Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

Print ISSN: 1517-8382
Publications
Effluent real colour reduction in different pH values after treatment with B. pumilus and Paenibacillus sp.
Effluent COD reduction in different pH values after treatment with B. pumilus and Paenibacillus sp.
Sephadex G-75 ellution pattern at 280 nm obtained with untreated effluent and treated effluent with B. pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. at pH 9.0. NaOH and LiCl buffer in isocratic system, flow at 2.0 mL/min.
Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus sp. were applied on the paper mill effluent to investigate the colour remotion. Inocula were individually applied in effluent at pH 7.0, 9.0 and 11.0. The real colour and COD remotion after 48h at pH 9.0 were, respectively, 41.87% and 22.08% for B. pumilus treatment and 42.30% and 22.89% for Paenibacillus sp. Gel permeation chromatography was used to verify the molar masses of compounds in the non-treated and treated effluent, showing a decrease in the compounds responsible for the paper mill effluent colour.
 
Percentage of tobacco disease severity from a)bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), b)damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum) and
c)frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotianae). Means followed by the same letter in the same observation day showed no significant difference at p=0.05 by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test.
Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar(™)) and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan(™)) alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum), damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum), and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana). Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment.
 
Lactobacillus reuteri LPB P01-001 was isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of wild swine and was characterised by biochemical testing and sequencing of gene 16S rRNA. A simple and low-cost culture medium based on cane sugar (2.5% p/v) and yeast extract (1% p/v) was used in the production of this probiotic. The fermentative conditions were a) pH control at 6.5 and b) no pH control; both were set at 37°C in a 12 L slightly stirred tank bioreactor. Fermentation parameters such as the specific growth rate, productivity and yield of biomass, lactic and acetic acid levels were determined. L. reuteri LPB P01-001 behaves as an aciduric bacteria because it grows better in a low pH medium without pH control. However, the lactic acid production yield was practically half (9.22 g.L(-1)) of that obtained under a constant pH of 6.5, which reached 30.5 g.L(-1) after 28 hours of fermentation. The acetic acid production was also higher under pH-controlled fermentation, reaching 10.09 g.L(-1)after 28 hours of fermentation. These parameters may raise the interest of those committed to the efficient production of a probiotic agent for swine.
 
Effects of different nutrient sources and their concentration in culture media on average maximal protease production in cell cultures of Haloferax lucentensis VKMM 007. Each bar represents the mean ± SD of three replicates.
Response-surface and contour plots for the effects on protease production in cell cultures of Haloferax lucentensis VKMM 007. From top to bottom left panel: gelatin (X3) and KCl (X1); gelatin (X3) and MgSO4 (X2); MgSO4 (X2) and KCl (X1); right panel: soluble starch (X4) and KCl (X1), soluble starch (X4) and gelatin (X3), soluble starch (X4) and MgSO4 (X2).
The production of halophilic thermostable protease by Haloferax lucentensis VKMM 007 was optimized using a statistical approach. In accordance with factorial design, soluble starch, gelatin, KCl and MgSO4 were selected among 27 variables tested. Next, a second-order quadratic model was estimated and optimal medium concentrations were determined based on quadratic regression equation generated by model. These were 5.14 g L(-1) of KCl, 6.57 g L(-1)of MgSO4, 9.05 g L(-1)of gelatin and 5.27 g L(-1)of soluble starch in high salts media supplemented with 0.5% (w/v) of beef extract and peptone, respectively. In these optimal conditions, the obtained protease concentration of 6.80 U mL(-1) was in agreement with the predicted protease concentration and was further improved to 7.02 U mL(-1) by increasing the concentration of NaCl in the medium to 25% (w/v). An overall 4.0-fold increase in protease production was achieved in the optimized medium compared to activity obtained in initial medium.
 
Aurantiochytrium mangrovei Sk-02 was grown in a medium containing glucose (40 g/l), yeast extract (10 g/L) and sea salts (15 g/L) at temperatures ranging from 12 to 35°C. The fastest growth (µmax= 0.15 h(-1)) and highest fatty acid content of 415 mg/g-dry cell weight were found in the cells grown at 30°C. However, the cells grown at 12°C showed the highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (48.6% of total fatty acid). The percentage of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) decreased with an increase in the growth temperature, whereas, palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and DPA (C22:5n6) increased with an increase in the growth temperature. The composition of the major lipid class (%w/w) was slightly affected by the growth temperature. The fluidity of the organelle membrane or intracellular lipid (by DPH measurement) decreased with an increase in the growth temperatures, while the plasma membrane fluidity (by TMA-DPH measurement) could still maintain its fluidity in a wide range of temperatures (15 - 37°C). Furthermore, the distribution of DHA was found to be higher (36 - 54%) in phospholipid (PL) as compared to neutral lipid (NL) (20 - 41%).
 
A total of 112 soil samples were taken from differents areas of district D.I.Khan and Kohat (KPK) Pakistan and screened for production of antibiotics against the Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. Widest zone of inhibition (18mm) was produced by microorganism isolated from saline soil. The strain was later identified as Bacillus GU057 by standard biochemical assays. Maximum activity (18mm inhibition zone) was observed against Staphylococcus aureus after 48 hours of incubation at pH 8 and 4% concentration of glucose. The antibiotic was identified by autobiography as bacitracin. The Bacillus strain GU057 was confirmed as good peptide antibiotic producer and can effectively be indulged as biocontrol agent.
 
Levels of glucose, glutamate, biomass and TFA during baffled shake flask cultivation of Aurantiochytrium sp. B-072 with C/N ratio of 56 (a) and 84 (b). The cultures were grown at 25 °C and agitated at 200 rpm. Arrow indicates the time span for which the lipogenic volumetric flux was calculated. 1196 
Fatty acid profiles (% TFA) of Aurantiochytrium sp. B-072 grown on a mineral glucose-MSG medium as a function of C/N-
Maximal biomass, fatty acid free biomass (FFB) and total fatty acid (TFA) of Aurantiochytrium sp. B-072 as function of the C/N-ratio after growth in baffled flasks in a mineral glucose-MSG medium with glucose fixed at 90 g/L. A different letter indicates a statistical difference (p<0.05) within a parameter. Data at the top of the figure indicate cultivation time in h. 
(a) Overall volumetric productivity and productivity during the lipogenic phase of total FAs and DHA (g/(L x h)) at different C/N-ratio's in a glucose-MSG medium (glucose fixed at 90 g/L with an additional experiment at 150 g/L as marked by closed symbol). (b) Specific fluxes (q) of glucose, saturated FAs (SFAs) and PUFAs based on fat-free biomass (mmol/(g fat-free biomass x h)) during the lipogenic phase. For time point marked with * only the initial rate was calculated as fluxes were not
Baffled shake flask cultivation of Aurantiochytrium sp. B-072 was carried out at in a glucose-monosodium glutamate mineral medium at different C/N-ratios (30-165) with glucose fixed at 90 g/L. With increasing C/N-ratio, a modest increase in lipid content (60 to 73 % w/w) was observed whereas fat-free biomass decreased but overall biomass showed little variation. FA-profiles were not affected to a large extent by C/N-ratio and absolute docosahexaenoic (DHA)-levels fell in narrow range (5-6 g/L). However at C/N > 64 a rapid decrease in lipid synthetic rate and/or incomplete glucose utilization occurred. Glucose and FA-fluxes based on fat-free biomass peaked at a C/N ratio of 56. This condition was chosen for calculation of the redox balance (NAD(P)H) and energy (ATP) requirement and to estimate the in vivo P/O ratio during the main period of fatty acid biosynthesis. Several models with different routes for NADPH, acetyl-CoA formation and re-oxidation of OAA formed via ATP-citrate lyase were considered as these influence the redox- and energy balance. As an example, using a commonly shown scheme whereby NADPH is supplied by a cytosolic "transhydrogenase cycle" (pyruvate-OAA-malate-pyruvate) and OAA formed by ATP-citrate lyase is recycled via import into the mitochondria as malate, the calculated NADPH-requirement amounted to 5.5 with an ATP-demand of 10.5 mmol/(g fat-free biomass x h) and an in vivo P/O-ratio (not including non-growth associated maintenance) of 1.6. The lowest ATP requirement is found when acetyl-CoA would be transported directly from the mitochondria to the cytosol by carnitine acetyltransferase. Assay of some enzymes critical for NADPH supply indicates that activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the first enzyme in the HMP pathway, is far insufficient for the required NADPH-flux and malic enzyme must be a major source. Activity of the latter (ca. 300 mU/mg protein) far exceeds that in oleaginous fungi and yeast.
 
The proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens 07A was investigated, and was optimal on tryptone-calcium medium. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) were not detected on supernatants of late-exponential and stationary-phase culture broths. Synthetic AHLs or bacterial cell extracts added to the medium did not influence growth or proteolytic activity suggesting that quorum sensing might not regulate protease production in this strain.
 
-Data on visibly fungal damage kernels (FDK), Gibberella fujikuroi species complex (GF), Gibberella zeae (anamorph = Fusarium graminearum sensu lato) (GZ) and fumonisin levels (FB 1 and FB 2 ) associated with maize samples collected across 23 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons.
-Number (and total %) of isolates for each Fusarium species and growing season, determined using PCR assays, associated with samples of maize kernels from 23 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons.
Map depicting the location of 23 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, where 29 maize kernel samples were harvested in one and/or two maize growing seasons, 2008/09 and 2009/10.
Ear rots caused by Fusarium spp. are among the main fungal diseases that contribute to poor quality and the contamination of maize grains with mycotoxins. This study aimed to determine the visual incidence of fungal-damaged kernels (FDKs), the incidence of two main Gibberella (a teleomorph of Fusarium) complexes (G. fujikuroi and G. zeae) associated with maize using a seed health blotter test, and the fumonisin levels, using high performance liquid chromatography, in samples of maize grains grown across 23 municipalities during the 2008/09 and 2009/10 growing seasons. Additionally, 104 strains that were representative of all of the analysed samples were identified to species using PCR assays. The mean FDK was seven per cent, and only six of the samples had levels greater than six per cent. Fusarium spp. of the G. fujikuroi complex were present in 96% of the samples, and G. zeae was present in 18% of the samples (5/27). The mean incidence of G. fujikuroi was 58%, and the incidence of G. zeae varied from 2 to 6%. FB1 was found in 58.6%, FB2 in 37.9%, and both toxins in 37.9% of the samples. The FB1 and FB2 levels were below the quantification limits for 41.3% of the samples, and the mean FB1 levels (0.66 μg/g) were higher than the mean FB2 levels (0.42 μg/g). The PCR identification separated the 104 isolates into three of the G. fujikuroi complex: F. verticillioides (76%), F. subglutinans (4%) and F. proliferatum (2%); and G. zeae (anamorph = F. graminearum) (18%). Our results confirmed the dominance of F. verticillioides, similar to other regions of Brazil, but they differed due to the relatively higher incidence of F. graminearum. Total fumonisin levels were below the maximum limit determined by current Brazilian regulations.
 
-Effect of pH in the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity present in the cell free extract (white symbols) and immobilized extract (black symbols ) of Mycobacterium fortuitum. Buffers: acetate (pH 4.0 to 5.5 -cycle symbols), phosphate (pH 6.0 to 8.0 -square symbols), and tris-HCl (pH 7.0 to 9.0 -triangle symbols) (data are mean of two replicates; error bars are standard error).  
-Temperature effect in activity of the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase enzyme in the cell free extract (o) and immobilized extract (@BULLET) of Mycobacterium fortuitum (data are mean of two replicates; error bars represent standard error).  
-During time of activity of the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase enzyme in the cell free extract (o) and immobilized extract (@BULLET) of Mycobacterium fortuitum (data are mean of two replicates; error bars are standard error).  
-Growth profile (lines) and enzyme activity of catechol 1,2-dio- xygenase (bars) of isolate Mycobacterium fortuitum grown for 150 rpm at 30 °C in Tanner mineral medium (A) and in Luria-Bertani broth (B), both containing 250 mg L -1 of anthracene (data are mean of three replicates; error bars are standard error).  
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are carcinogenic compounds which contaminate water and soil, and the enzymes can be used for bioremediation of these environments. This study aimed to evaluate some environmental conditions that affect the production and activity of the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) by Mycobacterium fortuitum in the cell free and immobilized extract in sodium alginate. The bacterium was grown in mineral medium and LB broth containing 250 mg L(-1) of anthracene (PAH). The optimum conditions of pH (4.0-9.0), temperature (5-70 °C), reaction time (10-90 min) and the effect of ions in the enzyme activity were determined. The Mycobacterium cultivated in LB shown higher growth and the C12O activity was two-fold higher to that in the mineral medium. To both extracts the highest enzyme activity was at pH 8.0, however, the immobilized extract promoted the increase in the C12O activity in a pH range between 4.0 and 8.5. The immobilized extract increased the enzymatic activity time and showed the highest C12O activity at 45 °C, 20 °C higher than the greatest temperature in the cell free extract. The enzyme activity in both extracts was stimulated by Fe(3+), Hg(2+) and Mn(2+) and inhibited by NH(4+) and Cu(2+), but the immobilization protected the enzyme against the deleterious effects of K(+) and Mg(2+) in tested concentrations. The catechol 1,2-dioxygenase of Mycobacterium fortuitum in the immobilized extract has greater stability to the variations of pH, temperature and reaction time, and show higher activity in presence of ions, comparing to the cell free extract.
 
