Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society

Published by Linnean Society of London
Online ISSN: 1095-8339
Publications
Article
This is an historical and descriptive account of 28 herbarium specimens, 27 lichens and an alga, found in the archives of Charles Chalcraft, a descendant of the Bedford family, who were dye manufacturers in Leeds, England, in the 19th century. The lichens comprise 13 different morphotypes collected in the Canary Islands and West Africa by the French botanist J. M. Despréaux between 1833 and 1839. The collections include samples of "Roccella fuciformis", "R. phycopsis" and "R. tinctoria" (including the fertile morphotype "R. canariensis"), "Ramalina crispatula" and "R. cupularis", two distinct morphotypes of "Sticta", "S. canariensis" and "S. dufouri", "Physconia enteroxantha", "Pseudevernia furfuracea var. ceratea" and "Pseudocyphellaria argyracea". The herbarium also includes authentic material of "Parmotrema tinctorum" and a probable syntype of "Seirophora scorigena". Most of these species are known as a source of the purple dye orchil, which was used to dye silk and wool.
 
Article
South Africa, as a megadiverse country (±21 700 vascular plants, 4800 vertebrates and 68 900 invertebrates described), is presently engaged with an extended, modified Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC). The country is fortunate in having a strong tradition of systematics research and, inter alia, houses several million preserved plant specimens (±1 million databased and georeferenced), allowing taxonomists and conservationists to track both the occurrence and distribution of indigenous and naturalized plant species. These rich local resources have been extensively drawn upon to deliver, with varying degrees of success, the 16 outcome-oriented GSPC 2010 Targets. The National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEMBA, 2004), the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) and the National Biodiversity Framework (NBF) have provided a robust legislative, enabling and policy framework for making operational and advancing GSPC-related efforts. However, within an emerging economy, the conservation of biodiversity has competed for government resources with housing, sanitation, primary education, basic health care and crime prevention, delivery of which translates to the currency of politicians: votes. A key challenge identified by local (and global) biodiversity scientists for the current GSPC phase is broad-scale advocacy, communicating the changing state of nature, and the inter-relatedness of biodiversity and human well-being. The nature of meeting this challenge is explored.
 
Article
China is one of the richest countries for plant diversity with approximately 33 000 vascular plant species, ranking second in the world. However, the plant diversity in China is increasingly threatened, with an estimated 4000–5000 plant species being threatened or on the verge of extinction, making China, proportionally, one of the highest priorities for global plant biodiversity conservation. Coming in the face of the current ecological crisis, it is timely that China has launched China's Strategy for Plant Conservation (CSPC). China has increasingly recognized the importance of plant diversity in efforts to conserve and sustainably use its plant diversity. More than 3000 nature reserves have been established, covering approximately 16% of the land surface of China. These natural reserves play important roles in plant conservation, covering more than 85% of types of terrestrial natural ecosystems, 40% of types of natural wetlands, 20% of native forests and 65% of natural communities of vascular plants. Meanwhile, the flora conserved in botanical gardens is also extensive. A recent survey shows that the 10 largest botanical gardens have living collections of 43 502 taxa, with a total of 24 667 species in ex situ conservation. These provide an important reserve of plant resources for sustainable economic and social development in China. Plant diversity is the basis for bioresources and sustainable utilization. The 21st century is predicted to be an era of bio-economy driven by advances of bioscience and biotechnology. Bio-economy may become the fourth economy form after agricultural, industrial, and information and information technology economies, having far-reaching impacts on sustainable development in agriculture, forestry, environmental protection, light industry, food supply and health care and other micro-economy aspects. Thus, a strategic and forward vision for conservation of plant diversity and sustainable use of plant resources in the 21st century is of far-reaching significance for sustainable development of Chinese economy and society.
 
Article
The need for action on the global environment is now well understood and governments, agencies, non-governmental organizations and botanic gardens have all been working in their various ways to promote environmental sustainability and reduce species and habitat loss for at least 10–20 years. The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) has been widely adopted, particularly by the botanic garden community, and has resulted in many successes despite failing to achieve its ultimate goal of halting the loss of plant biodiversity. The objectives and targets for Phase 2 of the GSPC, running from 2010 to 2020, mirror those of Phase 1 and had been largely agreed prior to their formal adoption at the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in Nagoya in October 2010. However, to be successful, the scientific contribution of botanic gardens needs to be strengthened, as does government policy and commitment. Botanic garden research to underpin conservation action, including the role of botanic garden horticulture, training and international capacity building, has a major part to play and needs to be better understood and better coordinated. We provide examples based on the experience of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in the UK and overseas. Government policy, at national and international levels, needs to reflect the fundamental importance of plant diversity in maintaining the biosphere and supporting humanity. The commitment of significant new resources is an essential prerequisite for success, but this needs to be well coordinated, inclusive of all stakeholders and carefully targeted. A further challenge is the need to integrate better the plant diversity-related activities of what are currently diverse and disconnected sectors, including agriculture, forestry, protected area management and botanic gardens.
 
