Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica

Online ISSN: 1851-2372
Print ISSN: 0373-580X
Publications
The species of subfamily Papilionoideae present flowers with a complex architecture, with elaborated petals in which it has been documented the presence of auricles and callosities, appendixes or spurs that joint the pieces of the corolla and also microsculpturings on the wings. In this study, we analyze the morphology of the petals of 17 species of Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) native of Salta province, Argentina. The lower margins of the keel were fused in all of the species, through different types of fusion of epidermal cells. Only a few species presented fusion in the upper margin of the keel. All the species showed sculpturings in the petals, which would joint some of the pieces of the corolla. They also exhibit ornaments or microsculpturings in the basal region of the adaxial surface of the wings that may act as a grip for pollinators when they land on the flower. The petals of the Papilionoideae flowers presented characteristics that could restrict the type of pollinator able to activate the different mechanisms of pollination that allow them to access the rewards enclosed by the keel.
 
Introducción y objetivos: Las especies de Papilionoideae presentan características florales o estrategias relacionadas con los mecanismos de polinización y que favorecen la polinización cruzada como la presencia de barreras físicas, la separación espacial o temporal en la maduración de los ciclos fértiles, entre otras. El objetivo de este trabajo fue brindar una descripción detallada de la morfología del androceo y gineceo de 17 especies de Papilionoideae nativas del Valle de Lerma (Salta-Argentina). M&M: Se estudiaron a campo y en laboratorio características cuantitativas y cualitativas del androceo y el gineceo en flores de 17 especies de Papilionoideae, pertenecientes a nueve géneros y cinco tribus y se analizaron desde un punto de vista funcional aquellas características que estarían relacionadas con el sistema reproductivo y los mecanismos de polinización. Resultados: Los resultados indican que la mayoría de las especies son homógamas, presentan androceo monadelfo o pseudomonadelfo con fenestras basales, anteras monomórficas, formas variables del estilo y del estigma, tricomas estilares y periestigmáticos y membrana estigmática. Se registraron características descritas por primera vez para algunas de estas especies tales como la ruptura espontánea de la membrana estigmática durante la antesis y la reducción de la distancia anteras-estigma luego de la maduración de los ciclos sexuales. Conclusiones: Todas las especies estudiadas presentan características florales asociadas a la reducción de la autopolinización. Se obtuvo información detallada sobre la morfología y otras características del androceo y gineceo que podría ser utilizada para describir mejor sus mecanismos de polinización y para comprender aspectos de su biología reproductiva.
 
The neotypification of Opuntia australis F.A.C.Weber, basionym of Pterocactus australis (F.A.C.Weber) Backeb., is made here thanks to the discovery of Weber's personal notes about it, and of two notebooks containing respectively a drawing and a short description of that plant, both made at the time of its first collection in 1882. Outlined as well is the poorly documented scientific expedition that made this first discovery and the cultivation of an early plant by F.E. Schlumberger on Weber’s behalf. A Weber’s note confirms he knew the mentioned illustration. A herbarium specimen from the same gathering has been found, but it cannot be considered original material since there is no evidence that it was seen by Weber. However, this specimen is here designated as Epitype.
 
Mapa de las principales localidades referidas en el texto.
Formas de preparaci?n o consumo de las plantas alimenticias.
Plants used as food by Moqoit indian people from Chaco province (Argentina) as well as their specific applications, are here identified from genuine source of information taken during fieldworks. A total of 51 plant species belonging to 25 botanical families, are employed by Moqoit people in 76 forms of preparation and/or consumption. Bromelia hieronymi (5), Aechmea distichantha, Araujia odorata, and Sarcomphalus mistol (4), are the edible plants mostly used. Eighty percent of which (41 species) are native from the Chaco forest, encompassing 82 % of total uses. Raw fruits are the prevalent plant part and form of consumption registered. Comparison with similar data taken during 18th century by jesuit missionaries and during the mid of 20th by Martinez-Crovetto, shows the higher similarity index between the latter ones and those taken at present (0.67). These differences should be explained by the impact of western society over moqoit people, as a consequence of which they were gradually replacing their food items. The edible use of fresh fruits of Scutia buxifolia, the flowers of Glandularia peruviana and the ashes of cfr. Sporobolus spartinus as salt, are here referred to Gran Chaco indigenous people for the first time.
 
