Rotavirus (RV) strain SA-11 was studied with respect to its infectivity in MA-104 cell cultures and the effect of concanavalin A (ConA). Receptors for ConA at the surface of MA-104 cell were determined by fluorescence assay and specifically inhibited by D-mannose. The kinetics of virus growth was carried out by plaque assay. Electron microscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used for monitoring the experiments. It was concluded that RV replication was not affected consistently by ConA, however it interfered with the development of cytopathic effect (CPE) without altering virus yields.
Affected tissues in a number of diseases, including cancer, stroke, cardiac infarction and diabetes, develop focal tissue hypoxia during their progression. The presence of hypoxic tissue may make the disease refractory to therapy, as in the case of solid tumor therapy using low LET ionizing radiation. In other pathologies, the detection of viable but hypoxic tissues may serve as a prodromal indicator of developing disease (e.g. diabetes),or as a prognostic indicator for management of the disease (e.g. stroke). Over the past two decades, a number of hypoxia radioimaging agents have been developed and tested clinically. Of these, 18F-Fmiso and 123I-IAZA are the most widely used radiotracers for PET and SPECT/planar imaging, respectively. IAZA and Fmiso are a 2-nitroimidazoles that chemically bind to subcellular components of viable hypoxic tissues. They sensitize hypoxic tumour to the killing effects of ionizing radiation via mechanisms that mimic the radiosensitizing effects of oxygen, and are therefore called oxygen mimetics. The oxygen mimetic effect is attributable in large part to the covalent binding of reductively-activated nitroimidazole intermediates to critical cellular macromolecules. Nitroimidazoles labelled with gamma-emitting radionuclides (e.g. 18F-Fmiso and 123I-IAZA) have been used as scintigraphic markers of tumour hypoxia, based on the need to identify radioresistant hypoxic tumour cells as part of the radiotherapy planning process. Broader interest in non-invasive, imaging-based identification of focal hypoxia in a number of diseases has extended hypoxia studies to include peripheral vascular disease associated with diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, myocardial ischaemia, brain trauma and oxidative stress. In this review, the current status of hypoxia-selective studies with 123I-IAZA , an experimental diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, is reviewed with respect to its pre-clinical development and clinical applications.
Superficial erosion is one of the main soil degradation agents and erosion rates estimations for different edaphicclimate conditions for the conventional models, as USLE and RUSLE, are expensive and time-consuming. The use of cesium-137 antrophogenic radionuclide is a new methodology that has been much studied and its application in the erosion soil evaluation has grown in countries as USA, UK, Australia and others. A brief narration of this methodology is being presented, as the development of the equations utilized for the erosion rates quantification through the cesium-137 measurements. Two watersheds studied in Brazil have shown that the cesium-137 methodology was practicable and coherent with the survey in field for applications in erosion studies.
Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations were studied in Perna perna from three beaches (Barra do Furado, Buena and Ponta do Retiro) on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State by ICP-AES. The average concentration was 0.3 ± 0.04 (Cd); 1.9 ± 0.6 (Cr); 6.1 ± 0.7 (Cu); 1,130 ± 113 (Fe); 22 ± 3.2 (Mn); 9.3 ± 4.6 (Ni); 0.4 ± 0.2 (Pb); 44 ± 5.8 (Zn) µg.g-1 dry weight. There were no significant difference for almost all the studied metals in relation to sex. Although, significant spatial variations (p < 0.05) occurred for Cr, Pb and Ni with higher values for Barra do Furado. Temporal variations were significant (p < 0.05) at the three beaches, however, no trends of accumulation were observed. The metal concentrations were similar to areas under low pollution impact, except for Fe, which was probably due to the local substrates enriched in iron oxides.
The occurrence of Diaretiella rapae parasitising Lipaphis erysimi and Brevicoryne brassicae in canola field (Brassica napus) was evaluated through two sample methods in Dourados-MS. The methods, used weekly, were: entomologic sweep net and plants sacking. The aphids population was observed from initial to the senescence plant development. Aphids were more abundant during the flowering phase, and they were usually located in the stems of the inflorescence and development fruits. In this phase the largest parasitism level for D. rapae (89,7%) occurred. The sample method with a sweep net captured significantly (t=4,484, P <= 0,01) more D. rapae while sacking method captured more parasitise aphids (t=2,199 with P <= 0,05) and active aphids (t=3,513, P <= 0,01).
