Identification of molecular biomarkers in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a challenge to preferable observation of disease progression. The objective of study was to detect serum IL-17A in MS patients and detection of G protein-coupled membrane receptor (GPR3) as a prognostic marker of Multiple sclerosis (MS) in correlation with clinical assessment and radiological study. This study was conducted on 87 Egyptian subjects divided into two groups: Group I: control group and Group II: MS patients. Group II was divided into two subgroups (A): MS patients under treatment by interferon beta. (B): MS patients under treatment by soluomedrol. MRI brain and spinal cord, serum IL17A and GPR3 were measured in both groups. It was observed that patients with MS had significant higher serum IL17 A and the very poor responding group has the highest value of IL-17A and the poor sub groups is lower and the lowest value is for the good responding sub groups. In addition the good responding group has the highest value of GPR3 and the poor sub groups is lower in GPR3 and the lowest value is for the very poor sub groups. It was concluded that serum IL-17A is a biomarker for treatment response, GPR3 may indicate a higher inherent disease activity.
The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly),Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann, 1824 (Diptera:Trypetidae.) is one of the most significant pest being able to infest the orchards, if its proliferation is not controlled. Among the preventive measures recommended in looking for varieties that are less favorable to development of this pest. Moreover, we tested the bioinsecticidal effect of Citrus limonum, Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisi essential oils on adults of C. capitata. The parameters studied are number of bites / fruit and the number of pupae / fruit. On the other hand, we evaluated the essential oils effects on the percentage mortality of C. capitata adults. The results show that the citrus varieties Thomson, Waschington and Valentia late are the most piqued by C. capitata with a maximum of 1.78 bites / fruit on the Thomson. The number of pupae / fruit reveals that these citrus varieties are less infested or even lack of pupae in late Moro orange, soft orange Wachington and lemon Eureka. The essential oils exert a highly significant toxic inhalation effect on the adults of fruit fly during the inhalation test. The dose of 17μl lemon essential oil appears to act more effectively on the longevity of C. capitata adults, since we obtained a cumulative mortality rate of 100% in less than 24 hours of exposure. At the end of this study, we confirm the toxicity of citrus essential oils on C. capitata, especially lemon essential oil. It would be interesting to define the main active ingredients of this oil acting as bio insecticides.
A study of the effects of re-feeding on metabolic fuels and enzyme activities in starved Broadhead catfish was conducted using 30 aquarium tanks with 3 fish per tank. They were divided into 2 groups a control group, and a re-fed group, which were starved (not fed) for 4 weeks and were then re-fed in weeks 5 -8. According to the re-fed group, the results showed that the HSI, serum glucose, muscle glycogen, liver glycogen, muscle protein, and muscle lipids had significantly increased in the 5th week (P<0.05). Hexokinase (HK) activity had significantly increased in the 5th week and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity had significantly decreased in the 5th and 6th week (P<0.05). Additionally, a comparison made between the re-fed and control group during each week showed that muscle protein level had been significantly higher in the 7th week in the re-fed group compared to control group (P<0.05). The muscle lipid level had been significantly lower in the 6th week in the re-fed group as compared to control group (P<0.05), whereas the AST activity had been significantly lower in the 7th week in the re-fed group compared to the control group (P<0.05). In conclusion, 4 weeks of starvation followed by 1 week of re-feeding had shown complete compensatory metabolic fuel levels, as well as HK and AST activities when compared with the control group of Broadhead catfish.
Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are known for their ability to modulate the immune system. The objective of this study was to elucidate the modulatory effect of the probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum), isolated from breast milk of lactating Egyptian women, on IL-6 and IL-1βas well as their regulating miRNAs in Azoxymethane (AOM) / dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon carcinoma in mice. The expression of IL-1β and IL-6in colonic tissue were determined by real time PCR and ELISA. Compared with DSS/AOM group, the inflammatory symptoms and histological damages of colonic mucosa in L. plantarum-treated group were significantly improved, the expression level and protein concentration of IL-1β, in colonic tissue were significantly reduced and it was combined with up-regulation of IL-6 expression level and protein concentration. L. plantarum-administration resulted in decreased aberrant crypt foci in DSS/AOM group. The investigation of the miR-21a, miR-155 and miR-146a expressions, which regulate IL-6 and IL-1β expression, indicated that both of miR-21aand miR-146awas depressed by L. plantarum-administration in healthy and in DSS/AOM group, while miR-155 expression was induced by L. plantarum-administration in 7 healthy and in DSS/AOM group. In conclusion, our findings suggested that L. plantarum administration modulated the inflammatory cytokines and inhibited CRC through reducing the expression and the protein concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and inducing the expression and the protein concentration of anti-inflammatory cytokineIL-6. These results were triggered by the inhibition of miR-146a-5p and miR-21 expressions, which are responsible for IL-6 induction and IL-1β reduction.
Different thiourea (10 & 20 mM) and H 2O 2 (10 & 20 mM) treatment effects on antioxidant enzymes (catalase and peroxidase) and soluble protein was investigated in wheat leaves. A gradual decrease in leaf protein content in control leaves was observed. Under exposure of 10mM H 2O 2 stress, a gradual decrease in leaf protein content was observed with a peak at 7th day of stress. This gradual decrease in leaf protein content was completely prevented by 20 mM thiourea treatment. Catalase activity was increased under oxidative stress by 10 mM H 2O 2 and after both thiourea treatments (10 & 20 mM). However, collective application of thiourea and H 2O 2 lowered the leaf catalase activity. Leaf peroxidase activity was significantly increased under oxidative stress induced by H 2O 2 and after thiourea treatment as compared to control. After 20mM H 2O 2 and 10 mM thiourea treatment more pronounced increase in peroxidase activity was observed. Briefly, 10 mM H 2O 2 treatment increased the antioxidants and protein level while 20 mM H 2O 2 adversely affect the catalase activity in leaves. Moreover, thiourea treatments enhanced the leaf catalase and peroxidase activities as protective effect.
