Bitlis Eren Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi

Published by Bitlis Eren Universitesi Fen Bilimleri Dergisi
Online ISSN: 2147-3188
Pomatomus saltatrix with 76.5 cm TL and 4800.0 g TW. 
The comparison of the lengths and weights for bluefish in Turkish waters.
Çanakkale region. 
One specimen of the bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) with 76.5 cm in total length and 4800.0 g in total weight was photographed in the Çanakkale Fish Market. The given length is second maximum length record of the bluefish for Turkish waters
Oxidation behavior of NiTi alloy has been investigated under isothermal temperature by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with a dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectroscope systems. The Ni-45.16% Ti (composition in atomic percent) was exposed to air atmosphere, i.e., between 400˚C and 800˚C, for 1h. It was found that Ni-rich NiTi alloy exhibits different oxidation behaviour at temperatures above 400˚C in air atmosphere. The activation energy (estimated from Arrhenius plots) of oxidation reaction for NiTi alloy was determined to be 111,64 kj/mol. According to DSC measurements, the transformation temperature of alloy (Ms, Mf, As and Af) was increased and also R phase disappeared above 500˚C. X-ray diffraction patterns of the heat-treated specimens contain oxide peaks, mainly belonging to TiO2. X-ray analyses demonstrate that the amount of the TiO2 and Ni3Ti peaks expands with isothermal temperature while that of NiTi(B2), NiTi(B19) and Ni4Ti3 peaks decreases. In addition to the formal oxides were determined by means of SEM-EDX measurements and obtain oxides are TiO and TiO2
In this study, water quality of Caro Stream in 2014-2015 winter season was investigated in terms of several physicochemical parameters. Caro Stream is the feed source of Hamzabey Dam that the requirement of drinking water of Elazig city would be obtained. Surface water samples were taken from Caro Stream and values of pH, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC) with chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonnium nitrogen (NH4+-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N) concentrations were determined. pH values were between 7,9 and 8,3, temperature values were between 14,5 and 17,8 oC, EC values were between 340 and 384 µS/cm, COD concentrations were between 39 and 46 mg/L, BOD5concentrations were between 2 and 3 mg/L, NH4+-N concentrations were between 0,06 and 0.08 mg/L, NO2--N concentrations were between 0,001 and 0,002 mg/L and NO3--N concentrations were between 1,3 and 2,1 mg/L. The obtained values were compared with water quality values given in Surface Water Quality Management Regulation (SWQMR). As a result, the water quality class of Caro Stream was obtained as Class-II
In this study, in order to evaluate the solar energy potential of the South Eastern Anatolia Region, the use of photovoltaic systems for irrigation were examined. With electrical energy produced from solar energy depending on the photovoltaic (PV) principle, in case of supply of necessary mechanical energy for the operation of submersible pump, some specifications of irrigation system with solar energy have been determined. With this aim, such as current, voltage and power electrical properties of the PV system including 4 modules which have totally 18x2=36 PV cells in each part have been calculated. In addition, PV system’s efficiency, flow rate of the submersible pump and, hydraulic power rates have been calculated. In order to reduce the cost of the system, a DC pump is selected compatible with solar panels. So, the total cost including battery and inverter costs will be reduced. Because pump which work alternating current draw high power and will increase the number of solar cell.
RFID (Radyo Frekansı ile Tanımlama) teknolojisi, kablosuz iletişim teknolojilerinde gelişimini hızla sürdüren ve birçok sektörde uygulanabilen bir teknolojidir. Bu teknoloji temel olarak okuyucu, etiket ve bunlara bağlı antenlerden oluşur. Radyo frekansı aracılığı ile etiketten bilgi okunur veya yazılır. Bu şekilde nesnelere yerleştirilen ya da taşınabilir etiketler sayesinde birçok alanda bilgi saklama, kontrol ve takip işlemi gerçekleştirilir. RFID teknolojisi diğer kablosuz teknolojilerle entegre çalışabilme imkânı verebilir. Gelişimine bakılırsa, geleceğe dair umut vadeden bir teknolojidir. RFID başta tedarik zincirleri olmak üzere, sağlık, hayvancılık, eğitim, kütüphane, güvenlik vb. birçok alanda uygulanabilir bir teknolojidir. Bu çalışmada, RFID teknolojisinin yapısı, gelişimi ve yaygın kullanım alanları hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Buna ek olarak RFID bileşenlerinin sektörel olarak kullanım raporları sunulmuştur.