Cultivated mussels (Perna perna) were studied to test for the effects of cleaning on their growth. These effects were examined by experimentally cleaning mussels and by changing mussel density. Treatment was performed twice, at two and four months after immerging the ropes. Two months after the first treatment and three months after the second treatment, mussels were harvested and measured (weight, length, width and thickness). Analysis of variance showed that none of the treatments resulted in increased growth of the mussels, nor did increased density result in decreased growth when compared with the control. It was concluded that it was not necessary to clean the shells to increase harvest.
Thirty-two eggs of Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare) (Daudin, 1802) were incubated at 30° C. After 20 days of incubation at 30° C, the remaining eggs were distributed in the following way: seven at 34° C, seven at 32° C, six at 30° C and six at 28° C. At 32° C and 34° C a 100% hatchability was obtained while at 30° C 83.3% and at 28° C 66.6%. After hatching, the animals were kept for 120 days at the same temperature of their final incubation. Weight (g) control and morphometric (cm) analysis were carried out. The statistic design was totally randomized and the data were treated by regression analysis showing a quadratic behavior ( p<0.05). It was found that weight, total length (TTL), tail length (TL), snout- vent length (SVL), head length (HL), eye length (EL), snout length (SL), mid-point snout width (MSW), head width (HW), width of snout at nostrils (NW), distance between limbs (DBL) showed a higher development at the temperature range from 31.2° C to 31.8° C and circumference of belly at 30.0° C.
The present study describes the structure of the testes and vas deferens of the red-clawed mangrove tree crab, Goniopsis cruentata. Testes and vas deferens were fixed with cold Bouin's solution and submitted to histological routine examinations. Light microscopy showed the testis to be divided into three regions: anterior, containing the germinal zone; intermediary, including the collecting duct; and posterior. The vas deferens, which was continuous with the testes, could be divided into two regions: one corresponding to the expansions and another lined by cubical epithelium, collagenous fibers and a circular layer of muscle cells and containing the androgenic gland. Spermatophores were observed in both vas deferens regions suggesting that they participated in the maturation of the spermatozoids preparing the male functionally for fertilization.
Studies were carried out to investigate the contamination of Piracicaba and Mogi-Guaçu River basins (São Paulo State, Southeastern, Brazil) for heavy metals (Cd and Pb), using the limnic bivalve Anodontites trapesialis as a biological monitor. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb were higher than the control group in both basins, showing the bioavailability of this non-essential element in the basins. The concentrations were higher in the Mogi-Guaçu than in the Piracicaba basin, and in the slightly contaminated sites in both basins. There was no correlation between the degree of human impact and Cd and Pb concentrations, it was not possible to infer about concentrations of these heavy metals in the bivalves based only in a broad evaluation of human impact.
Day and night densities, reproductive biology and life cycle of Amphilocus neapolitanus (Della Valle, 1853), associated with Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh, 1820, were studied during 13 months. The density of juveniles, males and females was higher in night samples than in day samples. Sex ratio was strongly favorable toward the females. Ovigerous females were present in similar densities in both the periods while the non-ovigerous females were predominant at night. The egg number was not correlated with the size of the females. Breeding occurred throughout the year.
This study analyzed the chemical composition of the dorsal muscle tissue of Hypophthalmus edentatus, in particular, fatty acids of the lipidic fraction, and its relationship with the biological variables and the capture period. The average values for moisture, ash, protein and total lipids were 63.15, 1.11, 14.27 and 17.24%, respectively. In the lipidic fraction, 35 fatty acids were identified, the most abundant being: 16:0, 18:1omega9, 18:0, 16:1omega7, 18:3omega3, DHA and EPA. The totals of respectively saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 41.15, 35.30 and 23.88%. The PUFA/SFA ratio was equal to 0.68 and the omega3/ omega6 ratio equal to 1.98. The PCA demonstrated that the long chain PUFAs contributed positively to the formation of the first axis. The CCA showed some effects of the biological factors (weight, reproductive cycle, sex) and the capture period on the variation of total lipids and some fatty acids.