Neurodegenerative disorders results in inflammatory processes, including inflammatory cytokine secretion and concomitant superoxide production. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) influence neuro degeneration through anti-inflammatory effects. Donepezil as an AChEIs also provide neuro protection. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of donepezil (DZ) as a potent acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L.NAME) as non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) as a selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor against Amyloid beta-peptide (1-42) (Aβ(1-42)) induced neurological disorder. Rats were divided into six groups including control, Aβ(1-42),Aβ(1-42) +L-arginine, Aβ(1-42) +L-NAME,Aβ(1-42) +7-NI, and Aβ(1-42) +DZ. Brain AChE, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, super oxidedismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured. Also, brain fatty acids fractions were estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Aβ(1-42) significantly alter levels of brain antioxidant, inflammatory markers and fatty acids content compared to the control group. Treatment with L.NAME, 7-NI and especially DZ improve these parameters. Administration of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as DZ attenuates neurodegenerative disorders through decreasing oxidation and inflammation.
This study declared a trial for producing one shot Lipid A (AV) and MontanideTM ISA 70 (MV) adjuvanted P. multocida vaccines for rabbits and comparison between them. The vaccines were prepared using P. multocida serotypes A: 1, A: 3, A: 12, and D: 2 as antigens. Lipid A was extracted from E. coli by acid hydrolysis and evaluated through validated RP-HPLC. Twenty-one New Zealand rabbits were divided equally into 3 groups. First group and second group were vaccinated with a single dose of AV and MV respectively, and the third group kept as a control. At 21st day post vaccination, the three groups were challenged. Mortality percentages were as follow, 100% mortality for control group, and 28.6% mortality for the vaccinated groups. AV group lysozyme activity test results showed higher significant value on days 1, 3, and 5 than MV group, but MV was the highest on the 7th day. ELISA results of AV group also showed higher significant value than MV group on 1st and 2nd weeks post vaccination, but MV was the highest on the 3rd week. Briefly despite of the rapid value increase of the AV, the MV owned prevails.
This study was conducted from April 2017 to February 2018 on a total number of 90 subjects included 70 Iraqi patients with cervical abnormalities which were referred to the surgical pathology department of the teaching laboratories in the Medical City Teaching Hospital and Al-Elweya Teaching Hospital-Baghdad-Iraq and 20 apparently healthy women. The patients and healthy were aged between 25-55 years. The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between HPV, genes expression of the genes miR-744, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 and epithelial cervical abnormalities. The results showed that women aged more than 30 yrs are in risk to have cervical abnormalities more than those less in age.The results revealed that the folding values of mi-RNA744 were highly significant in patients positive to HPV virus (2.8 10¹² ) comparing to patients negative to HPV or control (9.4 10⁷ and 2.11 10⁸ ) respectively. The increased folding value of miRNA744 in patients positive to HPV was parallel to a significant increase of folding value of caspase-3 and decreased value of Bcl-2. On the other hand, the decreased value of the miRNA744 in patients negative to HPV showed increased folding value of caspase-3 and Bcl2. These results indicate that HPV virus could be play a role in down regulating of Bcl2 which induce the apoptosis via increase the folding value of caspase-3 and its regulator miRNA744.
This study to create superior rice varieties resistant to blast and blight disease and accumulate Pro-vitamin A. The study was conducted transgenic rice PAC using Nagdong varieties which were then improved by IR36 (PAC/IR36). Then introgression gene to increase the gene resistance to blast and blight disease by crossing the Transgenic Golden PAC/IR36 with IR64 selected parent rice as a blast resistance gene, after obtaining F1 seeds planted until the F3 derivative is then selected and characterized. Our results phenotypic confirmation results from 2 line resistant against to blast by the rate of 0-1 and 5 lines resistant against to blight by the rate of 0.21-2.62 cm lesion length. Genotypic confirmation using MAS (Marker Assisted Selection), from 11 line, one detected resistance gene to blast and blight (Pi-ta, Pik-s, Piz-t, Pib, Pi54, Xa4, and Xa7) and high β-carotene. The character of this line is consistent with the recipient's parent that contains a gene that plays a role in the β-carotene biosynthesis process and according to the desired character trait that is resistant to the biotype blast and blight in Indonesia.
In this work, five strains of Photorhabdus luminescence isolated from a local nematode strains namely Heterorhabditis indica (EGAZ1), H. indica (EGAZ2), H. indica (EGAZ3), H. indica (EGAZ4), H. indica (EGAZ5), Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 which was isolated from Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (HP88), and Xenorhabdus nematophilus isolated from the hemolymph of Galleria mellonella infected with Steinernema carpocapsae (All). The identity of the isolated bacteria were authenticated referring to their cultural, morphological and biochemical traits as well as to their entomopathogenicity against Galleria mellonella. The 16S r RNA gene sequence technique was adopted for conclusive identification of the five isolates. Lab experiments conducted to examine larvae toxicity of the bacterial cell suspensions or cell-free culture filtrates with different concentrations pointed out to high susceptibility of T. absoluta larvae to all bacterial cell suspensions as well as their toxins. However, the degree of susceptibility varied according to the strain genotype and toxin concentration. Higher densities cell suspensions up to 4 x 10⁷ cells.ml⁻¹ and undiluted cell-free supernatant (100%) were the most effective larvicidal fluids. Percentage of T. absoluta mortality increased with increasing the supernatant concentration. Larvae mortality of up to 70 % was achieved when T. absoluta larvae were treated with either a cell suspension or the cell-free culture filtrates of P. luminescence (EGAP2).
Increasing soybean need causes farmers to intensively use insecticides in controlling plant pests to reduce yield loss. Dimehipo and Methomyl is an active ingredient that works as a contact poison and as a gastric poison that is often used by farmers in soybean crops. Both types of insecticides are effective in controlling plant pests, but have a negative impact on non-target organisms such as soybean pest predators. The aim of this research is to know the effect of insecticide using an active ingredient of dimehipo and methomyl on the abundance and diversity of predator arthropods in soybean cultivation. Taking arthropod predators using hand picking techniques and nets. The results showed that (1) the abundance of predator arthropods in soybean application without insecticide application was 24,413 tail consisted of 5 orders with 8 families and 10 species while in application of insecticide dimehipo was found 1,178 tail consisting of 4 orders with 7 families and 9 types. In the application of methomyl insecticide found 1,979 tail consists of 4 orders with 5 families and 7 species; (2) Planted soybean applied by insecticide dimehipo showed predominant (H') arthropod predator index was 0.748 lower than soybean applied by methomyl insecticide (1.008) and not applied synthetic insecticide (1.683). It is not advisable to use any type of synthetic insecticides to control pest attacks in soybean crops and be wiser if switching to more environmentally friendly vegetable or organic insecticides.
