to their status as poikilothermic vertebrates, fish can experience changes in water temperature and, consequently, changes in their body temperature as a result of seasonal changes, migration, or the discharge of significant amounts of effluent into a body of water. Shifting the temperature outside of the ideal temperature range for a specific fish species might have detrimental consequences for the animal's physiology, especially its immune system. Therefore, either acute or chronic exposure to inadequate temperatures can weaken an organism's ability to protect itself against infections, putting the animal's general health at risk. Specifically, the progress gained in understanding the effects of suboptimal temperature on the soluble and cellular mediators of the innate and adaptive immune systems of fishes is the subject of this review paper. Cold stress can have a variety of impacts on different fish species, but in general, both acute and chronic suboptimal temperature exposure have suppressive effects on immunity, especially on adaptive immunity. It is vital to understand the effects of environmental temperature on fish species in order to optimize the management of wild species and to implement the best management techniques for aquaculture species.

The Role of Plants in Human Health

May 2023


38 Reads


Mahboobullah Mahboob





Through extensive research, humans have discovered that the best way to achieve good health is by reconnecting with nature. Plants, which surround us, not only fulfill our physical needs for food and medicine but also our spiritual needs. Living in harmony with nature allows us to appreciate its beauty, including the awe-inspiring flowers, trees, and forests that invigorate our souls. Furthermore, the natural environment can have a religious significance, with Islam being a perfect and universal religion that offers a clear life program for the world. The holy book of Islam, the Quran, states that "TABAIENA LEKOLE SHAY IN" encapsulates this program succinctly. The importance of plants in human life cannot be overstated, as they have special effects on our lives in various ways, including helping us comprehend our intellectual relationships with nature. However, while the Quran contains numerous references to plants, there has been little systematic study on their use in human life. In this research, we will examine several verses from the Quran that discuss the effects of plants on the human body and soul. |