Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology

Published by SciELO

Online ISSN: 1516-8913

Articles


Figure 1 -Plaque assay of rotavirus inoculum diluted to the tenth (10 -2 to 10 -6 , lanes 1-5) in MA-104 cell cultures stained with 0.5 % crystal violet five days pi, in quadruplicate. Lane 6, noninfected cell control.  
Figure 2 -Fluorescence assay of MA-104 cell cultures incubated with ConA-FITC for 15 min at 4°C (A) showing labeling mainly at the cell surface and at 37ºC also in the cytoplasm (B). 200X.  
Figure 3 -Negative staining electron micrography of rotavirus inoculum submitted to the treatment with 2.5 µg/ml of ConA. Bar: 100 nm.  
Figure 4 -Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of rotavirus double-stranded RNA segments from the supernatant fluids of cell cultures treated before the infection with ConA at the concentration of 2.5µg/ml, collected at 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h pi. Lanes b, d, f, h, and j with ConA treatment. Lanes a, c, e, g and i without ConA treatment. Lanes k-o human RV run as control.  
The effect of concanavalin A on the replication of rotavirus (SA-11) in cell culture
  • Article
  • Full-text available

June 2002

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278 Reads

Hasenack Beatriz S

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Botelho Maria Valéria J

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Flávio Lauretti

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[...]

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Rotavirus (RV) strain SA-11 was studied with respect to its infectivity in MA-104 cell cultures and the effect of concanavalin A (ConA). Receptors for ConA at the surface of MA-104 cell were determined by fluorescence assay and specifically inhibited by D-mannose. The kinetics of virus growth was carried out by plaque assay. Electron microscopy and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used for monitoring the experiments. It was concluded that RV replication was not affected consistently by ConA, however it interfered with the development of cytopathic effect (CPE) without altering virus yields.
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Scintigraphic imaging of focal hypoxic tissue: development and clinical applications of 123I-IAZA

September 2002

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51 Reads

Affected tissues in a number of diseases, including cancer, stroke, cardiac infarction and diabetes, develop focal tissue hypoxia during their progression. The presence of hypoxic tissue may make the disease refractory to therapy, as in the case of solid tumor therapy using low LET ionizing radiation. In other pathologies, the detection of viable but hypoxic tissues may serve as a prodromal indicator of developing disease (e.g. diabetes),or as a prognostic indicator for management of the disease (e.g. stroke). Over the past two decades, a number of hypoxia radioimaging agents have been developed and tested clinically. Of these, 18F-Fmiso and 123I-IAZA are the most widely used radiotracers for PET and SPECT/planar imaging, respectively. IAZA and Fmiso are a 2-nitroimidazoles that chemically bind to subcellular components of viable hypoxic tissues. They sensitize hypoxic tumour to the killing effects of ionizing radiation via mechanisms that mimic the radiosensitizing effects of oxygen, and are therefore called oxygen mimetics. The oxygen mimetic effect is attributable in large part to the covalent binding of reductively-activated nitroimidazole intermediates to critical cellular macromolecules. Nitroimidazoles labelled with gamma-emitting radionuclides (e.g. 18F-Fmiso and 123I-IAZA) have been used as scintigraphic markers of tumour hypoxia, based on the need to identify radioresistant hypoxic tumour cells as part of the radiotherapy planning process. Broader interest in non-invasive, imaging-based identification of focal hypoxia in a number of diseases has extended hypoxia studies to include peripheral vascular disease associated with diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke, myocardial ischaemia, brain trauma and oxidative stress. In this review, the current status of hypoxia-selective studies with 123I-IAZA , an experimental diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, is reviewed with respect to its pre-clinical development and clinical applications.

Figure 3 - Profile of cesium-137 distribution in the soil with different kinds of cultivation. Taken from the ~yszhang/caesium/ profile.jpg . 
Figure 4 - Survey of the number of publications using the cesium-137 technique in soil sedimentation and erosion studies. Source: “ cesium137bib.htm#beg”. 
Use of cesium-137 methodology in the evaluation of superficial erosive processes

June 2003

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306 Reads

Superficial erosion is one of the main soil degradation agents and erosion rates estimations for different edaphicclimate conditions for the conventional models, as USLE and RUSLE, are expensive and time-consuming. The use of cesium-137 antrophogenic radionuclide is a new methodology that has been much studied and its application in the erosion soil evaluation has grown in countries as USA, UK, Australia and others. A brief narration of this methodology is being presented, as the development of the equations utilized for the erosion rates quantification through the cesium-137 measurements. Two watersheds studied in Brazil have shown that the cesium-137 methodology was practicable and coherent with the survey in field for applications in erosion studies.

