Bone

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Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has been implicated as being important in the growth of tumor cells responsive to the peptide. We utilized a rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cell line, UMR 106-01, which has PTHrP receptors and a PTHrP-responsive adenylate cyclase/cAMP messenger system, to produce a modified cell line that overexpresses PTHrP. The human PTHrP cDNA sequence was transfected by electroporation into UMR 106-01 cells and the stable cell lines UMR-36 and UMR-34 were established. The modified cell line, UMR-36, had increased levels of PTHrP mRNA compared with control cell lines and secreted PTHrP into the culture medium at levels of 0.01-0.1 pmol/10(7) cells in 12 h. The secreted peptide was biologically active as indicated by its ability to activate adenylate cyclase. The number of UMR-36 cells following 9 days in culture was reduced by up to 80% compared with control lines, which was associated with decreased (3)H-thymidine incorporation into genomic DNA. Addition of 1000-fold excess of the PTHrP antagonist, PTHrP(7-34), to UMR-36 cells resulted in the escape of growth inhibition and increased rate of growth. In vivo, tumors derived from UMR-36 cells were smaller in size compared with tumors derived from control cells. In conclusion, increased autocrine secretion of, and responsiveness to, PTHrP results in inhibited growth kinetics of an osteoblast-like bone tumor cell line in vitro and in vivo.
 
We examined the effect of nicotine on cellular proliferation, as measured by [3H]thymidine (TdR) incorporation and cell count, and on alkaline phosphatase activity in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma cells. The cells were cultured with varying concentrations of nicotine in serum-free medium for 2 to 72 hours. Nicotine produced a dose-dependent suppression of TdR incorporation, with maximum suppression seen at 10 mM (7% of control); the EC50 for suppression of TdR incorporation was 10 microM. 1 microM nicotine decreased cell number by 20% to 30%. The time course of the effect of 100 microM nicotine on DNA synthesis was measured by TdR incorporation. TdR uptake was measured at 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours. After the addition of nicotine, the following biphasic response in TdR incorporation was observed: a 15% decrease at 2 hours, recovery to near control value at 6 hours, a 27% decrease by 24 hours, and a maximum decrease of 88% by 48 hours. Over a dose range of 1 nM to 10 mM, nicotine produced a dose-dependent increase in alkaline phosphatase activity with maximum stimulation seen at 1 microM (189% of control). We conclude that nicotine suppresses cellular proliferation and stimulates alkaline phosphatase activity in UMR 106-01 osteoblast-like cells. These results may be of significance in the development of osteoporosis and alveolar bone loss associated with the use of tobacco.
 
Activin A belongs to the TGF-beta superfamily and plays an important role in bone metabolism. It was reported that a soluble form of extracellular domain of the activin receptor type IIA (ActRIIA) fused to the Fc domain of murine IgG, an activin antagonist, has an anabolic effect on bone in intact and ovariectomized mice. The present study was designed to examine the skeletal effect of human ActRIIA-IgG1-Fc (ACE-011) in non-human primates. Young adult female Cynomolgus monkeys were given a biweekly subcutaneous injection of either 10mg/kg ACE-011 or vehicle (VEH) for 3months. Treatment effects were evaluated by histomorphometric analysis of the distal femur, femoral midshaft, femoral neck and 12th thoracic vertebrae, by muCT analysis of femoral neck and by biomarkers of bone turnover. Compared to VEH, at the distal femur ACE-011-treated monkeys had significantly increased cancellous bone volume (+93%), bone formation rate per bone surface (+166%) and osteoblast surface (+196%) indicating an anabolic action. Monkeys treated with ACE-011 also had decreased osteoclast surface and number. No differences were observed in parameters of cortical bone at the midshaft of the femur. Similar to distal femur, ACE-011-treated monkeys had significantly greater cancellous bone volume, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface at the femoral neck relative to VEH. A significant increase in bone formation rate and osteoblast surface with a decrease in osteoclast surface was observed in thoracic vertebrae. muCT analysis of femoral neck indicated more plate-like structure in ACE-011-treated monkeys. Monkeys treated with ACE-011 had no effect on serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and CTX at the end of the study. These observations demonstrate that ACE-011 is a dual anabolic-antiresorptive compound, improving cancellous bone volume by promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption in non-human primates. Thus, soluble ActRIIA fusion protein may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of osteoporosis and other diseases involving accelerated bone loss.
 
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. At the age of 50 years, the remaining lifetime risk of at least one fracture of the hip, vertebral body, or distal forearm approaches 50% among the white female population and 20% among the white male population. The most frequent site of fracture is the thoracolumbar spine with prevalence rates of radiographic vertebral fracture estimated at around 25% among white women aged 50 years and over and 12% among white men of similar age. Vertebral fractures are the most common complication of osteoporosis and are associated with significant morbidity and frequently do not come to clinical attention, since, first, only one third of these fractures are associated with clinical signs, and, second, there is a high rate of failure in identifying vertebral fractures on X-rays [1] P.D. Delmas, L. Van de Langerijt and N.B. Watts, Underdiagnosis of vertebral fractures is a worldwide problem: the IMPACT Study, J. Bone Miner. Res. 20 (2005), pp. 557–563. Full Text via CrossRef | View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (46)[1]. Hip fractures are less frequent but are also associated with lasting disability, decreased quality of life, and a significant increase in morbidity. Fracture incidence depends on two factors: bone strength and trauma [2]. During the first three decades of life, fractures typically arise from high-energy trauma, such as road traffic accidents. Above the age of 64 years, around 90% of fractures result from a fall from standing height or less. Osteoporosis and related fractures are a major health problem in the elderly population. Moreover, osteoporosis is associated with an ever-increasing financial burden on countries. There is a body of evidence showing a lack of awareness about osteoporosis and its treatment options among patients and physicians. Faced with this situation, the European Union has drawn up a plan of action for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in the European Community. It is aimed at highlighting the key steps required to reduce the social and economic burden of osteoporosis [3]. Reduced bone strength is therefore an important, modifiable, determinant of fracture risk in the elderly. Bone mineral density (BMD) is a major determinant of bone strength. However, bone strength is determined by other aspects of bone structure including size, geometry, microarchitecture, and turnover. The two major causes of involutional bone loss are secondary hyperparathyroidism and reduced physical activity. In addition, estrogen deficiency predisposes to bone loss among women. Other important causes of bone loss include thinness, cigarette smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, drugs, and diseases that secondarily predispose to osteoporosis, and a family history of fracture. The use of these clinical risk factors, together with BMD measurement, as part of algorithms for the primary and secondary prevention of osteoporotic fracture is currently the subject of scrutiny by policy makers worldwide. A recent initiative proposes that effective targeting of pharmacological agents to prevent fracture might be made on the basis of algorithms using these risk predictors, to ascertain the 10-year absolute risk of fracture in an individual. The precise choice of intervention can then be determined by the cost-effectiveness of various agents in patients with the estimated absolute fracture probability. Over the past 15 years, large double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have been performed in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, with incident vertebral and nonvertebral fracture as a primary end point. These trials have confirmed that several agents are able to markedly reduce (by 30% to 50%) the risk of vertebral fracture. These include the bisphosphonates (etidronate, alendronate, risedronate), postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene), and teriparatide. These studies also demonstrated that some agents are able to reduce the risk of hip and vertebral fractures (alendronate, risedronate). Strontium ranelate is a new antiosteoporotic agent that has recently received approval in the European Union for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis to reduce the risk of vertebral and hip fractures [4]. It is the first such agent that appears to simultaneously increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Results from a phase 3 clinical trial, carried out in postmenopausal women with prevalent vertebral fractures, showed that strontium ranelate significantly reduces the risk of new vertebral and new clinical vertebral fractures after 1 year and over 3 years [5]. Results from a second large-scale phase 3 clinical trial, have shown that, over 3 years, strontium ranelate reduces the risk of nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women, as well as the risk of hip fracture in osteoporotic patients aged 74 years or more [6]. In addition, this study also showed that strontium ranelate decreases the risk of vertebral fracture in patients without prevalent vertebral fracture over 3 years. In both these trials, BMD was significantly increased at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. Strontium ranelate is well tolerated, particularly at the upper gastrointestinal level. Strontium ranelate will be useful in the first-line treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis as well as in those intolerant to oral bisphosphonate therapy, those with a previous history of upper gastrointestinal disease, and the elderly.
 
