Bioscience Reports

Published by Portland Press
Online ISSN: 1573-4935
Print ISSN: 0144-8463
Autoradiography of 10% polyacrylamide/dodecyl-sulfate slab gel from azido-ATP-photolabelled human BAT mitochondrial membranes. (A) 0. i mM [y_32p] n~ ATe; (B) same as A p l u s 20 ~M c a r b o x y a t r a c t y l a t e ; (C) same as B plus 1.0 mM GDP. 
Using both immunohistological study and photoaffinity labelling with radioactive azido-ATP, evidence is presented that the mitochondrial membranes of the brown adipose tissue of the human adult contain a 32 000-Mr uncoupling protein, which is probably similar to the uncoupling protein of BAT of rodents.
The immunoblotting technique was used to identify sphingomyelinase protein in samples of tissue and urine after subjection to polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. In a sphingomyelinase preparation purified from control urine a prominent band was seen with an Mr of 28 000 Da. Glycoprotein fractions from urine and placenta, a membrane extract from spleen, and a partially purified sphingomyelinase preparation from placenta contained the 28 000-Da band plus additional, higher-Mr bands. The 28 000-Da band was detectable in urine from a patient with Niemann-Pick disease type C, but not in urine from patients with Niemann-Pick disease types A and B. It is concluded that sphingomyelinase is composed of at least one polypeptide with an Mr of 28 000 Da and that this polypeptide is deficient in the urine of patients with Niemann-Pick disease types A and B.
Female rats were given 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), 0.25 μg per 100 g body weight (bw), 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), 1.7 μg/100 g bw or 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25(OH)2D3) 1.7 μg/100 g bw, subcutaneously three times a week for 12 weeks. Traditional variables pertaining to calcium homeostasis and growth, i.e. blood and urine calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P), serum levels of vitamin D3 metabolites parathyroid hormone, (PTH), calcitonin (CT), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) were measured every four weeks. This data pool was correlated with bone matrix turnover parameters, i.e. serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and urinary hydroxyproline (u-HYP) excretion. After 12 weeks of treatment, 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly enhanced serum total and ionized Ca, urine Ca and urine P, and also diminished urine cAMP due to reduced renal function (creatinine clearance). However, 25(OH)D3 administration had no such impact. 24,25(OH)2D3 opposed the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 after 12 weeks by significantly augmenting serum P and diminishing serum levels of total Ca and ionized Ca. Cross sectional group analyses showed that criculating levels of ALP were directly related with serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and inversely related to serum 24,25(OH)2D3 and CT. Total u-HYP and per cent non-dialysable HYP (ndHYP) were reciprocally and positively correlated with serum PRL, respectively. However, no such relations were observed with serum GH. It appears that rats with elevated circulating levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 exhibit increased bone resorption, while augmented 24,25(OH)2D3 is associated with the opposite. Apparently, high bone turnover (i.e. reduced total urinary HYP and enhanced ndHYP) is associated with high serum PRL.
A model explaining quantal Ca2+ release as an intrinsic property of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor has been put forward. The model is based on the hypothesis that the IP3 receptor can catalyze a transformation of the IP3 molecule differing from its conventional metabolism. A simple kinetic mechanism is considered, in which IP3-induced Ca2+ channel opening is followed by the step of IP3 conversion and channel closure. Examination of the resulting mathematical model shows that it can reproduce well both partial release of stored Ca2+ and the same responsiveness to subsequent IP3 additions. On incorporation of an additional closed state of the channel, the model describes also a time-dependent channel inactivation at a high IP3 dose. Temperature sensitivity of the catalytic step accounts for the reported elimination of quantal responses and inactivation at low temperature. The transformation product is surmised to be a positional or stereo isomer of IP3.
A new homologous, cell-free system for protein synthesis has been devised for use with ribosomes and elongation factors from Aspergillus nidulans. Ribosome preparations from strains with either the suaA101 or suaC109 mutations have a higher misreading ratio (non-cognate:cognate amino acid incorporation) in the presence of hygromycin than controls. They can be classed as fidelity mutants. These results also prove that the mutations must be in genes coding for ribosomal proteins or enzymes which modify ribosomal proteins post-translationally. Alternatively, the genes could code for translation factors.
Effects of methylprednisolone and tirilazad on Concana û alin A - stimulated respiration of human PBMC . Human PBMC were incubated in medium with 75 μ g ͞ ml (3.75 μ g ͞ 10 6 cells) Concanavalin A, 
Effects of methylprednisolone and tirilazad on main ATP - consuming processes in Concana û alin A stimulated PBMC . Human PBMC were incubated in medium with 75 μ g Concanavalin A per ml alone (control) or with 75 μ g Concanavalin A per ml and either tirilazad (0.32 mg ͞ 10 7 cells or 0.89 mM) or 
Effect of PNU-101033E on respiration in PBMC . Quiescent human PBMC were incubated in medium with or without 0.025 mg PNU-101033E ͞ 10 7 cells (0.1 mM) for 1 hr and subsequently stimulated with 75 μ g Concanavalin A ͞ ml (3.75 μ g ͞ 10 6 cells). Results are means J SD for 4 – 7 measurements. 