Endo-β-1, 4-xylanase activity measured by modified diffusion technique and congo red assay vis a vis specific activity produced by aerobic fungi
Zone of clearance produced by fungal endo-β-1, 4-xylanase in simple diffusion assay: 1 Aspergillus Japonicus 4371, 2 Aspergillus oryzae 4010, 3 Penicillium citrinum 4009, Penicillium purpurogenum 4248, 5 Penicillium purpurogenum 5252, 6 Aspergillus oryzae 2398, 7 Aspergillus oryzae 2624, 8 Aspergillus oryzae 4712, 9 Penicillium purpurogenum 2029, 10 Penicillium purpurogenum 2433, 11 Aspergillus oryzae 4714, 12 Aspergillus oryzae 4964.
Endo-β-1, 4-xylanases is thought to be of great significance for several industries namely paper, pharmaceuticals, food, feed etc. in addition to better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. The present investigation was aimed to develop an easy, simple and efficient assay technique for endo-β-1, 4-xylanases secreted by the aerobic fungi. Under the proposed protocol, 9 g/L xylan containing agar was prepared in 100 mM phosphate buffer at different pH (4.5, 5.5 and 6.5). The sterilized xylan agar was dispensed in 90 mm petri dishes. 100 µl of culture supernatant of 12 fungal isolates was added to the wells and left overnight at 31±1(0)C. The petri dishes were observed for zone of clearance by naked eye and diameter was measured. Congo red solution (1 g/L) was applied over the petri dishes as per the established protocol and thereafter plates were flooded with 1M Sodium chloride solution for the appearance of zone of clearance. The diameter for zone of clearance by the proposed method and the established protocol was almost identical and ranged from 21 to 42 mm at different pH depending upon the activity of endo-β-1, 4-xylanases. Change of pH towards alkaline side enabled similar or marginal decrease of diameter for the zone of clearance in most of the fungal isolates. The specific activities of these fungal isolates varied from 1.85 to 11.47 IU/mg protein. The present investigation revealed that the proposed simple diffusion technique gave similar results as compared to the established Congo red assay for endo-β-1, 4-xylanases. Moreover, the present technique avoided the cumbersome steps of staining by Congo red and de-staining by sodium chloride.
 
The characteristics of an endoglucanase produced by a Trichoderma virens strain T9 newly isolated from a palm-fruit husk dump site, its physiological characteristics and enzyme production were studied. Whole cells of the depolymerizing-enzyme producing T. virens were applied to palm-fruit husk and bird performance characteristics when employed as poultry diet additive were considered. Endoglucanase activity in submerged fermentation was 1.6 nkat. Optimum activity was recorded at pH 6.0 and 55°C. The enzyme retained 50% residual glucanase activity at 70°C for 10 minutes. 1.0% Tween-80 and SDS yielded endoglucanase activity 2.15 times higher than the control. Activity was boosted by 20mM Ca2+ (115.0%); 10mM K+ (106.5%); and was totally inhibited by 1mM Hg2+. The addition of T. virens-fermented palm-fruit husk with other layer feed components on the bird characteristics showed that change in bird weight between the control and test birds were not significantly different (p>0.05) but differed in terms of daily feed ingested (p<0.05). The feed to weight-gain ratio was best with the unmodified palm-fruit husk based diet (8.59). There was no significant difference in the egg weights from modified palm-fruit husk based diet and control (p>0.05). The shell thickness (0.64mm) and yolk content (23.61%) were highest in the microbially-modified husk diet. The alternative to maize based diets proffered by the application of T. virens-modified palm-fruit husk in poultry nutrition in terms of bird weight and feed to weight-gain ratio affords the poultry farmer an economic advantage and allows for a greater utilization of the maize in human diets.
 
Specific IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2, as well as neutralizing antibody responses were evaluated in sera of calves experimentally infected with two isolates of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV1) of distinct subtypes (subtype 1, BoHV1.1; subtype 2a, BoHV-1.2a). No significant differences were observed in the antibody responses induced by each BoHV-1 subtype. The antibody responses following primary acute infection were characterized by an increase in specific IgM and IgA levels between days 2 and 14 post inoculation (pi). IgG1 was detected from days 11 to 30 pi. IgG2 was detected on the sample taken on day 30 pi. Reactivation of infection following dexamethasone administration induced a significant rise in IgA levels, whereas IgG1 and IgG2 levels, which were at high levels from the beginning of the reactivation process, showed a slight alteration after corticosteroid treatment. These results suggest that it is possible to estimate the dynamics of BoHV-1 infections with basis on the analysis of class- and subclass-specific antibody responses. Such information may be particularly useful for the study of the kinetics of the infection in a herd and to aid in the adoption of appropriate control measures..
 
The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection.
 
Growth of B. cereus in meat substrate at 30°C. The symbols represent the means (  standard deviation) of the three repetitions of each experiment. The standard deviation bars do not appear when the symbols are greater than the values of the standard deviation. 
Generation time (g) in hours, for B. cereus in meat substrate maintained at 10°C and 30°C
The behaviour of enterotoxin-producing Bacillus cereus in meat was investigated by inoculating spore suspensions of five cultures into meat substrate (pH 5.8) and incubating at 10ºC and 30ºC. The bacterial populations were evaluated after different times by plate counts in nutrient agar. All the cultures presented growth at 30ºC with the generation time varying from 28.8 to 36.0 minutes. Three cultures also presented growth at 10ºC with generation times between 10.16 and 28.38 h. Considering the results, it was concluded that meat kept at abusive temperatures would be subject to development of this microorganism.
 
It is known that Aeromonas spp. possess different chromosomal β-lactamase genes. Presence and phenotypic expression of bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX-M ESBL-encoding genes were investigated in environmental water isolates of Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas jandaei. Presence of bla SHV and bla CTX-M genes was not observed, and bla TEM gene was verified in 91% of the isolates. Sequencing of 10 fragments showed the occurrence of bla TEM-116.
 
High performance ion chromatography analysis of hydrolysis products of phytate by an apparently pure phytatedegrading enzyme from Aspergillus niger Reference sample: The source of the reference myo-inositol phosphates is as indicated in Skoglund et al. (23); Peaks: (1) Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P 6 ; (2) Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P 5 ; (3) D/L-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P 5 ; (4) D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P 5 ; (5) Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P 5 ; (6) D/LIns(1,4,5,6)P 4 ; (7) Ins(2,4,5,6)P 4 ; (8) D/L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P 4 ; (9) D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P 4 ; (10) D/L-Ins(1,2,4,5)P 4 ; (11) Ins(1,3,4,6)P 4 ; (12) D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4)P 4 ; (13) D/L-Ins(1,2,4,6)P 4 ; (14) Ins(1,2,3,5)P 4 ; (15) Ins(4,5,6)P 3 ; (16) D/L-Ins(1,5,6)P 3 ; (17) D/L-Ins(1,4,5)P 3 ; (18) D/L-Ins(1,2,6)P 3 , Ins(1,2,3)P 3 ; (19) D/L-Ins(1,3,4)P 3 ; (20) D/L-Ins(1,2,4)P 3 , (21) D/L-Ins(2,4)P 2 ; (22) D/L-Ins(1,2)P 2 , Ins(2,5)P 2 , D/L-Ins(4,5)P 2 ; (23) D/L-Ins(1,4)P 2 , D/L-Ins(1,6)P 2 .
An extracellular phytase from Aspergillus niger 11T53A9 was purified about 51-fold to apparent homogeneity with a recovery of 20.3% referred to the phytase activity in the crude extract. Purification was achieved by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion chromataography and gel filtration. The purified enzyme behaved as a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of about 85 kDa and exhibited maximal phytate-degrading activity at pH 5.0. Optimum temperature for the degradation of phytate was 55°C. The kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of sodium phytate were determined to be KM = 54 µmol l(-1) and kcat = 190 sec(-1) at pH 5.0 and 37°C. The purified enzyme was rather specific for phytate dephosphorylation. It was shown that the phytase preferably dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5, D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4, D-Ins(1,2,6)P3, D-Ins(1,2)P2 to finally Ins(2)P.
 