Article
Morphological variation in Ephedra (Gnetales) is limited and confusing from an evolutionary perspective, with parallelisms and intraspecific variation. However, recent analyses of molecular data provide a phylogenetic framework for investigations of morphological traits, albeit with few informative characters in the investigated gene regions. We document morphological, anatomical and histological variation patterns in the female reproductive unit and test the hypothesis that some Early Cretaceous fossils, which share synapomorphies with Ephedra, are members of the extant clade. Results indicate that some morphological features are evolutionarily informative although intraspecific variation is evident. Histology and anatomy of cone bracts and seed envelopes show clade-specific variation patterns. There is little evidence for an inclusion of the Cretaceous fossils in the extant clade. Rather, a hypothesized general pattern of reduction of the vasculature in the ephedran seed envelope, probably from four vascular bundles in the fossils, to ancestrally three in the living clade, and later to two, is consistent with phylogenetic and temporal analyses, which indicate that extant diversity evolved after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Notwithstanding striking similarities between living and Cretaceous Ephedra, available data indicate that the Mesozoic diversity went almost entirely extinct in the late Cretaceous causing a bottleneck effect in Ephedra, still reflected today by an extraordinarily low level of genetic and structural diversity.
 
Article
A new international initiative for plant conservation was first called for as a resolution of the International Botanical Congress in 1999. The natural home for such an initiative was considered to be the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the CBD agreed to consider a Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) at its 5th meeting in 2000. It was proposed that the GSPC could provide an innovative model approach for target setting within the CBD and, prior to COP5, a series of inter-sessional papers on proposed targets and their justification were developed by plant conservation experts. Key factors that ensured the adoption of the GSPC by the CBD in 2002 included: (1) ensuring that prior to and during COP5, key Parties in each region were supportive of the Strategy; (2) setting targets at the global level and not attempting to impose these nationally; and (3) the offer by Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) to support a GSPC position in the CBD Secretariat for 3 years, which provided a clear indication of the support for the GSPC from non-governmental organizations (NGO).
 
Article
In this paper, existing relevant Ethiopian government biodiversity-related policies and strategies, and mandates of various institutions prior to GSPC targets, are reviewed. Response to whether or not institutions responded to GSPC targets as the result of new policies or rebranded their work to fit within the context of existing policies and adjust their outcomes to fit into the GSPC targets is provided. The Ethiopian national report of 2009 submitted to the Convention of Biological Diversity Secretariat is reviewed and gaps analysed. The policies of the Federal government (and implementing institutions) post-GSPC so far have had only a limited impact on science, but research institutions have aligned their outputs to fit with the GSPC targets. Suggestions, conclusions and recommendations are made in order to work effectively towards the realization of the GSPC targets beyond 2010 in Ethiopia.
 
Article
Mexico as a megadiverse country houses between 6 and 8% of the world's flora. However, the Mexican flora is facing challenges, including the presence of at least 981 threatened plant species and 618 exotic plant species, habitat loss, pollution, overexploitation of natural resources and the adverse effects of climate change, which are compromising its conservation and sustainable use. Mexico has been actively involved in the development and update of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) adopted by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). As a party to CBD, Mexico has established a Coordinating Committee for the Mexican Strategy for Plant Conservation (MSPC), which has adapted the GSPC to fit national needs and drafted a number of projects, indicators, means of verification and actors to ensure that the MSPC, as a public policy tool, really drives conservation and sustainable use actions among all sectors and lasts beyond the current administration. An agenda is being developed with activities that include the following: approaching Congress, identifying the relevance of the MSPC in the National Development Plan and the Mexican Biodiversity Strategy, making use of current environmental policies and an aggressive awareness programme. The MSPC includes simultaneous programmes of technical and political work.
 
Article
This paper considers the context for science contributing to policy development and explores some critical issues that should inform science advocacy and influence with policy makers. The paper argues that the key challenges are at least as much in educating conservation scientists and science communicators about society and policy making as they are in educating society and policy makers about science. The importance of developing processes to ensure that scientists and science communicators invest in the development of relationships based on respect and understanding of their audience in both communities and amongst policy makers provides a critical first step. The objectives of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation acknowledge the importance of developing the capacities and public engagement necessary to implement the Strategy, including knowledge transfer and community capacity building. However, the development of targets to equip institutions and plant conservation professionals to explicitly address the barriers to influencing policy development through knowledge transfer and integration require further consideration.
 