Temporal and spatial variation on heavy metal concentrations in the bivalve Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

June 2004

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170 Reads

Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations were studied in Perna perna from three beaches (Barra do Furado, Buena and Ponta do Retiro) on the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State by ICP-AES. The average concentration was 0.3 ± 0.04 (Cd); 1.9 ± 0.6 (Cr); 6.1 ± 0.7 (Cu); 1,130 ± 113 (Fe); 22 ± 3.2 (Mn); 9.3 ± 4.6 (Ni); 0.4 ± 0.2 (Pb); 44 ± 5.8 (Zn) µg.g-1 dry weight. There were no significant difference for almost all the studied metals in relation to sex. Although, significant spatial variations (p < 0.05) occurred for Cr, Pb and Ni with higher values for Barra do Furado. Temporal variations were significant (p < 0.05) at the three beaches, however, no trends of accumulation were observed. The metal concentrations were similar to areas under low pollution impact, except for Fe, which was probably due to the local substrates enriched in iron oxides.

Figure 1-Means of active aphids (A A) and parasitise aphids (P.A) and D. rapae, collected by entomologic sweep net, during plant phenological stages considering the two aphid species together, L. erysimi and B. brassicae. A = rosette; B = elongation; C = flowering; D=maturation. Dourados-MS. 
Figure 2-Temperature and precipitation data, obtained at EMBRAPA-CPAO the station of D ouradosMS.1995. 
Figure 3-Means of active aphids (A A) and parasitise aphids (P.A) and D. rapae, collected by sacking plants method, during plant phenological stages considering the two aphid species together, L. erysimi and B. brassicae. A = rosette; B = elongation; C = flowering; D = maturation. Dourados-MS. 
Occurrence of Diaretiella rapae (Mc´Intosh, 1855) (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) Parasitising Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach, 1843) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L. 1758) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Brassica napus in Mato Grosso do Sul

March 2002

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124 Reads

The occurrence of Diaretiella rapae parasitising Lipaphis erysimi and Brevicoryne brassicae in canola field (Brassica napus) was evaluated through two sample methods in Dourados-MS. The methods, used weekly, were: entomologic sweep net and plants sacking. The aphids population was observed from initial to the senescence plant development. Aphids were more abundant during the flowering phase, and they were usually located in the stems of the inflorescence and development fruits. In this phase the largest parasitism level for D. rapae (89,7%) occurred. The sample method with a sweep net captured significantly (t=4,484, P <= 0,01) more D. rapae while sacking method captured more parasitise aphids (t=2,199 with P <= 0,05) and active aphids (t=3,513, P <= 0,01).

Epibiosis Reduction on Productivity in a Mussel Culture of Perna perna (Linné, 1758)

September 2002

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60 Reads

Cultivated mussels (Perna perna) were studied to test for the effects of cleaning on their growth. These effects were examined by experimentally cleaning mussels and by changing mussel density. Treatment was performed twice, at two and four months after immerging the ropes. Two months after the first treatment and three months after the second treatment, mussels were harvested and measured (weight, length, width and thickness). Analysis of variance showed that none of the treatments resulted in increased growth of the mussels, nor did increased density result in decreased growth when compared with the control. It was concluded that it was not necessary to clean the shells to increase harvest.

Thermic Variation in Incubation and Development of Pantanal Caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare) (Daudin, 1802) Kept in Metabolic Box

September 2002

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45 Reads

Thirty-two eggs of Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare) (Daudin, 1802) were incubated at 30° C. After 20 days of incubation at 30° C, the remaining eggs were distributed in the following way: seven at 34° C, seven at 32° C, six at 30° C and six at 28° C. At 32° C and 34° C a 100% hatchability was obtained while at 30° C 83.3% and at 28° C 66.6%. After hatching, the animals were kept for 120 days at the same temperature of their final incubation. Weight (g) control and morphometric (cm) analysis were carried out. The statistic design was totally randomized and the data were treated by regression analysis showing a quadratic behavior ( p<0.05). It was found that weight, total length (TTL), tail length (TL), snout- vent length (SVL), head length (HL), eye length (EL), snout length (SL), mid-point snout width (MSW), head width (HW), width of snout at nostrils (NW), distance between limbs (DBL) showed a higher development at the temperature range from 31.2° C to 31.8° C and circumference of belly at 30.0° C.