Two strains (15.1 and 15.8) of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum produced high levels of intracellular glucoamylases, with potential for industrial applications. The isoform I of the glucoamylase produced by 15.1 strain was sequentially submitted to DEAE-Cellulose and CM-Cellulose chromatography, and purified 141-fold, with 5.45% recovery. The glucoamylase of strain 15.8 was purified 71-fold by CM- Cellulose and Concanavalin A-Sepharose chromatography, with 7.38% recovery. Temperature and pH optima were in the range of 50-60°C and 5.0-6.0, respectively, using starch and maltose as substrates. The glucoamylase of S. thermophilum 15.8 was more stable (t50 > 60 min) than that of S. thermophilum 15.1 (t50= 11-15 min), at 60°C. The glucoamylase activities were enhanced by several ions (e.g. Mn(2+) and Ca(2+)) and inhibited by β- mercaptoethanol. The glucoamylase from 15.1 strain showed a Km of 0.094 mg/ml and 0.029 mg/ml and Vmax of 202 U/mg prot and 109 U/mg prot, for starch and maltose, respectively. The hydrolysis products of starch and maltose, analyzed by TLC, demonstrated glucose as end product and confirming the character of the enzyme as glucoamylase. Differences were observed in relation to the products formed with maltose as substrate between the two strains studied. S. thermophilum 15.8 formed maltotriose in contrast with S. thermophilum 15.1.
 
Phylogenetic pattern for 16S rRNA sequences of leptospiral isolates (R1R and R1L) in comparison with sequences of representative strains from L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii and L. biflexa.
Phylogenetic pattern for lipL32 gene sequences of leptospiral isolates (R1R and R1L) in comparison with sequences of representative strains from L. interrogans, L. kirschneri, L. borgpetersenii, L. santarosai and L. weilii.
The main goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of leptospirosis among field rodents of Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India. In total 35 field rats were trapped and tested for seroprevalence by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Isolation of leptospires was performed from blood and kidney tissues and characterized to serovar level. Genomospecies identification was carried out using 16S rRNA and lipL32 gene sequencing. The molecular phylogeny was constructed to find out species segregation. Seroprevalence was about 51.4 %, and the predominant serovars were Autumnalis, Javanica, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona. Two isolates from the kidneys were identified as serovar Javanica of Serogroup Javanica, and sequence based molecular phylogeny indicated these two isolates were Leptospira borgpetersenii.
 
The present study established a PCR protocol in order to identify Parvimonas micra and to evaluate the intra-species diversity by PCR-RFLP of 16S rRNA partial sequence. The data indicated that the protocol was able to identify this species which could be clustered in five genotypes.O presente estudo estabeleceu um protocolo de PCR com a finalidade de identificar a espécie Parvimonas micra e avaliar a diversidade intra-espécie utilizando a técnica PCR-RFLP do gene que codifica o rRNA 16S. Os dados indicaram que o protocolo possibilitou a identificação da espécie e a distinção de 5 grupos genotípicos.
 
-The 11 novel partial16S rRNA gene sequences affiliated to the Class Actinobacteria isolated from larvae of the sand fly Deanemyia maruaga. 
Bacteria associated with the parthenogenetic troglobiont sand fly Deanemyia maruaga were characterized by sequencing cloned 16S rDNA PCR products. Eleven novel partial 16S rDNA sequences, with varying degrees of similarity to Actinobacteria, were identified. None of the sequences identified had homology to those known from parthenogenesis-inducing bacteria.
 
Biochemical and physiological characteristics of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Algerian goat's milk. 
shows the carbohydrate utilization patterns and
Phenotypic and genotypic identification of Lactobacillus isolated from Algerian goat's milk. 
Technological characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Lactobacillus strains isolated from Algerian goat's milk 
No strains of Lactobacillus were totally susceptible 
Nineteen strains of Lactobacillus isolated from goat's milk from farms in north-west of Algeria were characterized. Isolates were identified by phenotypic, physiological and genotypic methods and some of their important technological properties were studied. Phenotypic characterization was carried out by studying physiological, morphological characteristics and carbohydrate fermentation patterns using API 50 CHL system. Isolates were also characterized by partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Results obtained with phenotypic methods were correlated with the genotypic characterization and 13 isolates were identified as L. plantarum, two isolates as L. rhamnosus and one isolate as L. fermentum. Three isolates identified as L. plantarum by phenotypic characterization were found to be L. pentosus by the genotypic method. A large diversity in technological properties (acid production in skim milk, exopolysaccharide production, aminopeptidase activity, antibacterial activity and antibiotic susceptibility) was observed. Based on these results, two strains of L. plantarum (LbMS16 and LbMS21) and one strain of L. rhamnosus (LbMF25) have been tentatively selected for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of artisanal fermented dairy products in Algeria.
 
A phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences between isolates belonging to genus Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Thermoactinomycetes, Bacillus and the related members from these genera. The tree was generated by neighbour-joining method. Boostrap values (%) are based on 1000 replicates and shown for branches with more than 45 % bootstrap support. Bar indicates 0.01 substitutions per 100 nucleotide positions.
Cluster analysis of some representative digitized banding patterns, generated by restriction digestions with Alu I, Hae III and Taq I enzymes of the amplified 16S rRNA genes of isolates from genus Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Thermoactinomycetes and Bacillus . The dendrogram was constructed by using UPGMA, with correlation levels expressed as percentage values of the Dice coefficient. The 16S rRNA gene and the ARDRA groups derived from both experimental and theoretical restriction digestions were also indicated beside the designation of the isolate. The novel strains were written in bold character. 
Previously isolated 115 endospore-forming bacilli were basically grouped according to their temperature requirements for growth: the thermophiles (74%), the facultative thermophiles (14%) and the mesophiles (12%). These isolates were taken into 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, and they were clustered among the 7 genera: Anoxybacillus, Aeribacillus, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus, Paenibacillus, and Thermoactinomycetes. Of these bacilli, only the thirty two isolates belonging to genera Bacillus (16), Brevibacillus (13), Paenibacillus (1) and Thermoactinomycetes (2) were selected and presented in this paper. The comparative sequence analyses revealed that the similarity values were ranged as 91.4-100 %, 91.8- 99.2 %, 92.6- 99.8 % and 90.7 - 99.8 % between the isolates and the related type strains from these four genera, respectively. Twenty nine of them were found to be related with the validly published type strains. The most abundant species was B. thermoruber with 9 isolates followed by B. pumilus (6), B. lichenformis (3), B. subtilis (3), B. agri (3), B. smithii (2), T. vulgaris (2) and finally P. barengoltzii (1). In addition, isolates of A391a, B51a and D295 were proposed as novel species as their 16S rRNA gene sequences displayed similarities ≤ 97% to their closely related type strains. The AluI-, HaeIII- and TaqI-ARDRA results were in congruence with the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The ARDRA results allowed us to differentiate these isolates, and their discriminative restriction fragments were able to be determined. Some of their phenotypic characters and their amylase, chitinase and protease production were also studied and biotechnologically valuable enzyme producing isolates were introduced in order to use in further studies.
 