The aim of this study was to make the aerobiological characterization of San Miguel de Tucumán city (26° 50'S, 65° 15'W) during the spring period august to november 2006. The sampling was performed with a Hirst type volumetric collector (Burkard model). Thirty pollen types were identified, providing a total of 3290 grains in the period. The 75,41% of pollen caught corresponded to pollen from shrub and tree species (PA), mainly exotic ones cultivated in the city and the native species growing on the eastern slopes of the Sierras de San Javier. The highest concentration was recorded in september with 1178 grains it was due to by the contribution of 19 tree pollen types being Broussonetia (65, 79%) the most abundant. At lower rates were recorded Morus (9, 24%), Alnus (7, 51%), Celtis (6, 50%), Fraxinus (2, 29%), Platanus (1, 90%), and Juglans (0, 73%). Intra-diurnal analysis shows a marked increase in night time which starts at 20:00 hours, increases between 22:00 and 2:00 to reach maximum at 8:00 in the morning. The minimum is recorded at 14:00 hours. During this period the main contribution corresponds to pollen taxa of trees and shrubs which have high levels of concentration in a short period of time.
 
Since a project of monitoring toxigenic microalgae and toxins in shellfish started in 2008, carried out along the coast between San Clemente del Tuyú and Mar Azul (Northern Zone) and Bahía Anegada (Southern Zone) of the Province of Buenos Aires, four outbreaks of toxicity for paralytic shellfish toxins (PSP) and eight outbreaks for lipophilic shellfish toxins (DSP/not determined) were recorded. The results were used as technical tool from which the implementing authority (Dirección Provincial de Pesca of the Ministerio de Asuntos Agrarios of the Provincia de Buenos Aires) founded eleven decisions to impose closures and one sanitary alert to the consumption, extraction and commercialization of shellfish. Three of the PSP outbreaks occurred in the Northern Zone associated with Gymnodinium catenation. The fourth episode occurred in Puerto Quequén associated with Alexandrium tamarense. In the same area there were three DSP toxicity events, and associated species were Dinophysis acuminata and D. caudata. The remaining five episodes of toxicity for lipophilic toxins occurred in the Southern Zone, in one or more of the three sanitary areas classified as A by SENASA, and none of them could be associated with any of the known toxigenic species.
 
Introducción y objetivos: Las afecciones respiratorias, como el asma, la rinitis y las alergias, están aumentando en todo el mundo, en asociación a una mayor presencia en el aire de distintos agentes etiológicos desencadenantes, de los cuales, el polen es uno de los más importantes. Estas evidencias muestran la importancia de monitorear sus concentraciones con fines preventivos o de posible control. Este trabajo reporta la incidencia y prevalencia del contenido polínico de la atmósfera y los tipos alergénicos presentes en el aire de la ciudad de Sunchales (Santa Fe, Argentina) durante dos períodos de estudio (agosto – noviembre 2012, agosto – diciembre 2013) con el objetivo de presentar un relevamiento preliminar para la localidad. M&M: Las muestras se colectaron con una trampa Burkard ubicada a 1,3 m sobre el suelo con un volumen de aspiración de 0,6 m3 h-1. Se analizaron con microscopio óptico a 400x, recorriendo la totalidad del preparado. Así se determinó la concentración diaria (gr m-3) para los tipos polínicos reconocidos. El reconocimiento de los mismos y su alergenicidad se determinó mediante bibliografía especializada. Resultados & Conclusiones: En comparación con otras ciudades del país, el registro es rico en especies, aunque la concentración diaria para el período analizado es baja. La mayoría del polen capturado (cerca de 70%) corresponde a sólo cuatro tipos polínicos (Cupressaceae, Moraceae, Poaceae y Urticaceae) reportados en la bibliografía como alergénicos.
 