Two groups of antioxidant compounds, the 21-aminosteroids and the pyrrolopyrimidines, have been found to act as neuroprotective drugs against lipid peroxidation in the injured CNS. Like glucocorticoids at high doses they are assumed to produce their effects at least in part by direct membrane stabilizing effects. In order to prove this hypothesis, we have investigated in this study the effects of these drugs on the energy metabolism of activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) since these cells have been shown to serve as a suitable test system for substances affecting processes of ATP turnover. We compared the in vitro effects of (i) the 21-aminosteroid lazaroid tirilazad, (ii) the pyrrolopyrimidine lazaroid PNU-101033E and (iii) the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone on mitogen-induced respiration rate and ATP-consumption. We show that tirilazad inhibits concanavalin A-stimulated respiration rate and sodium cycling across the plasma membrane. The effect of methylprednisolone is similar indicating corresponding cellular mechanisms. However, unlike methylprednisolone, tirilazad produced no significant effect on calcium cycling across the plasma membrane. PNU-101033E in our test system caused cytotoxic effects on PBMC that did not allow us to quantify cellular actions on energy metabolism. Our results underline the view that tirilazad, first, is mimicking the high-dose immunosuppressive pharmacology of glucocorticoids such as methylprednisolone and, second, is likely to produce its therapeutic effects by direct physicochemical interactions with cellular membranes.
A C3H/10T1/2 cell line containing an inducible metallothionein-ras hybrid oncogene was conditionally and reversibly transformed upon exposure to zinc ions. Interestingly, although the cell line was fully malignant when expressing only low levels of ras, complete morphological transformation required much higher levels.
The Harderian glands are innervated by sympathetic fibers originating in the superior cervical ganglia. The aim of this study is to characterize the beta-adrenergic receptors in the rat Harderian gland. The characteristics of beta-adrenergic receptors were determined in crude membrane preparations from rat Harderian gland, using [125I]iodocyanopindolol ([125I]CYP) as radioligand. The binding of the ligand to the receptor is rapid, reversible, saturable, specific and dependent on time, temperature and membrane concentration. At 30 degrees C, stoichiometric data suggest the presence of one binding site with a Kd value of 0.29 nM and Bmax of 32 pmol/L. The interaction shows a high degree of specificity for beta-adrenergic agonists and blockers, as suggested by competitive displacement experiment with isoproterenol (IC50 = 19.1 nM), propranolol (IC50 = 28.1 nM), and norepinephrine (IC50 = 96.3 nM). Clonidine, yohimbine, methoxamine, and prazosin are ineffective at concentrations up to 1 microM. In the other hand, binding of [125I]CYP by Harderian gland membranes exhibits day-night variations. Binding values are low during the daytime and increase progressively late in the evening to reach a maximum at 2200 h (2 h after the onset of dark period), but decreased to the end of the dark period (0600 h). In conclusion, the results presented in this paper show the functional and pharmacological characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors in the rat Harderian gland. This neurotransmitter may play a physiological role at this level regulating, at least, processes such as a thyroid hormone metabolism.
The uptake of free and liposome-entrapped 125I-labelled PVP was measured in and intestinal-sac preparation from adult rats. Uptake of the free macromolecule was directly proportional to the substrate concentration and was reduced by colchicine and sodium azide. Uptake of the liposome-entrapped macromolecule was greater than that of the free macromolecule, was not directly proportional to substrate concentration, showed signs of saturation at high liposome concentrations, and was also reduced by sodium azide and colchicine. These results suggest that gut epithelial cells take up the free macromolecule by fluid-phase endocytosis and the liposome-entrapped macromolecule by adsorptive endocytosis.
Monoclonal antibodies to human alpha 1-fetoprotein (AFP) have been compared with a conventionally produced antiserum using radioimmunoassay and two-site immunoradiometric techniques. A low-affinity antibody, which proved inadequate for use in a radioimmunoassay, gave a satisfactory dose-response curve in a rapid two-site assay. A higher-affinity antibody yielded a simple, rapid, and sensitive two-site assay suitable for routine measurement of serum AFP.
Pedigrees of the two Tunisian families harbouring the m.A735>G mitochondrial mutation in the 12S rRNA gene Asterisks indicate the individuals from whom DNA samples were obtained and tested.  
Sequencing electropherograms showing the absence of the m.735A>G mutation in the wild-type mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene (A) and its presence in the patient (B)  
Secondary structure of parts of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA showing the localizations and effects of the m.1555A>G, m.1494C>T and m.735A>G mutations (A) Wild-type sequence showing the localization of the deafness-associated alterations at nucleotides 1555 and 1494. (B) Mutated 12S rRNA with the m.1555A>G mutation. (C) Mutated 12S rRNA with the m.1555A>G mutation. (D) Wild-type 12S rRNA sequence showing the localization of the m.735A>G mutation. (E) Mutated 12S rRNA with the m.735A>G mutation.  
Sequence alignment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in primates and other species, indicating the conservation of the m.1555A>G, m.1494C>T and m.735A>G mutations  
Sensorineural hearing loss has been described in association with different mitochondrial multisystemic syndromes, often characterized by an important neuromuscular involvement. Until now, mutations in mitochondrial DNA, especially in the 12S rRNA, the tRNASer(UCN) and the tRNALeu(UUR) genes, were implicated in syndromic or non-syndromic hearing loss either as a primary cause or as predisposing factors. In the present study, we performed a whole mitochondrial genome screening in two unrelated Tunisian families with inherited hearing loss. Results showed the presence of a novel mutation in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in the two probands of these two families who belong to two different haplogroups: L3 and H6a1. The m.735A>G mutation affects a conserved nucleotide of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene in primates and other species and had a conservation index of 78.5% (11/14). We also detected known polymorphisms and sic novel mitochondrial variants. The present study confirmed that the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene is a hot spot for mutations associated with hearing impairment.
Natural-abundance 13C NMR was used to study samples of native mucus from dog trachea and purified mucus glycoprotein from hog stomach. Despite the large molecular weight of the molecules (several million) and visco-elastic nature of the gel, spectra were produced which could be resolved into individual sharp resonances which gave significant structural detail. These results indicate the potential use of this powerful technique in the study of mucus glycoprotein structure in the undegraded molecule.