Figure 3-Photomicrographs of the expansions of the male reproductive system of Goniopsis cruentata. 3A: lumen (L) filled with rod-like polysaccharide and glycoprotein chains. Simple columnar epithelium (CE) and collagenous fibers (CF): Alcian Blue/PAS (scale bar: 10µm). 3B: Simple columnar epithelium (CE), Lumen (L) and collagenous fibers (CF): Gomori Trichrome (scale bar: 10µm). 3C: Androgenic gland (AG), stained with Xylidine Ponceau (scale bar: 20µm). 3D: Spermatophores enveloped by a PAS-positive film: PAS (scale bar: 10µm). 
Testis and vas deferens morphology of the red-clawed mangrove tree crab (Goniopsis cruentata) (Latreille, 1803)

March 2006

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107 Reads

The present study describes the structure of the testes and vas deferens of the red-clawed mangrove tree crab, Goniopsis cruentata. Testes and vas deferens were fixed with cold Bouin's solution and submitted to histological routine examinations. Light microscopy showed the testis to be divided into three regions: anterior, containing the germinal zone; intermediary, including the collecting duct; and posterior. The vas deferens, which was continuous with the testes, could be divided into two regions: one corresponding to the expansions and another lined by cubical epithelium, collagenous fibers and a circular layer of muscle cells and containing the androgenic gland. Spermatophores were observed in both vas deferens regions suggesting that they participated in the maturation of the spermatozoids preparing the male functionally for fertilization.

Figure 1-Piracicaba and Mogi-Guaçu River basins with sampling sites locations.
Biomonitoring of Pb and Cd in two impacted watersheds in Southeast Brazil, using the freshwater mussel Anodontites trapesialis (Lamarck, 1819) (Bivalvia : Mycetopodidae) as a biological monitor

December 2003

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95 Reads

Studies were carried out to investigate the contamination of Piracicaba and Mogi-Guaçu River basins (São Paulo State, Southeastern, Brazil) for heavy metals (Cd and Pb), using the limnic bivalve Anodontites trapesialis as a biological monitor. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb were higher than the control group in both basins, showing the bioavailability of this non-essential element in the basins. The concentrations were higher in the Mogi-Guaçu than in the Piracicaba basin, and in the slightly contaminated sites in both basins. There was no correlation between the degree of human impact and Cd and Pb concentrations, it was not possible to infer about concentrations of these heavy metals in the bivalves based only in a broad evaluation of human impact.

Life Cycle Observations on Amphilocus neapolitanus (Della Valle, 1853) (Crustacea, Amphipoda) Associated with Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh, 1820 in Ubatuba, (SP), Brazil

September 2002

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60 Reads

Day and night densities, reproductive biology and life cycle of Amphilocus neapolitanus (Della Valle, 1853), associated with Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh, 1820, were studied during 13 months. The density of juveniles, males and females was higher in night samples than in day samples. Sex ratio was strongly favorable toward the females. Ovigerous females were present in similar densities in both the periods while the non-ovigerous females were predominant at night. The egg number was not correlated with the size of the females. Breeding occurred throughout the year.

Effect of biological variables and capture period on the proximate composition and fatty acid composition of the dorsal muscle tissue of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829)

January 2003

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44 Reads

This study analyzed the chemical composition of the dorsal muscle tissue of Hypophthalmus edentatus, in particular, fatty acids of the lipidic fraction, and its relationship with the biological variables and the capture period. The average values for moisture, ash, protein and total lipids were 63.15, 1.11, 14.27 and 17.24%, respectively. In the lipidic fraction, 35 fatty acids were identified, the most abundant being: 16:0, 18:1omega9, 18:0, 16:1omega7, 18:3omega3, DHA and EPA. The totals of respectively saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 41.15, 35.30 and 23.88%. The PUFA/SFA ratio was equal to 0.68 and the omega3/ omega6 ratio equal to 1.98. The PCA demonstrated that the long chain PUFAs contributed positively to the formation of the first axis. The CCA showed some effects of the biological factors (weight, reproductive cycle, sex) and the capture period on the variation of total lipids and some fatty acids.