We used a cultivation-independent, clone library-based 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to identify bacterial communities present during traditional fermentation in sour cassava starch, cachaça and cheese production in Brazil. Partial 16S rRNA gene clone sequences from sour cassava starch samples collected on day five of the fermentation process indicated that Leuconostoc citreum was the most prevalent species, representing 47.6% of the clones. After 27 days of fermentation, clones (GenBank accession numbers GQ999786 and GQ999788) related to unculturable bacteria were the most prevalent, representing 43.8% of the clones from the bacterial community analyzed. The clone represented by the sequence GQ999786 was the most prevalent at the end of the fermentation period. The majority of clones obtained from cachaça samples during the fermentation of sugar cane juice were from the genus Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus nagelli was the most prevalent at the beginning of the fermentation process, representing 76.9% of the clones analyzed. After 21 days, Lactobacillus harbinensis was the most prevalent species, representing 75% of the total clones. At the end of the fermentation period, Lactobacillus buchneri was the most prevalent species, representing 57.9% of the total clones. In the Minas cheese samples, Lactococcus lactis was the most prevalent species after seven days of ripening. After 60 days of ripening, Streptococcus salivarius was the most prevalent species. Our data show that these three fermentation processes are conducted by a succession of bacterial species, of which lactic acid bacteria are the most prevalent.
 
PCR-DGGE banding profiles of 16S rRNA bacterial genes from vitreous samples. At the bottom of the gel, is shown the DNA included in the analysis. At the top, are exhibited the 8 profiles displayed and numbered from I to VIII. Similar profiles were classified within the same profile, as denoted by the same number of the profile. A DNA profile for each representative was used to construct a library of ribosomal genes. 
Conventional microbiological culture techniques are frequently insufficient to confirm endophthalmitis clinical cases which could require urgent medical attention because it could lead to permanent vision loss. We are proposing PCR-DGGE and 16S rRNA gene libraries as an alternative to improve the detection and identification rate of bacterial species from endophthalmitis cases.
 
Neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus) of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups.
 
Effect of inoculum amount on ONBA degradation by P. putida ONBA-17. Values are means ± S.D. of three replicates (the same below). 
Effects of the test compounds on relative activity of the degra- dative enzyme(s) within the extract. 
A previously reported o-nitrobenzaldehyde (ONBA) degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. ONBA-17 was further identified and characterized. Based on results of DNA base composition and DNA-DNA hybridization, the strain was identified as P. putida. Its degradation effect enhanced with increase of inoculum amount and no lag phase was observed. Higher removal rate was achieved under shaking conditions. All tested ONBA with different initial concentrations could be completely degraded within 5 d. In addition, degradative enzyme(s) involved was confirmed as intra-cellular distributed and constitutively expressed. Effects of different compounds on relative activity of degradative enzyme(s) within cell-free extract were also evaluated. Finally, 2-nitrobenzoic acid and 2, 3-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected as metabolites of ONBA degradation by P. putida ONBA-17, and relevant metabolic pathway was preliminary proposed. This study might help with future research in better understanding of nitroaromatics biodegradation.
 
General features of pUC72 (A) and pPLT7 (B). Only relevant restrictions sites are shown. MCS = multiple cloning site; SD = Shine Dalgarno region.
Protein expression profiles of E. coli cells harboring pPLT7 with cDNA sequences for carp (cGH) and porcine (pGH) growth hormones. (A) SDS-PAGE 17.5%. Lane 1, MW marker; lane 2, E. coli N4830-1 cells harboring cGH before thermal induction; lanes 3-5, samples collected 1, 2 and 3 hours after thermal induction at 42 o C, respectively. (B) SDS-PAGE 
We report the construction of two vectors for Escherichia coli: pUC72, for molecular cloning, and pPLT7, for thermal-induced expression. The main feature of pUC72 is a novel polylinker region that includes restriction sites for Nde I and Nco I which provide an ATG codon for proper translation initiation of expressed genes. Vector pPLT7 is ideal for thermo-inducible expression in host cells that carry the cI857 repressor gene. The use of pPLT7 was validated by the successful expression of the genes encoding carp and porcine growth hormones. These vectors provide novel cloning possibilities in addition to simple, non-expensive, high level expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli.
 
Dendrogram based on the numerical analysis of whole-cell protein profiles of strain OF1, of C. insulaenigrae type and reference strains, and of the type strains of related Campylobacter species. C. insulaenigrae strains designated by an LMG strain number are those of the original study by Foster et al. (7); C. insulaenigrae strains designated by R-numbers are Northern elephant seal isolates reported by Stoddard et al. (12).  
Campylobacter insulaenigrae have been isolated from different pinnipeds but not from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The aim of this work is to report the first isolation of C. insulaenigrae from South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens).The isolate, identified by its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, allow recognizing O. flavescens as a new host for C. insulaenigrae.
 
Bradypus variegatus.
Dermatophytosis in B. variegatus: circumscribed area of alopecia and desquamation of the pelvic member.
Bradypus variegatus.
Dermatophytosis in B. variegatus: circumscribed area of alopecia and desquamation of the pelvic member.
Three cases of dermatophytosis in free living brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) in the Zona da Mata, North of Pernambuco State, Brazil, were studied. Two animals presented areas of alopecia on the pelvic member and thorax and one animal on the pelvic member only. The three animals presented scabs. Hair and scabs samples were submitted to microscopical examination after treatment with a 30 % KOH and cultivated in Mycosel Agar. The direct examination indicated the presence of arthrospores in the hair. Colonies grown after seven days of culture were confirmed as Microsporum based on examination of the structure of the macroconidia. This is the first observation of dermatophytosis caused by Microsporum canis and Microsporum gypseum in free living sloths in the State of Pernambuco.
 