Anaerobic glycolysis in Trypanosoma brucei spp. has been studied by 13C NMR at 50 and 75.5 MHz. The uptake of [U-13C]glucose by cell suspensions of T. b. brucei was monitored by time-course spectroscopy, and while no anomeric specificity was found, the end-products of glycolysis were confirmed as glycerol and pyruvate together with alanine and dihydroxypropionate. The intermediacy of L-glycerol-3-phosphate was also ascertained. The incorporation of C-1 of [1-13C]glucose and of C-6 of [6-13C]glucose into glycerol and pyruvate in T. b. gambiense was quantified by measurement of the longitudinal relaxation times of the species involved. An incorporation to the extent of 66% of each substrate into equimolar amounts of glycerol and pyruvate indicate that Keq for the triosephosphate-isomerase-mediated reaction approaches unity.
The 13C isotopic labeling pattern in the disaccharide trehalose (1,1'-alpha-alpha-D-glucose) produced by the microorganism Brevibacterium flavum when grown on a medium containing [1-13C]glucose has been determined. Long range coupling between C-1 and C-6 carbons of the glucose units can be observed in the excreted material. It is proposed that some of the 13C isotopomers in the excreted trehalose reflect the labeling pattern in (unobserved) fructose 1,6-diphosphate. Analysis of the label distribution within the framework of a steady state kinetic model allows an analysis of the contributions of the hexose monophosphate shunt and the degree of equilibration of triose phosphate isomerase. Analogous measurements on excreted glucose could be carried out in other organisms.
Galactosyltransferase (GalTase) prepared from human milk was found to exist as a complex with alpha-lactalbumin as demonstrated by crossed immunoelectrophoresis against specific antibodies raised against the complex. GalTase activity was stable to proteolysis and, when subjected to gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA54, the enzyme activity eluted as a single peak. A second peak of activity was found to be adsorbed to the column matrix and was eluted with buffer containing 1 M NaCl. The hydrophobic fraction represented 5% of the total GalTase activity in human milk. After polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the main enzyme activity peak was represented by polypeptides of 67 kDa molecular weight and of 14 kDa molecular weight. Electroblotting of these peptides onto a nitrocellulose membrane followed by determination of GalTase activity showed activity for 45-55 kDa and for 14 kDa peptides. The hydrophobic fraction from the AcA54 column was resolved into polypeptides of 110 kDa-45 kDa molecular weight, all of which contained GalTase activity after blotting. It is supposed that the GalTase from non-proteolyzed milk is composed of a 14 kDa polypeptide containing the active site together with another part of the polypeptide backbone which is involved in the regulation of GalTase activity by alpha-lactalbumin, a third part of the polypeptide is responsible for the membrane insertion.
BMH1 and BMH2 regulate overlapping gene sets following treatment with rapamycin Log-transformed, averaged transcription profile data sets were clustered using k -means with the program Cluster [27]. The results are displayed with Treeview [27]. Red bars indicate genes that were transcriptionally induced, and green bars indicate genes that were transcriptionally repressed. The data set for each strain compares yeast treated with vehicle to those treated with rapamycin. 
14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved and have been found in all eukaryotic organisms investigated. They are involved in many varied cellular processes, and interact with hundreds of other proteins. Among many other roles in cells, yeast 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in rapamycin-mediated cell signaling. We determined the transcription profiles of bmh1 and bmh2 yeast after treatment with rapamycin. We found that, under these conditions, BMH1 and BMH2 are required for rapamycin-induced regulation of distinct, but overlapping sets of genes. Both Bmh1 and Bmh2 associate with the promoters of at least some of these genes. BMH2, but not BMH1, attenuates the repression of genes involved in some functions required for ribosome biogenesis. BMH2 also attenuates the activation of genes sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression.
Multidrug resistance (MDR) represents a major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy and is usually accomplished by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Much effort has been devoted to develop P-gp inhibitors to modulate MDR. However, none of the inhibitors have been successful on the market. 1- (2, 6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino) propane hydrochloride (phenoprolamine hydrochloride, 1416) is a new verapamil analogue with a higher IC50 for blocking calcium channel currents than verapamil. Here we examined the inhibition effect of 1416 on P-gp both in vitro and in vivo. 1416 significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of vinblastine in P-gp overexpressed human multidrug-resistant K562/ADM and KBV cells,but had no such effect on the parent K562 and KB cells. The MDR-modulating function of 1416 was further confirmed by increasing intracellular Rhodanmine123 content in MDR cells. Human K562/ADM xenograft- nude mice model verified that 1416 potentiate the antitumor activity of vinblastine in vivo. RT-PCR and FACS analysis demonstrated that the expression of MDR1/P-gp was not affected by 1416 treatment. All these observations suggested that 1416 would be a promising agent for overcoming MDR in cancer chemotherapy.