To elucidate the mechanism of action of (3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene)-1,1-bisphosphonate (AHPrBP, formerly APD) on bone metabolism, we have studied the influence of low doses of AHPrBP on bone resorption and formation in the mouse. Thirty-five-day-old mice were given daily injections of 0.16, 1.6, or 16 mumol/kg BW per day of AHPrBP for 10 days. At sacrifice biochemical parameters were measured in serum and bone ash, and histomorphometric parameters of bone formation and resorption were determined on undecalcified sections of caudal vertebrae after double 3H-proline and double tetracycline labelings. Serum calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels remained normal at all dosage levels. Compared to controls, AHPrBP at doses of 1.6 and 16 mumol/kg per day increased the number of osteoclasts and the number of nuclei per osteoclast but markedly decreased the number of acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts. Thus, AHPrBP appears to inhibit osteoclastic activity in vivo in part through reduction of acid phosphatase activity. At doses of 1.6 and 16 mumol/kg per day AHPrBP reduced serum alkaline phosphatase and the osteoblastic surface and decreased the endosteal osteoid surface and thickness. Both the matrix apposition rate and the mineral apposition rate were progressively reduced at the endosteal level, although they were not significantly changed at the periosteal level. Greater inhibition of bone resorption than bone formation resulted in increased endosteal bone density and bone mineral content. AHPrBP at a dose of 0.16 mumol/kg per day did not alter either the osteoclastic bone resorption or the mineral and matrix apposition rates.
 
The effects of ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) on ectopic bone formation were studied qualitatively and quantitatively in an experimental system for ectopic bone formation induced by murine osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance. At a low dose of EHDP (3 mg/kg per day i.p.), histologic sequelae of ectopic bone formation were normal, and the size of the induced bone mass was unaffected. At a high dose of EHDP (30 mg/kg per day i.p.), an unmineralized bone matrix with hematopoietic bone marrow was formed without evidence of retardation. This osteoid tissue showed no radiologic and histologic evidence of mineralization during the period of EHDP administration. When EHDP was withdrawn, its inhibitory effect on mineralization was reversed. The induced bone mass was almost the same size as that in controls. These results suggest that EHDP might not prevent ectopic bone matrix formation, but its mineralization and withdrawal of EHDP might lead to the formation of a normal bone similar in size to that formed without EHDP treatment.
 
Vitamin D is absolutely essential for the maintenance of a healthy skeleton. Without vitamin D, children develop rickets and adults exacerbate their osteoporosis and develop osteomalacia. Casual exposure to sunlight is the major source of vitamin D for most people. During exposure to sunlight, ultraviolet B photons photolyze cutaneous stores of 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3. Previtamin D3 undergoes a thermal isomerization to form vitamin D3. Increased skin pigmentation, changes in latitude, time of day, sunscreen use, and aging can have a marked influence on the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Once vitamin D3 is formed in the skin or ingested in the diet, it must be hydroxylated in the liver and kidney to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. It is now recognized that a wide variety of tissues and cells, both related to calcium metabolism and unrelated to calcium metabolism, are target sites for 1,25(OH)2D3. 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates intestinal calcium absorption and mobilizes stem cells to mobilize calcium stores from bone. Noncalcemic tissues that possess receptors for 1,25(OH)2D3 respond to the hormone in a variety of ways. Of great interest is that 1,25(OH)2D3 is a potent antiproliferative and prodifferentiation mediator. As a result, 1,25(OH)2D3 and its analogs have wide clinical application in such diverse clinical disorders as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis; diabetes mellitus type I; hypertension; cardiac arrhythmias; seizure disorders; cancers of the breast, prostate, and colon; some leukemias and myeloproliferative disorders; chemotherapy-induced hair loss; and skin rejuvenation as well as skin diseases like psoriasis and ichthyosis.
 
The nuclear uptake of (3H)-1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 in freshly isolated human monocytes and the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were investigated in 13 patients with autosomal dominant osteopetrosis and in sex- and age-matched controls. Seven patients had type I osteopetrosis characterized by diffuse, symmetrical osteosclerosis with pronounced sclerosis of the skull and increased thickness of the cranial vault. The other six patients had type II with "Rugger Jersey Spine" and "endobones" as characteristic findings. In type I osteopetrosis the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D was significantly reduced (p less than 0.05), whereas serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D receptor binding were normal. In type II osteopetrosis the serum vitamin D metabolites were normal, as was the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to the nuclear receptor. The dissociation constant (Kd), however, was significantly increased (p less than 0.01) indicating a modest resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. It is concluded that a general end-organ resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D at the receptor level does not exist in type I osteopetrosis, but may contribute to some of the radiological and biochemical findings in type II.
 
Osteopetrosis describes a heterogeneous group of inherited, metabolic bone disorders characterized by reduced bone resorption which coexists with elevated circulating levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D]. To determine whether or not skeletal sclerosis and high concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D are interdependent, this study used two distinct, nonallelic osteopetrotic mutations in the rat, osteopetrosis (op) and toothless (tl). The op rat is a mutation in which skeletal sclerosis can be cured (mutant) or induced (normal) following the transfer of normal or mutant osteoclast progenitors, respectively. Although these procedures are ineffective in rats of tl stock, infusions of pharmacological doses of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) can stimulate bone resorption and eliminate most of the excess skeletal matrix in tl mutants. This study examined the effects of cure/induction in neonatal mutant/normal rats of op stock and CSF-1 infusions in mutant rats of tl stock on skeletal (bone resorption) and serum [1,25(OH)2D] parameters as a function of time after treatment. Osteopetrotic mutants transplanted (cured) with normal spleen cells demonstrated cellular changes in osteoclast phenotype within 2-3 days followed by histologic and radiographic evidence for increased bone resorption that culminated in a normal appearance of the skeleton by 4 weeks. The markedly elevated serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D observed in untreated mutants fell significantly in transplanted mutants by the end of the first week and were similar to those in normal littermates at 3 and 4 weeks. Normal littermates transplanted (induced) with mutant spleen cells showed a progressive increase in skeletal sclerosis paralleled by significant increases in circulating levels of 1,25(OH)2D.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
To clarify the effects of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) on bone growth, strength, and turnover in growing rats with liver cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) injection, groups of 4-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 10, each) were injected intraperitoneally with CCl(4) twice weekly for 7 weeks. One group was treated with the vehicle alone (Group 1). Three CCl(4)-injected groups were orally administered 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) at doses of 0, 0.05, and 0.1 micro g/kg, respectively (Groups 2, 3, and 4). At the end, serum levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), IGF-I, and osteocalcin were reduced in Group 2 compared to Group 1, and the corresponding values in Group 4 were larger than those in Group 2. Urinary deoxypyridinoline levels increased in Group 2 compared to Group 1, and did not significantly differ in Groups 2-4. The values for bone sizes, mineral content (BMC) in the lumbar vertebra and femur, and ultimate bending load in the femur were reduced in Group 2 compared to Group 1, and lumbar BMC in Group 3 and bone sizes in Group 4 were larger than those in Group 2. The values for lumbar trabecular bone volume in Group 2 were reduced compared to Group 1, and the corresponding values in Group 4 were larger than those in Group 2. Bone formation rates, reduced in Group 2 compared to Group 1, did not differ in Groups 2-4. Parameters for trabecular osteoclasts did not differ among all groups. In the proximal tibia, the value of activation frequency (Ac.f) in Group 2 significantly decreased compared to Group 1. Ac.f values in Groups 3 and 4 were larger than that in Group 2. These data demonstrated that retardation of bone growth in CCl(4)-injected rats was associated with reduced serum 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and IGF-I levels. The trabecular bone in the rats exhibited low turnover osteopenia. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) administration partially prevented the growth disturbance, but did not substantially affect bone turnover. Factors other than 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and IGF-I appeared to be critical in the low turnover osteopenia evident in liver cirrhosis.
 