Article
The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was the first such effort under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and had gone through a 3-year process to reach the level of maturity that enabled it to be approved by consensus by all Governments present at the key session in The Hague in April 2002. It provided a model for subsequent CBD workplans, with targets, and undoubtedly contributed to the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. In the event, few of the targets were achieved, because of numerous constraints at both policy and implementation levels. Even so, the GSPC stands as an important milestone in the global effort to conserve biodiversity. However, few plant scientists can be satisfied that the essential steps are being taken to ensure the conservation of plants, although, of course, plant scientists are only one part of the complex effort that will be required. This paper offers some suggestions that might be worth consideration, building on the basic principle in politics that a strong constituency is necessary to victory. In other words, although plant scientists play a crucial role, plant conservation is too important to leave in their hands alone; far broader support is required, including from the private sector, agriculture, forestry, trade, economics, tourism and even the military. Although botanical science provides a solid foundation, other branches of science are also important, ranging from anthropology to zoology. The legal profession also has important contributions to make (as well as the ability to hamper progress – for example through using issues such as access and benefit sharing to limit the exchange of genetic materials for even noncommercial use). 2010 was the United Nations Year of Biodiversity, and the GSPC targets reached their due date. It therefore seems timely to add some additional perspectives to the effort to update the GSPC. This paper suggests ways to reach a far broader constituency, provides tools to those who are expected to achieve the targets, and suggests ways to build a strong international constituency to conserve the world's botanical wealth.
 
Article
Gynoecium and ovule structure was compared in representatives of the basal eudicots, including Ranunculales (Berberidaceae, Circaeasteraceae, Eupteleaceae, Lardizabalaceae, Menispermaceae, Papaveraceae, Ranunculaceae), Proteales (Nelumbonaceae, Platanaceae, Proteaceae), some families of the former «lower» hamamelids that have been moved to Saxifragales (Altingiaceae, Cercidiphyllaceae, Daphniphyllaceae, Hamamelidaceae), and some families of uncertain position (Gunneraceae, Myrothamnaceae, Buxaceae, Sabiaceae, Trochodendraceae). In all representatives studied, the carpels (or syncarpous gynoecia) are closed at anthesis. This closure is attained in different ways: (1) by secretion without postgenital fusion (Berberidaceae, Papaveraceae, Nelumbonaceae, probably Circaeaster); (2) by a combination of postgenital fusion and secretion; (2a) with a complete secretory canal and partly postgenitally fused periphery (Lardizabalaceae, Menispermaceae, some Ranunculaceae, Sabiaceae); (2b) with an incomplete secretory canal and completely fused periphery (Trochodendron); (3) by complete postgenital fusion without a secretory canal (most Ranunculaceae, Eupteleaceae, Platanaceae, Proteaceae, all families of Saxifragales and incertae sedis studied here). Stigmas are double-crested and decurrent in most of the non-ranunculalian taxa; unicellular-papillate in most taxa, but with multicellular protuberances in Daphniphyllaceae and Hamamelidaceae. Carpels predominantly have three vascular bundles, but five in Proteales (without Nelumbonaceae), Myrothamnaceae and Trochodendraceae. The latter two also share «oil» cells in the carpels. Stomata on the outer carpel surface are present in the majority of Ranunculales and Proteales, but tend to be lacking in the saxifragalian families. In basal eudicots, especially in the non-ranunculalian families there is a trend to form more than one ovule per carpel but to develop only one seed, likewise there is a trend to have immature ovules at anthesis. Ovule number per carpel is predominantly one or two. Proteales (without Nelumbonales) mainly have orthotropous ovules, the other groups have anatropous (or hemitropous or campylotropous) ovules. The outer integument is annular in the groups with orthotropous or hemitropous ovules, and also in a number of saxifragalian families with anatropous ovules. In Proteales the integuments are predominantly lobed but there is no distinct pattern in this feature among the other groups. Among Ranunculales two pairs of families (Lardizabalaceae/Menispermaceae and Berberidaceae/Papaveraceae) due to similarities in gynoecium structure can be recognized, which are not apparent in molecular analyses. The close relationship of Platanaceae and Proteaceae is supported by gynoecium structure but gynoecial features do not support their affinity to Nelumbonaceae. The alliance of Daphniphyllaceae with Hamamelidaceae s.l. is also supported.
 
Article
Classifications of British and Irish vascular plants into floristic elements are reviewed. Only H.C. Watson and J.R. Matthews have attempted to devise a more or less comprehensive classification, based on the British range of the species (Watson) or the European distribution (Matthews). A new classification of 1481 native species is presented, based on their range in the Northern Hemisphere. Species are classified by their occurrence in one or more major biomes (Arctic, Boreal, Temperate, Southern) and their longitudinal distribution (Oceanic, Suboceanic, European, Eurosiberian, Eurasian, Circumpolar). The distribution of species in the floristic elements is illustrated by coincidence maps for the British Isles and Europe. The British and Irish flora is dominated by Boreo-temperate, Temperate and Southern-temperate species, with the Temperate species being the most numerous. Species with continental distributions (i.e. species which are rarer than expected in western Europe) are listed; most of these are in the Boreo-temperate and Temperate elements. The floristic elements are discussed in relation to the life-form spectra, habitat preferences and altitudinal limits of the component species, and analysed in terms of Ellenberg indicator values for temperature and continentality. The new classification is compared with that of Matthews. An additional 48 species which are endemic to the British Isles are listed. The scope for extending this method of classification to other organisms and for adapting it for use outside the British Isles is discussed.
 