Possible effects of adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressin, and angiotensin II to increase 14CO2 production from [1-14C]oleate were examined in hepatocytes from fed L-triiodothyronine (T3)-treated or control rats. Rates of 14CO2 production were decreased and rates of ketogenesis increased in hepatocytes from T3-treated rats. These changes were accompanied by a marked shift of the 3-hydroxybutyrate:acetoacetate concentration ratio towards acetoacetate. Rates of glucose and lactate release were decreased. Whereas the Ca2+-mobilizing hormones increased 14CO2 production from [1-14C]oleate by 64-84% with hepatocytes from control rats, they increased 14CO2 production from [1-14C]oleate by on 24-32% with hepatocytes from T3-treated rats. The magnitude of the response to the Ca2+-mobilizing hormones in hepatocytes from T3-treated rats was increased by the addition of 3-mercaptopicolinate, an inhibitor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, to the incubation medium (increases of 52-88%). In the presence of 3-mercaptopicolinate, the 3-hydroxybutyrate:acetoacetate concentration ratio in hepatocytes from fed, T3-treated rats was similar to that in hepatocytes from control rats in the absence of 3-mercaptopicolinate. The results demonstrate that hyperthyroidism per se does not lead to a loss of sensitivity, in terms of oleate oxidation, either to the catecholamines or to vasopressin and angiotensin II. The impaired ability of hepatocytes from T3-treated rats to respond to these hormones is a consequence of decreased net glycolytic flux or a more oxidized mitochondrial redox state.
Mitochondrial proton leak is an important component of cellular metabolism in animals and may account for as much as one quarter to one third of the Standard Metabolic Rate of the rat. The activity of the proton leak pathway is different in a wide range of animal species and in different thyroid states. Such differences imply some function for proton leak and candidates for this function include thermogenesis, protection against reactive oxygen species, endowment of metabolic sensitivity and maintenance of carbon fluxes.
Pre-treatment of human lymphocytes with 17 beta-estradiol diminishes the increase in concentration of cytosolic free calcium after stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin. The effect is dependent on 17 beta-estradiol concentration and on the preincubation time. The effect is not due to an interaction between 17 beta-estradiol and phytohaemagglutinin, but appears to be a consequence of the binding of the hormone to the cell surface. The effect is specific for 17 beta-estradiol, since the alpha isomer and other steroid hormones (progesterone, testosterone, diethylstilbestrol and 5 alpha-androstan) have no effect. Since the effect of the 17 beta-estradiol can be suppressed by treatment of lymphocytes with ouabain, it appears that the effect of estradiol on the rise of cytosolic calcium induced by phytohaemagglutinin is mediated by the (Na, K)-ATPase.
Effect of 17 β - estradiol on macrophage cholesterol efflux . HMDM derived from monocytes as described in ‘‘ Materials and Methods ’’ under the sections ‘‘ Isolation and culture of HMDM ’’ and ‘‘ Cell treatments ’’ , were cultured for ten days in the presence (E-HMDM) or absence (C- HMDM) of 1.5 B 10 − 6 M 17 β -estradiol. The cells were then loaded with 
Distribution of Cell Radioactivity between Esterified and Unesterified Cholesterol in Macrophages Loaded with [ 3 H]cholesteryl Ester-acLDL
Effect of 17 β - estradiol on the secretion of apoE and LPL into culture medium by E - HMDM and C - HMDM loaded with acLDL or oxLDL . HMDM derived from monocytes as described in ‘‘ Materials and Methods ’’ under the sections ‘‘ Isolation and culture of HMDM ’’ and ‘‘ Cell treatments ’’ , were cultured for ten days in the presence (E-HMDM) or absence (C-HMDM) of 1.5 B 10 − 6 M 17 β -estradiol. E-HMDM and C- HMDM were incubated with acLDL, oxLDL (100 μ g protein LDL ͞ ml) or with BSA 0.5% (w ͞ o) for 48 hr in DMEM without phenol red containing 15% sterol- and serum-free FBS. A: apoE levels: After 48 hr the medium was removed, the cells were washed and cultured for a further 24 hr, and apoE levels in the medium were determined. B: LPL activity: After 48 hr the cells were washed and cultured for a further 24 hr in DMEM containing heparin (10 U ͞ ml ), and the medium was analyzed for LPL activity. Data shown are the mean J SEM of six and four separate experiments for apoE and LPL, respectively. * G acLDL: E-HMDM vs. C-HMDM, p F 0.05, § G E-HMDM: oxLDL vs. w ͞ o LDL p F 0.03; ͉͉ G C-HMDM: oxLDL vs. w ͞ o LDL p F 0.05, paired Student ’ s test; & G oxLDL: E-HMDM vs. C-HMDM, p F 0.05, paired Student ’ s t test. 
Estrogens have been shown to have many positive effects on the function of arterial wall, and recent evidence suggest that 17beta-estradiol has a direct action in reducing the accumulation of cholesteryl ester in macrophages. The mechanisms underlying the effects of 17beta-estradiol on foam cell formation, however are poorly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of 17beta-estradiol in the regulation of the cholesteryl ester cycle and cholesterol efflux in human macrophages. In addition, the influence of 17beta-estradiol on apolipoprotein E (apoE) and lipoprotein lipase (LDL) secretion by the cells was also tested. Human Monocyte Derived Macrophages (HMDM), matured in the presence or the absence of 17beta-estradiol, were loaded with [3H]-cholesteryl ester-labeled-acetyl LDL (low density lipoprotein) and the efflux of radioactivity into the medium was measured. The effect of 17beta-estradiol on cellular activities of acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT), and both neutral and acid cholesteryl ester hydrolase (CEH) and the secretion of apoE and LDL into the medium, were also studied. The results indicate that 17beta-estradiol induces an increase in the amount of labeled cholesterol released from the cells and, the data obtained from the measurements of ACAT and CEH activities showed that, in estrogen-treated HMDM, the cholesteryl ester cycle favors the hydrolysis of lipoprotein cholesterol by CEH in comparison with its acylation by ACAT. In particular, for the first time a strong enhancement of neutral and acid CEH in human macrophages by 17beta-estradiol, was demonstrated. ApoE and LDL secretion increased during the maturation of monocytes to macrophages, and was not modified by 17beta-estradiol. In contrast, loading the cells with cholesterol by incubation in the presence of acetylated or oxidized LDL produced an increase in the levels of apoE secreted by both estrogen-treated and control macrophages. The activity of LPL found in the cell medium, on the other hand, in lipid loaded cells tended to be increased only in estrogen treated macrophages, suggesting that the effects of estrogen on unloaded macrophages are different from those produced on lipid-loaded macrophages. On the whole, the present findings suggest that one of the mechanisms by which 17beta-estradiol acts to reduce cholesterol accumulation in macrophages is by increasing reverse cholesterol transport through the enhancement of the cholesteryl ester cycle, so that the generation of intracellular unesterified cholesterol for excretion from the cells is favored.