Efficiency of two predatory phytoseiid mites; Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias-Henriot), fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) and the biopesticide Abamectin 50% EC + cable2 oil against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch when infested two cultivars of both watermelon (Giza (6) & Sakata) and muskmelon (Gal (3) & Dahabi) was evaluated under plastic low tunnels and open field conditions at Behera Governorate, Egypt of year 2015. Highly reduction percentage was achieved by the predatory mite P. persimilis which had a higher reproductive capacity and the longest possible period of the biological control, followed by the other predatory mite T. swirskii and Abamectin. Fungal pathogen B. bassiana had the lowest effect for T. urticae density on the four afore mentioned melon cultivars.
Two series of experiments were conducted in the laboratory on newly emerged males and females of the predatory stigmaeid mite Agistemus exsertus Gonzalez to study the effect of polygamy on the fecundity and longevity of females. Results revealed that the total egg production of females assigned singly with one male displayed high egg production compared with females confined singly with multi-males. Therefore, it could be concluded that polygamy of A. exsertus reduces egg production and elongates longevity of females.
This study examined the competition between the insect predator, Chrysoperlacarnae (Stephens)and the mite predator, Neoseiuluscalifornicus (McGregor), feeding on the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychusurtica Koch as prey of both predators under the laboratory conditions. Results revealed that, C. carnea 2nd larval instar prefers to feed on N.californicus eggs and/or females in case of lack of the prey mite, T. urticae. Nevertheless, C. carnea larvae still prefers to fed on eggs and/or females of the predatory mite in the presence of T. urtica. However, the Intraguild predation of N. californicus by C. carnea larva in the existence of T. urtica was lower than that in the lack of the prey. Generally, the larvae of C. carneapreferred T. urticafemales, as a prey, when compared with N. californicus females, and reverse is true in case of the predator's eggs. In addition, in the present study, the predation efficiency on T. urticae females was increased with increasing the density of T. urticae females, i.e., the function response Type-II was achieved. Also, as the density of T. urticae increased the predation of C. carnea larvae on the predatory mite females was decreased. It is obvious that, C. carnea larvae preferred T. urticae than the predatory mite, N. californicus. In addition, C. carnea larvae reflect Type-II function response behaviour when feeding different prey densities.
Phytoseius finitimus (Ribaga) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a small sized predator and has a tendency to inhabit pubescent plants like fig orchards, where the efficiency of other larger predatory mites may be impeded. Bioassays were conducted in the laboratory at 26°C and 65% R.H. Mobile stages of the fig bud mite Aceria ficus Cotte (Eriophyidae) and the fig leaf mite Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae Keifer (Diptilomiopidae) were offered as prey at densities 10, 20, 40 and 80 individuals. The results showed that the type of eriophyoid prey significantly affected development, female longevity, sex ratio, fecundity and predatory efficiency of P. finitimus. A. ficus ranked the most suitable prey followed by the fig leaf mite. At density 40 individuals, a higher fecundity was reported on A. ficus (43.68 eggs) followed by R. ficifoliae (31.47 eggs). At the same density, population of the predator could multiply 43.68 and 31.47 (R0=43.68 and 31.47) in a generation time of 15.64 and 15.98 days (T=15.64 and 15.98) when predator fed on both previous prey, respectively. The attack rate (a) / the handling time (Th) or (a/Th) values indicate that P. finitimus was the most effective against eriophyoids prey. The calculated maximum number of consumed prey/predator/day (K) for A. ficus and R. ficifoliae were 200 and 66.67 individuals, respectively. Pollen grains of Zea mays (corn) are a better diet for predator than Ricinus communis (castor bean) in terms R0, T, rm, e rm , GRR, DT and ARI. These results suggest that P. finitimus could effectively regulate populations of harmful eiophyoid mites in fig orchards.
The current experiment was designed to investigate the effect of hydrogel as gelling agent an alternative to explants with low cost on in vitro rooting of pine apple plantlets and acclimatization in culture media of pine apple. Pine apple shoots were cultured on MS medium gelled with 100% agar, 75% agar +25% hydrogel, 50% agar+50% hydrogel, 25% agar +75% hydrogel or 100% hydrogel. The gelling agent had a significantly effect on plantlet height. Hydrogel treatments increased all growth parameters compared with the control treatment which had 100% of agar. However, the highest number of leaves, root/explants and shoot length was achieved in medium with 50% agar+50% hydrogel. On the other hand using of sucrose at 20g L⁻¹ with 50% agar+50% hydrogel enhanced the shoot chlorophyll content, number of leaves, shoot length, number of root and root length. Moreover, we found that 0.2g or 0.5g improved plant performance during acclimatization stage.
In vitro production of banana at low cost and acclimatization of plantlets using hydroponics system in the greenhouse were studied. Hydroponics system allows for higher accuracy in terms of controlling the surrounding environmental conditions, which then allows for a higher possibility of increasing productivity and enhancing the quality of plants. Increased number of vigorous shoots produced in modified MS could be mainly due to the synergistic effect of enhancing the elements on improving the metabolic activities in shoot initiation and development. Cytokinin helps in shoot proliferation, and increasing of minerals which plays a significant role in shoot growth and development. Of the different MS medium, the best response in terms of roots number attained with M5 and M6. The relative humidity in the hydroponic system provided a consistent decrease, allowing the gradual acclimatization of the regenerated plants to the unique environment compared to greenhouse potted plants. Hydroponic system which turned to be the best and lowest cost of acclimated of banana during current study. Plant growth parameters in terms of maximum root number, leaves number, plant length, stem diameter and increased weight occurred when plants were adapted and kept in hydroponics. Analysis of the results has shown that the survival rate and growth vigor was higher in plants grown hydroponically as opposed to their traditionally grown ones. Response to the nutrient medium used was also encouraging in the hydroponically grown plantlets.
This article assesses the capacity of tree species, grown in the Aktobe city, to accumulate heavy metals. Research objects are woody plants, represented by a wide range of species grown in green plantations of the Aktobe city: Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Ulmus laevis, Acer negundo, Populus tremula, Syringa vulgaris. Ten city plantations were examined. Sazdа village was taken as a control area located twenty kilometers from the city. The metal content was determined with regard to seven heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu) by spectrometry using a 720-ES Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer. The total concentration index was calculated to assess the amount of heavy metals accumulated in plants. The max content of heavy metals was found in Populus tremula, while the min content – in Ulmus pinnato-ramosa L.