Número de cromosomas, anomalías meióticas y formación de polen 2n en accesiones de la especie silvestre Chrysolaena flexuosa (Vernonieae, Compositae) de su rango de distribución en Argentina. Chrysolaena flexuosa es una especie sudamericana de potencial valor ornamental. Para el área principal de su distribución fueron reportados citotipos diploides (n=10) y tetraploides (n=20) mientras que para el área más austral sólo existe un registro correspondiente a un citotipo hexaploide (n=30-32ca.). Para investigar, en poblaciones naturales de Ch. flexuosa, una relación positiva entre la ploidía y la latitud y la posible participación de la poliploidización sexual en el origen de los citotipos poliploides, se determinó, en siete introducciones argentinas, el número cromosómico, contenido de ADN y tamaño y viabilidad de polen y se analizó la microesporogénesis. Las introducciones del noreste resultaron diploides y tetraploides mientras que las introducciones del sudeste resultaron hexaploides. El nivel de ploidía determinado a partir de conteos cromosómicos coincidió con lo obtenido mediante citometría de flujo; el tamaño genómico se redujo significativamente con la ploidía. Todas las introducciones presentaron variabilidad en viabilidad y tamaño de polen así como producción de granos grandes (presumiblemente polen 2n). Esta variabilidad fue acompañada por eventos citológicos anormales en meiosis y en el estadio de tétrada. Los resultados evidencian una potencial relación entre la ploidía y la latitud y la posibilidad de poliploidización sexual en el origen, establecimiento y expansión de las poblaciones de Ch. flexuosa.
 
Chrysolaena flexuosa is a South American species of potential ornamental value (basic chromosome number of x=10). Diploid (n=10) and tetraploid (n=20) cytotypes have been reported for its distribution area, although one hexaploid (n=30-32ca.) cytotype has been reported for its most southern distribution. To investigate if ploidy and latitude are positively related in Ch. flexuosa natural populations and if sexual polyploidization could have had a role in the origin of the polyploid cytotypes, we determined chromosome numbers, DNA content, and pollen viability and size, and analyzed microsporogenesis in samples of seven Argentinian accessions. Two of the northeastern accessions were diploid and one was tetraploid, whereas the four southeastern accessions were hexaploid. Ploidy levels determined both by chromosome countings and flow cytometry coincided, although monoploid genome size significantly decreased with increasing ploidy. In all accessions, variability was observed for pollen viability and size, as well as for large (presumably 2n) pollen production. This variability was underlined by abnormal cytological events in meiosis and at the tetrad stage (lagging chromosomes, parallel spindles, triads). The results would indicate that there is, apparently, a positive relation between ploidy and latitude, and suggest a likely role of sexual polyploidization in the origin, establishment and expansion of Ch. flexuosa populations.
 
Introducción y objetivos: La provincia de Santiago del Estero está atravesada por las Rutas Nacionales N° 9 y 34, en sus banquinas se instalan puestos de venta informales de Cactáceas. Con los objetivos de registrar e identificar la diversidad de especies comercializadas, considerar si sufren algún grado de amenaza según la UICN, describir las formas de acceso a las mismas en los ambientes de extracción y caracterizar los espacios informales de comercialización, se abordó desde una perspectiva etnobotánica el estudio de esta actividad. M&M: Se realizaron entrevistas abiertas a pobladores de ambos sexos entre 20 y 60 años, en 25 puestos sobre la RN9 y 14 puestos sobre la RN34. En cada puesto se registró cantidad de especies, nombres locales, usos y forma y lugar de recolección, considerando puesto estable al que tenía al menos 10 ejemplares de Cactaceae en venta. Resultados & Conclusiones: Se comercializan 19 taxones, 13 silvestres y 6 cultivados, todos categorizados “Preocupación menor” (LC) por IUCN. La técnica de recolección consiste en la búsqueda de ejemplares en los alrededores de las viviendas. Los puestos son atendidos en su mayoría por mujeres de entre 20 y 50 años y niños de entre 10 y 15 años. Los vendedores de cactus poseen un Sistema de Conocimiento Local (SCL) que les permite utilizar de manera flexible plantas disponibles en su entorno inmediato, a las que les adjudican un nuevo valor. Considerando la categoría de IUCN de todas las especies comercializadas, la actividad no pondría en riesgo la diversidad. Este comercio podría representar una actividad económica sustentable para pobladores de zonas áridas.
 