To investigate the stimulatory effect of vitamin D on biochemical markers of bone remodeling, 15 normal men (aged 26-45 years, mean 33.2) were treated orally with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 2 micrograms daily for 7 days, and followed for a total of 16 weeks. Serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 rose 43% during the first week (p less than 0.01), with no significant alteration in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Serum level of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (1-84) (iPTH) decreased markedly (p less than 0.02), and the maximal renal reabsorption capacity of phosphate (TmP/GFR) increased (p less than 0.05), both indicating the impact of the raised vitamin D level on target tissues. Serum phosphate and serum calcium increased during the treatment week (p less than 0.05), as did the fasting renal excretion of phosphate and calcium (p less than 0.01). However, a gradual fall in the excretion of hydroxyproline was seen in the observation period. The serum activity of acid phosphatase increased in the first weeks after vitamin D treatment, reaching significance at the end of week 2 (p less than 0.05). Acid phosphatase activity was still increased at the end of the observation period (p less than 0.02). These observations suggest a synchronization and recruitment of new bone resorptive cells. The immediate response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D administration on the biochemical markers of formative bone cells was a marked increase in the serum level of osteocalcin (BGP), (p less than 0.002) with a gradually fall during the next weeks. A secondary increase, however, was observed in the last two months of the follow-up period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Although vitamin D is essential for mineralization of bone, it is as yet unclear whether vitamin D has a direct stimulatory effect on the bone mineralization process. In the present study, the effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] on in vitro mineralization mediated by osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells was examined. MC3T3-E1 cells continued to grow after they reached confluency, and DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activity increased linearly until about 16 days of culture, whereas 45Ca accumulation into cell and matrix layer remained low. After this period, DNA content plateaued, and 45Ca accumulation increased sharply. Histological examination by von Kossa staining revealed that calcium was accumulated into extracellular matrix. In addition, needle-shaped mineral crystals similar to hydroxyapatite crystals could be demonstrated in between collagen fibrils by electron microscopy. Thus, MC3T3-E1 cells differentiate in vitro into cells with osteoblastic phenotype and exhibit mineralization. When MC3T3-E1 cells were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 at this stage of culture, there was a dose-dependent stimulation of 45Ca accumulation by 1,25(OH)2D3, and a significant stimulation of 45Ca accumulation was observed with 3 x 10(-10) M 1,25(OH)2D3. Although 1,25(OH)2D3 enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis at the early phase of culture, it did not affect any of these parameters at the late phase when 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulated mineralization. Neither 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 nor human PTH(1-34) affected mineralization in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)2D3. These results demonstrate that 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates matrix mineralization induced by osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, and are consistent with the possibility that 1,25(OH)2D3 has a direct stimulatory effect on bone mineralization process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is essential for normal growth and mineralization, but its direct effects on various aspects of bone formation remain controversial. 1,25(OH)2D3 was studied for its effects on DNA, collagen and noncollagen protein synthesis, and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in the periosteum and periosteum-free bone from 21-day fetal rat calvariae. 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.01 to 10 nM) inhibited the incorporation of 3H-proline into collagenase-digestible protein (CDP) and the percent of collagen synthesized, and, at 10 nM, APA in the periosteum-free bone. 1,25(OH)2D3 inhibited type I collagen without affecting other collagen types. In contrast, 1,25(OH)2D3 at 10 nM caused a small but significant stimulation of the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into acid-insoluble residues (DNA) and on DNA content; both effects were exclusively observed in the periosteum. Hydroxyurea did not modify the inhibitory effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on 3H-proline incorporation into CDP. These studies indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulates periosteal DNA synthesis but inhibits type I collagen synthesis and APA in the periosteum-free bone.
 
A 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25-(OH)2D] deficiency and immobilization-related increased serum calcium concentration have been observed in hemiplegic stroke patients. To elucidate the influence of increased serum calcium concentration on bone metabolism, we measured serum biochemical indices and bone mineral density (BMD) in the second metacarpals of 170 elderly subjects with hemiplegic stroke and 72 age-matched healthy controls. Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D], 1,25-(OH)2D, ionized calcium, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), intact bone Gla protein (BGP), and pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) were measured. An increased serum calcium concentration (mean 2.543 mEq/L) was observed in this population and correlated negatively with the Barthel index (mean 66), indicating immobilization-induced bone resorption with consequent increased serum calcium. Decreased serum concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D (mean 25.0 pg/mL) and serum 25-OHD concentration (mean 11.6 ng/mL) were noted. Serum PTH was not increased (mean 34.8 pmol/L). Serum levels of BGP were decreased significantly, whereas serum ICTP concentrations were elevated (mean 15.2 ng/mL). A strong negative correlation was seen between the serum calcium concentration and 1,25-(OH)2D (p < 0.0001). BMD of the second metacarpal in patients was decreased significantly compared with control subjects and highly correlated with 25-(OH)D and 1,25-(OH)2D concentrations. Immobilization-related increased serum calcium levels may inhibit PTH secretion, and thus 1,25-(OH)2D production. In addition, 25-(OH)D insufficiency also may contribute to decreased concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D.
 
Age-related osteopenia is known to occur differently throughout the skeleton. In the present study, we examine the influence of donor age (<50 and >50 years), and bone structure (cortical vs. trabecular) on osteocalcin and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in primary cultures of human osteoblastic cells (hOB) cells. Cells were isolated from trabecular bone samples obtained from donors undergoing either knee (mainly trabecular) (n = 22; 4 <50 years, 18 >50 years) or hip (mainly cortical) (n = 16; 6 <50 years, 10 >50 years) arthroplasty. Pooling the results from knee and hip hOB cell cultures, we found that secreted osteocalcin was higher in hOB cells from the younger donors, compared with that in older donors, and peaked after stimulation with 10(-6)--10(-8) mol/L 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)]. In cells from the latter donors, this secretion was maximal after 10(-6) mol/L 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) treatment. On the other hand, using reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction, baseline osteocalcin mRNA was found to be lower in hOB cells from the older donors than in those from younger donors. After treatment with 10(-6)--10(-8) mol/L 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), osteocalcin mRNA increased over baseline in all groups of hOB cells studied. In age-matched cultures, both basal and 10(-6)--10(-8) mol/L 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-stimulated osteocalcin mRNA showed similar values in hOB cells from both skeletal sites in younger donors. However, in the older donors, baseline as well as 10(-8) mol/L 1,25(OH)(2)D(3)-stimulated osteocalcin mRNA were higher in knee hOB cells than in hip hOB cells. Furthermore, baseline VDR mRNA expression was also higher in the former cells than in the latter cells in the older group. Considering the influence of donor age at each skeletal site of origin, we found lower baseline osteocalcin and VDR mRNA levels in hip hOB cells in the older group than in the younger group. Our findings indicate that the response of osteocalcin secretion and its mRNA to physiological doses of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) decreases with aging and is associated with decreased VDR mRNA expression in hOB cells from mainly cortical bone.
 
To determine if transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) can induce the differentiation of resting zone (RC) chondrocytes, confluent, fourth passage cultures of these cells were pretreated for 24, 36, 48, 72, and 120 h with TGF-beta 1. At the end of pretreatment, the media were replaced with new media containing 10(-10)-10(-8) mol/L 1,25-(OH)2D3 and the cells incubated for an additional 24 h. This second treatment was chosen because prior studies had shown that only the more mature growth zone (GC) chondrocytes respond to this vitamin D3 metabolite. The effect of TGF-beta pretreatment on cell maturation was assessed by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALPase)-specific activity. In addition, changes in matrix protein synthesis were assessed by measuring collagen synthesis, as well as 35SO4 incorporation into proteoglycans. When RC cells were pretreated for 120 h with TGF-beta 1, treatment with 1,25-(OH)2D3 caused a dose-dependent increase in ALPase-specific activity and collagen synthesis, with no effect on proteoglycan production. RC cells pretreated with 1,25(OH)2D3 responded like RC cells that had not received any pretreatment. RC cells normally respond to 24,25-(OH)2D3; however, RC cultures pretreated for 120 h with TGF-beta 1 lost their responsiveness to 24,25-(OH)2D3. These results indicate that TGF-beta 1 directly regulates the maturation of RC chondrocytes into GC chondrocytes and support the hypothesis that this growth factor may play a significant role in regulating chondrocyte maturation during endochondral ossification.
 