Recently, different methods such as irridation and ozone are developed to inactive microorganisms. Ozone are used succesfully in food industry because of generally inhibition of microorganism in broad spectrum with shorter contact times at low concentrations. High reactivity, spontaneous decomposition without residues in the medium make ozone safety in food products. Ozone is used in the food industry for the last decade in many countries. Especially in recent times, ozone has usage area because of reliable substance (GRAS). Ozone is generally used in disinfection of drinking water, washing of in red-meat, white and marine products, control of storage atmosphere and disinfection of food process equipments in food industry. The present review, production, using of areas, advantage with disadvantage and using of ozone in food industry are mentioned
Tolerance against salt stress in plants includes substantial changes in gene expression which is accompanied with changes in composition of transcriptome, metabolome and proteome. Proteins are directly involved in plant stress response. Therefore,proteomics studies can explain the possible relationships between salinity tolerance and functional proteins. The identification of the proteins that are involved in responses to salinity stress could lead to the development of transgenic plants that have an enhanced tolerance to salinity. In this review, the recent proteomics studies to the analysis of the responses of plants to salinity stress, the possible mechanisms in response to salinity stress and the changes in the level of proteins involved in metabolic pathways are discussed
Today, approximately 90% of energy consumed is produced from fossil-based sources such as coil, oil, natural gas. Clean and renewable alternative energy sources are started to search because of limited reserves of fossilbased sources, increase of energy needs of world, global warming and acid rain. The most important of these sources are wind, solar, hydro, geothermal and biomass energy. As compared conventional energy sources and potential of renewable energy sources of Turkey, especially solar energy has great importance. As taken into consideration to utilize from this energy of Turkey’s province, Eastern Anatolian Province of Malatya region is located in the last rows. In this study, wind energy potential and availability, which has an important place among renewable energy sources of Malatya, is investigated. For this purpose, by investigating information of wind source of Malatya, the places where this energy is used most efficiently is determined. Also in terms of production technology, wind energy potential of Malatya and the degree and method of its potential use in combination and alone are focused. However, the suggestions are made to utilize from wind energy for Malatya by effective and common way
Tum dunyada oldugu gibi ulkemizde de enerji onemli bir sorundur. Ulkemiz fosil enerji kaynaklari bakimindan yetersiz rezervlere sahip oldugundan enerjide disa bagimlidir. Ancak gunes enerjisi (GE) acisindan ulkemiz zengin kaynaklara sahiptir. Avrupa Birligi (AB) ulkeleri, tuketicileri icin gunesten elektrik enerjisi uretiminde bilinclendirme calismalari yaparak tesvikler araciligiyla GE kullanimini yayginlastirmaya calismaktadir. Ulkemizde ise bilinclendirme ve tesvik calismalarina gerektigi kadar onem verilmemektedir. Bu calismada ulkemiz ve Dunya ulkelerinin GE potansiyeli karsilastirilarak kisa vadede yapilabilecek GE yatirimlari, kamu tarafindan verilebilecek tesvikler ve ekonomik anlamda ulkeye saglayacagi katkilar incelenmistir. Avrupa’da son 10 yilda CSP sistemleriyle isi kaynakli GE’den faydalanarak atilim yapan ve bu alanda Dunya 4.’su olan Ispanya orneginin Turkiye icin model olabilecegine dair degerlendirmelere yer verilmistir. Sonuc olarak CSP sistemlerinden bireysel elektrik enerjisi uretimi ve kullanimina uygun olan Stirling Motorlu Gunes Takip Sistemlerinin (SMGTS) ulkemizde yayginlastirilmasinin gerekliligine dair analiz ve degerlendirmeler yapilmistir.