Article
Metaxylem tracheary elements of roots have differentiation between end walls and lateral walls in both Euryale and Victoria. End walls have narrower, more closely spaced bars and scalariform plates. Primary walls of end walls (and, to a lesser extent, lateral walls) have striations that are thickened primary wall portions orientated in an axial direction. These striations are less common in Victoria than in Euryale. Although secondary wall strands between perforations occur in some dicotyledons, the report of primary wall striations is new; these can be seen with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) but not with light microscopy. Perforations occur irregularly and sometimes sparsely on end walls of tracheary elements of Victoria, but perforations were not observed in Euryale. Thus, Euryale satisfies one criterion for the presence of vessel (end wall different from lateral wall), whereas Barclaya satisfies another (perforations in end walls) and Victoria satisfies both. Vessel origins in Nymphaeaceae are important in illustrating that there may be multiple vessel origins in dicotyledons.
 
Article
The Lecanopteris rhizome is expanded or hollow, and is used as a nest by ants of the genera Iridomyrmex and Crematogaster. The 13 species of Lecanopteris display six rhizome forms, unequally distributed between two subgenera. Subgenus Myrmecopteris comprises four species, each possessing a characteristic rhizome: L. mirabilis has a solid, arched rhizome, with the domatium between the rhizome underside and host trunk; L. sarcopus displays dimorphism between solid frond-bearing axes and hollow, frondless side branches; the rhizome of L. crustacea is hollow but phyllopodia are solid; L. sinuosa has hollow rhizomes and phyllopodia. The architecture of L. mirabilis, L. sarcopus and L. crustacea results in a compact, many-layered domatium, but L. sinuosa has a little-branched habit, Members of subg. Lecanopteris are completely hollow and have a compact architecture: six species typified by L. pumila have a central gallery and hollow phyllopodia, and three species typified by L. darnaedii have two gallery and chamber systems. The genus Lecanopteris is unlikely to be monophyletic; its nearest relative is Phymatodes. Phylogeny in subg. Myrmecopteris is unclear; no gradation of rhizome complexity exists. In subg. Lecanopteris, L. curtisii is considered most similar to the ancestral species, giving rise to the L. pumila group, which engendered the L. darnaedii group.
 
Article
Carpel and ovule structure was compared in representatives of all 11 families of the Magnoliales (Annonaceae, Canellaceae, Degeneriaceae, Eupomatiaceae, Himantandraceae, Magnoliaceae, Myristicaceae) and winteroids (Austrobaileyaceae, Illiciaceae, Schisandraceae, Winteraceae). Special attention was paid to features that are constant at family level. Bisexual flowers are always protogynous. In all representatives studied the carpels are closed at anthesis. Carpel closure is attained in three different ways: (1) postgenital fusion of inner surfaces (Degeneriaceae, Eupomatiaceae, Winteraceae), or (2) occlusion by secretion (Austrobaileyaceae, Schisandraceae), or (3) a combination of (1) and (2): in Annonaceae, Canellaceae, Myristicaceae there is a conspicuous secretory canal in the innermost part of the ventral slit; in Illiciaceae and Magnoliaceae there is a narrow canal in the innermost part of the ventral slit; and in Himantandraceae the ventral slit is postgenitally fused in the style but completely open in the ovary. In most families the carpels have a double stigmatic crest or they have two tips in the transversal symmetry plane (i.e. at right angles to the median plane). Stigmas are unicellular papillate in most families but the papillae are bi- to multicellular (uniseriate) in Degeneriaceae and Eupomatiaceae. An unusual cryptic extracarpellary compitum was found in Himantandraceae and Schisandraceae. Intrusive oil cells were found in the carpel epidermis of Illiciaceae and Schisandraceae. Mature ovules vary in length between 0.15 and 1.1 mm. The outer integument is fully annular (not semiannular) in Degeneriaceae, Himantandraceae, Canellaceae, Myristicaceae, and Illiciaceae. A rudimentary aril occurs in Canellaceae, and originates at the same site as in arillate Annonaceae and Myristicaceae. The results most strongly support an Annonaceae-Myristicaceae-Canellaceae alliance, to some degree also an Eupomatiaceae-Degeneriaceae-Himantandraceae-Magnoliaceae alliance, and an Illiciaceae-Schisandraceae-Winteraceae-Austrobaileyaceae alliance.
 