X-linked hypophosphatemia is a metabolic bone disease occurring in both humans and mice. In mice, two different mutations (Hyp and Gy), occurring at separate but closely linked loci, have been proposed as models for this disease. Varying reports of the Vitamin D status of these two mutants has led us to reexamine the influence of diet on circulating calcitrophic hormones and mineral metabolism in both mutants. Hyp and Gy mice were raised on the B6C3H background, and both normal females and heterozygous mutant females were studied at 10 weeks of age. Animals were fed one of three diets at random: high (1.5% Ca and 1.0% P); medium (0.6% Ca and 0.6% P); or low (0.0% Ca and 0.6% P). After 3 days, serum and urine samples were collected. In comparison to mutant mice fed the high diet, both Hyp and Gy mice fed the low diet had decreased serum calcium levels, and further elevations in both serum alkaline phosphatase and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels were elevated by both the medium and low diets in all groups of mice over values obtained with the high diet. Mutant mice were significantly higher in serum PTH on all diets compared to normal mice fed the same diet. Mutant mice were not elevated in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D over normal mice when fed the high diet. However, both Hyp and Gy mice fed the medium and low diets were elevated in serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D over normal mice. Serum PTH levels were correlated to serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels with Hyp and Gy mice lying on the same line (r = 0.86; p < 0.0001). In summary, when Hyp and Gy mice are studied on the same genetic background and fed the same diet, similar responses are seen in PTH levels and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. Both mutants should be useful in elucidating the pathophysiology of this poorly understood human disease.
 
To further explore the hypothesis of an osteoblast inappropriate response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 in hypophosphatemic vitamin D-resistant rickets (HYP), osteoblasts were isolated from Hyp mice, the animal model for human HYP, and their response to a physiologic dose of 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10(-10) M) was investigated with respect to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and cell proliferation, and compared to that of normal osteoblasts. Cells in secondary culture were incubated for 72 h while in log phase, with or without 1,25-(OH)2D3, at various medium phosphate (P) concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.5 mM. Stimulation of ALP activity and inhibition of cell proliferation was induced by 10(-10)M 1,25-(OH)2D3 in normal cells exposed to medium P concentration corresponding to serum levels observed in normal mice (2.1-2.7 mM P). By contrast, Hyp cells failed to respond to 1,25-(OH)2D3 in that range of P concentrations. Stimulation of ALP activity and inhibition of proliferation of mutant cells were evident at higher medium P concentrations (over 3 mM). 1,25-(OH)2D3 at the supraphysiologic level of 10(-9)M had no consistent effect on ALP activity in normal and Hyp mouse osteoblasts, but inhibited cell proliferation in cultures of both genotypes at all P concentrations tested. These results indicate that extracellular P modulates the action of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on osteoblasts, and that this modulation was altered in osteoblasts from Hyp mice. The failure of Hyp cells to respond to a physiologic dose of 1,25-(OH)2D3 upon normal P concentration may reflect the abnormal response of bone to 1,25-(OH)2D3 observed in Hyp mice and HYP patients.
 
Structural modifications of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) appear to alter its biological activity. We have investigated whether the position of the C = C bond in the side chain of fluorinated analogues can alter the spectrum of activity of 1,25(OH)2D3. For this purpose we compared the actions of 26,27-hexafluoro-1,25-dihydroxy-delta 22-vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)(2)26,27F6 delta 2D3), 26,27-hexafluoro-1,25-dihydroxy-delta 23-vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)(2)26,27F6 delta 23D3) and 1,25(OH)2D3 on human osteoblast-like cells. Both analogues and 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulated the production of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase activity in a dose-dependent manner. Both analogues were markedly more potent than 1,25(OH)2D3 in these respects. At high concentrations the vitamin D3 analogues and metabolite inhibited DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. A correlation between the inhibition of cell growth and expression of the two osteoblast markers was observed, and apart from a difference in potency, did not differ from 1,25(OH)2D3. These studies indicate that hexafluorination and the C = C bond increase the potency of 1,25(OH)2D3 on human bone-derived osteoblast-like cells in vitro, but without changing their relative activity on these various aspects of osteoblastic function tested.
 
To evaluate the sequential ultrastructural pathogenesis of the increase in osseous tissue and hyperosteoidosis previously demonstrated in rats administered supraphysiologic doses of 1,25(OH)2D3 and fed high levels of dietary calcium, young adult female rats were placed on a 2.5% calcium and 0.3% phosphorus diet, administered ethanol or 135 ng (5 units) 1,25(OH)2D3 IP daily, and killed after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days. Metaphyseal trabeculae from 1,25(OH)2D3 and placebo-treated rats were examined. Osteoblast hypertrophy characterized by increased cytoplasmic area, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and prominent Golgi apparatus was evident in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated rats at Day 4. These osteoblasts were interpreted to be active in matrix synthesis. Widened osteoid seams were present at Day 6. Osteoblast hypertrophy and widened osteoid seams persisted through Day 10 in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated rats. The unmineralized bone matrix in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated rats contained more numerous cytoplasmic processes from adjacent osteoblasts than did control animals and loosely arranged collagen fibrils, which failed to aggregate in regions adjacent to the osteoid-mineralized bone interface as in placebo-treated rats. Osteoid seams in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated rats contained irregular electron-dense foci, which were often concentrated around embedded cytoplasmic processes. Osteocytic hypertrophy characterized by increased cytoplasmic area, developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, and increased numbers of mitochondria was evident at Day 2 and was sustained through Day 10 in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated rats. Variable-sized aggregates of electron-dense deposits similar to those concentrated around osteoblast cytoplasmic processes were observed in the pericellular space and on and immediately adjacent to the plasma membranes of osteocytes and embedding osteoblasts in 1,25(OH)2D3-treated rats as early as Day 4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) inhibits the cell proliferation of human osteoblast-like cell cultures, but stimulates the synthesis of two of the phenotypic markers of the osteoblast, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. It is not known whether all cells which synthesize alkaline phosphatase also synthesize osteocalcin in response to 1,25(OH)2D3. In this study we addressed this question by examining the response of human osteoblast-like cell cultures to 1,25(OH)2D3, using concurrent histochemical and immunochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, respectively. The cells were grown in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)2D3 (10(-9) M) for 48 h. Co-localisation of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase in osteoblast-like cell cultures showed that not all cells which synthesize osteocalcin (about 9%) in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesize alkaline phosphatase (about 24%) and vice versa. There was also a proportion of osteoblast-like cells which produce both osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase simultaneously (about 12%). These findings suggest that during differentiation of bone-derived cells in cultures, in response to 1,25(OH)2D3, heterogeneous phenotypes with respect to expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin appear.
 
Age-related bone loss may be a consequence of a lack of osteoblastic formation and/or function. In vitro, the osteoblastic response to 1,25(OH)2D3, an important regulator of osteoblastic function, appears to depend on the stage of osteoblastic maturation. In this study, we examined the response to 1,25(OH)2D3 of C-terminal type I procollagen (PICP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OC) secretion in primary cultures of osteoblastic cells from human trabecular bone (hOB). Forty-four bone samples were obtained from subjects undergoing knee arthroplastia, 20 aged 50-70 (64 +/- 5), and 24 >70 (73 +/- 2) years. Another 33 bone samples were obtained from subjects undergoing hip arthroplastia, 21 were aged 50-70 (64 +/- 4) and 12 >70 (75 +/- 5) years. Pooling knee and hip hOB cell cultures, we found that PICP secretion decreased after 1,25(OH)2D3 in hOB cells from the older group (>70 years). Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 increased ALP secretion in these cells only in the younger group (50-70 years), whereas it increased OC secretion in hOB cells in both age groups. By pooling hOB cell cultures from both age groups we found that knee hOB cells increased OC secretion, and decreased PICP secretion, after 1,25(OH)2D3. This metabolite also increased OC secretion in hip hOB cells. Considering the influence of donor age at the same skeletal site, 1,25(OH)2D3 was found to stimulate ALP secretion only in knee hOB cells in the younger group. In contrast, this metabolite decreased ALP secretion in hip hOB cells in the older group. PICP secretion decreased after 1,25(OH)2D3 only in hOB cells in the older group, at both skeletal sites. In age-matched cultures, OC secretion was lower in hip hOB cells compared with those from the knee in the older group, but was similar in these cell cultures from both skeletal sites in the younger group. OC secretion after 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulation did not show age differences in knee hOB cells, but was lower in hip hOB in the older group. In summary, our results demonstrate that the response of various osteoblastic markers to 1,25(OH)2D3 in primary cultures of hOB cells depends on the donor age and skeletal site of origin.
 