Weighted chemical shift change per residue of the xα2peptide upon titration of Fyn-SH3 The HN and N chemical shifts were weighted and averaged for all assigned non-prolyl residues of the xα2-peptide alone, and at 1:1 Fyn-SH3, by using Equation (1).
Relaxation ( 15 N) and NOE measurements of interactions of xα2-peptide with Fyn-SH3 (A) Longitudinal (R 1 ) and (B) transverse (R 2 ) relaxation measurements of the xα2-peptide alone (blue squares), and in the presence of Fyn-SH3 (red circles). Relaxation measurements ( 15 N) of the xα2-peptide alone and in the presence of Fyn-SH3, measured using standard approaches [55-57]. The relaxation constants and experimental errors were extracted by exponential curve fitting of the peak heights using the built-in option of SPARKY [T.D. Goddard and D.G. Kneller, SPARKY 3, University of California, San Francisco] as discussed previously [53]. (C) Heteronuclear NOE measurements of the xα2-peptide alone (blue squares), and in the presence of Fyn-SH3 (red circles). The steady-state 1 H-15 N NOE intensities were obtained from the ratio I NOE /I NONOE of peak heights in the NOE spectra with and without proton saturation, respectively. The spectra were collected using a standard experiment [55], and uncertainty in measuring NOE intensities was carried out as described previously [53].
The intrinsically disordered 18.5-kDa classic isoform of myelin basic protein (MBP) interacts with Fyn kinase during oligodendrocyte development and myelination. It does so primarily via a central proline-rich SH3 ligand (T92-R104, murine 18.5-kDa MBP sequence numbering) that is part of a molecular switch due to its high degree of conservation and modification by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) and other kinases, especially at residues T92 and T95. Here, we show using co-transfection experiments of an early developmental oligodendroglial cell line (N19) that an MBP segment upstream of the primary ligand is involved in MBP-Fyn-SH3 association in cellula. Using solution NMR spectroscopy in vitro, we define this segment to comprise MBP residues (T62-L68), and demonstrate further that residues (V83-P93) are the predominant SH3-target, assessed by the degree of chemical shift change upon titration. We show by chemical shift index analysis that there is no formation of local poly-proline type II structure in the proline-rich segment upon binding, and by NOE and relaxation measurements that MBP remains dynamic even while complexed with Fyn-SH3. The association is a new example first of a non-canonical SH3-domain interaction, and second of a fuzzy MBP complex.
There are reports of early evidence that suggest the involvement of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes. Thus, substances that have effects in reducing inflammation could be potential drugs for Type 2 diabetes. Leonurine (4-guanidino-n-butyl syringate; SCM-198) is an alkaloid in HL (Herba leonuri), which was reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesize that SCM-198 may have beneficial effects on Type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we attempted to test this hypothesis by evaluating the anti-diabetic effect of SCM-198 and the possible underlying mechanisms of its effects in db/db mice. SCM-198 (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight), pioglitazone (50 mg/kg of body weight, as a positive control) or 1% CMC-Na (sodium carboxymethylcellulose) were administered to the db/db or db/m mice once daily for 3 weeks. After 3 weeks, SCM-198 (200 mg/kg of body weight) treatment significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose level and increased the plasma insulin concentration in the db/db mice, meanwhile it significantly lowered the plasma TAG (triacylglycerol) concentration and increased the HDL (high-density lipoprotein)-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, the dysregulated transcription of the hepatic glucose metabolic enzymes, including GK (glucokinase), G6Pase (glucose-6-phosphatase) and PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), was recovered by an Akt-dependent pathway. The pro-inflammatory mediators {such as TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α), IL (interleukin)-6, IL-1β, degradation of IκB [inhibitor of NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB)] α and thereafter activation of NF-κB} were reversed by SCM-198 treatment in the db/db mice. The present study provides first evidence that SCM-198 exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and has an ameliorating effect on diabetic symptoms via inhibiting of NF-κB/IKK (IκB kinase) pathway. Consequently, we suggest that SCM-198 may be a prospective agent for prevention and/or moderation of the progress of Type 2 diabetes.
The following is the lecture delivered by the author in Stockholm on 8 December 1981 when he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine, which he shared with Roger Sperry and David H. Hubel The article is published here with permission from the Nobel Foundation and will also be included in the complete volume of Les Prix Nobel en 1981 as well as in the series Nobel Lectures (in English) lished by Elsevier.
The effect of sodium butyrate (NaBut) on cell growth was studied in normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts, and in NRK cells stably transfected with either the adenoviral gene E1A (wild-type), or mutated E1A (E1Amut; with a deletion in the CR1 domain), or with the transforming Ha-ras (EJ) gene. The growth of all these cell lines was inhibited by milimolar concentrations of sodium butyrate (NaBut). However, whereas the NRK cells as well as the NRK-E1Amut and NRK-ras cells were arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, the NRK-E1A cells progressively accumulated in the G2 phase, suggesting that the E1A gene expression caused a "leaky" inhibition of G1 phase progression. The expression of late cell cycle-related genes cdc2 and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) was not affected by NaBut in the NRK-E1A cells while it was totally suppressed in the other NRK-derived cell lines.