PCR amplification of 18S rRNA gene for fungal isolates Lane M: 1 kb DNA ladder; Lane 1-7: fungal isolates IG 1-IG 5, DD1-DD2.
Phytase activities for isolates IG 1 (A. niger) and IG 3 (A. awamori) at different pH (a) and temperature (b).
PCR amplification of 18S rRNA gene for fungal isolates Lane M: 1 kb DNA ladder; Lane 1–7: fungal isolates IG 1–IG 5, DD1–DD2.
Phylogenetic tree showing the relationships of the isolates to closely related fungi. The numbers at branching points refer to bootstrap values, based on 100 replicates.
Phytate is the primary storage form of phosphate in plants. Monogastric animals like poultry, pigs and fishes have very low or no phytase activities in their digestive tracts therefore, are incapable to efficiently utilize phytate phosphorus from the feed. Phytase from microbial sources are supplemented to feedstuff of these to increase the uptake of phytate phosphorus. In the present work efforts were made to isolate and characterize proficient phytase producing fungi from soil. Phytase producing fungi were isolated using phytate specific medium. Fungal isolates were selected according to their higher phytase activities. These isolates were further characterized and identified by morphological and microscopic analysis and confirmed by amplification of 18S rRNA gene, using specific primers. This gene was subsequently sequenced and phylogenetic affiliations were assigned. Fungal isolates were identified as various species of Aspergillus. Phytases from these fungi could be utilized as a feed additive in poultry and swine industries.
 
shows that, in the fermentation of C. cellulans strain 191 in a 5 L fermenter with culture medium containing 1.5% neutralised chitin at 25ºC, 200 rpm and aeration of 3 vvm, the maximum chitinase production was obtained after 144 h of fermentation, coinciding with the range of microbial decline or death. A maximum chitinase yield of 4.38 U/mL was obtained. The pH of the culture medium oscillated between 6.6 and 7.3 during fermentation.  
Purification of the chitinase obtained from C. cellulans strain 191 on a Sepharose CL4B200 column: () Absorbance at 280 nm; () U chitinase/mL.  
This study concerned the production, purification and application of extracellular chitinase from Cellulosimicrobium cellulans strain 191. In shaken flasks the maximum yield of chitinase was 6.9 U/mL after 72 h of cultivation at 25°C and 200 rpm. In a 5 L fermenter with 1.5 vvm aeration, the highest yield obtained was 4.19 U/mL after 168 h of fermentation at 25°C and 200 rpm, and using 3 vvm, it was 4.38 U/mL after 144 h of fermentation. The chitinase (61 KDa) was purified about 6.65 times by Sepharose CL 4B 200 gel filtration with a yield of 46.61%. The purified enzyme was able to lyse the cell walls of some fungi and to form protoplasts.
 
Formation of biofilm, assessed by optical density readings obtained at wavelength of 570 nm (OD 570 nm) by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 1911 at different concentrations of sodium chloride (1 to 10%, w/v) and incubation temperatures of 4 °C, 30 °C and 45 °C.
Overall results obtained for biofilm formation of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 incubated at 4 °C, 30 °C and 45 °C determined by optical density readings (OD 570 nm).
Biofilm formation can lead to various consequences in the food processing line such as contamination and equipment breakdowns. Since formation of biofilm can occur in various conditions; this study was carried out using L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and its biofilm formation ability tested under various concentrations of sodium chloride and temperatures. Cultures of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 were placed in 96-well microtitre plate containing concentration of sodium chloride from 1-10% (w/v) and incubated at different temperature of 4 °C, 30 °C and 45 °C for up to 60 h. Absorbance reading of crystal violet staining showed the density of biofilm formed in the 96-well microtitre plates was significantly higher when incubated in 4 °C. The formation of biofilm also occurs at a faster rate at 4 °C and higher optical density (OD 570 nm) was observed at 45 °C. This shows that storage under formation of biofilm that may lead to a higher contamination along the processing line in the food industry. Formation of biofilm was found to be more dependent on temperature compared to sodium chloride stress.
 
Detection of Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) in brazilians archived porcine tissues. (A) Nested PCR products obtained from positive tissues samples. Lane M: molecular size standard (Generuler 1kb DNA ladder; Fermentas, Vilnius, Lithuania). Lane 1: positive control. Lane 2: negative control. Lanes 3-6: nested PCR products from archived porcine tissues (360bp). (B) Detection of DNA viral by quantitative real time PCR. Average threshold cycle (Ct) values plotted against DNA PCV2 copy, number of positive samples and standard curve. The standard curve and the calculated efficiency for this assay were y =-4,425x + 42,361 and 98,05%, respectively.
Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) infection is currently considered an important disease of swine. The pathogenic agent was first described in Brazil in 2000. This study detected the PCV-2 DNA in four Brazilian pig tissues collected between 1978 and 1979. This observation is the oldest description of this virus in Brazil.
 
The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain Pseudomonas putida Rs-198 was isolated from salinized soils from Xinjiang Province. We optimized the composition of the low-cost medium of P. putida Rs-198 based on its bacterial concentration, as well as its phosphate-dissolving and indole acetic acid (IAA)-producing capabilities using the response surface methodology (RSM), and a mathematical model was developed to show the effect of each medium component and its interactions on phosphate dissolution and IAA production. The model predicted a maximum phosphate concentration in medium containing 63.23 mg/L inorganic phosphate with 49.22 g/L corn flour, 14.63 g/L soybean meal, 2.03 g/L K2HPO4, 0.19 g/L MnSO4 and 5.00 g/L NaCl. The maximum IAA concentration (18.73 mg/L) was predicted in medium containing 52.41 g/L corn flour, 15.82 g/L soybean meal, 2.40 g/L K2HPO4, 0.17 g/L MnSO4 and 5.00 g/L NaCl. These predicted values were also verified through experiments, with a cell density of 10(13) cfu/mL, phosphate dissolution of 64.33 mg/L, and IAA concentration of 18.08 mg/L. The excellent correlation between predicted and measured values of each model justifies the validity of both the response models. The study aims to provide a basis for industrialized fermentation using P. putida Rs-198.
 
This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Using the critical-dilution method, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium FAIR-E 198 inhibited all L. monocytogenes strains evaluated (1,600 to 19,200 AU mL(-1)). However, none of the B. cereus and S. aureus strains investigated were inhibited. The maximum activity of this bacteriocin (800 AU mL(-1)) was observed in MRS broth, while the activity in milk was 100 AU mL(-1). In the co-cultivation test in milk, B. cereus K1-B041 was reduced to below the detection limit (1.00 log CFU mL(-1)) after 48 h. E. faecium reduced the initial L. monocytogenes Scott A population by 1 log CFU mL(-1) after 3 h at 35°C, However, the pathogen regained growth, reaching 3.68 log CFU mL(-1) after 48 h. E. faecium did not influence the growth of S. aureus ATCC 27154 during the 48 h of co-cultivation, Therefore, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of E. faecium FAIR-E 198 is strictly related to the species and strain of the target microorganism and to the culture medium.
 
Fibrolytic enzymes produced by Myceliophtora sp. strains as reported in literature 
Endoglucanase activity in plastic bags using WB and a mixture of WB:SCB (1:1) 
Longitudinal temperature distribution in the packed bed bioreactor during the fermentation process for enzyme production for 7:3 SCB/WB proportion, 75% initial moisture content and 80L/h air flow rate (a-45 o C, b-50 o C) 
This work is aimed to produce endoglucanase through solid state fermentation in a packed bed bioreactor with the use of the fungus Myceliophtora sp. I-1D3b using a mixture of wheat bran (WB) and sugar cane bagasse (SCB) as culture medium. Preliminary tests were performed in polypropylene plastic bags, controlling the variables temperature (40, 45, and 50°C), initial moisture content (75, 80, and 85%, w.b.), and weight proportion SCB/WB (1:1, 7:3, and 9:1). The highest enzyme activities in plastic bags were obtained using the substrate proportion of 7:3, 50°C temperature, and 80% initial moisture content (878 U/grams of dry solid). High activities of filter-paper cellulase and xylanase were also obtained in plastic bags and some results are reported. For the packed bed experiments, the temperature (45 and 50°C) and the air flow rate (80, 100 and 120L/h) were the controlled variables. Activity of endoglucanase was similar to plastic bag tests. A longitudinal gradient of moisture content, was observed increasing from the bottom to the top of the reactor, even though the longitudinal enzyme activity profile was flat for almost the whole bed. Air flow rate did not affect enzyme activity, while experiments carried out at 50°C showed higher enzyme activities. The maximum temperature peak observed was at about 6°C above the process temperature.
 