Light-emitting diode (LED) technology provides an opportunity to investigate the relationships between plant metabolites and different light sources. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of different LEDs on carotenoid accumulation in green and red Chinese cabbage. LED light irradiation had positive effects on the accumulation of carotenoids under different light conditions. Seven different carotenoids were detected in green and red Chinese cabbage. Among the different LED lights, white-colored irradiation proved to be the most effective in terms of accumulation of the highest amounts of total carotenoids and also for the highest accumulation of four different carotenoids, i.e., lutein, 13-cis-β-carotene, β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene in red Chinese cabbage. White LED light also promoted the highest accumulation of β-cryptoxanthin and α-carotene in green Chinese cabbage. Among the carotenoids, accumulated levels of lutein were considerably higher than those of any of the other carotenoids in both green and red cabbage. In response to irradiation of different LED light, the lutein content in green cabbage ranged from 633.74 to 769.02 μg/g, whereas that in red cabbage ranged from 747.15 to 897.51 μg/g. Similar to lutein, the highest levels of 13-cis-β-carotene,β-carotene, and 9-cis-β-carotene in red cabbage were obtained in response to irradiation with white LED light. In green cabbage, the highest accumulation of both of α-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin was observed in response to irradiation with white LED light. In both green and red cabbage, the highest level of β-cryptoxanthin was almost the same, being slightly higher in green cabbage, and in both cases white LED light promoted the highest level of β-cryptoxanthin. Accumulation of zeaxanthin was markedly enhanced by blue + red LED light, and was considerably higher in green cabbage than in red cabbage. These results demonstrate that white LED light is effective for the high-level accumulation of carotenoids in both types of Chinese cabbage, and particularly in red cabbage.
Rapid prototyping (RP) is considering as a new technology for the aim of helping the surgeon in the visual and tactile aspects of surgery, providing diagnostic accuracy and increasing the success of surgical planning, and thus, improving outcomes and reducing complications, risks, operative time and the overall cost of treatment, one type of RP is Additive type RP in which material has been added layer upon layer to build up the desired design such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM).The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of linear measurements that was obtained from 3Dprinted CBCT images. Methodology: ten linear measurements were conducted on fifteen dry mandibles; the mandibles were scanned by using Planmeca ProMax 3D Mid, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine(DICOM) images were imported to InVesalius software,for the generation of standard tessellation language (STL)file. These fileswere used for rapid prototyping and fabrication of the models through using of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology by poly lactic acid material (PLA).Results: The difference between the mean of the direct linear measurements that were conducted on the dry mandibles and the mean of the linear measurements that were conducted on the 3D Printed CBCT images ranged from (-1.94mm to 0.92mm), The Relative Dahlberg error was less than 5% for all variables which means that there is a clinical acceptance of 3Dprinted CBCT images. The present study revealed the accuracy of linear measurements that were conducted on 3Dprinted CBCT images using FDM rapid prototyping technology.
In an open field of a private farm in kom-Hamada, EL-Behira governorate, Egypt this investigation was carried out during two successive seasons of 2016 and 2017 in order to study the effect of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Gibberellic acid (GA3) on vegetative, rooting and flowering growth and chemical compounds of Tagetes patula L. plants. The results refer that, most treatments induce significant differences in all studied parameters compared with the control. Firstly, the application of 50 mg/l NAA had the maximum plant dry weight, vase life, leaves content of chlorophyll A and B, total chlorophyll, carotenoids content, percentage of carbohydrates, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, polyphenols and flavonoids content and antioxidant activity. The treatment of 100 mg/l NAA gave the maximum root fresh weight and dry weight. From the other hand, the highest stem diameter and essential oil percentage were recorded with spraying 300 mg/l NAA in two seasons, respectively. Secondly, using 25 mg/l GA3 had the highest branches number. Using 100 mg/l GA3 had the highest essential oil content. However, the application of 200 mg/l GA3 gave earliest flowering, the maximum number of inflorescences per plant. While, the maximum values of plant height, branch length, node length, leaf area, fresh weight of plant and per inflorescence, inflorescence diameter and length of inflorescence pedicel were achieved with spraying 300 mg/l GA3 in the first and second seasons, respectively. Chemical composition of Tagetes patula essential oil was also affected with different concentrations of NAA and GA3 compared with the control.
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious birth complication, while numerous potential biomarkers of the brain damage can exist but Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) hold a significant promise in this group, as it is a key protein in astrocytes that its expression is induced by brain damage, CT show characteristic patterns of brain injury which correlate with the level of brain maturity at the time of an insult, therefore we can exclude other causes of encephalopathy in addition limiting the diagnosis to HIE. Assessment of serum GFAP in neonate with HIE and its relation to grading and to evaluate the role of cranial CT in diagnosis of HIE and its relation to GFAP finding. A case control study was carried out on 30 full term neonates with HIE classified according to Sarnat and Sarnat classification and 20 full term healthy neonates, selected from Rashid General Hospital in Alexandria, Egypt. Samples for GFAP were obtained at two-points time (0-6 & 48-72) hours postnatal in cases, and for control within hours from birth, Cranial Computed Tomography (CT) were obtained at the 4th day age for cases group. The laboratory tests are done in the Immunogenetics Lab, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt. In our study there was statistically significant serial increase in GFAP level in cases of HIE than control from birth to 48-72 hours age and positive correlation between its level and severity of the disease, 26.7% of cases of HIE had a picture of brain edema in cranial CT and this finding also correlated with the level of GFAP. There is serial increase in serum GFAP level from birth to 48-72 hours postnatal in HIE and that increase is correlated with its severity, also brain edema is the most common finding in cranial CT in these cases and it is correlated with the severity and GFAP level.
Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease pro-inflammatory markers by displacing arachidonic acid (AA) from cell membranes and competing with it for the enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of thromboxanes, prostaglandins and leukotrienes. This study aimed to investigate the beneficial role of fish oil (FO) as a source of omega-3 fatty acids on pro-inflammatory markers in diabetic ovariectomized rats in context of AA releasing status from the cell membrane. Forty female rats were divided into four groups: sham operated rats (control group), sham operated rats received orally fish oil, ovariectomized diabetic rats (OVX-D) and OVX-D rats received fish oil (treated group). Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) and Lipoxin-A4 (LXA4) were measured. The concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) and alpha- linolenic acid (ALA) were estimated by HPLC. Results indicated that hyperglycemia in OVX diabetic rats significantly increased pro-inflammatory markers and erythrocyte membrane arachidonic acid, concomitant with a reduction in ALA, fish oil supplementation attenuated this parameters, indicating a significant effect in managing several complications of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats which may be related to the efficiency of omega 3 fatty acids in suppressing inflammation of pancreatic beta cell, enhancement of insulin secretion and uptake of glucose in adipose tissue.