Proteoliposomes, containing cytochrome P450 1A2, were obtained by the cholate-dialysis technique. The effect of bifunctional cross-linking reagents on the purified hexameric cytochrome P450 1A2 in an aqueous medium and on the proteoliposomal P450 1A2 have been compared. Electrophoretic analysis of the modified proteins demonstrated the same oligomeric (hexameric) organization of the hemoprotein in each case.
A model for quaternary organization of EF-1. Left: Xenopus EF-1 constituents after resolution by SDS-PAGE and Coomassie blue staining of the gel. Right: quaternary structure (see text). 
The eukaryotic guanine-nucleotide exchange factor commonly called elongation factor-1 betagammadelta (EF-1betagammadelta), comprises four different subunits including valyl-tRNA synthetase (EF-1betagammadelta/ValRS). The factor is multiply-phosphorylated by three different protein kinases, protein kinase C, casein kinase II and cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDKI). EF-1betagammadelta/ValRS is organized as a macromolecular complex for which we propose a new structural model. Evidence that EF-1betagammadelta/ValRS is a sophisticated supramolecular complex containing many phosphorylation sites, makes it a potential regulator of any of the functions of its partner EF-1alpha, not only involved in protein synthesis elongation, but also in many other cellular functions.
In higher eukaryotes, RF-I (class I release factor) [eRF1 (eukaryotic release factor 1)] is responsible for stop codon recognition and promotes nascent polypeptide release from the ribosome. Interestingly, two class I RFs, eRF1a and eRF1b, have been identified among the ciliates Euplotes, which are variant code organisms. In the present study, we analysed the comparative expression of eRF1a and eRF1b in Euplotes cells, demonstrating that the expression of eRF1b was higher than that of eRF1a. An interaction between eRF1b and eRF3 was confirmed, suggesting that an eRF1b function is facilitated by eRF3. Co-localization of both eRF1s indicated that they function in the same subcellular location in Euplotes cells. We also analysed the characteristics of stop codon discrimination by eRF1b. Like eRF1a, eRF1b recognized UAA and UAG as stop codons, but not UGA. This finding disagreed with the deduced characteristics of eRF1a/eRF1b from the classic hypothesis of 'anticodon-mimicry' proposed by Muramatsu et al. [Muramatsu, Heckmann, Kitanaka and Kuchino (2001) FEBS Lett. 488, 105-109]. Mutagenesis experiments indicated that the absolutely conserved amino acid motif 'G31T32' (numbered as for human eRF1) in eRF1b was the key to efficient stop codon recognition by eRF1b. In conclusion, these findings support and improve the 'cavity model' of stop codon discrimination by eRF1 proposed by Bertram et al. [Bertram, Bell, Ritchie, Fullerton and Stansfield (2000) RNA 6, 1236-1247] and Inagaki et al. [Inagaki, Blouin, Doolittle and Roger (2002) Nucleic Acids Res. 30, 532-544].
Decidual stromal cells (DSC) constitute the most abundant population in normal human decidua together with leukocytes. Both populations may be involved in the immunological role of the decidua by favoring gestational functions, participating in physiological mechanisms to eliminate the fetus, or providing local defense against infection. Using flow cytometry, we investigated whether different cytokines modulate the expression on cultured DSC of antigen-presenting molecules. The treatment with IFNgamma or IL-1beta enhanced the expression of CD54. The percentage of expression of HLA-DR was enhanced by IL-1beta treatment but was not modified by IFNgamma. The expression of CD80 and CD86 was enhanced by IFNgamma treatment but was not modified by IL-1beta; the expression of CD86 and HLA-DR was reduced by TGFbeta1 treatment. The response of DSC and dendritic cells to these cytokines appears to be similar, suggesting a phenotypic and functional relationship between these cell types.
Recent reports demonstrated that osteoblast-like cells can also exert activities directly associated with the immune system (cytokine synthesis, antigen presentation, phagocytosis and stimulation of T lymphocytes). The present study aimed to analyze the effect of Transforming growth factorbeta1 (TGFbeta1), Fibroblast growth factor basic (FGFb), Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), Interleukin-2 (IL-2), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) on the expression on osteoblast-like cells of antigens involved in antigen presentation. Flow cytometry was used to investigate whether the growth factors FGFb, TGFbeta1, PDGF-BB, IL-2, IL-1beta, LPS and IFNgamma modulate the expression on cultured human osteoblast-like cells of different antigens involved in antigen-presentation and T cell activation. TGFbeta1 treatment significantly reduced the expression of CD54 and CD86. IL-1beta treatment significantly enhanced the expression of CD54, CD86 and HLA-DR. LPS and IFNgamma treatments produced a major increase in CD54, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR expression. Expression of these antigen-presenting molecules was not significantly modified by FGFb, PDGF-BB or IL-2 treatment.
Representative 1 H-NMR spectra of HClO 4 extracts of iRBCs (top), cRBCs (middle) and uRBCs (bottom) 1. Leucine, 2. Isoleucine, 3. Valine, 4. Lactate, 5. Threonine, 6. Alanine, 7. Putrescine, 8. Spermidine, 9. Spermine, 10. Acetate, 11. Glutamate, 12. Oxidized glutathione, 13. 4-Aminobutyrate, 14. Pyruvate, 15. Succinate, 16. α-Ketoglutarate, 17. Glutamine, 18. Malate, 19. Aspartate, 20. Sarcosine, 21. Asparagine, 22. HEPES, 23. Lysine, 24. Creatine, 25. Ornithine, 26. Choline, 27. Phosphocholine, 28. Carnitine, 29. Arginine, 30. Betaine, 31. myo-Inositol, 32. Glycine, 33. Sorbitol, 34. Serine, 35. Phosphoethanolamine, 36. 2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate, 37. NAD + , 38. ATP , 39. Glucose. Other metabolites listed in Table 1 are not in the region shown. The horizontal bar in the top panel signifies that the peak was truncated. 