Production of laccase by P. sanguineus in the presence of (A) different concentrations of 2,5-xylidine, and (B) different concentrations of ethanol.
Biomass and laccase activity during growth of P. sanguineus using (A) 50 mg.L-1 2,5-xylidine and (B) 50 g.L-1 ethanol as inducer.
Effect of ethanol concentration on P. sanguineus radial growth.
Enzyme application in biotechnological and environmental processes has had increasing interest due to its efficiency, selectivity and mainly for being environmentally healthful, but these applications require a great volume of enzymes. In this work the effect of different concentrations of ethanol and 2,5-xylidine on growth and production of laccase by Pycnoporus sanguineus was investigated. In a medium containing 200 mg.L(-1) of 2,5-xylidine or 50 g.L(-1) of ethanol, the maximum activity of laccase was 2019 U.L(-1) and 1035 U.L(-1), respectively. No direct correlation between biomass and activity of laccase was observed for any of the inducers used during the tests. Ethanol concentrations, larger than or equal to 20 g.L(-1), inhibited the radial growth of P. sanguineus. This study showed that ethanol, which has less toxicity and cost than the majority of the studied inducers, presents promising perspectives for laccase production by P. sanguineus.
 
The aim of this work was to study the expression of selected Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) genes connected with MAP virulence, adhesion and stress response. The temperature of 6°C and 65°C were chosen with regard to the food industry, storage conditions (refrigerator) and low-temperature pasteurization. A pH of 2.0, using lactic acid, was selected to mimic the natural environment of the stomach. Expression of selected genes was studied using real time reverse transcription PCR on three different MAP isolates. MAP isolates were chosen according to the number of their preceding cultivations. While isolates 8672 and 8819 were previously cultivated only once, MAP isolate 12146 went through four passages. Different expression profiles were observed in each of the three MAP isolates. However, particular similar patterns were observed. SigE, sigF and ahpC were up-regulated, while sigL was down-regulated under temperature stress. Mmp gene was found to be down-regulated under acidic conditions. Low passage isolates (8672 and 8819) showed certain level of acid resistance.
 
Contour plots for Protease production showing the interactive effects of wheat bran and inoculum size (A), soybean meal and inoculum size (B), (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and inoculum size (C), soybean meal and wheat bran (D), (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and wheat bran (E), 
Lineweaver-Burk plot for neutral protease under varying substrate (casein) concentrations (5–35 mg/mL) indicating the K m and V max values 
Plackett-Burman design used for screening of nine variables with observed and predicted protease activity.
ANOVA (analysis of variance) for the experimental parameters of Plackett Burman design affecting protease production.
Regression analysis of the central composite design.
Various cultivation parameters were optimized for the production of extra cellular protease by Brevibacterium linens DSM 20158 grown in solid state fermentation conditions using statistical approach. The cultivation variables were screened by the Plackett-Burman design and four significant variables (soybean meal, wheat bran, (NH4)2SO4 and inoculum size were further optimized via central composite design (CCD) using a response surface methodological approach. Using the optimal factors (soybean meal 12.0g, wheat bran 8.50g, (NH4)2SO4) 0.45g and inoculum size 3.50%), the rate of protease production was found to be twofold higher in the optimized medium as compared to the unoptimized reference medium.
 
Inhibition (%) of A. nomius VSC 23 growth after  
Scanning electron micrographs of A .nomius VSC23 after inhibition by L. fermentum 27A. a) Hyphae and head of Aspergillus (300x), b) Head of A. nomius (2200x) and; c) Spores (4400x). Transmission electron micrograph of A. nomius VSC23 cells after inhibition by L. fermentum 27A (d).  
The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances.
 
The purpose of this study was to identify the genes coding for resistance to ceftazidime and imipenem and describe the molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii strains isolated from a clinical center in Colombia. Twenty isolates of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii from an equal number of patients with nosocomial infections were obtained. Primers were used to amplify genes blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58, blaOXA-51 and blaADC-7. To detect insertion sequences ISAba1/blaOXA-23, ISAba1/blaOXA-51 and ISAba1/blaADC-7, mapping by PCR using combinations of reverse primers ISAba1 and reverse primers of blaOXA-23, blaOXA-51 and blaADC-7 were used. The amplification products were purified and cloned into PCR 2.1-TOPO vector and transformed into chemically competent Escherichia coli TOP10. These amplicons were then sequenced. PFGE was performed on DNA of A. baumannii isolates digested with ApaI. Results. The DNA profiles obtained included 9 clusters with, four 2–7 isolates per profile, and 5 single-isolate profiles. Of the 20 isolates resistant to imipenem, 15 carried blaOXA-23 gene, 4 contained ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 gene, and 6 contained ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-23 gene. Eighteen of these isolates carried the blaADC-7 gene, with 9 of the isolates having ISAba1 located upstream of this gene. This is the first report of the ISAba1/ADC-7 associated with OXAs genes in A. baumannii isolates from Colombia.
 
Results of classic isolation of Brucella abortus 2308 
Results of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus PCR detection in organs of aborted fetuses and calves born from cows experimentally infected, according to classical isolation. 
Relative sensitivity (rS) for different DNA extraction protocols used in Brucella abortus PCR detection in organs of aborted fetuses and calves born from cows experimentally infected, considering the classic bacteriological isolation as gold standard. 
Results of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus PCR detection in organs of aborted fetuses and calves born from cows 
Relative sensitivity (rS) for different DNA extraction protocols used in Brucella abortus PCR detection in organs of aborted fetuses
The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (p< 0.0001) and GT (p=0.0004). There was no difference between the PK and GT protocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol.
 
A respiratory complex was isolated from plasma membrane of pathogenic Proteus mirabilis strain ATCC 29245. It was identified as complex II consisting of succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.3.5.1) containing single heme b. The complex II was purified by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The molecular weight of purified complex was 116.5 kDa and it was composed of three subunits with molecular weights of 19 kDa, 29 kDa and 68.5 kDa. The complex II contained 9.5 nmoles of cytochrome b per mg protein. Heme staining indicated that the 19 kDa subunit was cytochrome b. Its reduced form showed absorptions peaks at 557.0, 524.8 and 424.4 nm. The α-band was shifted from 557.0 nm to 556.8 nm in pyridine ferrohemochrome spectrum. The succinate: quinone oxidoreductase activity was found to be high in this microorganism.
 