Article
A revised and updated classification for the families of the flowering plants is provided. Newly adopted orders include Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Gunnerales, Crossosomatales and Celastrales. Pertinent literature published since the first APG classification is included, such that many additional families are now placed in the phylogenetic scheme. Among these are Hydnoraceae (Piperales), Nartheciaceae (Dioscoreales), Corsiaceae (Liliales), Triuridaceae (Pandanales), Hanguanaceae (Commelinales), Bromeliacae, Mayacaceae and Rapateaceae (all Poales), Barbeuiaceae and Gisekiaceae (both Caryophyllales), Geissolomataceae, Strasburgeriaceae and Vitaceae (unplaced to order, but included in the rosids), Zygophyllaceae (unplaced to order, but included in eurosids I), Bonnetiaceae, Ctenolophonaceae, Elatinaceae, Ixonanthaceae, Lophopyxidaceae, Podostemaceae (Malpighiales), Paracryphiaceae (unplaced in euasterid II), Sladeniaceae, Pentaphylacaceae (Ericales) and Cardiopteridaceae (Aquifoliales). Several major families are recircumscribed. Salicaceae are expanded to include a large part of Flacourtiaceae, including the type genus of that family; another portion of former Flacourtiaceae is assigned to an expanded circumscription of Achariaceae. Euphorbiaceae are restricted to the uniovulate subfamilies; Phyllanthoideae are recognized as Phyllanthaceae and Oldfieldioideae as Picrodendraceae. Scrophulariaceae are recircumscribed to include Buddlejaceae and Myoporaceae and exclude several former members; these are assigned to Calceolariaceae, Orobanchaceae and Plantaginaceae. We expand the use of bracketing families that could be included optionally in broader circumscriptions with other related families; these include Agapanthaceae and Amaryllidaceae in Alliaceae s.l., Agavaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Ruscaceae (among many other Asparagales) in Asparagaceae s.l., Dichapetalaceae in Chrysobalanaceae, Turneraceae in Passifloraceae, Erythroxylaceae in Rhizophoraceae, and Diervillaceae, Dipsacaceae, Linnaeaceae, Morinaceae and Valerianaceae in Caprifoliaceae s.l. © 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 141, 399–436.
 
Article
LU AN-MING, 1990. A preliminary cladistic study of the families of the superorder Lamiiflorae. A preliminary cladistic analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationships between families of the superorder Lamiiflorae sensu Dahlgren. Several character complexes were surveyed, and ultimately 29 informative characters were used for the study. Three families, Clethraceae, Oleaceae and Solanaceae were selected for outgroup comparison and polarization of the characters. A data matrix was constructed for the 23 ingroup families. The data matrix was analysed with the cladistic parsimony program Hennig86. Three equally parsimonious cladograms were found. Many family interrelationships could not be resolved, although several groups were common to all three cladograms, as shown by a strict consensus tree. The Retziaceae emerged as the sister group to the remaining families. About half of those appeared in a large polytomy in the consensus tree. There was also one possibly monophyletic complex of families involving the Lamiales with the families Verbenaceae, Lamiaceae, Phrymaceae and Callitrichaceae as well as the three isolated families Trapellaceae, Hippuridaceae, and Hydrostachyaceae. Within this complex, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae came out as sister groups, as did Callitrichaceae and Hydrostachyaceae, with Hippuridaceae as sister group to them. However, the results must be regarded as tentative.
 
Article
THOMAS, V. & DAVE, Y., 1992. Structure and biology of nectaries in Tabebuia serratifolia Nichols (Bignoniaceae). Tabebuia has both floral and extrafloral nectaries, situated on the petiole, bract, calyx, around the ovary and on the pericarp. The floral nectary present around the ovary base is differentiated into epidermis, secretory zone and sub-secretory zone. It is supplied by phloem strands up to the secretory zone. A mature extrafloral nectary consists of a single large basal cell and a head comprising a layer of vertically arranged elongated cells. Starch, protein and lipid are present in the floral nectary. The major insect visitors to both types of nectaries are honey bees, houseflies and ants.
 
Article
With scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the nature of metaxylem vessel elements and tracheids was examined in Ophioglossum crotalophomides, 0. pendulum subsp. falcatum, and 0. vulgatum roots and rhizomes. Vessels were identified in all species. End walls of vessel elements, which bear perforations, are like lateral wall pitting of those elements in the secondary wall framework and differ only in absence of pit membranes or presence of pit membrane remnants. Some of the perforations contain pit membrane remnants that have large pores, small porosities, or are threadlike or weblike in structure. Dimorphic perforations were found in some vessel elements of rhizomes of 0. pendulum subsp. falcatum. Tracheids are very likely present in addition to vessels in all three species. The secondary wall framework of both tracheids and vessels is basically scalariform, although deviations in pattern are present. Vessel elements of Ophiglossum are entirely comparable to those of leptosporangiate ferns.
 