L-Aspartate and CQ uptake by Xenopus oocytes expressing PfCRT [ 14 C]L-aspartate uptake (a) and [ 3 H]CQ uptake (b) in n.i. (non-injected) oocytes and in oocytes expressing PfCRT CQS , PfCRT CQR or rat GLAST. Uptake is shown as the means + S.E.M. from nine separate experiments, within which measurements were made from ten oocytes per treatment. (c) Effect of unlabelled L-aspartate (1 and 2 mM) on the uptake of [ 3 H]CQ into n.i. oocytes (white bars) and oocytes expressing PfCRT CQS (grey bars) or PfCRT CQR (black bars). Uptake is shown as the means + S.E.M. from three separate experiments, within which measurements were made from ten oocytes per treatment. 
Although efforts to understand the basis for inter-strain phenotypic variation in the most virulent malaria species, Plasmodium falciparum, have benefited from advances in genomic technologies, there have to date been few metabolomic studies of this parasite. Using 1H NMR spectroscopy, we have compared the metabolite profiles of red blood cells infected with different P. falciparum strains. These included both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains, as well as transfectant lines engineered to express different alleles of the chloroquine-resistance-conferring P. falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter(pfcrt). Our analyses revealed strain-specific differences in a range of metabolites. There was marked variation in the levels of the membrane precursors choline and phosphocholine, with some strains having >30-fold higher choline levels and >5-fold higher phosphocholine levels than others. Chloroquine-resistant strains showed elevated levels of a number of amino acids relative to chloroquine-sensitive strains, including an approximately 2-fold increase in aspartate levels. The elevation in amino acid levels was attributable to mutations in pfcrt. Pfcrt-linked differences in amino acid abundance were confirmed using alternate extraction and detection (HPLC) methods. Mutations acquired to withstand chloroquine exposure therefore give rise to significant biochemical alterations in the parasite.
Transcription factors of the FoxO family regulate a wide range of cellular physiological processes, including metabolic adaptation and myogenic differentiation. The transcriptional activity of most FoxO members is inhibitory to myogenic differentiation and over-expression of FoxO1 inhibits the development of oxidative type I fibers in vivo. In this study, we found that FoxO6, the last discovered FoxO family member, is expressed ubiquitously in various tissues but with higher expression levels in oxidative tissues, such as brain and oxidative muscles. Both the expression level and promoter activity of FoxO6 were found to be enhanced by PGC-1α, thus explained its enriched expression in oxidative tissues. We further demonstrated that FoxO6 represses the expression of PGC-1α via direct binding to an upstream A/T rich element (AAGATATCAAAACA, -2286~-2273) in the PGC-1α promoter. Oxidative low-intensity exercise induced PGC-1α but reduced FoxO6 expression levels in hind leg muscles, and the binding of FoxO6 to PGC-1α promoter was also prevented by exercise. As FoxO6 promoter can be coactivated by PGC-1α and its promoter in turn can be repressed by FoxO6, it suggests that FoxO6 and PGC-1α form a regulatory loop for setting oxidative metabolism level in skeletal muscle, which can be entrained by exercise.
The aim of this investigation was to study the putative role of protein phosphorylation in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) induced signal transduction in insulin producing cells. For this purpose, insulin producing RINm-5F cells were exposed to IL-1 beta for 7 hours with or without different agonists and antagonists to protein kinases and phosphatases and the production of nitrite was subsequently determined. It has been shown earlier that IL-1 beta will stimulate the production of nitrite in such cells. It was found that EDTA, TPA and staurosporine did not affect IL-1 beta induced nitrite production. However, the tyrosine kinase antagonist tyrphostin inhibited, whereas sodium orthovanadate, okadaic acid and cyclosporin A, all inhibitors of protein phosphatases, potentiated IL-1 beta induced nitrite release to the medium. The tyrosine kinase antagonist genistein potentiated at a low concentration and inhibited at a high concentration the IL-1 beta effect. It is concluded that protein phosphorylation events, mediated either by protein kinases or phosphatases on both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues, may mediate or antagonize IL-1 induced signal transduction in insulin producing cells.
Gabaculin (3-amino 2,3-dihydrobenzoic acid) is shown to be a very potent inhibitor of chlorophyll formation in Hordeum vulgare. Exposure of leaf segments to 30 microM gabaculin results in an 80% inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis, and this is paralleled by a decrease in carotenoid. Dual-inhibitor studies with dioxoheptanoic acid, which is an inhibitor of delta-amino-laevulinic acid dehydratase, show that gabaculin inhibits an earlier step than dioxoheptanoic acid and affects delta-amino-laevulinic acid synthesis rather than its subsequent metabolism.