IGF-1 has been shown to be locally produced in several tissues and to play a role in the regulation of cellular activity. We have investigated its production in short-term cultures of human bone derived cells, and the regulation of this production by growth hormone (GH) and by 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Bone cells obtained from surgical bone biopsies produced and secreted IGF-1 in their culture media. In four days cultures of bone-derived cells recombinant human r-IGF-1 at 20 ng/mL increased the alkaline phosphatase activity and the osteocalcin (bone gla protein) secretion, two specific markers of bone formation. This stimulation occurred only in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3. Human bone cells exposed to GH increased their alkaline phosphatase activity, but no osteocalcin was detectable. However, in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1 nM), GH in concentrations of 8 to 40 nM increased by 30-50% the alkaline phosphatase activity and by 50 to 100% the osteocalcin secretion of human bone cells. At the same concentrations, GH also increased by 140% endogenous IGF-1 levels in cell culture supernatants, 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 nM) also increased time- and dose-dependently, IGF-1 levels in human bone cell supernatants, and stimulated dose-dependently alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin secretion. It is therefore suggested that by regulating local production of growth factors such as IGF-1, GH and 1,25(OH)2D3 may modulate the metabolism of human bone cells.
 
Osteoporosis is a major health problem characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes patients to an increased risk of fracture, more and more investigations are focusing on the treatment of osteoporotic fracture healing. However, there are few studies elucidating the efficacy of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), on osteoporotic fracture healing. In the present study we have established an osteoporotic fracture rat model to evaluate the effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on fracture healing. Female SD rats of six-month-old (n=40) allocated randomly into two groups were given ovariectomy. Bilateral midshaft femoral osteotomy was performed 12 weeks post-ovariectomy. Then treatment was begun at the second day after osteotomy and continued until sacrifice at 6 and 16 weeks post-fracture with middle chain triglyceride (MCT) vehicle and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) at 0.1 microg/kg/day by oral gavage. Fracture callus was evaluated by soft X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), biomechanical testing and histology. Soft X-ray radiography, at 6 weeks post-fracture, showed a less distinct fracture line in the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) group compared with the MCT-vehicle group, however, the fracture line was invisible in both groups at 16 weeks post-fracture. Micro-CT based histomorphometric data, at 6 weeks post-fracture, showed that the total volume of callus (TV) was approximately 23% higher in the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) group than that in the MCT-vehicle group (P<0.001), and the new bone volume (BV), BV/TV, the trabecular number (Tb.N), and density of TV also showed the same trend. At 16 weeks post-fracture, the increment still existed as shown by Tb.Th and density of TV (P<0.001, vs control). Biomechanical testing data, at 6 weeks post-fracture, showed that the ultimate load at failure and energy absorption of the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) group were nearly one fold higher than that of the MCT-vehicle group (P<0.001). At 16 weeks post-fracture, the ultimate load and energy absorption were also higher with the treatment of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) (P<0.01 vs control). Histology showed that the fracture callus in the 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) group was remodeled better compared to the control group. In conclusion, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could promote fracture healing by improving the histomorphometric parameters, mechanical strength and tendency to increase transformation of woven bone into lamellar bone in an ovariectomized rat model.
 
Specific receptors for 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3 have been described in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We have tried to find out whether these receptors could show any difference in sex or age distribution. Twenty two healthy men aged 21-66 yr (mean +/- SD 41.0 +/- 13.6) and nineteen healthy women aged 22-60 yr (38.9 +/- 13.9) have been studied. The mean dissociation constant (Kd) was similar in both sexes (1.35 +/- 0.70 x 10(-10) M in males, 1.13 +/- 0.66 x 10(-10) M in females), but the concentration of binding sites (Nmax) was significantly lower in females (2.32 +/- 0.92 fmol/10(7) PBMC vs 4.43 +/- 1.38 fmol/10(7) PBMC in males; p = 0.0001). Neither Kd nor Nmax were significantly correlated with age. No difference was found between pre and postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to elucidate if this sex difference in PBMC receptors for 1.25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3 is of any pathophysiological relevance.
 
MC-903 is a novel vitamin D analogue which has been shown to promote epidermal cell differentiation but is 100 times less active than 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) in causing hypercalcemia. In order to determine the activity of this compound on bone cells, we have compared the effects of MC-903 and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) on parameters of cell proliferation and differentiation in cultured normal human osteoblastic cells derived by migration from trabecular bone fragments. Dose response curves showed that MC-903 was 10 to 100 times less effective than 1,25(OH)2D in stimulating the synthesis of the osteoblast specific protein osteocalcin by human bone cells depending on the basal osteocalcin production. In cells showing high basal osteocalcin synthesis, 1,25(OH)2D (10(-8) M) was 2- to 3-fold more potent than MC-903 (10(-8) M) in inducing osteocalcin from 48 to 96 h of treatment. The greater activity of 1,25(OH)2D over MC-903 was observed in human bone cell cultures with elevated basal osteocalcin levels, indicating that the response to 1,25(OH)2D but not to MC-903 was amplified in cells with the higher osteoblastic characteristics. The effects of MC-903 and 1,25(OH)2D on alkaline phosphatase activity were not markedly different. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta) (0.5 ng/mL, 48 h) was found to completely suppress the osteocalcin synthesis induced by 1,25(OH)2D (10(-8) and 10(-9) M), whereas the MC-903-induced osteocalcin synthesis was not affected, suggesting a negative interaction between TGF beta and 1,25(OH)2D but not MC-903 on osteocalcin synthesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 (D3), is a potent modulator of osteoblastic function. In this study, we examined, the expression of a negative-type basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, HES-1, in osteoblastic cells and the regulation of its expression by D3. We found that HES-1 is expressed as a 1.7 kb mRNA in rat osteoblastic osteosarcoma ROS17/2.8 cells. Treatment with D3 suppressed HES-1 mRNA levels by about 50%. This suppression was observed within 24 h and lasted for at least 48 h. The suppressive effect was dose-dependent starting at 10(-9) mol/L and saturated at 10(-8) mol/L. The vitamin D3 suppression of HES-1 mRNA level was blocked by actinomycin D as well as cycloheximide, suggesting the involvement of transcriptional control, which requires new protein synthesis. Proteins in the crude nuclear extracts prepared from ROS17/2.8 cells bound to the N-box sequence (CACNAG). To examine the function of HES-1 in osteoblasts, HES-1 was overexpressed in ROS17/2.8 cells. Overexpression of HES-1 suppressed the vitamin D-dependent upregulation of osteopontin gene expression in these cells. Vitamin D suppression of HES-1 gene expression was also observed in normal rat calvaria-derived osteoblast-enriched cells. These results indicate that HES-1 is expressed in osteoblastic cells and is involved in vitamin D3 regulation of osteoblastic gene expression.
 
Expression of the PTH gene is known to be under strict tissue-specific control and is also regulated by extracellular calcium and 1,25(OH)(2)D. However, the precise mode of transcriptional regulation remains to be elucidated, because of the unavailability of appropriate cell lines derived from the parathyroid gland. We tried to identify the transcription factor(s) regulating the human PTH gene transcription using the PT-r cell line. We found that PT-r cells endogenously express PTH and several parathyroid-related genes. Using the cells, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of human PTH gene. We found that GCMB binds to the PTH gene 5'-promoter (-390/-383 bp) and positively regulates its transcription. On the other hand, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), and, in the presence of the calcium sensing receptor, high extracellular calcium, exerted inhibitory effects on PTH gene expression. These results indicate that GCMB and vitamin D receptor are involved in the positive and negative regulation of PTH gene expression, respectively. Our data also suggest that PT-r cells retain some of the characteristics of parathyroid cells.
 