Article
Chloroplast inheritance and the direction of hybridization have been investigated in some invasive weeds from the genus Fallopia. PCR RFLP analysis of the tmK intron has been used to identify markers that distinguish between the chloroplast genomes of British samples of F. japonica var. japonica, F. japonica var. compacta and F. sachalinensis. Maternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA has been observed in controlled crosses and in hybrid seed from known maternal parents. PCR RFLP analysis of wild hybrids between F. japonica var. japonica and either F. japonica var. compacta or F. sachalinensis indicates that F. japonica var. japonica is the maternal parent of all of its hybrids, consistent with the apparent male-sterility of this taxon in Britain. Hybrids between F. japonica var. compacta and F. sachalinensis show the chloroplast haplotype of one or other of the parents, consistent with bi-directional hybridization.
 
Article
Flower morphology, nectary structure, nectar chemical composition, breeding system, floral visitors and pollination were analysed in Croton sarcopetalus, a diclinous-monoecious shrub from Argentina. Male flowers have five receptacular nectaries, with no special vascular bundles, that consist of a uniserial epidermis with stomata subtended by a secretory parenchyma. Female flowers bear two different types of nectaries: inner (IN) and outer (ON) floral nectaries. IN, five in all, are structurally similar to the nectaries of male flowers. The five ON are vascularized, stalked, and composed of secretory, column-shaped epidermal cells without stomata subtended by secretory and ground parenchyma. In addition, ON act as post-floral nectaries secreting nectar during fruit ripening. Extrafloral nectaries (EFN) are located on petioles, stipules and leaf margins. Petiolar EFN are patelliform, stalked and anatomically similar to the ON of the female flower. Nectar sampled from all nectary types is hexose dominant, except for the ON of the female flower at the post-floral stage that is sucrose dominant. The species is self-compatible, but geitonogamous fertilization is rarely possible because male and female flowers are not usually open at the same time in the same individual, i.e. there is temporal dioecism. Flowers are visited by 22 insect species, wasps being the most important group of pollinators. No significant differences were found in fruit and seed set between natural and hand pollinated flowers. This pattern indicates that fruit production in this species is not pollen/pollinator limited and is mediated by a wide array of pollinators.
 
Article
The comparative vegetative and reproductive morphology and anatomy of the Malagasy endemic family Sphaerosepalaceae is examined in light of two current competing hypotheses of relationship from recent molecular studies. Sphaerosepalaceae are similar to Thymelaeaceae on the basis of leaf architecture, calyx vasculature and in having endostomal micropyles. Comparisons with Tepuianthus and Thymelaeaceae subfamily Octolepidoideae are drawn on the basis of seed structure, indument type, perianth structure and pollen. Resin-filled, sclerenchymatous idioblasts, floral (positional) monosymmetry, a single series of stamen trunk bundles and a well-developed bixoid chalaza in the seed of Dialyceras parvifolium link Sphaerosepalaceae with its other putative sister group: a clade containing Bixaceae, Cochlospermaceae and Diegodendraceae. Synapomorphies of Sphaerosepalaceae include: fused, intrapetiolar stipules, embryo structure, pollen with endoapertures encompassing the ectoapertures and a tetramerous perianth. The extremely well-developed apical septum in the eusyncarpous gynoecium of Rhopalocarpus suggests that the gynoterminal style present in this genus has been secondarily derived from an ancestor with a fully syncarpous, basistylous gynoecium, as in Dialyceras. The morphological and evolutionary nature of basistylous and apically septate gynoecia is discussed. A rosette arrangement of ovules in each carpel coccus of D. coriaceum expands the bauplan concept of Sphaerosepalaceae and is probably unique among angiosperms as a whole. © 2004 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2004, 144, 1–40.
 
Article
The karyotypes of 16 populations belonging to eight species of Polygonatum from China were analysed. The chromosome numbers and karyotypes of P. omeiense, P. adnatum and P. hirtellum and the diploidy of P. tessellatum are reported for the first time. The basic chromosome numbers were x = 11, 13, 14 and 15. Based on Stebbins' karyotypic classification, the four karyotypes were recognized as 2B, 3B, 2C and 3C. Considering the arm ratio and individual chromosome size, it was concluded that the possible evolutionary trend of the karyotypes in Polygonatum was from 2B to 3C. The results show that: (1) satellite heterozygosity occurs in many species of this genus; (2) mixoploidy and B chromosomes occur in some species; and (c) karyotypes are different in different species and even in different populations of the same species. © 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 159, 245–254.
 