Investigations were carried out about the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) a serranid protogynous hermaphrodite fish inhabitant of rocky bottoms from shallow waters up to 200 m depth. Samples were caught in the islands that form Arvoredo Biological Marine Reserve (SC - Brazil) and the coastal islands near Florianópolis region from March 1998 to May 2000. Data from samples of juvenile groupers on intertidal pools were used to link their occurrence in the pools to the post-spawning season. To describe the histological changes on gonads along the reproductive cycle and to establish maturation scales, 109 groupers were histologically tested for sex determination. First maturation size was determined for females (L50=470 mm; r²=0.99). The results of calculated gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic (HSI) indexes, showed that maturation occurred along the spring months and the spawning activity during the summer with a peak in December. Liver recovery (HSI elevation) was evident in the autumn, was the post spawning season. The relationship between length and weight was W = 9 · 10-6 · TL3.1149 (r²=0.998; n=246).
Studies were carried out to analyse the kidney histopathological alterations of "curimbatá", Prochilodus lineatus, were analyzed. An acute bioassay was made by the water contamination with 0.2muml/l of Dipterex 500 (Trichlorfon). The kidney tissue collected after 24 hours of exposure showed an enlargement of intercapsular space with glomerular atrophy, hypertrophy of the kidney tube cells, with small granules on its cytoplasm and little nuclear alteration. Blood overflowing from capillaries with pyknotic nuclei and vacuoles in the cytoplasm it was also noticed. After 48 hours, the kidney tissue showed glomerular expansion, impossibility to visualize the intercapsular space as well as cytoplasm limit of many cells. The parietal capsular epithelium and the basal membrane presented loss of cell content, the tubular cells appeared swollen vacuolated and with thin and thick cytoplasmatic granulations. Some of the cell nuclei kept relatively regular form with a condensed chromatin on its central region, while others showed themselves relatively small and pyknotics advancing to a cariolisis and necrosis focus.
Plagioscion squamosissimus is a dominant species in the Itaipu reservoir and has a significant role in the regional economy. The aim of the present research was the investigation of the curvina's reproductive strategies during the first years of the Itaipu reservoir (November 1983 to October 1989). Collections were undertaken from eleven sampling sites in the reservoir area, left bank tributaries, Paraná River and its tributaries. Species begin the reproduction in the area of influence of the Itaipu reservoir only in 1986. Size of early maturation, local and period of spawning showed gradual variations, with a broadening trend of this activity in the area, and thus guaranteeing success of the species. Mean size of early sexual maturation for the Plagioscion squamosissimus reached 16.2 cm for males and 17.8 cm for females.
Macro- and microscopic ovarian features of Hemiodus microlepis, H. ternetzi and H. unimaculatus were analyzed. Based on these features we proposed an ovarian maturation scale. The nine stages of the preliminary macroscopic fieldwork scale were reduced to five after microscopic analysis of ovaries. The microscopic analysis indicated a group-synchronous oocyte development common to the three species that were characterized as iteroparous synchronous spawners with a total spawning type. The remarkable thickness of the zona radiata layer and the large size of vitellogenic oocytes of Hemiodus ternetzi distinguished this species from the others.
Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844) and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853) have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group) fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.
From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter) groups.Alimentação natural de Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae) na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, SC - Brasil. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1995, foram coletados 332 indivíduos de Callinectes ornatus, procedentes da Armação do Itapocoroy (Penha, SC). Foi estudada a alimentação natural da espécie e as variações sazonais da dieta. Os resultados mostram um espectro trófico diversificado, com estratégia alimentar generalista, sendo Algas, Macrófitas, Foraminiferida, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Osteichthyes e matéria orgânica não identificada, os grupos que compõem sua dieta.
Life and fertility tables of Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1869) were studied in the laboratory conditions. The flies colonies were maintained at 20-28°C, 80±10% RH and observed daily. Life expectancy was 2.34 weeks for males and 2.33 weeks for females. The survivorship curves presented a type II tendency for females and type III for males. The periods of pre-larviposition and larviposition were of 2.5 and 9.5 weeks, respectively. Using data of the life table of fertility, the following values were obtained: Ro=24.83 times; T= 5.06 weeks; r=0.64 and l=1.89. The number of generations of P. intermutans was estimated to be 10.28 generations/year. The females had a high fertility under laboratory contiditions.
The gonad development of Uca rapax was studied to achieve the size at onset of its sexual maturity. Crabs were sampled from April/2001 to March/2002 in the Itamambuca and Ubatumirim mangroves in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The specimens were grouped in 10 size classes. Juveniles and adult crabs frequencies were assessed for each class. The size of carapace width in which 50% of males and females were considered mature was 14.8 and 12.1 mm (Itamambuca) and 13.6 and 11.4 mm (Ubatumirim), respectively for males and females. Males matured at higher sizes than females, probably due to a major investment in their somatic growth, while females spend their energy in the reproductive process, saving energy for eggs' production.
Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893) é um coleóptero que se desenvolve em produtos armazenados (amendoim, milho, aveia, arroz, sorgo, etc.) e é facilmente criado em laboratório. Para avaliar as melhores condições de desenvolvimento foram estabelecidos experimentos em diferentes temperaturas e em dietas definidas por três diferentes condições de armazenamento de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.). A maior viabilidade de indivíduos e o menor tempo de desenvolvimento foram verificados na dieta constituída por frutos abertos (vagens e grãos) e em temperaturas de 21 e 24o C. É discutida a possível influência da umidade relativa nos resultados.
We have evaluated the clinical impact of FDG-PET on patient staging and management during the opening year of our PET centre in France. A questionnaire, translation in French of the questionnaire used recently in California, was sent to the referring physician of each of the 476 patients who had at least one routine FDG-PET examination during the year 2000. Of 348 responses (response rate = 73%), the disease was upstaged in 26% of the cases and downstaged in 9%. Inter-modality management changes (change from a scheduled therapeutic modality for a different one) were reported in 37% of the cases and intra-modality changes in 9%. Those modification rates were respectively 38% and 7% in recurrence of colorectal cancer (153 patients), 47% and 7% in lung cancer (118 patients), 16% and 23% in lymphoma (43 patients), 25% and 6% in the staging of head and neck cancers (32 patients).When comparing with the similar studies performed in California, there were no significant differences between the rates of inter-modality management changes. In contrast, intra-modality management changes were less frequent in our survey, except for lymphoma. Globally, the clinical impact of FDG PET was similar, with a higher response rate to our survey (73% versus 35%); it was above the mean 31% rate of therapeutic modification derived from a recent tabulated summary in over 3400 patients.
In order to evaluate the monophyly of the Phyllachorales from a molecular standpoint and elucidate its phylogenetic relationships with other orders, a segment of the 18S rRNA gene from several representatives of the Phyllachorales, including species of Glomerella, Phyllachora, Coccodiella (=Coccostroma), Sphaerodothis, Ophiodothella, as well as Magnaporthe was sequenced. Maximum Parsimony analysis revealed that the Phyllachorales was a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa. None of the other members of the Phyllachorales, which produced either a clypeus or stroma, clustered with Glomerella. Of the taxa examined, was Coccodiella the closest relative of Phyllachora. Magnaporthe was closely related to the Diaporthales. Our 18S rDNA data highly supported Glomerella being accommodated in a separate family.
Platanichthys platana is considered a constant species in both Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons that are characterised by different marine and freshwater inputs, and anthropogenic influences. The stomach content analysis of P. platana captured between July 1991 and July 1993 revealed filamentous algae, detritus, eggs of benthic invertebrates, larvae of chironomids and bivalves as the main food sources in Imboassica lagoon. Small-sized cladocerans, copepods and shrimp larvae were the prevailing items in Cabiúnas lagoon. Seasonal food variations were noted for the fishes of Imboassica lagoon. Diet differences were highlighted within specimens lesser than 40 mm standard length in Imboassica lagoon, and were related to the increase of marine influence due to artificial sand barrier openings. Dissimilarities among size classes in relation to invertebrate larvae consumption were observed in fishes from Cabiúnas lagoon.
This paper reports on a subadult male specimen of the smooth dogfish, Mustelus schimitti, caught in the continental shelf of Rio Grande Sul, during winter of 1993, which exhibited the characteristics of total albinism.
Rotaviruses are common pathogens and the causal agents of acute diarrhea among children and young animals. The involvement of rotavirus in human diarrheal disease among population of urban and rural areas of the city of Londrina, Parana was evaluated. Nine hundred and five fecal specimens from persons with diarrhea were studied, being 686 and 219 from urban and rural areas, respectively. Thirty-eight samples (4,2%) were positive for rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral RNA and latex agglutination test of which 36 were from urban and two from rural areas. Out of the positive specimens, 17 strains were further characterized by RT-PCR typing assay, resulting in 16 strains of G1 genotype while one sample was found to be a mixture of G1 and G3 genotypes.