In vitro regenerated shoots of olive (Coratina cv.) from shoot tip establishment stage were cultured individually on olive medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminoproline (BAP). Putrescine and glutamine at 50 and 100 ppm were tested during proliferation and rooting stages. Data indicated that putrescine and glutamine at higher concentration (100 ppm) gave the highest growth vigor and proliferation of olive shootlets. The best shoot length was obtained when 100 ppm glutamine was added to the medium. On the other hand, the number of leaves was not statistically affected by all different treatments under study. Moreover, putrescine was better than glutamine at rooting stage. The best rooting percentage and greening were obtained when putrescine was added to the medium. The aforementioned results summarized that addition of putrescine at 100 ppm to culture medium recommended for realizing the best results.
Groundnut is one of the most cultivated oil crops in the world. Green house pot experiments were conducted in summer seasons of 2014 and 2015 to find out the influence of L-ascorbate (LAA) on improving yield components and biochemical constituents, as well as oil composition in harvested seeds of some groundnut cultivars (NC, Giza-6 and Gregory) grown in sandy soil. Results showed that, foliar application of LAA at different concentration (0, 400 and 600 mg/l) increased yield components including number of pods/plant, pods weight/plant (g), number of seeds/plant, seeds weight/plant (g), 100-seed weight (g) and oil yield/plant (g), as well as biochemical constitutes such as total free amino acids, total protein, mineral contents (nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, manganese and iron), oil content and unsaturated fatty acids, but decreased saturated fatty acids in yielded seeds compared to control plants. Also, results reveal that total soluble sugars, total carbohydrates and total phenols were decreased in NC cv., meanwhile, these attributes were increased in Giza 6 and Gregory cultivars in response to application of LAA compared to untreated plants. The physiological responses of groundnut plants depended on the concentration of LAA and type of cultivar. In NC cv., the application of LAA at low concentration (400mg/l) seemed to be more effective than the higher one. On the contrary, in Giza-6 and Gregory cultivars, LAA at 600 mg/l seemed to be more effective than the lower concentration. Overall, foliar application of LAA has a positive role in enhancement the productivity and the biochemical constituents and fatty acids composition of groundnut cultivars (NC, Giza 6 and Gregory) grown in sandy soil.
Oral health promotion is a fundamental need across the whole life course. Aim: the current study aimed to investigate knowledge of oral &dental health across life span among dental nurses. Settings and Design: a cross-sectional survey design was utilized and the study was conducted at the primary health care (PHC) settings. Methods and Materials: Data was collected from 112 nurses using dental nurses’ knowledge on oral& dental health promotion across life span questionnaire developed by researcher under main five domains as the following: oral systemic health, oral health during (pregnancy, childhood, adulthood and elderly). Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics. Results: The majority of nurses have poor knowledge regarding oral health across life span. Most of them didn’t receive any oral & dental health topic in their nursing curriculum. Majority of nurses didn’t receive any training programs related to oral and dental health in their nursing carrier. Significant relationship was found between nurses’ knowledge and years of experience but no significant relationship was detected between total knowledge scores and nurses’ age or education. Conclusion: Oral health promotion knowledge was poor among nurses working at primary dental clinic. There was a great need for addressing gaps in nursing education and training regarding oral& dental health. Oral and dental health across lifespan training program regarding was recommended. Also, corporation of oral and dental health topics into the nursing curriculum was highly recommended to improve dental nurses’ knowledge at PHC level
Acrylic resins were introduced in 1936 and have been used to make the denture bases. Acrylic resin is thermally conductive, reasonable permeableness to mouth fluids and stable in colour. Polymetyhl methacrylate resin has been used for a long time as the best choice to make complete or partial dentures, cause it is esthetically accepted and easily manipulated. However, the mechanical properties of acrylic should become better. Numerous studies have had been done to investigate the effects of several factors on denture teeth discolouration, like commercial types of denture teeth, their composition, filler, processes like polishing, mouthwashes, drinks and coloured food. In KSA, café is used up in a modified product called Gahwa (Arabian café). Gahwa is prepared by boiling roasted, crushed café beans with cardamom powder. The aim of the study was to assign the influence of normally made café kinds, in KSA, on polymetyhl methacrylate denture base materials. Acrylic resin patterns were used (the material tested in the present study was heat-cure acrylic resin (Vertex rapid simplified, Holland). They were parted into five groupings; the control and four tentative groupings agreeably to four kinds of café had been used in the study. Each grouping had 10 specimens. Dental stone had been used for molds making, and Vaseline had been used as a separating medium. Colour exchange of acrylic resin had been shown significantly after dipping in the Espresso, the American and the Turkish café. The Espresso café caused most exchanges in colour then; the American and the Turkish kinds come afterward. There was non-significant difference between the Turkish and the American café. But then, no any exchange in colour of the acrylic resin material significantly had been shown with Gahwa. No significant exchange in colour from the patterns dipped in normal Saline (control) and specimens dipped in Gahwa. No meaning variation in the acrylic resin microhardness used in this present article pre- and post-dipping in the kinds of café. Nonetheless the café kinds were not a meaning substitute to exchange the acrylic resin surface microhardness (P>0.05). Though, no meaning variation had been detected between the acrylic resin material and the café kinds (P>0.05). A significant colour exchange had been shown after dipping of the acrylic resin material in Espresso, Turkish and American café. Most change in color been caused by Espresso café after that by Turkish and American café. On the other hand, No colour exchange of acrylic resin and specimens dipped in Gahwa, which expressed no indicative colour exchange from specimens dipped in normal saline. There was no meaning variation on surface microhardness of the acrylic tested in this research in preceding and afterward dipping in the various kinds of café.