Effect of GM-CSF on NiSO 4 -and DNFB-induced CD40 protein expression. (a) Western blot analysis of CD40 protein. FSDC cells (2 · 10 6 cells) were incubated in culture medium in the absence (control, lane 1) or in the presence of GM-CSF (100 ng/ml, lane 2), DNFB (1 lg/ml, lane 3) or NiSO 4 (50 lg/ml, lane 4). Where indicated, the cells were stimulated with GM-CSF in the presence of DNFB (1 lg/ml, lane 5) or NiSO 4 (50 lg/ml, lane 6). Total cell extracts were electrophoresed through SDS-PAGE and subjected to western blot analysis using an anti-CD40 antibody, as described in ''Materials and Methods''. The blot shown is representative of three blots yielding similar results. The blot was digitally generated using a HP ScanJet 5p and processed in the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 program. (b) The bands were quantified with an image analyser. The values are means ± SEM from three independent experiments, where *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001, as determined by one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni?s multiple comparison test. (c) Immunofluorescence analysis of CD40 protein. FSDC cells (0.2 · 10 6 cells) were incubated on a Lab Tek chamber with cover, under the same conditions as described in A. Immunostaining was performed as described in ''Materials and Methods''. Immunorreactivity means CD40 protein expression (% of control). Scale bars = 50 lm.  
Effect of GM-CSF on NiSO 4-and DNFB-induced IL-12R expression. (a) Western blot analysis of IL-12Rb1 protein. FSDC cells (2 · 10 6 cells) were incubated in the absence (control, lane 1) or in the presence of GM-CSF (100 ng/ml, lane 2), NiSO 4 (50 lg/ml, lane 4) or DNFB (1 lg/ml, lane 5). Where indicated, the cells were stimulated with GM-CSF in the presence of DNFB (1 lg/ml, lane 3) or NiSO 4 (50 lg/ml, lane 6). Total cell extracts were electrophoresed through SDS-PAGE and subjected to western blot analysis using an anti-IL-12Rb1 antibody, as described in materials and methods. The blot shown is representative of three blots yielding similar results. The blot was digitally generated using a HP ScanJet 5p and processed in the Adobe Photoshop 7.0 program. (b) The bands were quantified with an image analyser. The values are means ± SEM from three independent experiments, where *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001, as determined by one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. (c) Immunofluorescence analysis of IL-12R protein. FSDC cells (0.2 · 10 6 cells) were incubated on a Lab Tek chamber with cover, under the same conditions as described in A. Immunostaining assay was performed as described in materials and methods. Immunorreactivity means IL-12R protein expression (% of control). Scale bars = 50 lm.  
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) capable of capturing haptens and to process and present them to T lymphocytes. In order to sensitize T cells for contact hypersensitivity (CHS), skin DCs suffer a maturation process with modifications on their surface molecules. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes induced by two contact sensitizers, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and nickel sulfate (NiSO4), and a non-sensitizer 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene (DCNB), on the protein levels of two activation markers, CD40 and IL-12 receptor (IL-12R), in a mouse skin dendritic cell line (FSDC). The expression of CD40 and IL-12R proteins was evaluated by western blot assay and direct immunofluorescence microscopy. The results showed that CD40 and IL-12R expression increased significantly after cell exposure to NiSO4 and DNFB, although DNFB exhibited a stronger activity. There was no effect with DCNB. The epidermal cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), also used in the experiments, slightly increased the expression of both CD40 and IL-12R and when tested together with the sensitizers the effect was partially additive. The results suggest that the sensitizers DNFB and NiSO4 are directly involved on the changes of the surface markers CD40 and IL-12R in skin DCs, during the sensitization phase of CHS, and this effect may be enhanced by GM-CSF. In contrast, no effect was observed with DCNB.
Rat pancreatic islet homogenates catalyze the incorporation of [2,5-3H]histamine into endogenous proteins recovered in both the stacking gel and a Mr 84000 protein separated by polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The labelling of these proteins represents a Ca2+-dependent process inhibited by glycine methylester, but not sarcosine methylester, and enhanced after preincubation of the islets at a high concentration of D-glucose. Although transglutaminase activity is found in both soluble and particulate subcellular fractions, the endogenous transglutaminase substrates were located mainly in particulate, possibly membrane-associated, material.
Developmental changes of phosphofructokinase 2 in rat liver. Results are expressed as mean • S.E.M. The number of an• are given in parentheses 
Regulation by steroid hormones of the hepatic phosphofructokinase 2 in young rats 
In fetal rat liver the concentration of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate is decreased by administration of glucagon. The glucagon effect, i.e., the phosphorylation state of phosphofructokinase 2, dominates over the substrate supply. Insulin was found to increase fructose 2,6-bisphosphate only when exogenous glucose is supplied simultaneously. The total activity of phosphofructokinase 2 exhibits remarkable developmental changes. It is high at term, moderate in the fetal as well as in the mature organ, and low during suckling. The level of the enzyme during development is controlled by pancreatic and adrenal hormones.
Previous spin-label and electromyographic experiments with rats fed 20,25-diazacholesterol, an inhibitor of the biosynthetic conversion of desmosterol to cholesterol, demonstrated an increased erythrocyte membrane fluidity and myotonia, a prolonged muscle contraction upon stimulation. The current studies with rats showed normal erythrocyte fluidity in animals fed 20,25-diazacholesterol but maintained on a high-cholesterol diet and no myotonia. Studies of model membrane systems composed of phospholipid vesicles containing desmosterol, cholesterol, or both demonstrated that desmosterol increased membrane lipid fluidity relative to cholesterol, suggesting that in 20,25-diazacholesterol-induced myotonia, in which desmosterol accounts for 85% of the plasma sterol, the increased membrane fluidity previously observed in erythrocytes and sarcolemma in this animal model of human congenital myotonia may be due to desmosterol.
Top-cited authors
Gyu-Jin Rho
  • Gyeongsang National University
Raghavendra Baregundi Subbarao
  • National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology
Imran Ullah
  • Quaid-i-Azam University
Giridhar Mudduluru
  • German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg and Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC)
Heike Allgayer
  • Medizische Fakultät Mannheim der Universität Heidelberg