Öz In this study, the morphological and anatomical properties of endemic Iris nezahatiae Güner & H. Duman were determined and discussed with Iris caucasica Hoffm. in terms of similar and different properties. I. nezahatiae is placed in juno irises. This species is a spring geophyte of Turkey and has flowers in varied colours. It distributes only in the vicinity of Yusufeli (Artvin) in Turkey and is under threat of exctinction. The species is a bulbous and perennial plant and has storage roots. The leaves and flowers of I. nezahatiae have different morphologic properties. In anatomical research, the differences were observed in the central cylinder of root, stem and mesophyll layer of leaf. Consequently, some morphologic and anatomic characters between two close taxa were determined that can be selecred as discriminative characters. Stomata index of the species was also calculated
In this study, soybean plant’s (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) Agrova SA88 variety was germinated under in vitro conditions. The offshoot, internode, leaf, petiole, root, cotyledon and hypocotyl explants taken from the germinated seedlings were put to Murashige Skoog (MS) and Gamborg’s B5 medium and treated with different plant growth regulators. The effects of plant growth regulators on somaclonal variations of soybean were studied. DNA extractions were made from the plants, which naturally grow under normal conditions on the soil, and from the tissues and organs grown in mediums with different plant growth regulators. PCR was set up using the obtained DNA samples and possible variations were tested with randomly reproduced polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. It was observed that no somaclonal variation was present
In this study, the effect of different carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios (5, 10 and 15) on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was compared. The COD removal efficiencies in both reactor were above 90 % suggesting that it was irrespective of C/N ratios. The C/N ratios has little effect on NH4+-N removal, while they had greater effect on the removal of TN. The TN removal efficiency and simultaneous nitrification denitrification efficiency in both reactors increased with increases in C/N ratios. The simultaneous nitrification denitrification efficiency inSBBR is higher than SBR. The results showed that the effect of different carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios in both reactors was similar and SBBR had higher nitrogen removal and simultaneous nitrification denitrification
This study aims to determine the some heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Zn and Fe) concentrations in Ulva rigida at Canakkale Strait (Dardanelles) to understand of the sea pollution. U. rigida has been collected from five different stations and in six seasonal periods between 2009 and 2013 years. Fe has the highest value heavy metal in this alge species. Mean seasonal results are arranged as: Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb. Heavy metal concentrations determined in U. rigida at five stations, respectively in Gelibolu Shipyard (Sta. 2) > Kilya Cove (3) > Hamza Cove (1) > Eceabat Pine Cape (4) > Abide (1) stations. Ship production and repairment activities in Gelibolu Shipyard have affected the alge in way of the heavy metal contamination and also, ship and harbor traffic in Canakkale Strait may have origin of the heavy metals in U. rigida. It has been statement that heavy metal concentrations rest under the limit values to U. rigida and have not reached dangerous levels
Aim of this study was monitoring and evaluating the air quality of Iskele District located in Burhaniye / Balikesir. In this context air quality measurements were conducted by means of Ministry of Environment and Urbanizations’ mobile air quality measurement vehicle. Study was carried on fifteen days time interval between the 08.03.201222.03.2012 and SO2, NOx, CO, O3 and VOCs parameters were monitored hourly. When the gained results were evaluated according to air quality index, in terms of PM10 parameter, quality was determined between 2 (high)-3 (enough)-4(medium), in terms of SO2 parameter, quality was determined between 1 (very high)-2 (high), in terms of CO and O parameters, quality was determined as 1 (very high). Although there is no quality index for VOCs, when the results were compared with the measurements in literature, it was determined that the measured concentrations were very low and it was evaluated as 1 (very high)
Öz New series of mixed-ligands complexes of dioxouranium (VI) with the Schiff bases and H2O, py, DMF, bipy, phen and Et3N have been synthesized. The elemental analyses, IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra, electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analyses were used in the synthesis of complexes. The general compositions of the complexes are [(L1)(UO2)(OAc)(H2O)].2H2O (1), [(L2)(UO2)(OAc)(py)].H2O (2), [(L3)(UO2)(OAc)(DMF)].2H2O (3), [(L4)(UO2)(OAc)(bipy)].H2O (4), [(L5)(UO2)(OAc)(phen)].H2O (5) and [(L6)(UO2)(OAc)(Et3N)].3H2O (6).
Herhangi bir yapi icin deprem guvenlik hesaplamalarin yapilmasindaki amac o yapi hakkinda hizli ve dogru kararlar verilmesini saglamaktir. Asirlar boyu ayakta durmayi basaran tarihi yapilarin deprem guvenilirliklerinin belirlenmesi onem arz etmektedir. Bu calismada, sismik acidan oldukca hareketli olan Van Golu Havzasinda yer alan Bitlis ili, Merkez ilcesinde bulunan tarihi bir yigma yapi icin deprem guvenlik hesaplamalari gerceklestirilmistir. Tarihsel mirasimizin bir sonraki nesillere aktarilabilmesi adina tarihi yapilarda yapilacak mudahaleler onem arz etmektedir. Tarihi yapilarin korunmasina yonelik yapilacak calismalardan biri de bu tur yapilarin deprem guvenliklerinin belirlenmesidir.