Six diallel crosses among four different genotypes of bread wheat were resulted by half-diallel scheme and evaluated at the Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza Governorate, Egypt during 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 seasons. The objectives of the current study were, identify the mode of gene action in the inheritance, combining ability effects and heterosis for studied traits. Genotypic differences were found in all studied traits among parents, crosses and parents vs. crosses. The mean performance of the parental means showed that Kharchia (P3) exhibited the tallest plant, the highest no of spike/plant and ranked the second for biological yield/plant. L-41 (P2) was the highest for grain yield/plant, biological yield/plant and ranked the second for spike no./plant and kernel no./spike, while it was the shortness, and lowest seed index. Sahel1 ranked the first for no. of kernel/spike and seed index, meanwhile it ranked the second in grain yield/plant. In respect to cross mean performance the cross, combinations L-29 X Kharchia and L-41 X Kharchia showed the highest means of F1 crosses for all studied traits. Four crosses combinations L-29 X Kharchia, L-41 X Kharchia, L-41 X Sahel1 and Sahel1 X Kharchia showed significant desirable heterosis and heterobeltiosis for all studied traits. It is interesting to mention that the high positive heterosis and heterbeltiosis in grain yield/plant was associated with high positive heterosis and heterobeltiosis in no. of spikes/plant (r=0.83), kernel no./spike(r=0.89)and biological yield/plant (r=0.95). The crosses showing the best heterosis and heterobeltiosis could be recommended to improve the respective traits. Both general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability variances were significant for most studied traits, indicating the importance roll of additive and non-Additive genetic variances in determining the performance of these traits. The best general combiners were L-41 and Kharchia for grain yield/plant and Kharchia for no. of spikes/plant. The best F1 crosses in SCA effects for most of studied traits were L-29 X Kharchia and L-41 X Sahel1. The predominance of non-Additive type of gene actions, as well as over-dominant inheritance for most traits in bread wheat, clearly showed that selection in early generation might not be useful. Therefore, for the improvement of these traits of wheat, selection of superior plants should be delayed through later generations.
Nowadays, recycling wastes to compost has become the safe way and suitable options for disposal the huge amount of agricultural wastes, which are produced now with expected economic and environmental profits. Therefore, understanding the factors affecting in composting process is basic for producing good and high quality compost. The present study has been focused on physical, chemical and biological factors that occurs during composting process using different agricultural wastes mixed with three different types of manures as activators i.e., poultry litter, cow and mixture of sheep and camel manures. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of pH; EC ; temperature ; CO2 concentration; organic carbon (%) ; NH4 (ppm) ; NO3 (ppm); C:N ratio; changes in total macro and micro-nutrients and oxygen levels during composting process and the necessity of standardizing the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria. Microbiological changes during composting process were also considered. Results revealed that agricultural waste which treated with10% poultry manure registered rapid degradation than the two other manures and recorded the least bacterial counts, while the treatment of agricultural waste +10% mixture of camel and sheep manure as organic activator gave the highest bacterial counts and higher EC than either treated with cow or poultry manure. Finally, all these parameters are considered as a good indicator for the end of the biodegradation phase in which the compost achieves maturity.
The Capparis spinosa L. is a species has a great interest in the field of traditional medicine for its pharmacological properties with many bioactive compounds. Our study is aiming at the recovery of this species through a phytochemical analysis and an evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of leaves of Capparis spinosa L. collected from natural habitats within the region of Al-Jadriya, Baghdad, Iraq. Phytochemical investigation demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids, tannins, and glycosides in the methanolic extract of leaves. The quantitative analysis of total phenolic contents is being performed by Folin-Ciocalteau method and expressed in terms of gallic acid equivalents. C. spinosa exhibited progressive phenolic content in methanolic extract which was 21.62, 24.81 and 29.54 mg/g in concentration 8, 10 and 12 mg/ml, respectively. The antioxidant activity is determined by the DPPH test, showed that the radical scavenging capacity (EC50) of methanolic extract was found to be (7.1 mg/ml), while the (EC50) of vitamin C and BHT was (1 and 1.4 mg/ml) respectively. The antibacterial activity evaluated against pathogenic strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealed the effectiveness of methanolic extract against the most tested isolates at 100 mg/ml while P. aeruginosa exhibited resistance against extract. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) results revealed the activity of methanolic extract against S. aureus at 75 mg/ml, while the MIC of P. aeruginosa reached to 250 mg/ml. On the basis of the above findings, it can be concluded that C. spinosa possesses obvious antioxidant and antimicrobial potential can be used as a natural medicinal agent.
The activities of honeybee colonies under environmental conditions of Bahariya Oasis as new reclaimed areas, Egypt were evaluated. Twenty five honeybee colonies were placed at five locations of Bahariya Oasis; El-Heiz, El-Zabwoo, El-Kasr, Mandisha and El-Bawiety. The general mean area of workers brood in El-Heiz was significantly higher than those of the other locations. The corresponding means were 480.5, 477.9, 460.3, 375.5 and 374.34 inch ² / colony for the El-Heiz, El-Zabwoo, El-Kasr, Mandisha and El-Bawiety, respectively. The largest population of workers was generally recorded in El-Heiz (22560 workers/colony) and El-Zabwoo (21740 workers/colony). Colonies located at El-Heiz had the highest worker population during summer season (33780 workers/ colony). Queen cells building peaked during spring season (7.91cells/colony) in El-Zabwoo followed by summer season (5.18 cells/colony) in El-Heiz, (4.13 cells/colony) in El-Bawiety, (3.53 cells/colony) in El-Kasr and (2.44 cells/colony) in Mandisha in the tested locations. The highest amounts of stored honey were in the summer season (8.85 kilogram /colony) In El-Heiz, (8.75 kg. /colony) in Mandisha, (8.45 kg. /colony) in El-Zabwoo, (7.60 kg. /colony) in El-Kasr and (6.55 kg. /colony) in El-Bawiety. Highly significant correlation was found between worker brood areas and worker population (r = +0.900) and building queen cells (r= +0.614).
The significance of biodiversity irrespective, how much is small has a keen importance in ecological studies. Biodiversity has remained to be an important topic among ecological researchers. The start of environmental degradation produces different impacts in quantitative but qualitative ways also. This review will help in understanding the environmental crisis causing a pronounced depletion of species. The technological expansion in the world to meet the expectation of humanity at the cost of natural resources is key factor in disturbing the ecosystem. The awareness about the complete status of wild life and flora in our country is still unknown. Random trapping and hunting of these endangered species is very common round the year. The most important concern is that, the reserves areas constructed for the conservation of nature are under stress resulting in increasing deteriorated conditions.