Article
Little-known sea captains and explorers between 1625 and 1700 obtained from Barbados specimens lor the botanical cabinets of Petiver and Plukenet, and plants to be grown at Hampton Court, Chelsea and Eltham, and by W. Sherard. Sir Hans Sloane also visited Barbados in 1687 and later acquired the earlier specimens now included in the Sloane Herbarium at the British Museum (Natural History). For many of the Barbados plants mentioned in the publications of Plukenet and Sloane, identifications are supplied from a study of the polynomials, common names, illustrations, and specimens available. Such records are often needed for the typification of Linnaean binomials and a iurther search is suggested.A drawing by G. D. Ehret in Hughes' Natural History of Barbados (1750) may represent the first illustration ol the grapefruit (Citrusparadisi Mad.).Francis Mackenzie Humberston, Lord Seaforth, was the governor of Barbados 1800–1806, and responsible for the introduction of living plants to the gardens of England. Many are illustrated in early numbers of Curtis' Botanical Magazine and Andrews' The Botanists Repository.
 
Article
WYSE JACKSON, P. S., 1987. The Botanic Garden of Trinity College Dublin 1687 to 1987. The first botanic gardens in Europe were Physic Gardens. In Britain the earliest established was at Oxford (1621) and in Ireland at Trinity College Dublin (1687). Apart from a short-lived garden at Harold's Cross the Physic Garden remained in the College until 1806 when land was leased at Ballsbridge. In 1804 James Townsend Mackay was appointed as gardener in the College, marking a change in the College to pure botany for the first time. The new Botanic Garden was created and cared for by Mackay for almost 60 years. He was succeeded as Curator in 1862 by John Bain, who was followed by Frederick Moore in 1877. In 1879 Moore succeeded his father David Moore as Curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin. Frederick W. Burbidge then came to the post of Curator from England in 1879. The Curatorship of the garden was abolished from 1905 to 1981, and the Professor of Botany became Director. In 1967, when the lease of the College's land at Ballsbridge was ending, a new Botanic Garden was established at Dartry and the valuable plant collection was transferred. Today-it has a high national and international reputation and is widely used for botany teaching and research.
 
Article
The cryptogam flora of 15 sandrock sites in the central Weald, U.K. was assessed and compared with previous records beginning in 1688. A total of 264 species was recorded (29 algae, 90 lichens, 165 bryophytes and eight ferns) of which 18 lichens, 21 bryophytes and one fern were not relocated. Air pollution, changes in the microclimate brought about by invasion of trees and shrubs and trampling appear to be the main cause for the decline in the flora, although over-collection of rarities was also a factor.
 
Article
On the basis of Osbeck's and Linnaeus's correspondence in 1752, which is briefly discussed, Osbeck's conveyance of his collections, and Linnaeus's subsequent incorporation of the new species into his Species Plantarum, are illustrated. A means of referring specimens in Linnaeus's herbaria to Osbeck's collections is provided. Finally an approximate date for the start of the printing of Species Plantarum is suggested.
 
Article
All the names published under the genera Gnaphalium, Xeranthemum and Helichrysum in the period 1753–1800 are listed and up-to-date determinations are given. Appendices deal with: the specimens preserved in the Linnaean herbarium; the plants illustrated in Burman's Rariorum Africanarum Plantarum decades and the nomenclature of a number of species that needed clarification.
 
Article
An account is given of Smith's early life in Norwich, his botanical education, his tour of western Europe, the foundation of the Linnean Society of London, his return to Norwich, Flora Graeca, the Smith Herbarium and its principal contributors. A synopsis of Savage's Catalogue of the Smith Herbarium is presented together with notes on the consultation of the microfiche of the Herbarium (including a summary of the contents of the microfiches). A list of Smith's publications is given together with some sources of further information.
 
Article
Riccia fruticulosa O.F.Müll., 1782 from Norway is a valid name, referring to Riccardia palmata (Hedw.) Carruth. In 1785 Dickson misidentified British plants of a blue Metzgeria as R. fruticulosa. The European blue species of Metzgeria is conspecific with M. violacea (Ach.) Dumort., which replaces M. fruticulosa auct. The true origin of the type of Jungermannia violacea Ach., 1805 is probably Tierra del Fuego (rather than Dusky Bay, New Zealand), where the species is widespread. Reports from Australasia, Asia and Africa are all erroneous. The blue colour of Jungermanniales is found only in living plants and is derived from the oil-bodies. In contrast, that of Metzgeria appears only after death; its biological function is unknown. © 2003 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2003, 142, 229−235.
 
Article
The botanical career of Nathaniel Wallich is followed; his collecting activities in Asia enumerated, and the final disposition of his huge herbarium, largely the property of the Honourable East India Company, is given. His relationship with numerous eminent contemporary botanists, and particularly with the de Candolles of Geneva, is described, together with the role that each played in assisting Wallich to work up his material. A full list of the works used in the composition of this paper is given in an Appendix rather than following the usual citation convention. Copies of the correspondence between Wallich and the de Candolles of Geneva are available on microfiche.
 