There are different methods used for strengthening in the literature. In this study, the method of strengthening with a steel wire mesh of the infill wall is examined. For this reason, four reinforced concrete frames are constructed with the same structural characteristics. While one of these samples is prepared without an infilled wall (simple), the others are prepared as with an infilled wall. The two samples with infill wall are strengthened with steel wire mesh. The spacing and workmanship of anchors are changed in the strengthened samples. The obtained results showed that energy assumption and lateral load capacities increased in strengthened samples. The lateral load capacities of the sample with infilled wall and the strengthened samples with poor and good workmanship of anchors have increased by 120%, 160%, and 180% compared to simple sample, respectively. It has been observed that the strengthening face split from the infill wall in the sample in which the workmanship of anchor is poor. Because the strengthening was applied in the single side, the infill wall on the other side cracked in an X shape. So, the strengthening must be applied in both sides rather than the single side of the infill wall.
Coordinates of stations in Özlüce Dam Lake 
A total of 27 species (19 belong to genus Rotifera, 7 to Cladocera and 1 to Copepoda) were found in Ozluce Dam Lake between March 2013-February 2014 period. All of the zooplanktonic species have been detected for the first time in Ozluce Dam Lake. Rotifera was found as dominant taxonomic group in respect to Cladocera and Copepoda. Keratella cochlearis (Rotifera) and Cyclops vicinus (Copepoda) were dominant species. The highest numbers of taxa were recorded in spring.
Gunumuzde enerji tuketimi giderek artmakta, cevre koruma bilinci gelismekte ve enerji piyasasindaki serbestlesme istikrarli ilerlemektedir. Bunlarin yaninda dunya uzerindeki geleneksel enerji kaynaklari dagilimi homojen olmamaktadir. Bu sebepler, yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarindan yeni teknolojiler gelistirerek daha fazla yararlanmayi gerekli kilan politikalar uretmeye ve yakit hucre tabanli alternatif dagitilmis uretim sistemlerine olan ilgiyi arttirmaktadir. Ruzgâr, fotovoltaik (FV) ve mikro hidroelektrik gibi enerji uretim sistemleri; umut verici ve en onemli yenilenebilir enerji teknolojileridir. Ayni zamanda yakit hucre sistemleri; teknolojilerinin hizli gelismesi, yuksek verimlilikleri, cevreyi kirletici gazlarin sifir veya dusuk emisyonlu olmasi ve esnek yapilari gibi ozelliklerinden dolayi, gelecekte dagitilmis uretim uygulamalarinda buyuk bir potansiyel gosterecektir. Bu calismada, enerji dagitim sebekelerinden veya yerlesim yerlerinden uzak tatil koyu gibi kucuk yerlesim birimlerinin elektrik enerji ihtiyacini karsilamak amaciyla yenilenebilir enerji kaynakli (ruzgâr, fotovoltaik, mikro hidroelektrik) hibrit bir mikro sebekenin enerji yonetimi, Microsoft Visual Studio C Sharp(C#) dilinde gelistirilen bilgisayar programiyla saglanmistir. Gelistirilen program ile uretim kaynaklarindan alinan verilerle, yukun talep ettigi enerjinin en uygun kaynaktan karsilandigi gorulmustur. Bir gunluk elde edilen sonuclar grafiklerle analiz edilerek, enerji yonetimin rolu aciklanmistir.
In this paper, first the generalized E. Study mapping is defined for the lines in 3-space ℝ. Then, the E. Study map of circle which lie on the dual elliptical unit sphere E at the dual spaceDis studied. Furthermore, some special case is examined, each of which is a geometrical result
Bitlis Cayi, sehir merkezinden gecen ve yaklasik 208 km 2 ’lik yagis alanina sahip bir akarsudur. Kayalik, daglik ve yagis fazlaligi nedeniyle bu akarsu yataginda sik sik taskinlar meydana gelebilmektedir. Bir bolgenin taskin hidrolojisinin bilinmesi, taskin kontrol calismalari icin buyuk bir onem arz etmektedir. Bu calismada Bitlis il merkezini risk altinda tutan Bitlis Cayi’nin yagis alani dikkate alinarak, mevcut Devlet Su Isleri (DSI) olcum verilerine dayali taskin hidrolojisi belirlenmeye calisilmistir. Mevcut calismadan elde edilen bulgularin, bu bolge icin ileride yapilabilecek taskin onleme calismalarina ve diger bilimsel calismalara isik tutacagi dusunulmektedir