Tissue culture technique could be the most suitable method for studying the impact of nanotechnology on the plant. Recently, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) application on plant attracts a great attention. This study was to demonstrate the effect of CNTs on in vitro culture of jojoba shoots. Carbon in two sizes (activated carbon and carbon nanotubes) was used. Generally, CNTs at 0.002, 0.02 and 0.2 g/L enhanced multiplication rate; as shoot and leaf number as well as callus degree. It also increased growth vigor, at 0.002 g/L, as plantlet length, leaf number and stem thickness in rooting stage, compared with the control and activated charcoal (AC) at 2.0 g/L. Decreasing concentration of CNTs to 0.002 g/L led to higher antioxidant activity, phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents compared with its other concentrations used. Methanol extract (80%) of jojoba treated with AC had the highest content of total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin and showed the highest antioxidant activity. It is assumed that the AC used is able to exhibit an antioxidant effect because of its radical capacity due to its adsorption ability, increasing phenols which may have a scavenging effect or increase the production of antioxidant enzymes in plant tissues. As our knowledge, this investigation on CNTs and activated charcoal is the first in jojoba in vitro cultures.
American almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A.Webb. cv. American] is always marketed with high price as compared to the Pakistani almond [Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A.Webb. cv. Pakistan] due to its superior quality. To study a comparative account on their chemical composition, GC-MS analysis of the volatile fraction of n-hexane extracts of both was performed separately which led to the conclusion that former is enriched additionally with small amounts of some oxygenated constituents which are absent in the latter. These additional components might have been contributing for its better quality. Similarly, when the antioxidant activities of these extracts were compared by DPPH radical scavenging and phosphomolybdenum complex method, it was revealed that the former possesses slightly more potential as compared to the latter. The IC 50 of American almond extract was found to be 70±7 μL/mL while that of Pakistani almond extract was 108±19 μL/mL, respectively.
This investigation was done to recognize the essential oil yield and its chemical components in different parts of Zinnia elegans plants as affected with bio-stimulating in two successive seasons of 2016 and 2017 under open field conditions. The effect of actosol and yeast extract and the combinations of them were studied on zinnia plants and all of them significantly improved fresh and dry herb, roots and inflorescences yield as well as essential oil yield of different parts of plant compared with the control. The concentration of 10 cm³/ l actosol was effective in improve herb, roots and inflorescences fresh and dry yield per faddan. From the other hand, the differences in percentage and yield of essential oil between 10 and 20 cm³ /l actosol concentrations were insignificant in the first and the second seasons, respectively across all yeast extract concentrations. The concentration of 10 g/l yeast extract as foliar application was the best in this concern compared with the other yeast extract and control across all actosol concentrations in both seasons, respectively. The maximum yield of different parts and their essential oil contents were recorded as a result of combination treatment of 10 cm³/l actosol plus 10 g/l yeast extract compared with the other combination treatments in the first and second seasons, respectively except, the essential oil percentage and yield of herb were recorded with the combination of 20 cm³/l actosol plus 10 g/l yeast extract in the first season but the differences between the combination of 10 cm³/l actosol plus 10 g/l yeast and the combination of 20 cm³/l plus 10 g/l yeast in herb essential oil yield and percentage were insignificant in both seasons, respectively. Chemical compositions of essential oil of different parts of zinnia plants were influenced with all treatments in this study.
Amikacin is aminoglycoside antibiotic which widely used in neonatal intensive care units for the treatment of severe, life-threatening gram negative bacterial infections. Its clinical use is limited by its side effects especially high nephrotoxicity. The present study designed to evaluate the renoprotective effect of silymarin (herbal medicine) against amikacin nephrotoxicity in male Albino rats. Rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups, Group (1); served control group and orally received 1ml isotonic saline solution. Group (2); orally received 1ml of freshly prepared silymarin solution (200 mg/kg/day). Group (3); intramuscularly injected with amikacin (100 mg/kg/day). Group (4); orally received 1ml of freshly prepared silymarin for 5 successive days then intramuscularly injected with amikacin. The experiment continued for 15 days and the samples were taken at the 3rd and 10th days of treatment. Results cleared amikacin causes nephrotoxicity through increasing levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, potassium, phosphorus and total oxidant status together with decreasing levels of sodium, calcium, and total antioxidant capacity. Urine protein/creatinine ratio and microalbuminuria concentration were also increased. Amikacin nephrotoxicity was confirmed by renal cytological, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. Results of this study cleared the restorative and renoprotective effects of silymarin through improving the renal function following its administration which mediated via the attenuation of oxidative stress and the modulation of the damaged renal tissue particularly the glomerular filtration
The effect of α-tocopherol or nicotinamide in the absence and presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus at various water holding capacities (WHCs) on sunflower (Giza 102) was investigated. The different nitrogen containing-compounds accumulate in plants exposed to water stress include amino acid composition, polyamines, protein electrophoresis and activity of antioxidant enzymes in sunflower plants and furthermore to elevate the efficiency of sunflower plants to oppose water stress. The mycorrhiza fungi were inoculated on the soil before planting and different concentrations of α-tocopherol or nicotinamide were sprayed. The plants were exposed to various levels of WHC 80%, 60% and 30%. Our results highlight that cultivation of sunflower plant in the presence of mycorrhiza and spraying with α-tocopherol or nicotinamide produced increases in amino acids (particularly proline and glutamic acid). It was observed herein that, water stress elicit an influence on putrescine, spermidine spermine and total polyamine. Applications of α-tocopherol or nicotinamide to sunflower plant improve seedling resistance in the presence of mycorrhiza reasonably by enhancing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. A few alterations are seen in protein patterns, so some electrophoretic protein patterns were disappear, however particularly another proteins were selectively enhanced and synthesis of the new group of proteins was produced, several from these responses were seen by the effect of treatments and water stress.
This study aimed to ascertain the underlying neuro-biochemical imbalances that exist in children with ADHD by assessing the plasma levels of dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, γ amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Moreover, it investigated the potential effects of PUFA and vitamins supplementation as an alternative therapy to modulate the levels of these neurotransmitters and the overall clinical status of ADHD patients. The study included 40 ADHD patients, aged 4-6 years. The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) test has been employed to diagnose patients with ADHD and the severity of symptoms was assessed using the Arabic version of Conners' Parent Rating Scale. Additionally, patients were assessed using the Arabic versions of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children (M.I.N.I. Kid) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 5th Edition (SB5). Recruited patient received nutritional supplement of semi-solid diet containing 1000 mg PUFA with selected vitamins once daily for six months. The evaluation of ADHD symptoms and levels of neurotransmitters has been carried out at pre-/post-intervention stage. Post-nutrition intervention assessment, there was a significant increase in dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA levels (p-value < 0.0001) with significant decrease in glutamate level (p-value < 0.0001) when compared to their correspondent pre-intervention levels. Symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity were significantly improved after 6 months nutrition intervention program (p-value<0.001). Therefore, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamins could be considered more extensively in therapy of ADHD patients particularly those who are less than 6 years old.