Rat epiphyseal plat chondrocytes were grown on glass slides, as nonadhering monolayer cultures for up to 6 weeks. Chondrocyte growth, differentiation and maturation, matrix formation and mineralization, and the temporospatial distribution of the vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding proteins, calbindin-D9K and -D28K, and the 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor (VDR), were all monitored. Chondrocytes became confluent in 2.5 weeks, differentiated to acquire a chondrocyte (polygonal) morphology, produced extracellular matrix, and finally formed a true monolayer mineralizing cartilaginous tissue, with all the stages of chondrocyte development within a single culture. beta-Glycerophosphate promoted initial matrix mineralization in 4 weeks and accelerated cell differentiation. High nominal calcium and ascorbic acid were needed for abundant matrix formation. VDR occurred at all differentiation stages, in the nuclei and nucleoli and in the cytoplasm. Calbindin-D28K and -D9K were not coexpressed. Calbindin-D28K was found in prechondroblasts, chondroblasts, and in newly differentiated chondrocytes. It was cytoplasmic in prechondroblasts and subsequently also in the perinuclear region and in nuclei, suggesting migration to the nuclear chromatin. Calbindin-D28K was nuclear only in newly differentiated chondrocytes in vitro and was not found in mature chondrocytes. In contrast, calbindin-D9K was present in the cytoplasm of mature and hypertrophic chondrocytes only. It was first in the cell body and eventually migrated within and to the far end of long cell processes with a decreasing cytoplasmic concentration showed by decreased immunostaining intensity, and ultimately hypertrophy of chondrocytes in culture. These in vitro patterns of calbindins-D and VDR accurately reflect their in vivo distributions. The genomic action of vitamin D, in vitro, resulted in the synthesis of nuclear VDR and calbindins-D.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Bone formation and remodeling require continuous generation of osteoprogenitor cells from bone marrow stromal cells (MSC), which generate and respond to a variety of growth factors with putative roles in hematopoiesis and mesenchymal differentiation. In this study we examine the interaction of two such factors on the maturation of skeletal components. We previously reported that these factors, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (vitD(3)), act together to increase alkaline phosphatase in chondroblasts. We now describe the cooperative effect of these agents on MSC isolated and cultured from human vertebral bone marrow. MSC (passages 3-9) isolated from bone marrow cells of human vertebrae (T1-L5) from 22-36-year-old normal donors were first expanded in vitro and then plated in the presence or absence of 10 ng/mL HGF and/or 10 nmol/L vitD(3), for 7-18 days. HGF treatment increased cell proliferation 2.5-fold, with no effect on alkaline phosphatase activity. Whereas vitD(3) treatment inhibited cell growth by 50%, alkaline phosphatase activity was stimulated eightfold, although no mineralization was observed. HGF together with vitD(3) increased cell proliferation 1.5-fold and alkaline phosphatase activity 13-fold over untreated control. Moreover, mineralization was detected only with this combination. Our findings provide evidence that HGF in concert with vitamin D may promote growth and differentiation of human MSC into osteogenic cells.
 
It is not known why the intestinal active transport of calcium per unit of mucosal mass is not affected by hypophysectomy (HX) even though serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and intestinal calcium-binding protein are decreased. In order to study the effect of HX on the quantity of intestinal receptor of 1,25(OH)2D3 and its binding characteristics, the intestinal total occupied and unoccupied binding sites for 1,25(OH)2D3 were measured, by the use of the mercurial reagent mersalyl, in the intestine of HX and age-matched control rats. In addition, the effect of bovine growth hormone (bGH) replacement on the quantity of both binding states was examined in the HX rats. Results of Scatchard analysis and sucrose density gradients showed that the 3.5S receptor of the HX rat intestine was not distinguishable from that seen in the intact rat intestinal cytosol. Under vitamin D-supplemented conditions, HX was shown to reduce the levels of occupied receptors when the data were expressed on the basis of cytosolic protein. The reduced occupied sites could, in fact, have resulted from the reduction in plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 levels. No synthesis rates were determined. The unoccupied and total binding sites for 1,25(OH)2D3 per length of intestine were lower in the HX group than in the intact group. Administration of bGH resulted in an increase of endogenously occupied binding sites without affecting the total binding activity. Under vitamin D-depleted (-D) conditions, the total binding activity (intestinal) for 1,25(OH)2D3 was increased in the intact but not in the -DHX rats. Administration of bGH to the -DHX rat resulted in no effect on the binding levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 receptor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
To investigate the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in male hypogonadism we have investigated a heterogeneous group of 13 men with hypogonadism: 7 men (median age 60, range 31-79) with two or more vertebral crush fractures and 6 men (median age 61.5, range 28-76) without vertebral fractures. The group with crush fractures had trabecular and cortical osteoporosis as assessed by Singh grade, iliac crest trabecular bone volume, and metacarpal cortical area/total area. This was accompanied by an altered trabecular architecture with a reduction in number of trabeculae but no change in trabecular width, which contrasts with age-related bone loss in men where there is no reduction in trabecular number but thinning of trabeculae. The fracture group had significantly lower plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] concentrations than the nonfracture group, and this was associated with malabsorption of calcium. Irrespective of the presence or absence of osteoporosis, treatment with testosterone led to a significant increase in total and free plasma 1,25(OH)2D and an improvement in calcium absorption measured with radiocalcium and by balance techniques. In addition, urine biochemistry, metabolic balance studies, and bone biopsy suggest that skeletal retention of calcium and bone formation are increased by testosterone treatment. We conclude that male hypogonadism causes both cortical and trabecular osteoporosis and altered trabecular architecture. A major risk factor for the development of osteoporosis is reduction in plasma 1,25(OH)2D, leading to malabsorption of calcium and reduced bone formation.
 
Circulating levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) are determined by bioactivation catalyzed by the renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1) and degradation through the action of the renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24). CYP27B1 and CYP24 are also present in bone cells, but little is known of their physiological role. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes that occur with aging on the expression of CYP27B1 and CYP24 mRNA in whole kidney and femora of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Real-time RT-PCR was used to measure CYP27B1, CYP24 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA levels in the kidneys and bones of animals aged between 3 weeks and 2 years. Circulating 1,25D levels decreased exponentially with age which was correlated with both reduced kidney CYP27B1 mRNA (R(2) = 0.72) and increased CYP24 mRNA levels (R(2) = 0.71). In the bone, CYP27B1 mRNA levels were maintained at their highest level throughout the ages of 3 to 15 weeks before decreasing in adult animals (P < 0.05). Bone CYP24 mRNA levels were positively correlated with bone CYP27B1 mRNA and not circulating 1,25D levels (R(2) = 0.74). Levels of bone CYP27B1 mRNA were positively correlated with distal femoral epiphyseal trabecular number (Tb.N) (R(2) = 0.74) and negatively with the trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (R(2) = 0.56) in animals aged between 12 weeks and 2 years. These findings indicate that the regulation of CYP27B1 and CYP24 mRNA expression in the bone is unique from that in the kidney. The synthesis of 1,25D in bone tissue regulates bone CYP24 expression and is associated with bone mineralization suggesting that vitamin D metabolism has an autocrine or paracrine function.
 