In this study, fish oil methyl ester (FOME) and hazelnut oil methyl ester (HOME) were produced by transerterification method using raw oils such as fish oil and hazalnut oil of the Black Sea region origin. Then, fish and hazelnut oil methyl esters (FOME, HOME) 's, each with mineral diesel fuel by mixing 50 % by volume, was transformed into mixture fuels called as FOME50 and HOME50, respectively. The effect of fuels on engine performances end exhaust emissions were investigated by using each of the mixture fuels in a single cylinder, four stroke direct injection and air cooled diesel engine. Utilizing the data obtained from test results, the changes of engine performances and exhaust emissions values according to engine speed were transfered to graphics. Then FOME and HOME, were mixed with diesel fuel 50% by volume and used as fuel in an single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection and air-cooled diesel engine to investigate the effect of each fuels on engine performance and exhaust emissions. As a result of investigations on comparison of diesel fuel with biodieseldiesel fuel blend, there has been reduction in engine power, engine torque, CO, HC, and SO2 respectively, conversely, there has been increase in specific fuel consumption and NOx emissions has been observed. Because of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends has excellent combustion characteristics and lower exhaust emissions, they can be used a substitute for petroleum diesel in diesel engines without any modification
A tree for the grammar 
An Illustration of Algorithm 8 for ``all cats are animals`` 
Flow-chart with algorithms for the system 
Input number-time match graph for SLogicWithNLTK implementation 
This article presents a technical construction of reasoning and counter-models for some sentences called fragments as in [9] in English. Speaking English and logical inferences are brought together in computer based approach to natural language. Not only the inferences in the language [7] are given but also counter-model constructions in case of no inference from input sentences. Approach of this construction considers usage of minimal number of set elements. Özet Bu makale, İngilizce dili içindeki [9] kaynağındaki gibi parçalar olarak adlandırılan bazı cümleler için türetimler ve karşıt modellerin bir teknik inşasını sunar. Günlük İngilizce ile mantıksal türetimleri doğal dile bilgisayar temelli yaklaşım içinde bir araya getirilmiştir. Sadece [7] dil içindeki türetimleri değil aynı zamanda girdi cümlelerinden bir türetim olmaması durumunda karşıt model inşaları da verilmiştir. Bu inşa yaklaşımı enaz sayıda küme elemanları kullanmayı göz önünde bulundurur.
Under the light of unpleasant experience we got through earthquakes, we observe that most of the structure reserves in our country are not durable to earthquake. Because of the main reasons such as having too many building stocks and insufficiency of time and staff, in order to minimize earthquake damages, the requisite of applying rapid assessment methods for existing structures has emerged. Determining risk priorities of the structures to be evaluated gradually will cause a decrease in the number of analyzed structures in every stage. Another aim of these rapid methods is to minimize the number of structures to be analyzed in detail. In the first stage evaluation, detailed information is not necessary. In this evaluation stage, the evaluation can be carried out through collecting the information affecting earthquake behavior from outside and partly inside the structure. There are various methods about the first stage assessment of the structures in literature. Via a regulation made by Ministry of Environment and Urbanization in 2013, these methods took part in the regulations. In this study, the soil classes, the type of structural system and the visual quality of structure parameters have been chosen as variants through using the first stage assessment method mentioned in the rules related to obtain the risky structures came into force in 2013 and structure performance scores have been calculated according to these variants. These scores have been compared and the effects of the chosen variants on structure performance scores have been commented.
Bu calismada, 8 Aralik 1978 tarihindeki, Kashima yer istasyonundan 90o K ile 90o G enlemleri ve 30, 35, 40, 45 derece Dogu boylamlari icin olusturulan haritalar kullanilarak elde edilen iyonkurenin F2-bolgesinin kritik frekansinin (foF2) degisimleri Uluslararasi Iyonkure Referans Modelinden (IRI) elde edilen degerlerle karsilastirmali olarak incelenmistir. Deneysel ve teorik veriler karsilastirildiginda kritik frekans degerlerinin kutuplardan ekvatora dogru gidildikce arttigi ve ekvator uzerinde cukurlar ile 20o K ve 20o G enlemleri arasinda tepeler olustugu gozlenmistir. 30 boylamindan 45 boylamina gidildikce kritik frekans degerleri deneysel verilerde artarken teorik verilerde azaldigi gorulmektedir
Fractional calculus and its generalizations are used for the solutions of some classes of linear ordinary and partial differential equations of the second and higher orders and fractional differential equations. In this paper, our aim is that obtaining fractional solutions of the associated Legendre equation via N-fractional calculus operator í µí± í µí¼‡ method.
Top-cited authors
Hasan Akan
  • Harran University
Aziz Aksoy
  • Malatya Turgut Özal Üniversitesi
Seda Oğur
  • Bitlis Eren University
Filiz Yangılar
  • Erzincan University
Fatih maraşlı
  • Gaziosmanpasa University