Reproductive biology of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (LOWE, 1834)

June 2003

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435 Reads

Investigations were carried out about the reproductive biology of the dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) a serranid protogynous hermaphrodite fish inhabitant of rocky bottoms from shallow waters up to 200 m depth. Samples were caught in the islands that form Arvoredo Biological Marine Reserve (SC - Brazil) and the coastal islands near Florianópolis region from March 1998 to May 2000. Data from samples of juvenile groupers on intertidal pools were used to link their occurrence in the pools to the post-spawning season. To describe the histological changes on gonads along the reproductive cycle and to establish maturation scales, 109 groupers were histologically tested for sex determination. First maturation size was determined for females (L50=470 mm; r²=0.99). The results of calculated gonadosomatic (GSI) and hepatosomatic (HSI) indexes, showed that maturation occurred along the spring months and the spawning activity during the summer with a peak in December. Liver recovery (HSI elevation) was evident in the autumn, was the post spawning season. The relationship between length and weight was W = 9 · 10-6 · TL3.1149 (r²=0.998; n=246).

Figure 1 - Control kidney tissue of Prochilodus lineatus showing glomerulus (Gl) and tubules (Tr). HE’ 400x. 
Figure 2 - Kidney tissue of Prochilodus lineatus after 24 hours exposition of Trichlorfon. HE 400x. 
Figure 3 - Kidney tissue of Prochilodus lineatus after 48 hours exposition of Trichlorfon. HE 400x. 
Histopathologic changes in the kidney tissue of Prochilodus lineatus Valenciennes, 1836 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) induced by sublethal concentration of Trichlorfon exposure

June 2002

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60 Reads

Studies were carried out to analyse the kidney histopathological alterations of "curimbatá", Prochilodus lineatus, were analyzed. An acute bioassay was made by the water contamination with 0.2muml/l of Dipterex 500 (Trichlorfon). The kidney tissue collected after 24 hours of exposure showed an enlargement of intercapsular space with glomerular atrophy, hypertrophy of the kidney tube cells, with small granules on its cytoplasm and little nuclear alteration. Blood overflowing from capillaries with pyknotic nuclei and vacuoles in the cytoplasm it was also noticed. After 48 hours, the kidney tissue showed glomerular expansion, impossibility to visualize the intercapsular space as well as cytoplasm limit of many cells. The parietal capsular epithelium and the basal membrane presented loss of cell content, the tubular cells appeared swollen vacuolated and with thin and thick cytoplasmatic granulations. Some of the cell nuclei kept relatively regular form with a condensed chromatin on its central region, while others showed themselves relatively small and pyknotics advancing to a cariolisis and necrosis focus.

Reproductive Strategies of Plagioscion squamosissimus Heckel, 1840 (Osteichthyes Sciaenidae) in the Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil

September 2002

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51 Reads

Plagioscion squamosissimus is a dominant species in the Itaipu reservoir and has a significant role in the regional economy. The aim of the present research was the investigation of the curvina's reproductive strategies during the first years of the Itaipu reservoir (November 1983 to October 1989). Collections were undertaken from eleven sampling sites in the reservoir area, left bank tributaries, Paraná River and its tributaries. Species begin the reproduction in the area of influence of the Itaipu reservoir only in 1986. Size of early maturation, local and period of spawning showed gradual variations, with a broadening trend of this activity in the area, and thus guaranteeing success of the species. Mean size of early sexual maturation for the Plagioscion squamosissimus reached 16.2 cm for males and 17.8 cm for females.

Ovary maturation stages and oocyte features in three species of the neotropical fish Hemiodus (Müller, 1842)

June 2003

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51 Reads

Macro- and microscopic ovarian features of Hemiodus microlepis, H. ternetzi and H. unimaculatus were analyzed. Based on these features we proposed an ovarian maturation scale. The nine stages of the preliminary macroscopic fieldwork scale were reduced to five after microscopic analysis of ovaries. The microscopic analysis indicated a group-synchronous oocyte development common to the three species that were characterized as iteroparous synchronous spawners with a total spawning type. The remarkable thickness of the zona radiata layer and the large size of vitellogenic oocytes of Hemiodus ternetzi distinguished this species from the others.

Figure 1 -Rio de Janeiro State, indicating the sighting area in the North coast.  
Table 1 -Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei in the North coast of the Rio de Janeiro State, through the three observation methods (I: cruises; II: fixed point; III: information provided by fishermen). 
Table 2 -Sightings of Sotalia fluviatilis in the North coast of the Rio de Janeiro State, through the cruises. 
Table 3 -Observation effort of Sotalia fluviatilis in the North coast of the Rio de Janeiro State, by seasons, through the fixed point. 
Table 4 -Sightings of calves and/or juveniles of Sotalia fluviatilis in the North coast of the Rio de Janeiro State, by seasons, through the fixed point. 
Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844) and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853) (Cetacea) in South-eastern Brazil

September 2001

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46 Reads

Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844) and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853) have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group) fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.