We have previously described a model system, using 15-day fetal mouse metatarsals cultured in serumless medium, in which osteoclasts and their precursors develop from in situ progenitors in a manner which is similar, both temporally and spatially, to that which occurs in vivo. In this report we evaluate the role of the osteotropic hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) on osteoclast formation in this model system by characterizing its effects on proliferation, differentiation, and fusion of cells of the osteoclast lineage. Morphologic evaluation was used to enumerate osteoclast precursors, mono- and multinucleate osteoclasts, and osteoclast nuclei in serial paraffin sections. Dose response data reveal a significant stimulation of osteoclast formation by 1,25-D3 in the range of 0.6 nM to 40 nM, and kinetic analyses suggest that these effects are on proliferation of osteoclast progenitors as well as on differentiation of precursors to form osteoclasts. A single 48 h exposure between day 4 and 6 of culture is necessary and sufficient to induce maximal osteoclast formation, while continuous exposure beyond this "critical period" inhibits multinucleate osteoclast formation. Simultaneous treatment with indomethacin inhibits the effects of 1,25-D3, while treatment with PGE2 stimulates osteoclast formation without significantly increasing precursor numbers, or inhibiting multinucleate osteoclast formation. These results suggest that the effect of 1,25-D3 to induce differentiation of precursors to form mono- and multinucleate osteoclasts is mediated by endogenous prostaglandin synthesis. On the other hand, the inhibition of polykaryon formation observed with continuous 1,25-D3 treatment, does not appear to be a prostaglandin mediated phenomena.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Although localized to the mineralized matrix of bone, osteocytes are able to respond to systemic factors such as the calciotropic hormones 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH. In the present studies, we examine the transcriptomic response to PTH in an osteocyte cell model and found that this hormone regulated an extensive panel of genes. Surprisingly, PTH uniquely modulated two cohorts of genes, one that was expressed and associated with the osteoblast to osteocyte transition and the other a cohort that was expressed only in the mature osteocyte. Interestingly, PTH's effects were largely to oppose the expression of differentiation-related genes in the former cohort, while potentiating the expression of osteocyte-specific genes in the latter cohort. A comparison of the transcriptional effects of PTH with those obtained previously with 1,25(OH)2D3 revealed a subset of genes that was strongly overlapping. While 1,25(OH)2D3 potentiated the expression of osteocyte-specific genes similar to that seen with PTH, the overlap between the two hormones was more limited. Additional experiments identified the PKA-activated phospho-CREB (pCREB) cistrome, revealing that while many of the differentiation-related PTH regulated genes were apparent targets of a PKA-mediated signaling pathway, a reduction in pCREB binding at sites associated with osteocyte-specific PTH targets appeared to involve alternative PTH activation pathways. That pCREB binding activities positioned near important hormone-regulated gene cohorts were localized to control regions of genes was reinforced by the presence of epigenetic enhancer signatures exemplified by unique modifications at histones H3 and H4. These studies suggest that both PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 may play important and perhaps cooperative roles in limiting osteocyte differentiation from its precursors while simultaneously exerting distinct roles in regulating mature osteocyte function. Our results provide new insight into transcription factor-associated mechanisms through which PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3 regulate a plethora of genes important to the osteoblast/osteocyte lineage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
 
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] has been shown to promote the in vitro differentiation of established human monocytic cell lines and normal human bone marrow progenitor cells toward the macrophage phenotype. The possibility that 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts a similar effect on the differentiation of peripheral monocytes from normal individuals, has been examined in the present study. Monocytes were isolated by density gradient sedimentation on Ficoll-Paque followed by adherence to plastic. Cells were subsequently maintained in culture in 10% autologous serum for 4 weeks either with or without 1,25(OH)2D3 (10(-8) M). In five experiments using monocytes from different donors we found that cells grown in the absence of the hormone underwent morphologic changes toward the macrophage phenotype as well as a gradual increase in the activities of lysosomal enzymes (beta-acetyl-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase). In the presence of the hormone the morphologic changes appeared at earlier stages of the culture, and the increase in enzymatic activities occurred earlier and was one- to twofold greater than the activity of the control cells. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 enhanced the adherence of the cultured cells.
 
Conditions of disuse in bed rest patients, as well as microgravity experienced by astronauts are accompanied by reduced mechanical loading, reduced calcium absorption, and lower serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25-D), the active metabolite of vitamin D, all contributing to bone loss. To determine whether 1,25-D or a less calcemic analog, Seocalcitol or EB1089 (1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-22,24-diene-24,26,27-trihomovitamin D3) can alleviate bone loss in a rat hindlimb unloading model of disuse osteopenia, mature male rats originally on a vitamin D replete diet containing 1.01% calcium were transferred to a vitamin D-deficient diet containing 0.48% calcium and then tail suspended and treated for 28 days with vehicle, 0.05 microg/kg 1,25-D, or 0.05 microg/kg EB1089. The vitamin D-deficient diet caused a substantial decrease in bone mineral density (-8%), which may be compounded by hindlimb unloading (-10%). Exogenous 1,25-D not only prevented the bone loss but also increased the bone mineral density to greater than the baseline level (+7%). EB1089 was less effective in preventing bone loss. Analysis of site and cell-specific effects of 1,25-D and EB1089 revealed that 1,25-D was more active than EB1089 in the intestine, the site of calcium absorption, and in inducing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption whereas EB1089 was more effective in inducing osteoblast differentiation. These studies suggest that elevating circulating 1,25-D levels presumably increasing calcium absorption can counteract bone loss induced by disuse or microgravity with its associated reductions in circulating 1,25-D and decreased calcium absorption.
 
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] insufficiency appears to be associated with several age-related diseases. Insufficient levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D has been shown to lead to the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) while underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether 1,25(OH)2D deficiency has a direct effect on the process of murine temporomandibular joint (TMJ) OA in 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase knockout [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] mice that had been fed a rescue diet (high calcium, phosphate, and lactose) from weaning until 6 or 18 months of age. Our results showed that the bone mineral density and subchondral bone volume were reduced in mandibular condyles, articular surfaces were collapsed, the thickness of articular cartilage and cartilage matrix protein abundance were progressively decreased and eventually led an erosion of articular cartilage of mandibular condyles. We also found that DNA damage, cellular senescence and the production of senescence-associated inflammatory cytokines were increased significantly in 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice. This study demonstrates that 1,25(OH)2D deficiency causes an erosive TMJ OA phenotype by inducing DNA damage, cellular senescence and the production of senescence-associated inflammatory cytokines. Our results indicate that 1,25(OH)2D plays an important role in preventing the development and progression of OA.
 
A characteristic feature of Paget's disease is an increase in the number of osteoclasts in bone. Osteoclasts are formed from mononuclear phagocyte precursors that circulate in the monocyte fraction of peripheral blood. These cells require the presence of RANK ligand (RANKL)-expressing osteoblastic cells and human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) to form osteoclasts in vitro. To determine the role of osteoclast differentiation from circulating precursors in Paget's disease, we cultured monocytes from Paget's patients and gender- and age-matched normal controls with no evidence of bone disease for up to 21 days in the presence of UMR 106 cells and various concentrations of M-CSF (1-25 ng/mL) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] (10(-10) to 10(-7) mol/L). Relative to controls, there was a significant increase in the extent of osteoclast differentiation from pagetic monocytes as assessed by expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), vitronectin receptor (VNR), and lacunar bone resorption. Serial dilution experiments (2 x 10(5) to 2 x 10(2) cells/well) showed no difference in the concentration of osteoclast precursors in the peripheral blood. In Paget's patients with high serum alkaline phosphatase (sAP) levels, increased sensitivity to the osteoclastogenic effect of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was noted. Osteoclast differentiation did not occur when M-CSF was substituted by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), and these factors did not stimulate osteoclast differentiation in the presence of M-CSF. In this in vitro coculture system, osteoclast formation was inhibited by osteoprotegerin in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of RANKL (5-30 ng/mL) and M-CSF (25 ng/mL), osteoclast formation and bone resorption were significantly increased in cultures of monocytes from patients with high and low sAP levels as compared with normal controls. Our findings suggest that the increase in osteoclast numbers seen in Paget's disease results not from an increase in the number of circulating precursors in peripheral blood but rather from an increased sensitivity of osteoclast precursors to the humoral factors, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and RANKL, which regulate osteoclast formation.
 