Article
MATTHEW, KM., 1993. Notes on an important botanical trip (1799–1800) of J. P. Rottler on the Coromandel Coast (India) with a translation of his original text, explanatory notes and a map. J. P. Rottler (1749–1836) made extensive collections on the Coromandel Coast in south India. The paper presented here in translation was one of Rottler's major publications, which, along with four indexes and a map, now newly prepared, should prove useful for a new study of Rottler's contributions.
 
Colombian palm species most likely to become divided into two or more separate species under new taxo- nomic approaches
Article
We compare an assessment of the conservation status of Colombian palms made in 1987 with the current situation in 2005. The number of species considered as threatened (critically endangered + endangered + vulnerable) in 2005 is the same (39) as the number in 1987 (endangered + vulnerable), although both the circumscription of categories and the total species counts for the country have changed between both assessments. Only 16 of the 39 species considered as threatened in 1987 are currently treated as such. The remaining 23 species are now treated as synonyms or have proved to be more widespread than previously known. On the other hand, 23 species have been newly added to the ‘threatened’ categories. Ten of them are new species, new records or new segregates. We predict that any new species discovered in the Andes of Colombia will prove to be threatened. We estimate that up to 12 species that may potentially become segregated from currently recognized species or species complexes might also be at risk. However, the proportion of threatened palms in the flora is not expected to change considerably as a result of improved understanding of the species’ taxonomy or distribution. © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 151, 151–163.
 
Article
Fifty-seven lichens were documented in Hooker’s Supplement to the English Botany, published in five volumes from 1829 to 1866, when British lichenology was, until 1851, largely in a state of stagnation. These included 26 new lichens described by William Borrer, one of which, Verrucaria Hookeri (now Dacampia hookeri), has proved to be a lichenicolous lichen. The merit of his work is discussed. One new species, namely Strigula Babingtonii, was described by the Reverend Miles Joseph Berkeley, but this is now regarded as a non-lichenized ascomycete fungus. An attempt was made to trace the whereabouts of all the type specimens, and only one could not be located. The current taxonomic status of the new species was investigated by the critical study of original references. No names require correction, but the authorities for Bacidia incompta (Borrer) Anzi and Verrucaria fuscella (Turner) Winch & Thornhill need emendation. The copyright dates of the plates are given, which should be accepted as those of publication. © 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 154, 381–392.
 
Article
The temporal and geographical variation in the history of botanical recording in the British Isles between 1836 and 1988 has been reconstructed from literature, herbarium, and field records, and related to the number and distribution of botanists. The number of botanists increased steadily to the 1930s and then five-fold after the Second World War, and is a consistent proportion of the local population. The amount of variation in the literature, assessed from the number of pages published, number of publications, and number of floras, has changed from a low rate between 1836 and 1880, to twice that between 1890 and 1940, and increased steadily to 1988. The number of herbarium specimens collected was also low up to the 1870s and then increased three-fold between 1870 and 1914, decreased between the World Wars, increased in the 1950s, and then decreased as conservation concerns came into play. The number of field records, now on computer, has risen dramatically since the 1930s, especially associated with major recording projects. The Botanical Society of the British Isles (BSBI) Monitoring Scheme data show a strong relationship between the number of hours spent recording at a site and the number of species recorded. The production of literature, collection of herbarium specimens, and field records also vary geographically, being concentrated in the areas in which botanists live. General patterns of recording activity are presented from a combination of the data that follow the general trends shown by the sources. There has been an increase in recording activity, with a low level between 1836 and 1870, followed by a large increase, peaking between 1890 and 1910, followed by decreases during the World Wars, with a recovery between, and a sustained increase since 1950. There is a clear trend from a high recording activity in south-east England to low levels in Scotland and, especially, Ireland, high levels being associated with the main population areas. Temporal and geographical variations in recording activity need to be taken into account when assessing floristic change. © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 152, 303–330.
 
Article
The taxonomic history of plants known under the name ‘coca’ is complex. During the period 1860–1910, botanists, horticulturalists and pharmacists became increasingly interested in the varieties of coca then known in cultivation. A debate over the correct identity of the cultivated cocas ensued which continues today. During the latter part of the 19th century and early part of the 20th century, several new taxa were described from cultivation which significantly -complicated the taxonomy. Notable contributors were D. Morris in Kew, W. Burck in Bogor, H. H. Rusby in New York and O. E. Schulz in Berlin. In order to evaluate the complex interaction among these workers, it is necessary to examine the problem chronologically. Two cultivated species of commercial coca are now recognized: Erythroxylutn coca Lam. and Erythroxylutn nooogranatense (Morris) Hieron., each of which has one distinct variety in cultivation: E. coca var. ipadu Plowman and E. novogranatense var. truxillense (Rusby) Plowman, respectively.
 
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