Table 1. Callinectes ornatus. Frequency of occurrence distribution of males and females with contents and empty stomachs, in the period from January to December/95. 
Natural Diet of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae) in the Itapocoroy Inlet, Penha, SC, Brazil

March 2002

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113 Reads

From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter) groups.Alimentação natural de Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae) na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, SC - Brasil. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1995, foram coletados 332 indivíduos de Callinectes ornatus, procedentes da Armação do Itapocoroy (Penha, SC). Foi estudada a alimentação natural da espécie e as variações sazonais da dieta. Os resultados mostram um espectro trófico diversificado, com estratégia alimentar generalista, sendo Algas, Macrófitas, Foraminiferida, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Osteichthyes e matéria orgânica não identificada, os grupos que compõem sua dieta.

Bionomic aspects of Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1869) (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) under laboratory conditions

December 2002

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36 Reads

Life and fertility tables of Pattonella intermutans (Thomson, 1869) were studied in the laboratory conditions. The flies colonies were maintained at 20-28°C, 80±10% RH and observed daily. Life expectancy was 2.34 weeks for males and 2.33 weeks for females. The survivorship curves presented a type II tendency for females and type III for males. The periods of pre-larviposition and larviposition were of 2.5 and 9.5 weeks, respectively. Using data of the life table of fertility, the following values were obtained: Ro=24.83 times; T= 5.06 weeks; r=0.64 and l=1.89. The number of generations of P. intermutans was estimated to be 10.28 generations/year. The females had a high fertility under laboratory contiditions.

Figure 1-Uca rapax. Comparison of the median size of each sex and site. Box with at least a same letter i common does not show significant statistical difference (p>0.05). 
Table 1 -Uca rapax. Characterization of the gonad development in males and females. 
Figure 2-Uca rapax. Comparison of the median size between males and females in each site. Box with at least a same letter in common does not show significant statistical difference (p>0.05). 
Physiologic sexual maturity of the fiddler crab Uca rapax (Smith, 1870) (Crustacea, Ocypodidae) from two mangroves in Ubatuba, Brazil

March 2006

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79 Reads

The gonad development of Uca rapax was studied to achieve the size at onset of its sexual maturity. Crabs were sampled from April/2001 to March/2002 in the Itamambuca and Ubatumirim mangroves in Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. The specimens were grouped in 10 size classes. Juveniles and adult crabs frequencies were assessed for each class. The size of carapace width in which 50% of males and females were considered mature was 14.8 and 12.1 mm (Itamambuca) and 13.6 and 11.4 mm (Ubatumirim), respectively for males and females. Males matured at higher sizes than females, probably due to a major investment in their somatic growth, while females spend their energy in the reproductive process, saving energy for eggs' production.

Figure 1 -Ulomoides dermestoides. Number of individuals reared in peanuts, diets " A " and " B " , at different temperatures.  
Table 1 -Values of viability and developmental time of Ulomoides dermestoides(Fairmaire, 1893), reared in peanuts, diets "A" and "B", at different temperatures.
Figure 2-Ulomoides dermestoides reared in peanuts. Developmental time of life cycle, diets "A" and "B", at different temperatures.
Figure 3-Ulomoides dermestoides reared in peanuts. Mean time of development of life cycle, diets "A " and "B", at different temperatures.
Figure 4-Ulomoides dermestoides. Mean number of individuals emerged per day, in diets "A" and "B", at differents temperatures.
Influence of temperature and diet on the development of Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893) (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Diaperinae)

June 2001

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150 Reads

Ulomoides dermestoides (Fairmaire, 1893) é um coleóptero que se desenvolve em produtos armazenados (amendoim, milho, aveia, arroz, sorgo, etc.) e é facilmente criado em laboratório. Para avaliar as melhores condições de desenvolvimento foram estabelecidos experimentos em diferentes temperaturas e em dietas definidas por três diferentes condições de armazenamento de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.). A maior viabilidade de indivíduos e o menor tempo de desenvolvimento foram verificados na dieta constituída por frutos abertos (vagens e grãos) e em temperaturas de 21 e 24o C. É discutida a possível influência da umidade relativa nos resultados.