The effects of retinoic acid (RA) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3 on osteoclast formation were examined in intact fetal long bones of different ages/developmental stages maintained in organ culture using a chemically defined medium with or without the presence of serum. Besides stimulating bone resorption, RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased the number of osteoclasts in 19-day-old fetal rat tibiae. Likewise, these bone-resorbing agents induced and stimulated osteoclast formation in 19- and 18-day-old metatarsal bones which were osteoclast-free at the beginning of the culture. The response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 was greatly enhanced by 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) irrespective of the developmental stage of the long bone. The response to RA was not. Light microscopic autoradiography after labeling of the cultures with tritiated thymidine showed that both RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 induced osteoclast differentiation from proliferating and postmitotic precursors. However, neither agent was able to stimulate proliferation of osteoclast progenitor cells in the older bones (19 days). Studies on the formation of osteoclast-like (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive) cells in bone marrow cultures indicated that FBS was a potent inducer of osteoclast-like cell formation. In the presence of FBS, 1,25-(OH)2D3 significantly stimulated this response, but RA did not. The results demonstrate that although both RA and 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulate osteoclast formation from proliferating and postmitotic precursors in long bones in vitro, they do so by different mechanisms.
 
Skeletal unloading in an animal hindlimb suspension model and microgravity experienced by astronauts or as a result of prolonged bed rest causes site-specific losses in bone mineral density of 1%-2% per month. This is accompanied by reductions in circulating levels of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the active metabolite of vitamin D. 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3), the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), is important for calcium absorption and plays a role in differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To examine the responses of cells to activators of the VDR in a simulated microgravity environment, we used slow-turning lateral vessels (STLVs) in a rotating cell culture system. We found that, similar to cells grown in microgravity, MG-63 cells grown in the STLVs produce less osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen Ialpha1 mRNA and are less responsive to 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). In addition, expression of VDR was reduced. Moreover, growth in the STLV caused activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway (SAPK), a kinase that inhibits VDR activity. In contrast, the 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) analog, EB1089, was able to compensate for some of the STLV-associated responses by reducing SAPK activity, elevating VDR levels, and increasing expression of osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase. These studies suggest that, not only does simulated microgravity reduce differentiation of MG-63 cells, but the activity of the VDR, an important regulator of bone metabolism, is reduced. Use of potent, less calcemic analogs of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) may aid in overcoming this defect.
 
Toothless (tl-osteopetrotic) rats have little or no endogenous bone resorption, no marrow spaces, and very few osteoclasts and macrophages, and their live metatarsal rudiments cannot support the development of normal osteoclasts in vitro. The recent demonstration that exogenous colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) improves skeletal sclerosis and increases osteoclasts in tl rats in vivo, prompted us to explore conditions that enable osteoclasts to be formed in tl metatarsals in vitro. Coculture of neonatal tl metatarsals with CSF-1 alone produced no osteoclasts, but the addition of normal spleen and bone marrow cells and parathyroid hormone or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D produced osteoclasts in most cultures. Identical cultures of metatarsals from the CSF-1 deficient op/op mouse produced similar results. Within the contexts of the role of CSF-1 in osteoclastogenesis and the different biologic manifestations of osteopetrosis in these two mutations, we interpret these results to mean that other factors are required to restore osteoclast function completely in tl rats and op mice. Thus, experimental studies of these mutations are likely to provide new insights on both osteopetrosis and osteoclast biology.
 
Although steroid hormones regulate mature osteoblast function, much less is known about their actions on osteoprogenitor cells. The possibility of steroid hormone regulation of early stages in osteoblast differentiation was investigated by measuring the growth and induction of the osteoblast marker enzyme alkaline phosphatase (AP) in rat bone marrow stromal cell cultures. Experiments were performed in charcoal-stripped serum; conditions which markedly impaired stromal cell growth. However, growth could be stimulated by nonadherent marrow cell-derived conditioned medium. 1,25(OH)2D3, but not dexamethasone, 17 beta-estradiol, or retinoic acid, increased both stromal cell proliferation and AP activity. The increased proliferation with 1,25(OH)2D3 was nonadherent cell-dependent. BMP-2 also increased AP levels and acted in synergy with 1,25(OH)2D3. These results suggest that (i) nonadherent marrow cells may support stromal cell development, and (ii) 1,25(OH)2D3 as well as glucocorticoids may regulate osteogenesis from the bone marrow but a similar role for estrogen is not supported.
 
The vitamin D analog TX527 (19-nor-14,20-bis epi-23-yne-1,25(OH)(2)D(3)), decreased disease severity (P < 0.001) and postponed disease onset (P < 0.0001) in SJL mice in which experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis was induced. Levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 mRNA were decreased in spinal cord and spleen in the analog-treated mice, suggesting a Th(1)-targeted effect. Adding the bisphosphonate pamidronate did not affect analog-protective efficacy, but completely prevented TX527-caused acceleration of bone turnover and increased total bone mineral content as well as femoral mineral and calcium content (P < 0.01). Less calcemic analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), in combination with bone sparing products such as bisphosphonates allow immune modulation in vivo without affecting bone.
 
1,25-(OH)2D3 and 24,25-(OH)2D3 regulate rat costochondral chondrocyte cultures in a metabolite-specific manner; 1,25-(OH)2D3 targets primarily growth zone cells (GC) and 24,25-(OH)2D3 targets primarily resting zone cells (RC). Some of the effects are nongenomic, since incubation of isolated membrane fractions with the metabolites results in regulation of enzyme activities comparable to that seen in culture. This study examined whether changes in membrane fluidity might be one mechanism involved in the nongenomic regulatory pathway. Chondrocyte cultures were incubated with the vitamin D metabolites and changes in plasma membrane fluidity monitored using the fluorophore, TMA-DPH, which is specific for membranes exposed to external fluids. Isolated matrix vesicles were also incubated directly with the metabolites and anisotropy of the membrane, as well as alkaline phosphatase-specific activity, determined. 1,25-(OH)2D3 caused a rapid and constant increase in alkaline phosphatase-specific activity in GC matrix vesicles; 24,25-(OH)2D3 caused an increase in RC matrix vesicle enzyme activity that was both dose- and time-dependent. Matrix vesicles produced by GC had a lower degree of fluidity than their parent plasma membranes or RC plasma membranes and matrix vesicles. Fluidity of the GC membrane fractions was increased by 1,25-(OH)2D3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 1,25-(OH)2D3 had no effect on the fluidity of the RC membranes. 24,25-(OH)2D3 caused a decrease in fluidity in GC at later time points. This metabolite caused an increase in fluidity of RC plasma membranes that returned to normal levels by 6 h; however, the increase induced in the matrix vesicles remained elevated throughout the 24-h experimental period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Both 1,25-(OH)2D3 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity in MC-3T3-E1 cells. Previous studies, demonstrating a correlation between 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase A2 activities in matrix vesicles isolated from growth cartilage chondrocyte cultures, suggest that one mechanism of vitamin D action may be via autocrine or paracrine action of PGE2. Since most PGE2 is derived from arachidonic acid released by the action of phospholipase A2, we examined whether 1,25-(OH)2D3 stimulates phospholipase A2 activity in three osteoblastic cell lines: ROS 17/2.8 cells, MC-3T3-E1 cells, and MG-63 cells. 1,25-(OH)2D3-dependent alkaline phosphatase and phospholipase A2 activity were correlated with production of PGE2 and PGE1 in the MC-3T3-E1 cells. Alkaline phosphatase specific activity was enriched in the matrix vesicles produced by all three cell types and was stimulated by 1,25-(OH)2D3 at 10(-8) to 10(-7) M. Although phospholipase A2 specific activity was enriched in the matrix vesicles produced only by the ROS 17/2.8 cell cultures, stimulation of this enzyme activity was observed only in the MC-3T3-E1 cell cultures. The effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on phospholipase A2 were dose-dependent and were significant at 10(-8) to 10(-7) M. There was a significant increase in PGE2 production in the MC-3T3-E1 cell cultures only. Indomethacin reduced PGE2 production to base line values. Even at baseline, MC-3T3-E1 cells produced ten times more PGE2 than did the ROS 17/2.8 or MG-63 cell cultures. The effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on PGE1 were comparable to those on PGE2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
 
Top-cited authors
Sandra J Shefelbine
  • Northeastern University
Robert Graham G Russell
  • University of Oxford
Michael Doube
  • City University of Hong Kong
Eugene Mccloskey
  • The University of Sheffield
Fabrice Patrick Cordelières
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research