Biogeography of the arid and semiarid regions between 35° and 39°S, Argentina. The convergence of theoretical and methodological frameworks leads to the understanding of the relationship between (pattern-process), in space and time. The objective of this work is to relate the weather and environmental conditions of arid and semiarid regions, with the vegetation patterns, through the qualitative analysis of structural and functional characters. The territorial unit (35º-31ºS) is characterized by the transition of subtropical mid-latitudes, where the climate was specified, North (35º-37ºS), and South (37º-39ºS). The vegetation associated with these weather conditions is showed through xeric steppes with mixed chorology Monte-Patagonia and the presence of endemics. Functionally, it corresponds to the ecosystemic type Jh 10 (Paruelo et al., 2001). The vegetation is related to the pattern, the genesis, and the seasonal outbreaks of rains, and the mean annual temperature. The floristic heterogeneous composition is linked to the types of ground. The vegetation patterns of this zone do not correspond to those of Patagonia and Monte. The results are coherent with the environment and the varied vegetation between 30º- 40ºS in Central Chile. The mixed character and the presence of endemics are related to the historical processes that will be interpreted through a paleobotanical and palynological analysis.
 
The varied vegetation of the salt marshes develops specific strategies to address factors that limit growth. To inquire about these adaptive mechanisms, leaf and caulinar anatomy was studied in 35 species inhabiting the Salitral de la Vidriera (Prov. Buenos Aires), using traditional histological techniques. A few species have thick cuticle while much of them have thickened walls of epidermal cells. Most leaves are amphistomatic, presenting some species protected stomata. Only three species have salt glands. There is a scarce development of sclerenchymatic tissue at leaf level, while the stems have a great proportion of sclerenchyma and collenchyma. Overall both organs have aqueous tissue. The most commonly type of leaf anatomy is isolateral mesophyll, the dorsiventral, Kranz and central structure are less frequent. Stems of three species have endodermis. Several species develop an early secondary growth, and in some is observed an atypical secondary growth by the differentiation of master cambium. In this work, which is the first morphoanatomical study in southwest salt marshes of Buenos Aires, it was found that the occurrence of functional anatomical characters is more diverse in leaves than in stems.
 
p>Rubiaceae é uma das famílias mais complexas do ponto de vista taxonômico, fato comprovado pelas inúmeras alterações ocorrentes ao longo dos anos na sua organização interna. O presente estudo investiga a madeira de 41 espécies, com base na revisão de literatura e verifica através da análise multivariada a formação de grupos e posicionamento das espécies nas subfamílias Ixoroideae, Rubioideae e Cinchonoideae. Pode-se verificar que o grupo apresenta-se estruturalmente homogêneo, devido ao grande número de caracteres anatômicos compartilhados, como já havia sido afirmado por muitos pesquisadores da área. As espécies não se agruparam totalmente de acordo com suas subfamílias. A análise também se mostra favorável a passagem do gênero Calycophyllum para a subfamília Cinchonoideae e as espécies de Calycophyllum permanecem unidas no dendrograma, evidenciando a homogeneidade do gênero.</p
 
Top-cited authors
Eduardo Martínez Carretero
  • National Scientific and Technical Research Council (IADIZA)
Melisa A. Giorgis
  • National University of Cordoba, Argentina
Nora Irene Maidana
  • Universidad de Buenos Aires
Claudia Seeligmann
  • National University of Tucuman
Marcelo Cabido
  • National University of Cordoba, Argentina