The clinical impact of [18F]-FDG Pet during the opening year of a Pet centre

September 2002

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49 Reads

We have evaluated the clinical impact of FDG-PET on patient staging and management during the opening year of our PET centre in France. A questionnaire, translation in French of the questionnaire used recently in California, was sent to the referring physician of each of the 476 patients who had at least one routine FDG-PET examination during the year 2000. Of 348 responses (response rate = 73%), the disease was upstaged in 26% of the cases and downstaged in 9%. Inter-modality management changes (change from a scheduled therapeutic modality for a different one) were reported in 37% of the cases and intra-modality changes in 9%. Those modification rates were respectively 38% and 7% in recurrence of colorectal cancer (153 patients), 47% and 7% in lung cancer (118 patients), 16% and 23% in lymphoma (43 patients), 25% and 6% in the staging of head and neck cancers (32 patients).When comparing with the similar studies performed in California, there were no significant differences between the rates of inter-modality management changes. In contrast, intra-modality management changes were less frequent in our survey, except for lymphoma. Globally, the clinical impact of FDG PET was similar, with a higher response rate to our survey (73% versus 35%); it was above the mean 31% rate of therapeutic modification derived from a recent tabulated summary in over 3400 patients.

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Molecular systematics of the Phyllachorales (Ascomycota, Fungi) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequences

June 2003

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132 Reads

In order to evaluate the monophyly of the Phyllachorales from a molecular standpoint and elucidate its phylogenetic relationships with other orders, a segment of the 18S rRNA gene from several representatives of the Phyllachorales, including species of Glomerella, Phyllachora, Coccodiella (=Coccostroma), Sphaerodothis, Ophiodothella, as well as Magnaporthe was sequenced. Maximum Parsimony analysis revealed that the Phyllachorales was a polyphyletic assemblage of taxa. None of the other members of the Phyllachorales, which produced either a clypeus or stroma, clustered with Glomerella. Of the taxa examined, was Coccodiella the closest relative of Phyllachora. Magnaporthe was closely related to the Diaporthales. Our 18S rDNA data highly supported Glomerella being accommodated in a separate family.

Diet of the clupeid fish Platanichthys platana (Regan, 1917) in two different Brazilian coastal lagoons

March 2003

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69 Reads

Platanichthys platana is considered a constant species in both Cabiúnas and Imboassica lagoons that are characterised by different marine and freshwater inputs, and anthropogenic influences. The stomach content analysis of P. platana captured between July 1991 and July 1993 revealed filamentous algae, detritus, eggs of benthic invertebrates, larvae of chironomids and bivalves as the main food sources in Imboassica lagoon. Small-sized cladocerans, copepods and shrimp larvae were the prevailing items in Cabiúnas lagoon. Seasonal food variations were noted for the fishes of Imboassica lagoon. Diet differences were highlighted within specimens lesser than 40 mm standard length in Imboassica lagoon, and were related to the increase of marine influence due to artificial sand barrier openings. Dissimilarities among size classes in relation to invertebrate larvae consumption were observed in fishes from Cabiúnas lagoon.


Figure 1-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of rotavirus strains RNA detected in human feces. Viral RNA was prepared with guanidine isothiocyanate and extracted with hydroxyapatite and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (Santos & Gouvea, 1994). Lane 1, internal standard human rotavirus NS84; Lane 2, nihil; Lanes 3-9, strains of rotavirus detected in the following fecal specimens pat1, pat10, pat19, psc54, psc475, psc506 and psc521, respectively. 
Figure 2-Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction for G typing (VP7) of human rotavirus strains detected in feces (Gouvea et al., 1990). Lanes M, 100 pb ladder MW marker; Lanes 1-3, 6, 8 and A, nihil; Lanes 4, 5, 7 and 9 represent amplifications of strains detected in fecal specimens pat6, pat11, hu15 and pat16, respectively. Arrow indicates de amplification product of 741 pb corresponding to the genotype G1. 
Incidence of group A rotavirus in urban and rural areas of the City of Londrina-Brazil, from 1995 to 1997

September 2001

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63 Reads

Rotaviruses are common pathogens and the causal agents of acute diarrhea among children and young animals. The involvement of rotavirus in human diarrheal disease among population of urban and rural areas of the city of Londrina, Parana was evaluated. Nine hundred and five fecal specimens from persons with diarrhea were studied, being 686 and 219 from urban and rural areas, respectively. Thirty-eight samples (4,2%) were positive for rotavirus by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of viral RNA and latex agglutination test of which 36 were from urban and two from rural areas. Out of the positive specimens, 17 strains were further characterized by RT-PCR typing assay, resulting in 16 strains of G1 genotype while one sample was found to be a mixture of G1 and G3 genotypes.

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