Insulin sensitivity has been modulated by Adiponectin gene which regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of the Adiponectin gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility of insulin resistance (IR) in female adolescents and investigate their relations to adiponectin levels and biochemical features. The study included 400 children, 200 unrelated with IR between and 200 age- sex and BMI- healthy matched children with no family history of IR. Their age ranged between 10-11 years. Two SNPs: -11,391G/A (rs17300539) and -11,377C/G (rs 266729) were studied by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum adiponectin was studied by ELISA method and its relation with polymorphisms was analyzed. Cases with IR showed higher triglyceride, HOMA-IR, SBP, DBP and lower serum adiponectin levels as compared to control group. Significant association was observed between IR and variant alleles -11,391A (OR: 4.33(2.14-8.79) and the -11,377G (OR: 4.82, 95% CI: 2.14-8.79). The risk of IR was increased in recessive genetic model (AA vs. GG+ GA) (OR: 4.84, 95% CI: 1.61- 14.58) and (GG vs. CC+ CG) (OR: 5.21, 95% CI: 1.12 - 14.09). Regarding -11,377C/G, cases with the GG genotype had significantly higher HOMA-IR, SBP, DBP, TG levels and lower adiponectin concentration compared with those with the combined genotypes group CC+CG (p<.03). Similar findings were found in the between AA carriers and GG+ GA genotypes. The two adiponectin gene polymorphisms -11,391G/A and -11,377C/G are associated with increased risk of IR, abnormal metabolic markers and low serum adiponectin levels. These polymorphisms can be used as good early biomarkers for IR risk and metabolic complications.
Dexamethasone has been known as an immunosuppressive drug that globally used to ameliorate a variety of inflammation disorders. However, long-term treatment can induce undesirable effects. With this intention, the experiment aimed to generalize and to explore the effect of dexamethasone in physiological regulations including an immune system on the healthy two-weeks-old BALB/c mice. A bioinformatics approach was used to predict molecules interaction and ligand-protein networking. Furthermore, the BD FACS CaliburTM was used to count the population number of regulatory T cells and the expression of TNF-α and IFN-γ which produced by CD4 T cells in the spleen. In addition, the Haematoxylin-Eosin staining was performed to detect necrosis incidents in excretory organs. Presently, based on ligand-protein networking analysis we found that dexamethasone has wide range effects on several metabolisms and pathways. On the other hand, single dose administration of dexamethasone significantly increases IFN-γ pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. On top of that, it induces necrosis in both liver and kidney tissue. Therefore, the study about dexamethasone is still needed in order to evaluate their effects on the other several physiological mechanisms.
The effects of chronic administration of efavirenz commonly used as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) type-1 therapy on the DNA of the intracranial auditory relay centre namely the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=20), with an average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. The rats in the treatment group received 600mg/70kg body weight of efavirenz dissolved in distilled water daily for 30 days through the orogastric tube. The control group received equal volume of distilled water daily for 30 days through the same route. The rats were fed with grower's mash obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Limited, Ewu, Edo state, Nigeria and given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation method on the thirty-first day of the experiment. The inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for histochemical study. The histochemical findings indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body showed less intense staining and appearing pachychromatic. The stained neurons and glia cells were few as compared to the control sections. There were observations of neuronal enlargement in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body of the treated sections. The inferior colliculus of the treated group showed evidence of hypertrophy and microcytic changes in the darkly stained DNA positive granules, while the treated section of the medial geniculate body showed positively stained DNA granules of various sizes and shapes, with an indication of hypertrophy and microcytic changes as compared to the control group. Chronic administration of efavirenz may therefore have an adverse effect on the DNA of the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.
To evaluate anthropometric measurements for early assessment of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetic patients. One hundred thirty five adolescent type 1 diabetic patients and 100 healthy volunteers of age and sex matched were included in the study. Blood samples were collected for measurement of oxidized low density lipoprotein (OxLDL), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profile. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were assessed. Carotid intimal medial thickness (cIMT) and aortic intimal medial thickness (aIMT) were also assessed via ultrasound.HbA1c, urinary albumin./ creatinine ratio, lipid profile, OxLDL, cIMT and aIMT were significantly higher in diabetic patients. A significant positive correlation was found between body mass index (BMI) and age of diabetic patients, insulin dose, waist/ height ratio, blood pressure, LDL-c and cIMT. A significant positive correlation was found between waist/hip ratio and duration of diabetes, insulin dose/ kg, waist/ height ratio and urinary albumin/ .creatinine ratio. A significant positive correlation was found between waist/ height ratio and HbA1c, lipid profile and cIMT. Waist/ height ratio, BMI, waist/ hip and midarm circumference/ height ratio are useful for early discovery of atherosclerosis. Waist / height ratio is the best anthropometric measurement for assessment of atherosclerosis and glycemic control in diabetic patients.
To evaluate different biomarkers for early detection of renal damage and arterial stiffness in adolescent type 1 diabetic patients. Seventy five type 1 diabetic patients and 50 healthy volunteers of the same age and sex were included in the study. Blood samples were taken for assessment of resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profile. Urine samples were taken for assessment of albumin/creatinine ratio, Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and kidney injury molecule-1(Kim-1). Doppler for assessment of carotid intimal medial thickness (cIMT) and resistivity index (RI) were also done. HbA1c, albumin/ creatinine ratio, lipid profile, NGAL, KIM-1, L-FAB, cIMT and RI were significantly higher while resistin were significantly lower in diabetic patients. uNGAL, KIM-1, L-FAB had a significant positive correlation with microalbuminuria, while resistin had a significant negative correlation with cIMT. uNGAL, KIM-1 and L-FABP were significantly higher in diabetic normoalbuminuric than controls. Resistin and urinary L-FABP had a good diagnostic accuracy, area under the curve (AUC = 0.7) with patients with cIMT, on the other hand urinary NGAL and resistin had a good diagnostic accuracy of microalbuminuria. RI and tubular biomarkers precede the development of diabetic nephropathy even before the development of glomerular damage signs, i.e. micro- and macro albuminuria, so they represent early biomarkers of ‘normoalbuminuric’ diabetic nephropathy (DN) with a good sensitivity and specificity. NGAL, KIM-1, L-FAB and Resistin can be considered as early biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy and atherosclerosis .