The presence of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2), 2a and 2b has been described in Brazil, however, the type 2c had not been reported until now. In the current study, seven out of nine samples from dogs with diarrhea were characterized as CPV-2c, indicating that this virus is already circulating in the Brazilian canine population.No Brasil, a presença do parvovírus canino do tipo 2 (CPV-2), 2a e 2b já havia sido descrita, contudo, ainda não havia sido verificada a presença do tipo 2c. No presente trabalho, sete de nove amostras de cães com diarréia foram caracterizadas como CPV-2c, indicando que este vírus já está circulando na população canina no Brasil.
 
RFLP analysis of 555for/555rev amplicons. 1) 100 kb ladder, 2) undigested CPV-2 vaccine strain, 3) vaccine strain digested with Mbo II (CPV-2a and CPV-2b present the same pattern), 4) undigested culture isolate, 5) Culture isolate digested with MboII.
Citopathogenic effect of CPV-2c on cell culture. A) Uninfected cell control B) CRFK infected with CPV-2 (VR2017, reference strain) C) FCH infected with UY1 (CPV-2c) D) CRFK infected with UY1 (CPV-2c).
Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is a leading cause of diarrhea in puppies in several parts of the world. In this study CPV-2 was detected and recovered from puppies showing clinical disease from Montevideo, Uruguay. Samples were processed and used to infect CRFK and MDCK cells in order to isolate the virus. Out of twelve, two samples were positive for CPV-2. A genomic region of 583 bp was amplified and the molecular characterization was performed by sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). Two isolated viruses (UY1 and UY2) were CPV-2c-like viruses. The comparison between the cytophatic effect (CPE) of CPV-2 (vaccinal virus) and CPV-2c (isolated virus) on primary canine cells cultures and on CRFK line cells, demonstrated that CPV-2c is less citopathogenic in CRFK than in primary cultures. Our study represents the first report on isolation and characterization of canine parvovirus type 2c (CPV-2c) in cell cultures from South American dogs.
 
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important enteric virus for dogs and it seems to be undergoing continuous evolution, generating new genetic and antigenic variants throughout the world. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CPV variants from 1995 to 2009 and to investigate the circulation of the new variant CPV-2c in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition, the clinical features of CPV infection were also reported. After CPV laboratorial confirmation by HA/HI and PCR, thirty-two fecal samples were analyzed by sequencing a 583-bp fragment of the VP2 gene. One sample, collected in 2008 was typed as the new type CPV-2c. All samples from 1995 to 2003 were identified as "new CPV-2a". From 2004 to 2006, both "new CPV-2a" and CPV-2b were observed. From 2006 to 2009, most of the samples were characterized as CPV-2b. The classical signs of CPV enteritis were observed in 16/18 CPV-2a and 5/13 CPV-2b infected puppies. These results show that continuous epidemiological surveillance of CPV strain distribution is essential for studying the patterns of CPV-2a and 2b spread and for determining whether the new variant CPV-2c has become permanently established in Brazilian canine population.
 
Colonies of Aspergillus oryzae IPT-301 after cultivation for 3 days on solid assay medium containing sodium deoxycholate. a: control; b: 0.05% (w/v) concentration 
Effect of sodium deoxycholate concentration on the colony size of Aspergillus oryzae IPT-301
Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the colony size of Aspergillus oryzae IPT-301
Cell growth, sucrose and FOS concentrations in the culture broth from mutants and Aspergillus oryzae IPT-301
Mycelium and extracellular fructosyltransferase activities from mutants and Aspergillus oryzae IPT-301 parent strain
Aspergillus oryzae IPT-301, previously reported as a β-fructofuranosidase producing microorganism, was successfully mutated using UV irradiation at 253.7 nm followed by the screening of survivors resistant to certain stress conditions. Strains were first subjected to the β-fructofuranosidase activity assay using a portion from the colony grown in Petri dish as the enzyme source. Seven mutants with β-fructofuranosidase activity values relative to the parent culture between 140 - 190% were selected from survivors grown at temperature of 40ºC or 0.018% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration. They were cultivated on a rotary shaker to characterize mycelium and extracellular fructosyltransferase activities. Three mutants named IPT-745, IPT-746 and IPT-748 showed the highest amount of mycelium activity whose values increased 1.5 - 1.8 fold, compared with the parent strain. It was found that more than 55% of total enzyme activity (mycelium- plus extracellular- activity) from these strains was detected in the mycelium fraction. Only one mutant, IPT-747, exceeded the amount of extracellular enzyme exhibited by the parent strain (1.5 times). This mutant also showed the highest value of total fructosyltransferase activity.
 
Persistence and recovery of Arcobacter butzleri CCUG 30484 suspended in physiological saline on work surfaces at 32% and 64% relative humidity at 30ºC. 
Persistence and recovery of Arcobacter butzleri CCUG 30484 suspended in Arcobacter basal medium on work surfaces at 32% and 64% relative humidity at 30ºC. 
The persistence of A. butzleri CCUG 30484 on various surfaces under 32% and 64% relative humidity suspended in physiological saline or nutrient broth to simulate relatively clean or soiled conditions was studied using various isolation techniques. Our study revealed that A. butzleri CCUG 30484 cells were able to survive for a considerable period of time, even after the droplet of suspending medium has been visibly dried. An extended survival on polypropylene coupons at both humidity levels was observed, particularly at soiled conditions.
 
Three-dimensional response surface contour plot showing the simultaneous effects of soybean flour concentration and temperature on CA concentration.
Three-dimensional response surface contour plot showing the simultaneous effects of soybean flour concentration and temperature on biomass concentration.
Relationship between biomass and CA concentrations obtained after 48 h of Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060 fermentations carried out according to the 2 2 central composite design of Table 1.
Time course of the concentrations of biomass (), glycerol () and clavulanic acid () in shaken flasks. Temperature: 32 °C; Soybean flour concentration: 40 g/L; Glycerol concentration: 5.0 g/L; 150 rpm; pH 6.0.
Analysis of variance applied to the regression model used for the biomass concentration (R 2 = 0.97).
Clavulanic acid is a ß-lactam antibiotic which has a potent ß-lactamase inhibiting activity. In order to optimize its production by the new isolate Streptomyces DAUFPE 3060, the influence of two independent variables, temperature and soybean flour concentration, on clavulanic acid and biomass concentrations was investigated in 250 mL-Erlenmeyers according to a 2(2) central composite design. To this purpose, temperature and soybean flour (SF) concentration were varied in the ranges 26-34°C and 10-50 g/L, respectively, and the results evaluated utilizing the Response Surface Methodology. The experimental maximum production of clavulanic acid (629 mg/L) was obtained at 32°C and 40 g/L SF after 48 h, while the maximum biomass concentration (3.9 g/L) at 30°C and 50 g/L soybean flour, respectively. These values are satisfactorily close to those (640 mg/L and 3.75 g/L, respectively) predicted by the model, thereby demonstrating the validity of the mathematical approach adopted in this study.
 
Top-cited authors
Eleni Gomes
  • São Paulo State University
Marta Cristina Teixeira Duarte
  • University of Campinas
Pérola O Magalhães
  • University of Brasília
Roberto Da Silva
  • São Paulo State University
Paula Monteiro de Souza
  • University of Brasília